Sample records for wechsler memory scale-revised

  1. Cautions in Interpretation of Comparisons between the WAIS-R and the Wechsler Memory Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prifitera, Aurelio; Barley, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale Memory Quotient (WMS MQ) 12 points below Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Full-Scale IQ (WAIS FSIQ) may indicate memory impairment. Investigated the relation of FSIQ to MQ when the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised rather than the WAIS is used. Discrepancy between FSIQ and MQ occurred less often with WAIS-R than with…

  2. Clinical Utility of Considering Digits Forward and Digits Backward as Separate Components of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banken, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the utility of considering Digits Forward (DF) and Digits Backward (DB) as separate components of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) through correlations with other intelligence tests. The findings of significant correlations indicate that although DF and DB tasks are related, the combination of these tasks into a…

  3. Teaching Adminstration and Scoring of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised: An Empirical Evaluation of Practice Administrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Slate; Craig H. Jones; Richard A. Murray

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzed 150 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (WAIS–R) protocols completed by 20 graduate students to examine the effect of practice administrations in teaching the WAIS–R. Failure to record both responses and times decreased over 10 administrations, but no other improvement occurred across either 5 or 10 administrations. Rather than becoming proficient in test administration and scoring, Ss often practiced

  4. Renorming Russell's Version of the Wechsler Memory Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elbert W. Russell; Miami FL

    1988-01-01

    Several studies of Russell's version of the Wechsler Memory Scale found that the Logical Memory Scales appeared to be normed too high, indicating a need for renorming. This study produces such a renorming by developing new scale scores and age\\/education corrections. The scaling used a new method, “reference scale norming”. The z scores for 12 tests in the Rennick version

  5. Education-Stratified Base-Rate Information on Discrepancy Scores Within and Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Galit A.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article…

  6. Apparently abnormal Wechsler Memory Scale index score patterns in the normal population.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates. PMID:25529585

  7. Testing the limits: cautions and concerns regarding the new Wechsler IQ and Memory scales.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W; Bauer, Russell M

    2010-02-23

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) are 2 of the most common psychological tests used in clinical care and research in neurology. Newly revised versions of both instruments (WAIS-IV and WMS-IV) have recently been published and are increasingly being adopted by the neuropsychology community. There have been significant changes in the structure and content of both scales, leading to the potential for inaccurate patient classification if algorithms developed using their predecessors are employed. There are presently insufficient clinical data in neurologic populations to insure their appropriate application to neuropsychological evaluations. We provide a perspective on these important new neuropsychological instruments, comment on the pressures to adopt these tests in the absence of an appropriate evidence base supporting their incremental validity, and describe the potential negative impact on both patient care and continuing research applications. PMID:20177123

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Dutch Version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL).

    PubMed

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kerkmeer, Margreet C; Kessels, Roy P C; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2015-05-01

    The latent factor structure of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) was examined with a series of confirmatory factor analyses. As part of the Dutch standardization, 1,188 healthy participants completed the WMS-IV-NL. Four models were tested for the Adult Battery (16-69 years; N = 699), and two models were tested for the Older Adult Battery (65-90 years; N = 489). Results corroborated the presence of three WMS-IV-NL factors in the Adult Battery consisting of Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, and Visual Working Memory. A two-factor model (consisting of Auditory Memory and Visual Memory) provided the best fit for the data of the Older Adult Battery. These findings provide evidence for the structural validity of the WMS-IV-NL, and further support the psychometric integrity of the WMS-IV. PMID:25791706

  9. Performance on selected visual and auditory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition during laboratory-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph L; Tapscott, Brian E

    2015-04-01

    Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients. PMID:25655774

  10. Prospects for faking believable memory deficits on neuropsychological tests and the use of incentives in simulation research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry C. Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The vulnerability of several neuropsychological memory tests – the Wechsler Memory ScaleRevised, Complex Figure Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Rey Memory Test – to faked deficits was evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Control (n=28), Malingering with a financial incentive (n=30), and Malingering without a financial incentive (n=28). Overall, the performance of the

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury and Memory: The Role of Hippocampal Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin D. Bigler; Sterling C. Johnson; Carol V. Anderson; Duane D. Blatter; Shawn D. Gale; Antonietta A. Russo; David K. Ryser; Susan E. Macnamara; Becky J. Bailey; Ramona O. Hopkins; Tracy J. Abildskov

    1996-01-01

    In traumatically brain-injured (TBI) patients (N = 83), memory performance was examined on the Warrington Recognition Memory Test, Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and the Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised in relationship to time postinjury and structural changes based on MRI volumetry, including hippocampus volume. Significant trauma-induced changes were observed, including hippocampal atrophy. Structure–function relationships generally

  12. Clinical utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in predicting laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy among surgical candidates.

    PubMed

    Soble, Jason R; Eichstaedt, Katie E; Waseem, Hena; Mattingly, Michelle L; Benbadis, Selim R; Bozorg, Ali M; Vale, Fernando L; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in identifying functional cognitive deficits associated with seizure laterality in localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) relative to a previously established measure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Emerging WMS-IV studies have highlighted psychometric improvements that may enhance its ability to identify lateralized memory deficits. Data from 57 patients with video-EEG-confirmed unilateral TLE who were administered the WMS-IV and RAVLT as part of a comprehensive presurgical neuropsychological evaluation for temporal resection were retrospectively reviewed. We examined the predictive accuracy of the WMS-IV not only in terms of verbal versus visual composite scores but also using individual subtests. A series of hierarchal logistic regression models were developed, including the RAVLT, WMS-IV delayed subtests (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction), and a WMS-IV verbal-visual memory difference score. Analyses showed that the RAVLT significantly predicted laterality with overall classification rates of 69.6% to 70.2%, whereas neither the individual WMS-IV subtests nor the verbal-visual memory difference score accounted for additional significant variance. Similar to previous versions of the WMS, findings cast doubt as to whether the WMS-IV offers significant incremental validity in discriminating seizure laterality in TLE beyond what can be obtained from the RAVLT. PMID:25461222

  13. Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Hill; Emily M. Elliott; Jill T. Shelton; Russell D. Pella; Judith R. OJile; W. Drew Gouvier

    2010-01-01

    Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental

  14. Intelligence, Memory, and Handedness in Pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Cantor; Ray Blanchard; Bruce K. Christensen; Robert Dickey; Philip E. Klassen; A. Lee Beckstead; Thomas Blak; Michael E. Kuban

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 473 male patients with pedophilia (assessed by the patients' sexual history and penile response in the laboratory to standardized, erotic stimuli) or other problematic sexual interests or behaviors received brief neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychological measures included a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, D.

  15. Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saklofske, Donald H.; Zhu, Jianjun; Coalson, Diane L.; Raiford, Susan E.; Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) developed for the most recent Wechsler intelligence scales comprises the working memory and processing speed subtests. It reflects the proficiency and efficiency of cognitive processing and provides another lens for analyzing children's abilities assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth…

  16. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler

  17. Improvement in memory and static balance with abstinence in alcoholic men and women: selective relations with change in brain structure.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Rohlfing, Torsten; O'Reilly, Anne W; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-07-15

    We investigated whether changes in memory or static balance in chronic alcoholics, occurring with abstinence or relapse, are associated with changes in lateral and fourth ventricular volume. Alcoholics meeting DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence (n=15) and non-alcoholic controls (n=26) were examined twice at a mean interval of 2 years with standard Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) tests, an ataxia battery, and structural MRI. At study entry, alcoholics had been abstinent on average for over 4 months and achieved lower scores than controls on WASI General IQ Index, WMS-R General Memory Index, and the ataxia battery. The 10 alcoholics who maintained sobriety at retest did not differ at study entry in socio-demographic measures, alcohol use, or WASI and WMS-R summary scores from the five relapsers. At follow-up, abstainers improved more than controls on the WMS-R General Memory Index. Ataxia tended to improve in abstainers relative to controls. Associations were observed between memory and lateral ventricular volume change and between ataxia and fourth ventricular volume change in alcoholics but not in the controls. Both memory and ataxia can improve with sustained sobriety, and brain-behavior associations suggest selective brain structural substrates for the changes observed. PMID:17407808

  18. Wechsler Discrepancies and the Rorschach Experience Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested for a link between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and personality style by comparing WAIS scores with Rorschach Experience Balance scores in two studies using 47 children and 188 psychiatric patients. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationships, indicating lack of a common factor underlying the measures. (WAS)

  19. The Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H. Saklofske; Jianjun Zhu; Jessie L. Miller; Lawrence G. Weiss; Sarah E. Babcock; Tommie G. Cayton; Susan E. Raiford; Diane L. Coalson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to provide the normative data needed to compute the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Canadian Edition, using the Canadian WAIS-IV standardization sample. The CPI comprises working memory and processing speed subtests which are used to measure the proficiency at which an individual processes cognitive information. The CPI was

  20. ACE polymorphism and use of ACE inhibitors: effects on memory performance.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Jaqueline B; Constantin, Pamela C; da Silva, Vanessa K; Korb, Camila; Bamberg, Daiani P; da Rocha, Tatiane J; Fiegenbaum, Marilu; de Oliveira, Alcyr; Tisser, Luciana A; de Andrade, Fabiana M

    2014-06-01

    Memory is an important cognition function, being fundamental to the development and independence of individuals. Our aim was to investigate the influence apolipoprotein E (APOE) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism and ACE inhibitors use, besides their interaction on memory performance of healthy subjects over 50 years. The sample consisted of 205 subjects assessed for five types of episodic memory, using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), who answered a questionnaire about drug use and were assessed for the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism and APOE polymorphism. We found no influence of the APOE gene. The use of ACE inhibitors beneficially influenced learning ability scores (p?=?0.02). Besides, I allele carriers of ACE polymorphism showed higher verbal memory scores compared with homozygous DD. Also, we observed an interaction influencing learning ability between the ACE polymorphism and the use of inhibitors, the beneficial influence of the I allele was present only in individuals who make use of ACE inhibitors. We conclude that the ACE gene has influence on memory performance, and that this influence is modulated by ACE inhibitors use. PMID:24696269

  1. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  2. Six-Minute Walking Distance Correlated with Memory and Brain Volume in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Park, Hyuntae; Yoshida, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims High fitness levels play an important role in maintaining memory function and delaying the progression of structural brain changes in older people at risk of developing dementia. However, it is unclear which specific regions of the brain volume are associated with exercise capacity. We investigated whether exercise capacity, determined by a 6-min walking distance (6MWD), is associated with measures of logical and visual memory and where gray matter regions correlate with exercise capacity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Ninety-one community-dwelling older adults with MCI completed a 6-min walking test, structural magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and memory tests. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Tests were used to assess logical and visual memory, respectively. Results The logical and visual memory tests were positively correlated with the 6MWD (p < 0.01). Poor performance in the 6MWD was correlated with a reduced cerebral gray matter volume in the left middle temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and hippocampus in older adults with MCI. Conclusions These results suggest that a better 6MWD performance may be related to better memory function and the maintenance of gray matter volume in older adults with MCI. PMID:24052797

  3. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

    2014-01-01

    The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

  4. Intelligent Testing with Wechsler’s Fourth Editions: Perspectives on the Weiss et al. Studies and the Eight Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The two featured articles and eight commentaries on the WISC-IV (Wechsler, 2003) and WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) in this special issue of "Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment" are of exceptional quality. As a collective, this special issue greatly advances the field of cognitive assessment by intelligently synthesizing the best of methodology…

  5. Preventive effect of liothyronine on electroconvulsive therapy-induced memory deficit in patients with major depressive disorder: a double-blind controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Arfaie, Asghar; Amiri, Shahrokh; Nouri, Masoud; Abdi, Salman; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Despite the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), its cognitive side effects make it less popular. This study investigated the impact of liothyronine on ECT-induced memory deficit in patients with MDD. Methodology. This is a double-blind clinical trial, in which 60 patients with MDD who were referred for ECT were selected. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Patients were divided randomly into two groups to receive either liothyronine (50?mcg every morning) or placebo. After the assessment with Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) before first session of ECT, posttests were repeated again, two months after the completion of ECT. Findings. By controlling the pretest scores, the mean scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group in delayed recall, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, and attention/concentration scales (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Liothyronine may prevent ECT-induced memory impairment in patients with MDD. This study has been registered in IRCT under IRCT201401122660N2. PMID:25945337

  6. Preventive Effect of Liothyronine on Electroconvulsive Therapy-Induced Memory Deficit in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Arfaie, Asghar; Amiri, Shahrokh; Nouri, Masoud; Abdi, Salman; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Despite the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), its cognitive side effects make it less popular. This study investigated the impact of liothyronine on ECT-induced memory deficit in patients with MDD. Methodology. This is a double-blind clinical trial, in which 60 patients with MDD who were referred for ECT were selected. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Patients were divided randomly into two groups to receive either liothyronine (50?mcg every morning) or placebo. After the assessment with Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) before first session of ECT, posttests were repeated again, two months after the completion of ECT. Findings. By controlling the pretest scores, the mean scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group in delayed recall, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, and attention/concentration scales (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Liothyronine may prevent ECT-induced memory impairment in patients with MDD. This study has been registered in IRCT under IRCT201401122660N2. PMID:25945337

  7. Effects of Practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Across 3- and 6Month Intervals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Estevis; Michael R. Basso; Dennis Combs

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M?=?20.9; education M?=?14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M?=?111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Use of the Wechsler Digit–Symbol Incidental Learning Procedure with the WAIS-IV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Ashendorf

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include the optional Incidental Learning procedure for the Digit–Symbol subtest (now simply called Coding) that had been available in the WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III). However, the procedure itself has been shown to have some utility in assessment of incidental memory processes. The current study of a mixed clinical outpatient sample (n = 75) sought

  9. Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marley W; Smith, Lourdes G

    2013-06-01

    Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003) was investigated with a sample of 344 students from 2 school districts twice evaluated for special education eligibility at an average interval of 2.84 years. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) were .72, .76, .66, .65, and .82, respectively. As predicted, the test-retest reliability coefficients for the subtests (Mdn = .56) were generally lower than the index scores (Mdn = .69) and the FSIQ (.82). On average, subtest scores did not differ by more than 1 point, and index scores did not differ by more than 2 points across the test-retest interval. However, 25% of the students earned FSIQ scores that differed by 10 or more points, and 29%, 39%, 37%, and 44% of the students earned VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI scores, respectively, that varied by 10 or more points. Given this variability, it cannot be assumed that WISC-IV scores will be consistent across long test-retest intervals for individual students. PMID:23397927

  10. Wechsler subscale IQ and subtest profile in early treated phenylketonuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P V Griffiths; C Demellweek; N Fay; P H Robinson; D C Davidson

    2000-01-01

    AIMMildly depressed IQ is common in treated phenylketonuria. This study explored whether a particular intellectual ability profile typifies early and continuously treated phenylketonuria and whether component skills comprising the IQ relate to socioeconomic and treatment factors.METHODSIQ scores were collected retrospectively from variants of the “Wechsler intelligence scale for children” performed at age 8 on 57 children with early treated, classic

  11. Memory impairment and auditory evoked potential gating deficit in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming H. Hsieh; Kristina Liu; Shi-Kai Liu; Ming-Jang Chiu; Hai-Gwo Hwu; Andrew C. N. Chen

    2004-01-01

    Impaired sensory gating and memory function were reported in a study of 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. The P50 component of the auditory evoked potential was used as an index of gating. Explicit memory was tested with the Wechsler Memory Scale and implicit memory by artificial grammar learning. The schizophrenic patients showed deficits in both

  12. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2003). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)." San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Mascolo, Jennifer T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the field of psychological assessment, the Wechsler scales continue to be the most widely used intelligence batteries. The concepts, methods, and procedures inherent in the design of the Wechsler scales have been so influential that they have guided most of the test development and research in the field for more than a half century. This…

  13. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  14. The impact of a genome-wide supported psychosis variant in the ZNF804A gene on memory function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Iwase, Masao; Iike, Naomi; Azechi, Michiyo; Ikezawa, Koji; Takaya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Okochi, Tomo; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Tagami, Shinji; Morihara, Takashi; Okochi, Masayasu; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kudo, Takashi; Kazui, Hiroaki; Iwata, Nakao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2010-12-01

    A recent genome-wide association study showed that a variant (rs1344706) in the ZNF804A gene was associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Replication studies supported the evidence for association between this variant in the ZNF804A gene and schizophrenia and that this variant is the most likely susceptibility variant. Subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in healthy subjects demonstrated the association of the high-risk ZNF804A variant with neural activation during a memory task and a theory of mind task. As these cognitive performances are disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, this gene may play a role in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential relationship between this ZNF804A polymorphism and memory function. The effects of the high-risk ZNF804A genotype, diagnosis, and genotype-diagnosis interaction on verbal memory, visual memory (VisM), attention/concentration, and delayed recall (measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) were analyzed by two-way analysis of covariance in 113 patients with schizophrenia and 184 healthy subjects. Consistent with previous studies, patients with schizophrenia exhibited poorer performance on all indices as compared to healthy control subjects (P??0.05). Our data suggest that rs1344706 may be related to memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20957649

  15. A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the…

  16. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  17. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  18. Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised for African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael; Slaney, Robert B.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of perfectionism using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; R. B. Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996) with 251 African American college students. A LISREL confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the 3 subscales of the APS-R: High…

  19. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2006-01-01

    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than…

  20. Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence…

  1. Evaluation of Memory Endophenotypes for Association with CLU, CR1 and PICALM variants in African-American and Caucasian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Allen, Mariet; Jennette, Kyle; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Crook, Julia; Serie, Daniel; Pankratz, V. Shane; Palusak, Ryan; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Lucas, John A.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Smith, Glenn E.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Younkin, Steven G.; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variants at the CLU, CR1 and PICALM loci associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In this study, our aim was to determine whether the LOAD risk variants at these three loci influence memory endophenotypes in African-American and Caucasian subjects. Methods We pursued an association study between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes at the CLU, CR1 and PICALM loci and memory endophenotypes. We assessed African-American subjects (AA: 44 with LOAD, 224 controls) recruited at Mayo Clinic Florida and Caucasians recruited at Mayo Clinic Minnesota (RS: 372 with LOAD, 1,690 controls) and Florida (JS: 60 with LOAD, 529 controls). SNPs at the LOAD risk loci CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs6656401, rs3818361) and PICALM (rs3851179) were genotyped and tested for association with Logical Memory immediate recall (LMIR), delayed recall (LMDR) and percent retention (LMPR) and Visual Reproduction (VRIR, VRDR, VRPR) scores from Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, using multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for age-at-exam, sex, education and APOE ?4 dosage. Results We identified nominally significant or suggestive associations between the LOAD risky CR1 variants and worse LMIR scores in the African-Americans (p=0.068 - 0.046, ?= ?2.7 to ?1.2). The LOAD protective CLU variant is associated with better logical memory endophenotypes in the Caucasian subjects (p=0.099-0.027, ?= 0.31 to 0.93). The CR1 associations persisted when the control subjects from the African-American series were assessed separately. The CLU associations appeared to be driven by one of the Caucasian series (RS) and were also observed when the control subset from RS was analyzed. Conclusion These results suggest for the first time that LOAD risk variants at CR1 may influence memory endophenotypes in African-Americans. Additionally, CLU LOAD protective variant may confer enhanced memory in Caucasians. Although these results would not remain significant after stringent corrections for multiple testing, they need to be considered in the context of the LOAD associations, with which they have biological consistency. They also provide estimates for effect sizes on memory endophenotypes that could guide future studies. The detection of memory effects for these variants in clinically normal subjects, implies that these LOAD risk loci might modify memory prior to clinical diagnosis of AD. PMID:23643458

  2. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline. PMID:22512934

  3. An exploratory study of the use of the Wechsler Digit-Symbol Incidental Learning procedure with the WAIS-IV.

    PubMed

    Ashendorf, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include the optional Incidental Learning procedure for the Digit-Symbol subtest (now simply called Coding) that had been available in the WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III). However, the procedure itself has been shown to have some utility in assessment of incidental memory processes. The current study of a mixed clinical outpatient sample (n = 75) sought to identify salient characteristics of the Incidental Learning tasks as applied to WAIS-IV Coding. Findings showed that the Pairing procedure, when applied to the WAIS-IV, has different characteristics than it did with the WAIS-III; it is more difficult overall, and different items tend to be more prominently recalled than others. The Free Recall procedure for the WAIS-IV is comparable to the WAIS-III version in overall difficulty. Implications and implementation of the current findings are discussed. PMID:23373639

  4. Increasing the Reliability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition Difference Scores With Reliable Component Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Caruso; Norman Cliff

    2000-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition index score differences are generally interpreted cautiously, if at all, primarily because of their poor reliability. On the basis of prior analyses with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (J. C. Caruso & N. Cliff, 1999), it was hypothesized that differences between scores defined by reliable component analysis would have higher reliability than those

  5. The sexual consent scale-revised: development, reliability, and preliminary validity.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Terry P; Brousseau, Mélanie M

    2010-09-01

    The Sexual Consent Scale-Revised (SCS-R) measures an individual's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to how sexual consent should be and is negotiated between sexual partners. This study extends previous research on sexual consent by revising a scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2001, 2005) as its theoretical foundation. The psychometric properties of the SCS-R were established using factor analysis, construct validity tests, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Five factors emerged: perceived behavioral control, positive attitude toward establishing consent, sexual consent norms, indirect consent behaviors, and awareness of consent. Results indicated that the SCS-R can be useful for examining a variety of research questions relating to sexual consent. PMID:19685367

  6. Confirmatory factor analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised in an African American community sample.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R

    2009-11-22

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status, urban, African American fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school refusal behavior in youth and typically yields four functional dimensions. Results of the investigation suggested that a modified version of the four-factor model, in which three items from the tangible reinforcement dimension are removed, may have construct validity in the current sample of youth. In addition, youth endorsement of the dimension measuring avoidance of social and/or evaluative situations was positively associated with unexcused absences. Implications for further psychometric research and early identification and prevention of problematic absenteeism in low-SES, ethnic minority community samples are highlighted. PMID:20567603

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the School Refusal Assessment ScaleRevised in an African American community sample

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment ScaleRevised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status, urban, African American fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school refusal behavior in youth and typically yields four functional dimensions. Results of the investigation suggested that a modified version of the four-factor model, in which three items from the tangible reinforcement dimension are removed, may have construct validity in the current sample of youth. In addition, youth endorsement of the dimension measuring avoidance of social and/or evaluative situations was positively associated with unexcused absences. Implications for further psychometric research and early identification and prevention of problematic absenteeism in low-SES, ethnic minority community samples are highlighted. PMID:20567603

  8. Peeking inside the "Black Box" of the Flynn Effect: Evidence from Three Wechsler Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jianjun; Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the Wechsler Performance IQ (PIQ) or Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)/ Perceptual Organization Index (POI) change over time and its relation to ability levels. PIQ or PRI/ POI was analyzed because of the known sensitivity of nonverbal scales to the Flynn effect. Scores were analyzed using two methods. First, analysis of…

  9. The Comparability of Three Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales in a College Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Ostrowski, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Administered three Wechsler adult intelligence scales to 72 undergraduates and tested the quality of means, variances, and covariances, utilizing subtest scale scores and IQs. Results indicated that the three scales were not parallel. Generally, the subtest scaled scores exhibited less similarity across the three scales than the IQ estimates.…

  10. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  11. WECHSLER AND NELSON 1 What We Have Learned From the Harvard School

    E-print Network

    Schrag, Daniel

    WECHSLER AND NELSON 1 What We Have Learned From the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Received: October 29, 2007. Revision: January 18, 2008. *The Harvard School of Public Health CollegeAlcohol Study

  12. The Wechsler ACS Social Perception Subtest: A Preliminary Comparison with Other Measures of Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to other cognitive areas, there are few clinical measures currently available to assess social perception. A new standardized measure, the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) Social Perception subtest, addresses some limitations of existing measures; however, little is known about this new test. The first goal of this investigation…

  13. Longitudinal Invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition in a Referral Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richerson, Lindsay P.; Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a group of 352 students eligible for psychoeducational evaluations tested, on average, 2.8 years apart. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance were found. However, the error variance of the Coding subtest was not constant…

  14. The Development of the Wechsler Scales and Their Influence on Contemporary Intelligence Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benisz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The history of intelligence testing merits study as standardized intelligence tests have been administered for only a little over a century. The most popular tests in use today are the Wechsler scales, despite the availability of other test batteries that are better grounded in contemporary theory. To understand why contemporary revisions of…

  15. The differential validity and difficulty of subtests of the Wechsler Mental Ability Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Altus

    1945-01-01

    This study is concerned with the differential validity and difficulty of 8 subtests of the Wechsler Mental Ability Scale, Form B. The tests administered are the Information, Comprehension, Similarities, and Arithmetic subtests of the verbal portion, and the Digit Symbol, Series Completion, Mazes, and Block Designs of the performance scale. The subjects were graduates and discharges of an Army Special

  16. Subtest variation on the Wechsler-Bellevue for two institutionalized behavior problem groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Altus; Jerry H. Clark

    1949-01-01

    The W-B Intelligence Scale was administered to 84 prisoners in an Army Disciplinary Barracks and to 53 institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Subtest patterning is remarkably similar for both groups. Performance scale IQ's were significantly higher for both groups. It is concluded that these findings corroborate the statements of Wechsler in describing the subtest patterning obtained from adolescent psychopaths.

  17. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  18. Psychometric Validation of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Fujikawa, Mayu; Brooks, Jessica; Eastvold-Walton, Lissa; Maxwell, Kristin; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the measurement structure of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (B-ADS-R). Measure: A 12-item measure of disability acceptance based on the four value changes (enlarging the scope of values, containing the effects of the disability, subordinating the physique, and transforming comparative-status values to asset…

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised in an African American Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Aaron R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status (SES), urban, African American, fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school…

  20. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M?=?20.9; education M?=?14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M?=?111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment. PMID:22353021

  1. Epilepsy & IQ: the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) indices in the neuropsychological assessment of people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; McGrath, Katherine; Thompson, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    We examined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) discrepancies in 100 epilepsy patients; 44% had a significant GAI > FSIQ discrepancy. GAI-FSIQ discrepancies were correlated with the number of antiepileptic drugs taken and duration of epilepsy. Individual antiepileptic drugs differentially interfere with the expression of underlying intellectual ability in this group. FSIQ may significantly underestimate levels of general intellectual ability in people with epilepsy. Inaccurate representations of FSIQ due to selective impairments in working memory and reduced processing speed obscure the contextual interpretation of performance on other neuropsychological tests, and subtle localizing and lateralizing signs may be missed as a result. PMID:24499141

  2. Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides. PMID:22208539

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Indonesian version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised.

    PubMed

    Warsini, S; Buettner, P; Mills, J; West, C; Usher, K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to translate and to test an Indonesian version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (I-IES-R) as a measurement of psychological distress following a natural disaster. Sample of 30 Mt. Merapi residents participated in pilot testing and 110 survivors completed the test-retest of the I-IES-R. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine construct validity, and Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability. The results of the translational phase of the study indicated that the Indonesian version of the IES-R captures the content of the original tool with appropriate adaptation for cultural differences. The Indonesian IES-R revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 for test and 0.92 for retest for the total score. In addition, the Cronbach alpha for subscales intrusion, avoidance and hyper arousal in the initial scale testing were 0.85, 0.75, and 0.74, respectively, and for the retest 0.88, 0.79, and 0.82, respectively. The reliability coefficient of the test-retest results was 0.75 [95% confidence interval = (0.64, 0.83)], and exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper arousal. The I-IES-R can be considered a useful screening tool that can be used by mental health nurses to assess the psychological impact of natural disasters on survivors in Indonesia. PMID:25912269

  4. A Review of the Performance of Aged Adults on Various Wechsler Memory Scale Subtests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Joseph S.; Greene, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    The literature reveals a marked decline in performance on the Visual Reproduction subtest with increasing age. Both level of education and intelligence seemed to exert a substantial influence on performance which may be significant in clinical evaluations. (Author)

  5. A Formula for the Standard Error of Estimate of Deviation Quotients on Short Forms of Wechsler's Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    A formula is presented for the standard error of estimate of Deviation Quotients (DQs). The formula is shown to perform well when used with data on short forms of two of Wechsler's scales. (Author/JAC)

  6. Relationship of Sensory Modality to Retention of Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeri; Woodworth, Craig; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Rossini, Edward; Jackson, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the difference between episodic memory for verbal information presented in an oral format versus equivalent material presented in a written format. The study utilized the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Fourth Edition and the recently validated Morris Revision-IV Paragraphs. In a sample of 97 normal participants, auditory and visual memory performances were found to be significantly correlated (r = .651, p < .001). Post-hoc analysis revealed a slight though not clinically significant preference for retention in the visual modality. The results demonstrate a high-degree correlation for retention of episodic memory for these two sensory modalities in normal participants. PMID:25372988

  7. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition performance in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Ryan; Samuel T. Gontkovsky; David S. Kreiner; Heather A. Tree

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD?=?9.94) and 14.33 years (SD?=?2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke,

  8. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition among Gifted Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marley W. Watkins; Chris G. Greenawalt; Catherine M. Marcell

    2002-01-01

    Factor analysis was applied to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (WISC-III) scores of 505 gifted students to evaluate the construct validity of the WISC-III with this population. Multiple criteria were used to determine the number of factors to retain for principal axis extraction. A two-factor solution that roughly mirrored the verbal comprehension and perceptual organization factors of the

  9. The Oral History Rating Scale–Revised: Preliminary Evaluation of a Clinician-Rated Measure of Divorce Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber L. Brewer; D. Eugene Mead

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary psychometric investigation of the Oral History Rating Scale–Revised (OHRS–R), a therapist-rated measure of married couples' divorce potential based a 90-min oral history interview. Findings suggest the OHRS–R shows promise as a clinical tool. Therapist and observing raters' total OHRS–R scores demonstrated high interrater reliability and discriminated from client reports of psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire-45.2) and

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  11. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS–IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS–IV subtests were

  12. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16–19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from exploratory factor analyses were not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2008b) and

  13. Loss of memory for people following temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A W; Young, A W; Critchley, E M

    1989-12-01

    A 40-yr-old woman, K.S., is reported, who shows a severe loss of memory for people following a history of epilepsy and right anterior temporal lobectomy. Despite this memory problem, K.S. is not clinically amnesic, has a Memory Quotient of 122 on the Wechsler Memory Scale in line with her IQ of 119, and performs well on conventional tests of recognition and recall. She does not have a generalized semantic memory deficit for living things, but her deficit extends beyond people to include famous animals, buildings and product names. Autobiographical memory is good, except where memory for people is concerned. The nature of the memory store that is impaired in K.S. is discussed, as are the implications of her case for theories of the organization of long-term memory. PMID:2597991

  14. An examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in individuals with complicated mild, moderate and Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Kirsch, Ned L; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in individuals with complicated mild, moderate or severe TBI. One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild or moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 control participants matched on key demographic variables from the WAIS-IV normative dataset completed the WAIS-IV. Univariate analyses indicated that participants with severe TBI had poorer performance than matched controls on all index scores and subtests (except Matrix Reasoning). Individuals with complicated mild/moderate TBI performed more poorly than controls on the Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and on four subtests: the two processing speed subtests (SS, CD), two working memory subtests (AR, LN), and a perceptual reasoning subtest (BD). Participants with severe TBI had significantly lower scores than the complicated mild/moderate TBI on PSI, and on three subtests: the two processing speed subtests (SS and CD), and the new visual puzzles test. Effect sizes for index and subtest scores were generally small-to-moderate for the group with complicated mild/moderate and moderate-to-large for the group with severe TBI. PSI also showed good sensitivity and specificity for classifying individuals with severe TBI versus controls. Findings provide support for the clinical utility of the WAIS-IV in individuals with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBI. PMID:25646823

  15. Fatigue in Brazilian cancer patients, caregivers, and nursing students: a psychometric validation study of the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dálete D. C. F. Mota; Cibele A. M. Pimenta; Barbara F. Piper

    2009-01-01

    Goals of work  The objective of this study was to validate the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised (PFS-R) for use in Brazilian culture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Translation of the PFS-R into Portuguese and validity and reliability tests were performed. Convenience samples in Brazil\\u000a we as follows: 584 cancer patients (mean age 57?±?13 years; 51.3% female); 184 caregivers (mean age 50?±?12.7 years; 65.8%\\u000a female); and 189 undergraduate

  16. Mayo's older americans normative studies: WMS-R norms for ages 56 to 94

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Ivnik; James F. Malec; Glenn E. Smith; Eric G. Tangalos; Ronald C. Petersen; Emre Kokmen; Leonard T. Kurland

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained in Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) provide age-specific norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) on a sample of 441 cognitively normal persons age 56 to 94. Memory Indices derived from these norms are termed “MAYO Verbal Memory (MVeMI), MAYO Visual Memory (MViMI), MAYO General Memory (MGMI), MAYO Attention\\/Concentration (MACI), MAYO Delayed Recall (MDRI) and MAYO Percent

  17. Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

  18. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and…

  19. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  20. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and…

  1. Construct Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, and Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Neitzel, Ryan; Martin, Blake E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports data supporting the construct validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), and the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) through convergent and…

  2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

  3. The Application of Short Forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Turner, Catherine A.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive accuracy of short forms of the Wechsler intelligence scales for individuals with high functioning autism. Several short forms were derived from participants who had received the full procedure. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the strength of association between the subtests included in…

  4. Long-Term Stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition among Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

    2001-01-01

    Investigates long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) for children with specific learning disability (SLD), serious emotional disability (SED), and mental retardation (MR). There were no differential effects of disability groups on long-term stability coefficients. Stability coefficients for Full…

  5. Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four…

  6. Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Taub, Gordon E.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2006-01-01

    The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new…

  7. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  8. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  9. Clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Strong, Carrie-Ann H

    2015-02-01

    The performance of 100 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was compared with that of 100 demographically matched neurologically healthy controls. Processing Speed was the only WAIS-IV factor index that was able to discriminate between persons with moderate-severe TBI on the one hand and persons with either less severe TBI or neurologically healthy controls on the other hand. The Processing Speed index also had acceptable sensitivity and specificity when differentiating between patients with TBI who either did or did not have scores in the clinically significant range on the Trail Making Test. It is concluded that WAIS-IV Processing Speed has acceptable clinical utility in the evaluation of patients with moderate-severe TBI but that it should be supplemented with other measures to assure sufficient accuracy in the diagnostic process. PMID:24752385

  10. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. PMID:25313225

  11. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2014-09-29

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. PMID:25271008

  12. Estimation of the intelligence quotient using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, María; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29 AS patients. Only the Information and Block Design dyad meets the study criteria. No statistically significant differences were found between dyad scores and FSIQ scores (t(28) = 1.757; p = 0.09). The dyad has a high correlation with FSIQ, good percentage of variance explained (R(2) = 0.591; p < 0.001), and high consistency with the FSIQ classification (?(2)(36) = 45.202; p = 0.14). Short forms with good predictive accuracy may not be accurate in clinical groups with atypical cognitive profiles such as AS patients. PMID:21455795

  13. Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): what does the WAIS-IV measure?

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Kranzler, John H

    2010-03-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages. Results suggest that a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-inspired structure provides a better description of test performance than the published scoring structure does. Broad CHC abilities measured by the WAIS-IV include crystallized ability (Gc), fluid reasoning (Gf), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs), although some of these abilities are measured more comprehensively than are others. Additionally, the WAIS-IV provides a measure of quantitative reasoning (QR). Results also suggest a lack of cross-age invariance resulting from age-related differences in factor loadings. Formulas for calculating CHC indexes and suggestions for interpretation are provided. PMID:20230158

  14. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  15. The Accumulative Effect of Trauma Exposure on Short-Term and Delayed Verbal Memory in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Female Rape Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reginald D. V. Nixon; Pallavi Nishith; Patricia A. Resick

    2004-01-01

    The accumulative effect of prior high-magnitude trauma exposure on memory was examined in 73 rape victims, 92% of whom had current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were administered the Logical Memory component of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Quick Test to obtain an estimate of intelligence, and were assessed for prior traumatic experiences. Prior exposure to high-magnitude stressors (e.g., child

  16. Comparing individuals with learning disability and those with borderline IQ: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd edition). 

    E-print Network

    MacLean, Hannah Ng On-Nar

    2011-06-30

    Background: Support for the four factor construct validity of the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) has been found in clinical and non clinical populations but some studies question whether ...

  17. Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M; Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2013-06-01

    Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) was examined with a sample of 300 individuals referred for evaluation at a university-based clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WAIS-IV structure was best represented by 4 first-order factors as well as a general intelligence factor in a direct hierarchical model. The general intelligence factor accounted for the most common and total variance among the subtests. Incremental validity analyses indicated that the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) generally accounted for medium to large portions of academic achievement variance. For all measures of academic achievement, the first-order factors combined accounted for significant achievement variance beyond that accounted for by the FSIQ, but individual factor index scores contributed trivial amounts of achievement variance. Implications for interpreting WAIS-IV results are discussed. PMID:23544395

  18. Long-term Stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition among Students with Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

    2001-01-01

    Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) was investigated for children with specific learning disability (SLD), serious emotional disability (SED), and mental retardation (MR). Partici- pants were 522 students from 33 states twice evaluated for special education eligi- bility over a mean test-retest interval of 2.87 years. There were no differential effects of disability groups on

  19. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates. PMID:22394018

  20. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients. PMID:26058660

  1. Factors affecting assessment of severity of aggressive incidents: using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noda, T; Nijman, H; Sugiyama, N; Tsujiwaki, K; Putkonen, H; Sailas, E; Kontio, R; Ito, H; Joffe, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate factors associated with overall judgements of aggression severity as provided by ward nurses, using the Japanese-language version of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R). Nurses who observed 326 aggressive incidents involving psychiatric inpatients at five mental health facilities in Japan provided their assessments of the incident severity both on the established rating scale, the SOAS-R, and on a visual analogue scale (VAS), a one-item scale to indicate overall aggression severity. To evaluate the factors influencing the VAS severity scores, a multiple regression analysis was performed, in which consumer, nurse and ward characteristics were added consecutively, along with SOAS-R severity scores as independent variables. SOAS-R scores explained 17.6% of the VAS severity scores. Independently from the SOAS-R scores, the gender and age of the aggressive consumers (adjusted R(2) = 10.0%), as well as the gender of the nurses who reported the aggression (adjusted R(2) = 4.1%), each explained VAS severity score to a significant degree. Apart from the SOAS-R scores, consumer and nurse characteristics appeared to influence the overall judgements of severity of aggressive incidents, which may be connected to decisions about the use of coercive measures, such as seclusion/restraint or forced medication. PMID:22070849

  2. Correlates of memory complaints and personality, depression,and anxiety in a memory clinic.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Mohammad; Zhand, Naista; Eybpoosh, Sana; Yazdi, Narges; Ansari, Sahar; Ramezani, Marjan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to find whether there is an association between subjective memory complaint and memory impairment and probable underlying psychological conditions. A total of 90 patients with subjective memory complaint enrolled in this study. Short history and demographic information were obtained and then the patients underwent memory and mental health assessments, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test tools. The mean age of the participants was 52.31 ± 17.97. Forty patients out of 90 (44.4%) were male. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and memory impairment was 10%, 12.2%, and 28.8%, respectively. Memory impairment has only shown a significant association with the presence of anxiety disorder according to the HADS findings (P=0.001). Regarding the MMPI, considerable differences were observed in the average grade of hysteria among patients with and without memory impairment: 8.38 ± 2.27 vs. 4.35 ± 1.96. There was also significant statistical association between the average score of depression on the MMPI in patients with and without memory impairment that were 13.7 ± 3.33 and 8.31 ±3.86, (P=0.03). The result of the current study shows that underlying psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, and histrionic personality are associated with memory impairment. PMID:26024700

  3. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances. PMID:25821443

  4. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances. PMID:25821443

  5. Chance performance and floor effects: threats to the validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale--fourth edition designs subtest.

    PubMed

    Martin, Phillip K; Schroeder, Ryan W

    2014-06-01

    The Designs subtest allows for accumulation of raw score points by chance alone, creating the potential for artificially inflated performances, especially in older patients. A random number generator was used to simulate the random selection and placement of cards by 100 test naive participants, resulting in a mean raw score of 36.26 (SD = 3.86). This resulted in relatively high-scaled scores in the 45-54, 55-64, and 65-69 age groups on Designs II. In the latter age group, in particular, the mean simulated performance resulted in a scaled score of 7, with scores 1 SD below and above the performance mean translating to scaled scores of 5 and 8, respectively. The findings indicate that clinicians should use caution when interpreting Designs II performance in these age groups, as our simulations demonstrated that low average to average range scores occur frequently when patients are relying solely on chance performance. PMID:24755573

  6. Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences?

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Hanford, Russell B; Medoff, Deborah R

    2006-01-01

    Background Working memory performance is important for maintaining functioning in cognitive, academic and social activities. Previous research suggests there are prevalent working memory deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is now a growing body of literature characterizing working memory functioning according to ADHD subtypes in children. The expression of working memory deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, however, remains to be more fully documented. Methods This study assessed differences in working memory functioning between Normal Control (NC) adults (N = 18); patients with ADHD, Combined (ADHD-CT) Type ADHD (N = 17); and ADHD, Inattentive (ADHD-IA) Type (N = 16) using subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Results The ADHD groups displayed significant weaknesses in contrast to the NC group on working memory tests requiring rapid processing and active stimulus manipulation. This included the Letter-Number-Sequencing test of the Wechsler scales, PASAT omission errors and the longest sequence of consecutive correct answers on the PASAT. No overall ADHD group subtype differences emerged; however differences between the ADHD groups and the NC group varied depending on the measure and the gender of the participants. Gender differences in performance were evident on some measures of working memory, regardless of group, with males performing better than females. Conclusion In general, the data support a dimensional interpretation of working memory deficits experienced by the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA subtypes, rather than an absolute difference between subtypes. Future studies should test the effects of processing speed and load on subtype performance and how those variables interact with gender in adults with ADHD. PMID:17173676

  7. The effects of general anaesthesia on memory in children: a comparison between propofol and sevoflurane.

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Wang, S-L; Liu, X-B

    2014-02-01

    We studied the effects of general anaesthesia on memory 7 days and 3 months following elective hernia surgery. Sixty children aged between 7 and 13 years were randomly allocated to receive either propofol or sevoflurane. Memory was classified into immediate, short-term and long-term memory and assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Propofol impaired short-term memory 7 days postoperatively compared with pre-operative values (image recalling: p = 0.02, figure recognition: p = 0.01, visual reproduction: p = 0.03) but recovered to baseline levels 3 months following surgery. Neither general anaesthetic affected immediate or long-term memory. We conclude that propofol impairs short-term memory postoperatively in children. PMID:24443851

  8. Wms-r patterns among patients with unilateral brain lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon J. Chelune; Robert A. Bornstein

    1988-01-01

    The effects of unilateral brain lesions on memory functioning were examined among a sample of 115 patients with well lateralized lesions using the new Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Multivariate analysis of the WMS-R age-corrected summary indexes for the patients with right-(n = 56) and left-(n = 59) hemisphere lesions was significant (p<.008), although subsequent univariate comparisons revealed that only the

  9. Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose.

    PubMed

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Akouchekian, Shahla; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Hakamian, Mehrnazsadat; Soltani, Rasool; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients' memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs' poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex) and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV). Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20-64 years) were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43 ± 9.02 and 50.62 ± 9.12, respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation. PMID:25649497

  10. Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Akouchekian, Shahla; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Hakamian, Mehrnazsadat; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients' memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs' poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex) and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV). Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20–64 years) were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43 ± 9.02 and 50.62 ± 9.12, respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation. PMID:25649497

  11. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    PubMed

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level. PMID:20822259

  12. Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected…

  13. Augmenting the Core Battery With Supplementary Subtests: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—IV Measurement Invariance Across the United States and Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Bowden; Donald H. Saklofske; Lawrence G. Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including core and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler

  14. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  15. The Chinese Intelligence Scale for Young Children: Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance Using the Framework of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Boliang; Aveyard, Paul; Dai, Xiaoyang

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler intelligence test has four factors representing four components of intellectual function. In China, there are marked cultural, educational, and economic disparities between rural and urban dwellers, which could lead to cultural bias. The aim of this study was to apply the four-factor structure to responses to the Chinese Intelligence…

  16. Implications of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Information, Arithmetic, Digit Span, and Coding Subtests of Severely Retarded Readers on Reading Achievement; A Descriptive-Predictive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gale

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) subtest scores of information (IN), arithmetic (AR), digit span (DS), and coding (CO). The subjects were all of the students admitted to and remaining in the Seattle Public School District #1 Learning/Language Disability (LLD) Program since…

  17. Short-term memory impairment in cannabis-dependent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Gruenewald, P J; Klitzner, M; Fedio, P

    1989-10-01

    The concentration of delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol in marijuana available in the United States has increased by 250% since investigations of the effects of marijuana on short-term memory first appeared in scientific journals. Moreover, previous investigations of short-term memory in long-term marijuana smokers involved adults only. We evaluated the auditory/verbal and visual/spatial memory of 10 cannabis-dependent adolescents and compared the results with performance of 17 subjects in two control groups. The control groups included 8 adolescent drug abusers who had not been long-term users of cannabis and another 9 adolescents who had never abused any drug. All three groups were matched on age, IQ, and absence of previous learning disabilities. Adolescents with a history of frequent alcohol or phencyclidine abuse were excluded from entering the study. A battery of seven neuropsychological tests was administered initially to all subjects and a parallel test battery was administered 6 weeks thereafter. Significant differences between the cannabis-dependent group and the two control groups were obtained initially on the Benton Visual Retention Test (F[2,24] = 6.07) and the Wechsler Memory Scale Prose Passages (F[2,23] = 7.04). After 6 weeks of supervised abstention from intoxicants, subjects in the cannabis-dependent group showed some significant improvement on the Wechsler Memory Prose Passages score and on the Benton Visual Retention Test; however, the improvement failed to achieve statistical significance. We concluded that cannabis-dependent adolescents have selective short-term memory deficits that continue for at least 6 weeks after the last use of marijuana. PMID:2801665

  18. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV): What Does the WAIS–IV Measure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Benson; David M. Hulac; John H. Kranzler

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS–IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages.

  19. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    PubMed Central

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  20. Cache Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Jay Smith

    1982-01-01

    Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

  1. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis. PMID:8780106

  2. Memory Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  3. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  4. Distinct contribution of working memory and social comprehension failures in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Paul G; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; McCarley, Robert W

    2010-03-01

    Neuropsychological impairment represents a core characteristic of schizophrenia, but its underlying components have yet to be clearly established. Using a comprehensive battery of standardized measures of intelligence, declarative episodic memory, and executive function, we hypothesized that the variance in neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia may reflect at least 2 distinct sources related to failures of (a) the central executive division of working memory and (b) social comprehension. In comparison to age-matched controls, patients with schizophrenia showed not only overall reduced scores on Wechsler intelligence and memory scales and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) of executive function, but they also demonstrated different patterns of performance for each of these tests. Hierarchical regression revealed executive attentional control, measured by Trails B performance speed, and social comprehension, measured by Wechsler IQ Comprehension and Picture Arrangement subtests, each accounted for a unique and specific proportion of variance in test scores for the patient group, even when controlling for general intelligence. Failures in social comprehension and executive attentional control may account for distinct sources of variance in the neuropsychological impairment of schizophrenia. PMID:20215998

  5. Efficacy of Guanfacine Extended Release Assessed During the Morning, Afternoon, and Evening Using a Modified Conners' Parent Rating Scale–Revised: Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Rugino, Thomas; Dammerman, Ryan; Lyne, Andrew; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of once-daily guanfacine extended release (GXR) monotherapy administered either in the morning or evening, using a modified Conners' Parent Rating Scale–Revised: Short Form (CPRS–R:S) assessed three times/day in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized children 6–12 years of age with ADHD into three groups: GXR a.m. (GXR in the morning and placebo in the evening), GXR p.m. (placebo in the morning and GXR in the evening), or twice-daily placebo. The CPRS–R:S, administered in the morning, afternoon, and evening prior to each study visit, was a secondary measure of efficacy. Results: A total of 333 subjects were included in the analysis population (GXR a.m., n=107; GXR p.m., n=114; placebo, n=112). At visit 10, last observation carried forward (LOCF), subjects receiving GXR demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in the daily mean CPRS–R:S total score, as well as in each of the morning, afternoon, and evening CPRS–R:S assessments, compared with placebo, regardless of the time of GXR administration (p<0.001 vs. placebo for GXR a.m. and GXR p.m.). In addition, subjects receiving GXR showed significantly greater improvements from baseline in each subscale score (oppositional, cognitive problems/inattention, hyperactivity, and ADHD index) compared with those receiving placebo, regardless of time of administration (p<0.003 vs. placebo across all subscales for GXR a.m. and GXR p.m.). Conclusions: These results provide further support for the demonstrated efficacy of once-daily GXR in reducing ADHD symptoms, and demonstrate that response is consistent throughout the day regardless of the time of administration, with improvement seen in ratings of oppositional as well as of ADHD symptoms. PMID:25286026

  6. Investigating the structure and invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Fourth Edition in a sample of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Ingram, Paul B; Seeley, Jennifer S; Newby, Kaylee D

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has questioned whether the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) measure the same constructs for adults with intellectual disabilities as they do for the general population (MacLean et al., 2011). Using the special validity sample of the WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008b), the structure of the WAIS-IV was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis and tested for measurement invariance across a sample with intellectual disabilities and a control group matched in demographic characteristics. The instrument demonstrated strong factorial invariance when the standard subtests were used. When the standard and supplemental subtests were included in the model, the WAIS-IV four-factor structure provided a model of measurement for the Subtest Scores in the intellectual disability group, but the Perceptual Reasoning factor demonstrated differentiation into Fluid Reasoning and Visual-Spatial factors in the matched control group. In general, the research findings suggest that the four-factor structure of the WAIS-IV is invariant across the intellectual disability and matched control groups. PMID:23891724

  7. Memory systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Squire; Donald Chai

    1998-01-01

    Two recent findings are summarized here that bear on the organization of memory and brain systems. First, the capacity for simple recognition of familiarity (a form of declarative memory) depends on the hippocampal region in both humans and nonhuman primates. Second, probabilistic classification learning (a form of nondeclarative memory akin to habit learning) depends on the caudate nucleus and putamen.

  8. Recovered memories.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F; Davis, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The issues surrounding repressed, recovered, or false memories have sparked one of the greatest controversies in the mental health profession in the twentieth century. We review evidence concerning the existence of the repression and recovery of autobiographical memories of traumatic events and research on the development of false autobiographical memories, how specific therapeutic procedures can lead to false memories, and individual vulnerability to resisting false memories. These findings have implications for therapeutic practice, for forensic practice, for research and training in psychology, and for public policy. PMID:17716079

  9. Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

    2007-12-01

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

  10. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  11. Beyond the Floor Effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Ed. (WISC-IV): Calculating IQ and Indexes of Subjects Presenting a Floored Pattern of Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, A.; Pezzuti, L.; Hulbert, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are…

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of memory and naming tests for identifying left temporal-lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Umfleet, Laura Glass; Janecek, Julie K; Quasney, Erin; Sabsevitz, David S; Ryan, Joseph J; Binder, Jeffrey R; Swanson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) Delayed Recall, Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical Memory, the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and two nonverbal memory measures for detecting lateralized dysfunction in association with side of seizure focus was examined in a sample of 143 patients with left or right temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE). Scores on the SRT and BNT were statistically significantly lower in the left TLE group compared with the right TLE group, whereas no group differences emerged on the Logical Memory subtest. No significant group differences were found with nonverbal memory measures. When the SRT and BNT were both entered as predictors in a logistic regression, the BNT, although significant, added minimal value to the model beyond the variance accounted for by the SRT Delayed Recall. Both variables emerged as significant predictors of side of seizure focus when entered into separate regressions. Sensitivity and specificity of the SRT and BNT ranged from 56% to 65%. The WMS Logical Memory and nonverbal memory measures were not significant predictors of the side of seizure focus. PMID:25258176

  13. Are recovered memories accurate? 

    E-print Network

    Gerkens, David

    2005-08-29

    Research in our laboratory has demonstrated blocked and recovered memories within the context of a controlled experiment. The comparative memory paradigm allows for comparisons of recovered memories, continuous memories, and false memories...

  14. Consolidating memories.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, James L

    2015-01-01

    Our own experiences, as well as the findings of many studies, suggest that emotionally arousing experiences can create lasting memories. This autobiographical article provides a brief summary of the author's research investigating neurobiological systems responsible for the influence of emotional arousal on the consolidation of lasting memories. The research began with the finding that stimulant drugs enhanced memory in rats when administered shortly after training. Those findings suggested the possibility that endogenous systems activated by arousal might influence neural processes underlying memory consolidation. Subsequent findings that adrenal stress hormones activated by learning experiences enhance memory consolidation provided strong evidence supporting this hypothesis. Other findings suggest that the enhancement is induced by stress hormone activation of the amygdala. The findings also suggest that the basolateral amygdala modulates memory consolidation via its projections to brain regions involved in processing different aspects and forms of memory. This emotional-arousal-activated neurobiological system thus seems to play an important adaptive role in insuring that the strength of our memories will reflect their emotional significance. PMID:25559113

  15. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  16. Practical memory checking with Dr. Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Bruening; Qin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs to identify and fix due to the delay and non-determinism linking the error to an observable symptom. Dedicated memory checking tools are invaluable for finding these errors. However, such tools are difficult to build, and because they must monitor all memory

  17. Memory disorders in probable Alzheimer's disease: the role of hippocampal atrophy as shown with MRI.

    PubMed Central

    Deweer, B; Lehéricy, S; Pillon, B; Baulac, M; Chiras, J; Marsault, C; Agid, Y; Dubois, B

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based volumetric measures of hippocampal formation, amygdala (A), caudate nucleus (CN), normalised for total intracranial volume (TIV), were analysed in relation to measures of cognitive deterioration and specific features of memory functions in 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychological examination included the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the Mattis dementia rating scale (DRS), tests of executive functions, assessment of language abilities and praxis, the Wechsler memory scale (WMS), the California verbal learning test (CVLT) and the Grober and Buschke test. The volume of the hippocampal formation (HF/TIV) was correlated with specific memory variables: memory quotient and paired associates of the WMS; intrusions and discriminability at recognition for the Grober and Buschke test. By contrast, except for intrusions, no correlations were found between memory variables and the volume of amygdala (A/TIV). No correlations were found between the volume of caudate nuclei (CN/TIV) and any neuropsychological score. The volume of the hippocampal formation was therefore selectively related to quantitative and qualitative aspects of memory performance in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Images PMID:7745409

  18. Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies · MRAM · PCRAM · FeRAM · ... #12;13-Mar-13 4 What is a Memory Memory cell: Binary data storage element

  19. Memory loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be for a short time and then resolve (transient). Or it may not go away, and, depending ... Major surgery or severe illness, including brain surgery Transient global amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of ...

  20. POW Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-07-12

    Most people think eyewitness testimony is the best possible evidence against an alleged criminal -- especially when that testimony comes from the victim. But people who survive terrifying situations may actually have surprisingly unreliable memories of who or what caused them.

  1. Memory Solitaire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-30

    In this online game, learners practice memory recall. They are shown a collage of pictures for two minutes, then have to write down everything they remember and check how they did. After, they learn a memory-improving method of "tell yourself a story" to help train their brain, and try again. Although this activity is designed to be done online and individually, it can easily be adapted to be done using a printout and in a group setting.

  2. Memory in intellectually matched groups of young participants with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and those with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors for the emergence of psychosis, and develop pharmacological interventions for cognitive dysfunction. However, no study has compared memory function between 22qDS and schizophrenia, while indirect comparisons are confounded by marked differences in IQ between the two populations. We compared verbal and visual memory in 29 children and adolescents with 22qDS and 15 intellectually matched youths with schizophrenia using age-appropriate, directly comparable, Wechsler scales. Verbal memory was markedly superior in the 22qDS group by 21 points. There were no group differences in visual memory. The inherently low COMT activity in 22qDS merits investigation as a potential protective factor for verbal memory. PMID:20307954

  3. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 revised form Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (MMPI-2-RF FBS-r; also known as Fake Bad Scale): psychometric characteristics in a nonlitigation neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    This study examined fundamental psychometric characteristics of the Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (FBS-r) in a nonforensic sample of 303 neuropsychological referrals. FBS-r had a reliability (internal consistency) of .747 and two higher order factoral dimensions (Somatic Complaints and Optimism/Virtue). FBS-r had a discordant factor structure: Optimism/Virtue (7 items) was negatively related to Somatic Complaints (21 items) and undercut FBS-r measurement consistency (reliability). FBS-r scores, which purportedly reflect symptom exaggeration, are affected by as much as 23 T-score points on test items that are negatively related to symptom reporting. These data suggest that the FBS-r produces ambiguous scores reflecting two underlying dimensions that warrant additional research. PMID:22384793

  4. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  5. Augmenting the core battery with supplementary subtests: Wechsler adult intelligence scale--IV measurement invariance across the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2011-06-01

    Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including core and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) were compared across the U.S. and Canadian standardization samples. Populations were compared on the 15 subtest version of the test in people aged 70 and younger and on the 12 subtest version in people aged 70 or older. Results indicated that a slightly modified version of the four-factor model reported in the WAIS-IV technical manual provided the best fit in both populations and in both age groups. The null hypothesis of measurement invariance across populations was not rejected, and the results provide direct evidence for the generalizability of convergent and discriminant validity studies with the WAIS-IV across populations. Small to medium differences in latent means favoring Canadians highlight the value of local norms. PMID:20826685

  6. Minimal effects on human memory following long-term living at moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Liu, Haichen; Yan, Xiaodan; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies describe memory deficits at extremely high altitudes. However, little is known about the effect of long-term living at moderate altitude (MA). The subjects for this study were 52 college students originally from sea level (SL), but studying at a MA of 2260?m over a 7-month period, with a return to SL for 30 days in the middle of the period. Fifty-two matched college students who stayed at SL all the time were the control group. The neuropsychological battery of assessments included the Chinese revised version of Wechsler Memory Scale tests (WMS-CR), verbal and spatial two-back working memory tests, long-term explicit memory (word recall and recognition of words, faces, and pictures) tests, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test, degraded picture naming test, and the Serial Reaction Time Test. We found that the MA subjects showed significantly poorer performances than SL controls only in short-term visual construction assessed in the visual reproduction test from WMS-CR and in the ROCF immediate test. There were no significant differences in all other tasks between the MA group and SL group. These findings suggest that long-term hypoxic exposure at moderate altitude has minimal effects on human memory. PMID:21452964

  7. [ME]morial

    E-print Network

    Lee, Beomki

    2015-01-01

    Challenging an archetypal relationship between collective memory and a multitude of traditional memorials, "[ME]morial" presents a new concept in memorial architecture based on the reinterpretation of Freud's and Bergson's ...

  8. Worthington Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Online Scrapbook of Worthington History is a collaborative project between the Worthington (Ohio) Libraries and the Worthington Historical Society to present local history materials. Visitors can search or browse the digitized collection, currently over 117 photographs and documents. Those unfamiliar with Worthington can use the browse feature to retrieve collection items organized into broad categories such as Arts, Architecture, Agriculture, Business and Commerce, or by decade from 1800 to 2002. Documentation, such as selection criteria, and a 36-page manual "Worthington Memory Digital Imaging Workflow" is provided, making Worthington Memory a handy resource for other public libraries wishing to begin a local history digitization project.

  9. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  10. Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum; Reactivating personal memory 2 Abstract Memory can be modified when reactivated

  11. Super Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

  12. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  13. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  14. Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus Nicola J. Broadbent*, Larry R. Squire. Squire, August 27, 2004 There is wide agreement that spatial memory is dependent on the integrity recognition memory is not as clear. We examined the relationship between hippocampal lesion size and both

  15. Enhanced working and verbal memory after lamotrigine treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Mohammed, Tahseen; Carbray, Julie A; Sweeney, John A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the treatment impact of lamotrigine on the neurocognitive profile of patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method Healthy controls (HC) (n = 24; mean age = 12.4 ± 3.3 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic, mixed or hypomanic episodes (n = 34; mean age = 13 ± 3.1 years) were matched for IQ, age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and again after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated with lamotrigine. Results Clinical symptoms improved with treatment in the patient group with significant change from baseline to follow-up on the Young Mania Rating Scale (p < 0.001) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised (p < 0.001). Global neurocognitive function improved with lamotrigine in PBD patients over time relative to that in HC, although overall performance remained impaired. Working memory and verbal memory significantly improved with treatment in patients, and deficits in these domains were no longer significantly impaired relative to HC at follow-up. Executive function significantly improved with treatment in the patient group, but still lagged behind HC at follow-up. Performance on attention tests did not improve with treatment. Conclusions There appears to be significant improvement in cognitive abilities in PBD patients treated with lamotrigine that is most prominent in the areas of working memory and verbal memory and that occurs along with mood stabilization. PMID:20402714

  16. Memorial Session

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Allan Bromley; Robert K. Adair; Sam M. Austin; Jay C. Davis; Ruth H. Howes; Harry Lustig; Robert G. Sachs

    1997-01-01

    Memorial session to honor Heinz H. Barschall's contributions to physics, to the physics community, and to The American Physical Society. 11:00 D. Allan Bromley, Yale University and president-elect, The American Physical Society 11:15 Robert K. Adair, Yale University 11:30 Sam M. Austin, Michigan State University 11:45 Jay C. Davis, Associate Director, LLNL 12:00 Ruth H. Howes, Ball State University 12:15

  17. Memory Systems Doug Burger

    E-print Network

    Burger, Doug

    Memory Systems Doug Burger University of Wisconsin-Madison A computer's memory system and produces. A perfect memory system is one that can supply immediately any datum that the CPU requests. This ideal memory is not practically implementable, however, as the three factors of memory capacity, speed

  18. Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

  19. Mnemosyne: lightweight persistent memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haris Volos; Andres Jaan Tack; Michael M. Swift

    2012-01-01

    New storage-class memory (SCM) technologies, such as phase-change memory, STT-RAM, and memristors, promise user-level access to non-volatile storage through regular memory instructions. These memory devices enable fast user-mode access to persistence, allowing regular in-memory data structures to survive system crashes. In this paper, we present Mnemosyne, a simple interface for programming with persistent memory. Mnemosyne addresses two challenges: how to

  20. Mnemosyne: lightweight persistent memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haris Volos; Andres Jaan Tack; Michael M. Swift

    2011-01-01

    New storage-class memory (SCM) technologies, such as phase-change memory, STT-RAM, and memristors, promise user-level access to non-volatile storage through regular memory instructions. These memory devices enable fast user-mode access to persistence, allowing regular in-memory data structures to survive system crashes. In this paper, we present Mnemosyne, a simple interface for programming with persistent memory. Mnemosyne addresses two challenges: how to

  1. Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Morra, Jonathan H.; Green, Amity E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 DAT ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests – ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test – the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution. PMID:20083211

  2. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production.

    PubMed

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children's stories scored higher than deaf children's at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children's oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children's ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  3. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  4. Effectiveness of EEG-Biofeedback on Attentiveness, Working Memory and Quantitative Electroencephalography on Reading Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mosanezhad Jeddi, Elnaz; Nazari, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive factors are the important correlates of reading disorder and their impairments are established in children with reading disorder. Neurofeedback as an intervention has been reported to be useful in improvement of cognitive deficits. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of this treatment on attentiveness and working memory and related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in children with reading disorder. Methods: In this single subject study, six children with reading disorder aged 8-10 years old completed twenty 30-minunt sessions of treatment. Continuous performance task, the digit span subscale of the 3rd edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and quantitative electroencephalography were used to evaluate the changes at pre and post-treatment. The data were evaluated by visual inspection of the graph, the mean percentage improvement and signal detection measures. Results: The results showed improvements in attention and working memory. Furthermore, EEG analysis did not show notable changes in the power of the targeted bands (delta, theta, and beta), rather the normalization of coherence was explicit in theta band at T3-T4, delta band at Cz-Fz, beta band at Cz-Fz, Cz-Pz and Cz-C4. Conclusions: These significant changes in coherence are possible indications of the connectivity between frontal and posterior association and integration between sensory and motor areas that explain the improvements in attention and working memory. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644508

  5. L19 Virtual Memory 1Comp 411 Virtual Memory

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Gary

    table #12;L19 ­ Virtual Memory 16Comp 411 Which block is replaced on miss? Direct mapped cache haveL19 ­ Virtual Memory 1Comp 411 Virtual Memory Carolina Course Evaluation Open Today: Virtual Memory #12;L19 ­ Virtual Memory 2Comp 411 Virtual Memory ·Main memory is a CACHE for disk ·Advantages

  6. Emerging memory devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosmas Galatsis; Kang Wang; Youssry Botros; Yang Yang; Ya-Hong Xie; J. F. Stoddart; R. B. Kaner; Cengiz Ozhan; Jianlin Liu; Mihri Ozkan; Chongwu Zhou; Ki Wook Kim

    2006-01-01

    Each memory device presented has its unique range of advantages and challenges. DRAM and FLASH have radically different characteristics; hence, they are used for different applications. Accordingly, the search for memory devices beyond CMOS comes with an important caveat: different memory for different applications. FENA's research path will continue to focus on improving our presented memory devices, and integrating with

  7. Errors in autobiographical memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    1998-01-01

    Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

  8. Memory Hard Drive Peripherals

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

  9. Emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Nader, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Research on the reconsolidation effect was greatly revitalized by the highly analytic demonstration of memory reconsolidation (Nader et al. Nature 406:722-726, 2000) in a well-defined behavioral protocol (auditory fear conditioning in the rat). Since this study, reconsolidation has been demonstrated in hundreds of studies over a range of species, tasks, and amnesic agents. Evidence for reconsolidation does not come solely from the behavioral level of analysis. Cellular and molecular correlates of reconsolidation have also been found. In this chapter, I will first define the evidence on which reconsolidation is concluded to exist. I will then discuss some of the conceptual issues facing the field in determining when reconsolidation does and does not occur. Lastly I will explain the clinical implications of this effect. PMID:25977086

  10. Virginia Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

  11. Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory

    E-print Network

    Midway: Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory memory multiprocessing offers a cost­effective and scalable solution for a large class of scientific and numeric applications. Unfortunately, the performance of current distributed memory programming

  12. Shape Memory Mechanics of an Elastic Memory Composite Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik R. Abrahamson; Mark S. Lake; Naseem A. Munshi; Ken Gall

    2003-01-01

    Substantially more attention has been given in the past to shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics than to shape memory polymers because unreinforced shape memory polymers have much lower stiffness and recovery force potential than shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics. However, when incorporated into a fiber-reinforced composite, both the stiffness and the recovery force of a shape

  13. Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening Google bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology qin zhao@csail.mit.edu Abstract--Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs

  14. Memory-mapped transactions

    E-print Network

    Sukha, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Memory-mapped transactions combine the advantages of both memory mapping and transactions to provide a programming interface for concurrently accessing data on disk without explicit I/O or locking operations. This interface ...

  15. Nanocrystal nonvolatile memory devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan De Blauwe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of nanocrystal memories - a nascent nonvolatile memory technology that promises to extend the scaling of more conventional charge storage devices to nanometer-scale dimensions

  16. The malleability of memory 

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Caroline

    2011-06-29

    in acquisition and individual differences. Using a repeated measures design, it was found that memory for faces was better than memory for events. In accordance with the hypothesis, face recognition was worse when actors changed clothes between the crime scene...

  17. Recoverable distributed shared memory 

    E-print Network

    Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

    1996-01-01

    Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory

    E-print Network

    Parasuraman, Raja

    1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Learning and Memory Raja Parasuraman WorkingWorking MemoryMemory SelectiveSelective AttentionAttention Slide 2 Overview Short term, working, and long-term memory The medial temporal lobe/prefrontal cortex memory system Amnesia Implicit memory Slide 3

  19. Exercise and Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

  20. Memory and Data Memory is precious

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    earmarked by the system ­ The programmer might have a say in this. For example, on PS3 SPUs, we can tweak. · Imagine a (gaming?) device with a display like this: · Imagine it can only display integers. · Imagine · The executable is loaded into main memory by the loader ­ On game consoles, which have limited memory compared

  1. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  2. Numerical Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

  3. Numerical Memory Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

  4. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  5. Considering an organization's memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Ackerman; Christine Halverson

    1998-01-01

    The term organizational memory is due for an overhaul. Memory appears to be everywhere in organizations; yet, the term has been limited to a few uses. In this paper we examine what memory in an organization really is. Based on an ethnographic study of a telephone hotline group, this paper presents a micro-level analysis of a hotline call, the work

  6. Emotional memory in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Hall; Jonathan M. Harris; James W. McKirdy; Eve C. Johnstone; Stephen M. Lawrie

    2007-01-01

    Emotionally arousing scenes are better remembered than neutral ones. The biological basis of this emotional memory effect has been studied in lesion and neuro-imaging studies and depends upon an interaction between the amygdala and medial temporal lobe memory systems including the hippocampus. This study sought to investigate whether patients with schizophrenia had performance deficits on emotional memory tasks consistent with

  7. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  8. Memory and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Mcnally, R J

    1997-01-01

    Experimental psychopathologists have identified varying patterns in memory bias in people with depressive and anxiety disorders. Individuals suffering from depression tend to exhibit explicit memory deficits for positively-valanced material, and sometimes exhibit biases for retrieving negative self-relevant information as well. Most studies, however, provide scant evidence for implicit memory biases in depression. In contrast to depression, anxiety disorders are rarely associated with enhanced explicit memory for threat-related information (with the exception of panic disorder). Evidence for implicit memory biases for threat in these syndromes is mixed. After providing an overview of findings on memory abnormalities in depressive and anxiety disorders, data from several new studies bearing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam combat veterans and in women with histories of childhood sexual abuse are presented. Involving directed forgetting, implicit memory and autobiographical cueing paradigms, these experiments point to a pattern of abnormalities linked to PTSD rather than to trauma per se. PMID:9415928

  9. Flexible Kernel Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

  10. Cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Anu E; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A neuropsychological test battery, including subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Test, and Trail Making Test, which assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, processing speed, logical reasoning, verbal intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, was administered to 13- to 19-year-old patients with IBD (n = 34; active disease n = 20). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings were compared with peers with non-acute juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; n = 23). Patients with coexisting psychiatric disorders were excluded. RESULTS: The IBD group, especially patients in the acute phase, made more perseverative errors in the CVLT test that assessed verbal memory than the JIA group (6.0 ± 4.3 vs 3.3 ± 2.9, P < 0.01), but no other differences between the IBD and JIA groups were observed in the neuropsychological tests. The difference was close to statistical significance, even when glucocorticoid medication was controlled for (P < 0.052). The IBD group had more depressive symptoms than the JIA group (7.9 ± 7.6 vs 4.0 ± 4.0, P < 0.05). Approximately one third of the IBD group had at least mild depressive symptoms, and those with acute illness had the highest scores. However, depressive symptoms were not related to the difference in the verbal memory test (perseverative errors in the CVLT) between the IBD and JIA groups. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with acute IBD may have mild verbal memory problems but no major cognitive deficits compared to peers with JIA. PMID:23538788

  11. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  12. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  13. The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ? 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional. PMID:24236941

  14. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  15. Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    Addis, Donna Rose

    Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests

  16. March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

  17. Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection

    E-print Network

    Witchel, Emmett

    Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection Emmett Witchel Department with Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP). MMP is a combination of hardware and software that pro- vides efficient. Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP) [43] is a recently pro- posed fine-grained memory protection scheme

  18. Against memory systems.

    PubMed Central

    Gaffan, David

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe is indispensable for normal memory processing in both human and non-human primates, as is shown by the fact that large lesions in it produce a severe impairment in the acquisition of new memories. The widely accepted inference from this observation is that the medial temporal cortex, including the hippocampal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortex, contains a memory system or multiple memory systems, which are specialized for the acquisition and storage of memories. Nevertheless, there are some strong arguments against this idea: medial temporal lesions produce amnesia by disconnecting the entire temporal cortex from neuromodulatory afferents arising in the brainstem and basal forebrain, not by removing cortex; the temporal cortex is essential for perception as well as for memory; and response properties of temporal cortical neurons make it impossible that some kinds of memory trace could be stored in the temporal lobe. All cortex is plastic, and it is possible that the same rules of plasticity apply to all cortical areas; therefore, memory traces are stored in widespread cortical areas rather than in a specialized memory system restricted to the temporal lobe. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex has an important role in learning and memory, but is best understood as an area with no specialization of function. PMID:12217178

  19. Reconsolidation of drug memories

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse. PMID:22342780

  20. Magnetic bubble domain memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ypma, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Some attractive features of Bubble Domain Memory and its relation to existing technologies are discussed. Two promising applications are block access mass memory and tape recorder replacement. The required chip capabilities for these uses are listed, and the specifications for a block access mass memory designed to fit between core and HPT disk are presented. A feasibility model for a tape recorder replacement is introduced.

  1. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  2. Shape-Memory Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

    2002-01-01

    Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

  3. Shape memory microactuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Büttgenbach; S. Bütefisch; M. Leester-Schädel; A. Wogersien

    2001-01-01

    Since shape memory alloys have been recognized to be a smart material, actuator elements based on the shape memory effect\\u000a have been increasingly used in various fields of application. This paper reports on the design and fabrication of several\\u000a silicon microactuators driven by shape memory elements, namely mechanical microgrippers, microvalves and artificial muscle\\u000a actuators. The actuators were designed as compliant

  4. Oligatomic Film Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Benrud; G. L. Forslund; M. M. Hanson; R. L. Horst; A. D. Kaske; J. A. Kolling; D. S. Lo; M. J. Nordstrom; H. N. Oredson; W. J. Simon; C. H. Tolman; E. J. Torok

    1971-01-01

    For years the desideratum of flat-film fabricators has been a simply constructed high-density random-access NDRO bit organized memory with word and digit current levels low enough for high-density integrated electronics. This paper describes a new direction in flat-film memories that achieves that goal and a projected cost?bit an order-of-magnitude less than that of integrated circuit wire or core memories. Permalloy

  5. Josephson memory technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wada

    1989-01-01

    Memory circuit architecture (decoder, cell, cell array, and sense circuit), is surveyed, focusing on implementing a fast-access and low-power-consumption memory. Recent progress in fabrication and circuit technology has improved memory performance. An ac powering scheme, instead of the earlier dc system, has been developed. The ac powering scheme eliminates complicated timing control, which restricts shortening access time, but it introduces

  6. The Memory Management Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

  7. Memory on time.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-02-01

    Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

  8. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  9. Does PKM? maintain memory?

    PubMed Central

    Kwapis, Janine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKM?) in maintaining established memory. PKM?, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKM? were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKM? activity with ?-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKM? in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKM? activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKM? is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKM? in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. PMID:24076105

  10. [Connectionist models of memory].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, F

    2000-01-01

    Even if computer science, at its birth, had strong links with the neurosciences, it is today mainly oriented toward efficiency and robustness. For example, memory in a computer has few relationships with memory in a living being. Nevertheless, some domains in computer science are interested in this kind of modelling. In particular, connectionism, whose goal is to elaborate artificial neural networks, uses a formalism for its calculus inspired from calculus in the brain. Different kinds of memory that can be emulated by artificial neural networks, inspired by statistics or biology, are presented here. Their relationships with human memory are discussed together with their tentative interest for the biologist or the therapist. PMID:11098731

  11. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-11-29

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  12. INSPECTION-RESISTANT MEMORY ARCHITECTURES

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Tim

    's storage. With tools available for rent at any major university or fabrication fa- cility, a memory array-RESISTANT MEMORY ARCHITECTURES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... THE AUTHORS EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECURITY, AREA, AND EFFICIENCY IN SEVERAL NOVEL MEMORY

  13. Acoustic Masking in Primary Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Herbert A.; Welsh, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments are reported to investigate the theory that since auditory sensory memory is used to store memory information, concurrent auditory stimulation should destroy memory information and thus reduce recall performance. (Author/RM)

  14. [MRO] Oligocrystalline Shape Memory Alloys

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture ...

  15. Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

    2013-01-01

    Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

  16. Same task, different strategies: how brain networks can be influenced by memory strategy.

    PubMed

    Sanfratello, Lori; Caprihan, Arvind; Stephen, Julia M; Knoefel, Janice E; Adair, John C; Qualls, Clifford; Lundy, S Laura; Aine, Cheryl J

    2014-10-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies demonstrated that different neural networks underlie different types of cognitive processing by engaging participants in particular tasks, such as verbal or spatial working memory (WM) tasks. However, we report here that even when a WM task is defined as verbal or spatial, different types of memory strategies may be used to complete it, with concomitant variations in brain activity. We developed a questionnaire to characterize the type of strategy used by individual members in a group of 28 young healthy participants (18-25 years) during a spatial WM task. A cluster analysis was performed to differentiate groups. We acquired functional magnetoencephalography and structural diffusion tensor imaging measures to characterize the brain networks associated with the use of different strategies. We found two types of strategies were used during the spatial WM task, a visuospatial and a verbal strategy, and brain regions and time courses of activation differed between participants who used each. Task performance also varied by type of strategy used with verbal strategies showing an advantage. In addition, performance on neuropsychological tests (indices from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, Rey Complex Figure Test) correlated significantly with fractional anisotropy measures for the visuospatial strategy group in white matter tracts implicated in other WM and attention studies. We conclude that differences in memory strategy can have a pronounced effect on the locations and timing of brain activation and that these differences need further investigation as a possible confounding factor for studies using group averaging as a means for summarizing results. PMID:24931401

  17. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: Working and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25734757

  18. Technology strategy for the semiconductor memory market

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2012-01-01

    Solid state memories are used in a variety of applications as data and code storages. A non-volatile memory is a memory that retains information when its power supply is off. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory ...

  19. Shape Memory Polymer Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. Mather; Xiaofan Luo; Ingrid A. Rousseau

    2009-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed significant advances in the field of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the elucidation of new compositions for property tuning, the discovery of new mechanisms for shape fixing and recovery, and the initiation of phenomenological modeling. We critically review research findings on new shape memory polymers along these lines, emphasizing exciting progress in the areas

  20. Shape memory polymer nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

  1. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  2. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  3. Shape Memory Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

    2007-01-01

    This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

  4. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  5. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  6. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

  7. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  8. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  9. When autobiographical memory begins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Howe; Mary L. Courage; Shannon C. Edisonb

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in what processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes play in the emergence of autobiographical memory and the temporal

  10. Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

  11. Instruction Manual MEMORY TELEPHONE

    E-print Network

    Owner's Instruction Manual PATRIOT II MEMORY TELEPHONE 2194**V0E27S #12;PATRIOT II MEMORY TELEPHONE TELEPHONE telephone.telephone.telephone.telephone.telephone. All products in the PAll products in the PAll of telephones combine the latestfamily of telephones combine the latestfamily of telephones combine

  12. Distributed memory. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.N.

    1985-03-13

    A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

  13. Memory's Role in Catechesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Bryan

    The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present times. Selected…

  14. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  15. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  16. Cold pressor-induced pain does not impair WAIS-IV processing speed index or working memory index performance.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain frequently involves cognitive complaints such as concentration and memory deficits, but studies of the effects of pain on cognition have not consistently demonstrated deficits and have not typically utilized standard neuropsychological instruments. Effects of cold pressor-induced pain on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Processing Speed Index (PSI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) performance was examined in nonclinical volunteers (n = 40). All took one PSI subtest and one WMI subtest normally, and then took different PSI and WMI subtests during cold pressor-induced pain or painless warm-water immersion. Scaled scores for normal administration versus pain or painless water immersion did not differ and there was no interaction between group (control vs. pain) and manner of administration, despite moderately severe mean pain ratings (M = 6.8 on a 0-10 pain-rating scale). Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers does not impair PSI or WMI performance, and they suggest that chronic pain per se should not be expected to substantially affect these cognitive functions. However, patients with chronic pain may differ from nonclinical volunteers in their experience of pain, potentially limiting generalizability. PMID:24826491

  17. Memory traces of trace memories: neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and

    E-print Network

    Shors, Tracey J.

    Memory traces of trace memories: neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and awareness Tracey J. Shors neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and awareness in the formation of trace memories. `Every memory we have is finally with synaptogenesis in the hippocampus will be discussed, as will the potential role of awareness in this form

  18. The microcircuit associative memory: a biologically motivated memory architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coe F. Miles; C. David Rogers

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a fundamental construct, called the microcircuit, that constitutes the basic building block of an associative memory model, the ?AM. The microcircuit's structure is based on cerebellar interneuron connectivity patterns. Overlapping microcircuit activity is used to describe ?AM memory operations, and quantitative expressions for the memory's storage and recall behavior are given. Measures of the memory's fidelity are derived and

  19. Re-establishing memory: memory's functions and the reference librarian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Butler

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to re-establish memory's role within reference librarianship, and to argue that continued research on how memory affects the reference librarian can encourage growth within the profession. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Neuroscience and psychological explanations of memory are introduced and then utilized to show how reference librarians access and impress memory. Perspectives on reference librarianship in relation to

  20. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  1. Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection

    E-print Network

    Mondrix: Memory Isolation for Linux using Mondriaan Memory Protection Emmett Witchel Department and an evaluation of Mondrix, a version of the Linux kernel with Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP). MMP, is therefore a crucial component of a robust system. Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP) [43] is a recently pro

  2. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518

  3. Memory at VLSI Circuits Symposium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoo Itoh; Hideaki Kurata; Kenichi Osada; Tomonori Sekiguchi

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Symposium has been the premier forum for memory, putting more emphasis on seminal memory circuits rather than on record-setting performances with actually fabricated full chips, which has been the emphasis at the ISSCC. Indeed, it has been the breeding ground for DRAMs, SRAMs, flash memories, and other memories.

  4. The memory value of size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Karwoski

    1931-01-01

    The problem was to determine the memory value of absolute and relative size of letters under conditions in which size alone is the variable. Absolute size has no memory value. A memory value for relative size was obtained as between the largest and either of the two smaller sizes. Repetition of the series diminishes the memory value of relative size.

  5. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective Daniel L. Schacter, Scott A. Guerin* and Peggy L. St. Jacques* Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Memory is prone that several types of memory distortions ­ imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors

  6. Programming with functional memory

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, R. Jr.; Lew, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Functional memory (FM) uses memory mapped reprogrammable field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for fine-grained parallel processing. Multi-operand expressions are computed in combinational logic eliminating processor computation steps. FPGAs capture operands as memory is written, eliminating separate processor load-stores to pass operands. This paper describes how program expressions can be implemented in FM, including branch address computations. It concludes with a load store analysis comparing a conventional von Neumann processor with and without FM for a shortest path program. The load store count stays about the same but eliminating the computation steps result in a one-third step reduction overall with FM.

  7. Memory clinics in context

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

    2009-01-01

    The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

  8. Metamemories of memory researchers.

    PubMed

    Park, D C; Smith, A D; Cavanaugh, J C

    1990-05-01

    In the present study, a metamemory questionnaire was completed by three groups of individuals: memory research psychologists who attended a small international convention on everyday memory processes in the aged, academic psychologists with a limited knowledge of the memory literature, and nonpsychologist college professors. There was little evidence that memory psychologists reported using strategies to remember things that were different from the strategies of other academics. The most used and most recommended technique for remembering was to write things down, followed by general internal mnemonic systems such as organization and rehearsal. The least used and least recommended strategies for all three groups were formal mnemonic systems, such as the peg-word system or the method of loci. PMID:2355861

  9. Modelling Immunological Memory

    E-print Network

    Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

  10. Warship : memorial in antithesis

    E-print Network

    Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

  11. Object Location Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

  12. Concussion and Memory

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... according to a new study. Researchers recruited 15 men and 15 women with concussion to help them ... activation in the brain’s memory circuits in the men with concussion and decreased activation in the women ...

  13. Iconic memory requires attention.

    PubMed

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features. PMID:22586389

  14. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  15. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  16. Pitch Memory Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

  17. Ramsay Memorial Fund

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Bell; Glenconner; J. N. Collie

    1917-01-01

    WE are asking the hospitality of your columns to enable us to report the progress of the Ramsay Memorial Fund, which was instituted just a year ago with the object of raising a sum of 100,000l. as a suitable memorial to the late Prof. Sir William Ramsay. The fund has now reached a sum of just above 30,000l. The latest

  18. Static Memory Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nestoras Tzartzanis

    In this chapter, we explore the design of static memory structures. We start with the description of the operation of the\\u000a single-port six-transistor SRAM cell. Subsequently, we discuss issues related to the design of memory peripherals such as\\u000a voltage-mode and current-mode differential reads, single-ended reads, and control logic. We present design techniques to reduce\\u000a SRAM dynamic and static power. We

  19. Memory. Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tomás J; Roy, Dheeraj S; Pignatelli, Michele; Arons, Autumn; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2015-05-29

    Memory consolidation is the process by which a newly formed and unstable memory transforms into a stable long-term memory. It is unknown whether the process of memory consolidation occurs exclusively through the stabilization of memory engrams. By using learning-dependent cell labeling, we identified an increase of synaptic strength and dendritic spine density specifically in consolidated memory engram cells. Although these properties are lacking in engram cells under protein synthesis inhibitor-induced amnesia, direct optogenetic activation of these cells results in memory retrieval, and this correlates with retained engram cell-specific connectivity. We propose that a specific pattern of connectivity of engram cells may be crucial for memory information storage and that strengthened synapses in these cells critically contribute to the memory retrieval process. PMID:26023136

  20. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:26074833

  1. Aging accelerates memory extinction and impairs memory restoration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a phenomenon observed from invertebrates to human. Memory extinction is proposed to be an active inhibitory modification of memory, however, whether extinction is affected in aging animals remains to be elucidated. Employing a modified paradigm for studying memory extinction in fruit flies, we found that only the stable, but not the labile memory component was suppressed by extinction, thus effectively resulting in higher memory loss in aging flies. Strikingly, young flies were able to fully restore the stable memory component 3 h post extinction, while aging flies failed to do so. In conclusion, our findings reveal that both accelerated extinction and impaired restoration contribute to memory impairment in aging animals. PMID:25842205

  2. Cultural differences on the children's memory scale 

    E-print Network

    Cash, Deborah Dyer

    2009-05-15

    Memory is an essential component for learning. Deficits in verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are thought to hinder language learning, reading acquisition, and academic achievement. The Children’s Memory Scale (CMS...

  3. CS 31: Intro to Systems Virtual Memory

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    CS 31: Intro to Systems Virtual Memory #12;Memory · Abstrac9on goal: make every process think it has the same memory layout. ­ MUCH simpler so much memory to go around, and no two processes should use the same

  4. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (? 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (? 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (? 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (? 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:24992278

  5. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  6. The memory gap and the future of high performance memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice V. Wilkes

    2001-01-01

    The first main memories to be used on digital computers were constructed using a technology much slower than that used for the logic circuits, and it was taken for granted that there would be a memory gap. Mercury delay line memories spent a lot of their time waiting for the required word to come round and were very slow indeed.

  7. Memory with Memory: Soft Assignment in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    by destructively writing to registers or memory locations. This is in contrast to most biological systems, whereMemory with Memory: Soft Assignment in Genetic Programming Nicholas Freitag McPhee Division@essex.ac.uk ABSTRACT Based in part on observations about the incremental nature of most state changes in biological

  8. Memory, amnesia, and the issue of recovered memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart M. Zola

    1998-01-01

    The main thesis of this article is that the debate about the credibility of “recovered memories”—reports by adults of recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and trauma that were allegedly repressed for many years—can be usefully informed by considering the biological and behavioral facts and ideas about how memory works. Accordingly, the first section of this review describes current facts

  9. Memory with memory: Soft assignment in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Poli, Riccardo

    by destructively writing to registers or memory locations. This is in contrast to most biological systems, whereMemory with memory: Soft assignment in Genetic Programming Nicholas Freitag McPhee Division@essex.ac.uk ABSTRACT Based in part on observations about the incremental nature of most state changes in biological

  10. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  11. Carbon Nanotube Memory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are among the most cited prototypical materials for nanoelectronics and information storage devices, a dominant position that originates from their intrinsic structural and electronic properties. In this chapter we review the developments in memory elements that directly exploit the unique properties of carbon nanotubes. Fundamental operational principles and characteristics are examined for the different types of carbon nanotube-based memory devices along with the current status of experimental fabrication and scalability. These include memory elements based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and electromigration. Many of these devices show tremendous promise for providing enhanced densities, lower power requirements, more efficient read/write processes, and non-volatility of data.

  12. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  13. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. PMID:25655207

  14. Ubiquitous Memory Introspection (Preliminary Manuscript)

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Qin

    2006-09-25

    Modern memory systems play a critical role in the performance ofapplications, but a detailed understanding of the application behaviorin the memory system is not trivial to attain. It requires timeconsuming simulations of ...

  15. Quasi-Ideal Memory System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junwei; Shen, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The definition for ideal memory system is so strict that some physical elements cannot exist in the real world. In this paper, an ideal memory system can be extended to generate 15 different kinds of quasi-ideal memory systems, which are included in memory systems as its special cases and are different from ideal memory system. For a system to be a quasi-ideal memory system, it should show three unique fingerprints: 1) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be odd symmetrical in the plane; 2) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be "self-crossing"; and 3) the slope of tangent line for the pinched hysteresis loop must be strictly monotone in a given period. PMID:25204007

  16. Can false memories spontaneously recover?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Seamon; Jeffrey R. Berko; Brooke Sahlin; Yi-Lo Yu; Jennifer M. Colker; David H. Gottfried

    2006-01-01

    Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should

  17. Knowledge, Cultural Memory, and Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Meusburger

    \\u000a After categorizing different types of collective memories, the author discusses tensions between collective memories and the\\u000a knowledge of individuals. He notes that collective memories are often based on Manichean morality and that “memory industries”\\u000a try to manipulate well-informed and highly educated societies in ways similar to those used by emerging nineteenth-century\\u000a nation-states to manipulate their undereducated or illiterate societies. It

  18. Memory dynamics in the honeybee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Menzel

    1999-01-01

    Reward learning in honeybees initiates a sequence of events which leads to long-lasting memory passing through multiple phases\\u000a of transient memories. The study of memory dynamics is performed at the behavioral (both natural foraging behavior and appetitive\\u000a conditioning), neural circuit and molecular levels. The results of these combined efforts lead to a model which assumes five\\u000a kinds of sequential memories,

  19. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan (Pleasant Hill, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Bearinger, Jane P. (Livermore, CA); Wilson, Thomas S. (San Leandro, CA); Small, IV, Ward (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Jensen, Wayne A. (Livermore, CA); Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Marion, III, John E. (Livermore, CA); Loge, Jeffrey M. (Stockton, CA)

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  20. Making sense of memory.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M

    2005-09-01

    The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

  1. Pitch Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

  2. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

  3. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  4. Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave an opportunity to add their names and graduation years to the stone plaza of the Oklahoma Memorial Union

  5. Storing Memories of Recent Events

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that come with normal aging and dementia. The hippocampus plays a critical role in memory. Much prior memory research has focused on semantic ... to a small number of neurons in the hippocampus; these neurons then fire when the memory is recalled. But how the brain forms episodic ...

  6. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  7. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  8. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  9. Schizophrenia, memory, and anticholinergic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Frith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the similarities between the memory impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those observed in schizophrenic patients. It is suggested that (1) the memory impairments observed in some schizophrenic patients may be a consequence of treatment with anticholinergic drugs given to combat the side effects of neuroleptics and (2) there is a memory deficit specifically associated with schizophrenia that resembles

  10. The Neuropsychology of Autobiographical Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Greenberg; David C. Rubin

    2003-01-01

    This special issue of Cortex focuses on the relative contribution of different neural networks to memory and the interaction of ‘core' memory processes with other cognitive processes. In this article, we examine both. Specifically, we identify cognitive processes other than encoding and retrieval that are thought to be involved in memory; we then examine the consequences of damage to brain

  11. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  12. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals

    PubMed Central

    Templer, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of “having been there” has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhumans. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhumans and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap. However, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing the most crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naďve question “do nonhuman animals have episodic memory” to instead asking “what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans” are making progress. PMID:24028963

  13. An analog memory using a CCD memory cell

    E-print Network

    Murray, James Ray

    1983-01-01

    well will increase with time. In either case, the information stored in the memory cell will be lost if the information is not refreshed periodically. This is true for any type of dynamic mmaory. Some methods have been used where the information...-to-digital converter is needed. As with all dynamic memories the s1gnal stored in the memory cell will decay with time. Therefore the signal in the memory cell must be refreshed to its correct value periodically. with a digital memory it is possible to access a...

  14. Lecture 5: Galaxy Formation Risa H. Wechsler

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    the neutral gas into an ionized gas. · Two ways to probe this reionization: ­ Absorbtion along quasar lines of gravity · Eventually, the density in a small region gets large enough so that the gravity can counteract · Gas particles can cool when they collide. Dark matter particles do not interact with each other

  15. The Java memory model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Manson; William Pugh; Sarita V. Adve

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the new Java memory model, which has been revised as part of Java 5.0. The model specifies the legal behaviors for a multithreaded program; it defines the semantics of multithreaded Java programs and partially determines legal implementations of Java virtual machines and compilers.The new Java model provides a simple interface for correctly synchronized programs -- it guarantees

  16. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  17. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  18. Memorial Union Territorial Hall

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Coffman Memorial Union Comstock Hall Territorial Hall Frontier Hall Pioneer Hall Johnston HallAve.S.E. PleasantSt.S.E. PleasantSt.S.E. ChurchSt.S.E.(nothroughtraffic) UnionSt.S.E. (OneWay) (OneWay) Oak

  19. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  20. Memories of bug fixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunghun Kim; Kai Pan; E. E. James Whitehead Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The change history of a software project contains a rich collection of code changes that record previous development experience. Changes that fix bugs are especially interesting, since they record both the old buggy code and the new fixed code. This paper presents a bug finding algorithm using bug fix memories: a project-specific bug and fix knowledge base developed by analyzing

  1. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  2. Creating Media Center Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spann, Youlita

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the school library media specialist is to "Promote the library media program as an attractive, welcoming, and essential venue" (AASL 89). The media center should convey an atmosphere where students feel welcome. Creating media center memories can help library media specialists to achieve this goal. This article describes…

  3. Transactive Memory Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesa Peltokorpi

    2008-01-01

    The literature on transactive memory (TM) continues to grow in several interrelated scholarly fields. Although this increased interest in TM systems has been beneficial, it has also led to a plurality and confusing interpretation of TM theory. To identify gaps and ambiguities in TM literature, this article provides a comprehensive overview of TM theory, distinguishes TM systems from related cognitive

  4. Comment on "Childhood Memories."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Critiques an article that focuses on how the analysis of memory offers a window into the cultural, social, linguistic, and ideological dimensions of people as a step toward the development of voice. Suggests the importance of dedicating teaching and research not merely to the development of students' empowerment, but also to connecting these…

  5. Manual Dexterity Visual Memory

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Manual Dexterity Visual Memory Business Sense Self Discipline Communication (Oral & Written-Dentistry is not an official major, and most Pre-Dentistry students choose to major in Biology. Dentistry is the branch who want to become dentists should take courses in biology, chemistry, physics, health

  6. High density associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layered, thin-film, digital memory having associative recall. There is a first memory matrix and a second memory matrix. Each memory matrix comprises, a first layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated row conductors; a second layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated column conductors intersecting but electrically separated from the row conductors; and, a plurality of resistance elements electrically connected between the row condutors and the column conductors at respective intersections of the row conductors and the column conductors, each resistance element comprising, in series, a first resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct a sensible element current therethrough with virtually no heat-generating power consumption when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross and a second resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct no sensible current therethrough when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross, the second resistor having the quality of breaking down to create a short therethrough upon the application of a breakdown level voltage across the first and second resistors.

  7. Selective sparing of topographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, E.; Cipolotti, L.

    1998-01-01

    The case of a 61 year old patient with Pick's disease involving predominantly the left temporal lobe, who has been studied over a 5 year period, is reported. She presented with a grave impairment of both verbal and non-verbal memory functions. Her non-verbal memory deficits included profound impairments on the recognition of unfamiliar faces and the recall of abstract designs. Remarkably, her visual recognition memory performance for unknown buildings, landscapes, and outdoor scenes was preserved. Strikingly, her ability to recall familiar routes and learn new ones through a complex virtual reality town was also entirely normal. This seems to be the first case documenting the selective preservation of topographical memory in the context of severe non-verbal and verbal memory impairments. These findings imply that topographical memory and non-verbal memory are subserved by separable neural systems.?? PMID:9854968

  8. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  9. Memory T Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Su, Charles A; Fairchild, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naďve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

  10. Working memory and the memory distortion component of hindsight bias.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, Dustin P

    2012-01-01

    One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion: Individuals' recollections of their predictions are biased towards known outcomes. The present study examined the role of working memory in the memory distortion component of hindsight bias. Participants answered almanac-like questions, completed a measure of working memory capacity, were provided with the correct answers, and attempted to recollect their original judgements in two conditions: with and without a concurrent working memory load. Participants' recalled judgements were more biased by feedback when they recalled these judgements with a concurrent memory load and working memory capacity was negatively correlated with memory distortion. These findings are consistent with reconstruction accounts of the memory distortion component of hindsight bias and, more generally, with dual process theories of cognition. These results also relate the memory distortion component of hindsight bias with other cognitive errors, such as source monitoring errors, the belief bias in syllogistic reasoning and anchoring effects. Implications for the separate components view of hindsight bias are discussed. PMID:22871160

  11. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  12. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594

  13. Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads,

    E-print Network

    Hill, Mark D.

    Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers ABSTRACT Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads, such as databases, in-memory caches, and graph analytics, pay a high cost for page-based virtual memory. They consume as much as 10% of execution cycles on TLB misses, even using large pag- es

  14. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

  15. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  16. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  17. The memory glasses : wearable computing for just-in-time memory support

    E-print Network

    DeVaul, Richard W. (Richard Wayne), 1971-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis documents a body of wearable computing research surrounding the development of the Memory Glasses, a new type of proactive memory support technology. The Memory Glasses combines features of existing memory ...

  18. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

  19. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  20. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  1. Mozilla Digital Memory Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

  2. Auditory working memory and verbal recall memory in schizotypy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F Lenzenweger; J. M Gold

    2000-01-01

    Deficits on verbal memory tasks, as well as on spatial and auditory working memory tasks, have been observed in schizophrenia patients. A useful strategy in the determination of the premorbid indicator status of specific cognitive and memory deficits observed in patients is to examine those persons at increased biological risk for schizophrenia (e.g. first-degree relatives), schizotypal personality disorder patients, and\\/or

  3. Is Visual Memory Holographic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Valentine

    1968-01-01

    CLAIMS by Longuet-Higgins1 and Greguss2 that memory might behave holographically are tested here in a situation of prompted visual recall. If a figure, of area f, is inspected by a subject (S) and subsequently a part (P) of that figure, of area p, is presented to him, the holographic theory implies that as the ratio p\\/f increases, the strength of

  4. A Christmas Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-04

    In this lesson, students will read the autobiographical story "A Christmas Memory" by Truman Capote and watch a film version, determining what was emphasized in each account. Students will then write an extended paragraph comparing how the content is addressed through the different mediums of print and film. This activity will develop students' analytical reading and viewing skills, including evaluating the author's / director's craft and purpose.

  5. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  6. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  7. Memories of Julian Schwinger

    E-print Network

    Edward Gerjuoy

    2014-12-02

    The career and accomplishments of Julian Schwinger, who shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1965, have been reviewed in numerous books and articles. For this reason these Memories, which seek to convey a sense of Schwinger's remarkable talents as a physicist, concentrate primariy (though not entirely) on heretofore unpublished pertinent recollections of the youthful Schwinger by this writer, who first encountered Schwinger in 1934 when they both were undergraduates at the City College of New York.

  8. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  9. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  10. Permalloy film NDRO memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Janisch

    1965-01-01

    A thin magnetic film NDRO storage cell has been developed for very high-speed word-organized memories. The storage cell contains two 500-Ĺ, 15-mil-square Permalloy film elements with a read and sense line between them. One film element is deposited on a metallic ground plane, so that the read line and its image in the ground plane are coupled to the readout

  11. Bell System Memorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bell System Memorial is a non-commercial website created by David Massey, who openly admits to his love of telephones and interest in the Bell System. The website "was created to help keep the memories of the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest telecommunications system on earth." The author provides some technical and corporate historical information on Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies. The Bell System Memorial logo on the main page links to an introductory webpage, where visitors can sort through the information based on their needs. For example, teachers will find lessons ideas, and AT&T, Western Electric, Bell Labs, Bell Operating Company retirees and current employees of the companies divested from AT&T will find some interesting corporate history. A listing of books and resources on Bell Systems is available for anyone interested in further research and hobbyists will find links to resources and associations relating to electronics and telecommunications.

  12. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  13. Dielectric elastomer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  14. Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith Department of Computer Science University of New Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA asp@t10.lanl.gov Abstract This paper argues that immunological memory population in the immune system). Keywords: Immunological Memory, Associative Memory, Cross-Reactive Memory

  15. How Minds Work Working & Episodic Memory

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    1 How Minds Work Working & Episodic Memory Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 2 Memory Systems #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 3 #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 4 Percept · Result of filtering

  16. Is memory purely preservative?* Jrme Dokic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Is memory purely preservative?* Jérôme Dokic (University of Rouen and CREA, Paris) In C. Hoerl & T. McCormack (eds), Time and Memory, Oxford: OUP. §1 Two forms of memory and Goethe's Problem Let us start with a familiar distinction between two forms of memory: episodic memory (remembering a thing

  17. Augmenting human memory using personal lifelogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Chen; Gareth J. F. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Memory is a key human facility to support life activities, including social interactions, life management and problem solving. Unfortunately, our memory is not perfect. Normal individuals will have occasional memory problems which can be frustrating, while those with memory impairments can often experience a greatly reduced quality of life. Augmenting memory has the potential to make normal individuals more effective,

  18. Memory lane and morality: how childhood memories promote prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Desai, Sreedhari D

    2012-04-01

    Although research has established that autobiographical memory affects one's self-concept, little is known about how it affects moral behavior. We focus on a specific type of autobiographical memory: childhood memories. Drawing on research on memory and moral psychology, we propose that childhood memories elicit moral purity, which we define as a psychological state of feeling morally clean and innocent. In turn, heightened moral purity leads to greater prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants instructed to recall childhood memories were more likely to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants in a control condition, and this effect was mediated by moral purity. In Experiment 2, the same manipulation increased the amount of money participants donated to a good cause, and both implicit and explicit measures of moral purity mediated the effect. Experiment 3 provides further support for the process linking childhood memories and prosocial behavior through moderation. In Experiment 4, we found that childhood memories led to punishment of others' ethically questionable actions. Finally, in Experiment 5, both positively valenced and negatively valenced childhood memories increased helping compared to a control condition. PMID:22181000

  19. Lecture 14: Virtual Memory Topics: virtual memory (Section 5.4)

    E-print Network

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    1 Lecture 14: Virtual Memory · Topics: virtual memory (Section 5.4) · Reminders: midterm begins at 9am, ends at 10:40am #12;2 Virtual Memory · Processes deal with virtual memory ­ they have memory that is shared by all processes ­ a process places part of its virtual memory in this physical

  20. Performance of SAP ERP with memory virtualization using IBM active memory expansion as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Bögelsack; Marcus Homann; Holger Wittges; Helmut Krcmar

    2011-01-01

    Main memory virtualization is used to expand the effective main memory capacity meaning that more virtual main memory is represented to guest operating systems than physical memory is actually available. This is done by compressing and uncompressing memory pages. Obviously the price for main memory virtualization is a higher CPU utilization, especially when dealing with high workloads. SAP ERP systems

  1. Molecular mechanisms of memory formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Ng; M. E. Gibbs; S. F. Crowe; G. L. Sedman; F. Hua; W. Zhao; B. O'Dowd; N. Rickard; C. L. Gibbs; E. Syková; J. Svoboda; P. Jendelová

    1991-01-01

    Studies with neonate chicks, trained on a passive avoidance task, suggest that at least two shorter-term memory stages precede\\u000a long-term, protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation. Posttetanic neuronal hyperpolarization arising from two distinct\\u000a mechanisms is postulated to underlie formation of these two early memory stages. Maintenance of the second of these stages\\u000a may involve a prolonged period of hyperpolarization brought about by

  2. Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry L. Roediger

    1980-01-01

    In describing memory phenomena in natural language, a spatial metaphor is typically employed. Memories are considered to be\\u000a objects that are stored in a mind space, and the process of retrieval is conceived as a search for these objects. It is argued\\u000a that this metaphor has been carried over into many of the popular theories of memory in cognitive psychology

  3. Memory Management with Explicit Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gay; Alexander Aiken

    1998-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to studies of and algorithms for memory management based on garbage collection or explicit allocation and deallocation. An alternative approach, region-based memory management, has been known for decades, but has not been well-studied. In a region-based system each allocation specifies a region, and memory is reclaimed by destroying a region, freeing all the storage allocated

  4. Iron states and cognitive abilities in young adults: neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Eman; Hamed, Sherifa A; Elbeih, Esam; El-Shereef, Hala; Ahmad, Yousreyia; Ahmed, Safaa

    2008-12-01

    Many investigators found that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) had a great influence on cognitive functions in infants and children. However, studies of such topic in adults are few and controversial. We prospectively assessed the possible influence of IDA and iron supplementation (for 3 months) on cognitive function and intelligence of 28 young adults with IDA. We used group of hematological, cognitive, neurophysiological tests for assessment including: mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Wechsler memory scale-revised (WMS-R), Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R), event-related potentials (ERPs), and electroencephalography (EEG). Compared to controls, patients demonstrated lower scores of different cognitive tests (MMSE, WMS-R, and WAIS-R), which showed significant improvement after treatment. Prolongation of ERPs latencies (N200 and P300) and reduction in their amplitudes (P200 and P300) were identified with significant increase in amplitude occurred after treatment. EEG abnormalities were observed in 55% of patients which showed improvement in 35% after treatment. Positive correlation was identified before and after treatment between hemoglobin levels and MMSE (P=0.01, 0.05), total verbal (P=0.04) and performance (P=0.05, 0.04) IQ scores. Negative correlation was identified between before and after treatment between P300 latency and total IQ of WAIS-R (P=0.03, 0.008) and hemoglobin level (P=0.4, 0.01). Positive correlation was found before and after treatment between P300 amplitude and total IQ (P=0.028, 0.01) and serum iron (P=0.01, 0.001). In conclusion, IDA is a significant factor in cognitive performance in adult population, which can be partially reversed by treatment. PMID:18574611

  5. Thin film magnetic memory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, Gary Z.

    1989-06-01

    This invention is directed to a high density magnetic film memory storage device, and more particularly to such a memory storage device wherein the individual storage elements are patterned on a substrate using the intrinsic and structural anisotropies of the particular magnetic film, such that fringing fields about each storage element are eliminated. The first commercial random access nonvolatile magnetic memories were magnetic core systems in which circular magnetic ferrite cores were used as memory element, were arranged in large three-dimensional arrays, and were coupled to selected wire wraps for reading and writing.

  6. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  7. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  8. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  9. SafeMem: Exploiting ECC-Memory for Detecting Memory Leaks and Memory Corruption During Production Runs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Qin; Shan Lu; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Memory leaks and memory corruption are two major forms of software bugs that severely threaten system availabil- ity and security. According to the US-CERT Vulnerability Notes Database, 68% of all reported vulnerabilities in 2003 were caused by memory leaks or memory corruption. Dynamic monitoring tools, such as the state-of-the-art Purify, are commonly used to detect memory leaks and memory corruption.

  10. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    E-print Network

    Sagar, Harvey J.

    1991-01-01

    Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is ...

  11. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  12. Prospective Memory Development Through Childhood into Adolescence 

    E-print Network

    Bialek, Anna Katarzyna

    2009-07-03

    The present study looked at prospective memory development between 7-15 years of age (N=57). Past research has draw no coherent picture of prospective memory development due to variations in prospective memory tasks employed, motivation not being...

  13. Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

  14. Memory for Sentences: Implications for Human Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Donald J.; Harwood, David A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper evaluates associative theories of sentence memory, based on the model of J.R. Anderson and G.H. Bower. A model of Human Associative Memory (HAM) is generalized and defined, and alternative models incorporating configural information are presented. (CK)

  15. A memory system design framework: creating smart memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Firoozshahian; Alex Solomatnikov; Ofer Shacham; Zain Asgar; Stephen Richardson; Christos Kozyrakis; Mark Horowitz

    2009-01-01

    As CPU cores become building blocks, we see a great expansion in the types of on-chip memory systems proposed for CMPs. Unfortunately, designing the cache and protocol controllers to support these memory systems is complex, and their concurrency and latency characteristics significantly affect the performance of any CMP. To address this problem, this paper presents a microarchitecture framework for cache

  16. Mondrix: memory isolation for linux using mondriaan memory protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmett Witchel; Junghwan Rhee; Krste Asanovi?

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and an evaluation of Mondrix, a version of the Linux kernel with Mondriaan Memory Protection (MMP). MMP is a combination of hardware and software that provides efficient fine-grained memory protection between multiple protection domains sharing a linear address space. Mondrix uses MMP to enforce isolation between kernel modules which helps detect bugs, limits their damage,

  17. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  18. Investigation of Shape Memory Polymers and Their Hybrid Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Liang; C. A. Rogers; E. Malafeew

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a newly developed polymer, shape memory polyurethane (SMP), will be introduced. The shape memory polymer possesses the same basic shape memory effect and elasticity memory effect as shape memory alloys. Shape memory polymers can change their elastic modulus up to 500 times around their glass transition temperatures. Both the shape memory effect and the elasticity memory effect

  19. Targeting ischemic memory.

    PubMed

    Aras, Omer; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2007-02-01

    Long-chain free fatty acids and glucose account for the vast majority of ATP production in the heart. An alteration of fatty acid oxidation is considered to be a sensitive marker of ischemia and myocardial damage. Recently, several radiolabeled fatty acid analogs have been introduced to assess myocardial cellular function. The use of such analogs has enabled the analysis of cardiac metabolism and led to the identification of prior ischemic events, termed 'ischemic memory'. Such advances will find use in the clinical setting for the diagnosis and treatment of subclinical or progressive cardiovascular disorders, as in acute coronary syndrome, that often remain elusive with traditional imaging approaches. PMID:17134889

  20. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  1. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  2. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND FACULTY ASSOCIATION February 26, 2010 - August 31, 2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Article 1 FRAMEWORK

  3. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and LECTURERS' UNION OF MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND February 5, 2009 ­ August 31, 2012 #12;Table of Contents ARTICLE 1 ­ Preamble

  4. Can false memories spontaneously recover?

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Berko, Jeffrey R; Sahlin, Brooke; Yu, Yi-Lo; Colker, Jennifer M; Gottfried, David H

    2006-05-01

    Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should spontaneously recover. We found that after DRM lists were well learned and false recognition to critical words was substantially reduced by multiple study-test trials, those false memories spontaneously recovered when participants were either rushed or delayed on a retest. We attributed the reduction in false recognition over trials to a memory-editing process that suppresses false recognition as participants gradually learn which words were in the lists and which words, though similar, were not. Rushing or delaying the participants on a retest made it more difficult for them to edit their memory, and false memories spontaneously returned. PMID:16766445

  5. Inflammatory interference of memory formation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurty, Akshay T; Pepper, Marion

    2014-08-01

    CD8+ memory T cells are critical for immunity against intracellular pathogens. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that bystander infection can impact immune responses to co-infection or vaccination. A recent paper in Immunity demonstrates that persistent bystander inflammation can negatively impact CD8+ T cell effector to memory transition and protection from subsequent infection. PMID:25042362

  6. Memory Strategies for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reetz, Linda J.

    Seven memory strategies that can be taught to college students with learning disabilities or students who have not learned essential study skills are described: the method of loci, pegwords, keywords, rote rehearsal, chaining, clustering, and first letter mnemonics. To help college faculty provide direct instruction in the memory strategies, the…

  7. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  8. Memory model sensitive bytecode verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thuan Quang Huynh; Abhik Roychoudhury

    2007-01-01

    Modern concurrent programming languages like C# and Java have a programming language level memory model, which captures the set of all allowed behaviors of programs on any implementation platform — uni- or multi-processor. Such a memory model is typically weaker than Sequential Consistency and allows reordering of operations within a program thread. Therefore, programs verified correct by assuming Sequential Consistency

  9. Retrospective Memories of Racialized Experiences 

    E-print Network

    Price, Hannah M.

    2010-07-14

    RETROSPECTIVE MEMORIES OF RACIALIZED EXPERIENCES A Senior Scholars Thesis by HANNAH MARGARET PRICE Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR April 2010 Major: Sociology RETROSPECTIVE MEMORIES OF RACIALIZED EXPERIENCES A Senior Scholars Thesis by HANNAH MARGARET PRICE Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research...

  10. Memory, IQ and Examination Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilding, John; Valentine, Elizabeth; Marshall, Peter; Cook, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Explores individual differences in general memory ability and the relation to performance in a public examination, taken at age 15-16 years. Suggests that individual differences in memory ability account for between 10 and 20 percent of the variance in groups of above-average IQ. Includes references. (CMK)

  11. Turning Memory Development inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    These papers provide a useful progress report on how the mature and successful field of memory development is transcending traditional boundaries of populations, content, context, and design. Examining children's memory for distant as well as recent occurrences, for social interactions as well as individual experiences, for meaningful as well as…

  12. Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Christopher D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

  13. Self-Checking Memory Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M. W.; Rennels, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Memory-interface integrated circuit not only detects errors in data from other circuits but also detects errors within itself. Memory-interface chip encodes 16-bit words with Hamming code for single-error correction or double-error detection. Chip used in fault-tolerant computers under development by NASA.

  14. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  15. Disruption of Conditioned Drug Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chianfang G. Cherng; Lung Yu

    2009-01-01

    We first made a brief review on historical development of drug craving theories. A special emphasis was given on the proposal that conditioned drug memories can be a critical psychopathological basis to elicit compulsive drug taking, craving and subsequent relapse. We then discussed the different processes associated with drug learning and memory as well as recent findings pertaining to these

  16. Extended memory management under RTOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  17. The reality of repressed memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth F. Loftus

    1993-01-01

    Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that

  18. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  19. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. PMID:25592676

  20. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring. PMID:22292532

  1. Animal models of memory impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, M

    1997-01-01

    Memory impairment in the elderly resembles a mild temporal lobe dysfunction. Alterations in the hippocampal formation are also a probable basis for cognitive deficits in some animal models of ageing. For example, aged rats are impaired in hippocampal-dependent tests of spatial memory. Recent studies have revealed considerable structural integrity in the aged hippocampus, even in aged rats with the most impaired spatial memory. In contrast, atrophy/loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic transduction in hippocampus correlate with the severity of spatial memory impairment in aged rats. This evidence supports the longstanding view that age-related loss of memory has a cholinergic basis. In this context, it is somewhat surprising that the use of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin in young rats to further test this hypothesis has revealed normal spatial memory after removing septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons. Young rats with immunotoxic lesions, however, have other behavioural impairments in tests of attentional processing. These lines of research have implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of memory deficits in ageing and for selecting an optimal behavioural setting in which to examine therapies aimed at restoring neurobiological function. PMID:9415923

  2. Memory as Muse: An Argument for a Reconsideration of Memory as a Canon of Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Janine

    Although memory was one of the five canons of classical rhetoric, the more contemporary, narrower definition of memory as the training of the mind to remember certain things has eliminated memory as a useful rhetorical canon. However, teachers of writing who do regard memory highly, can redefine memory to restore it as one of the canons of…

  3. Working Memory and Schizophrenia 1 Running head: working memory and schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Park, Sohee

    Working Memory and Schizophrenia 1 Running head: working memory and schizophrenia Working memory impairments in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis Junghee Lee and Sohee Park Department of Psychology Vanderbilt.Park@vanderbilt.edu or Junghee.Lee@vanderbilt.edu #12;Working Memory and Schizophrenia 2 Abstract Working memory (WM) deficit

  4. Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: Concordant findings from fMRI

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Anthony

    Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: Concordant findings from fMRI and memory Lake City, UT 84143 Contributed by Larry R. Squire, April 4, 2006 We studied item and source memory with fMRI in healthy volun- teers and carried out a parallel study in memory-impaired patients

  5. Gifts in Memory of LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 James B. Abeltin `74 in memory of

    E-print Network

    Napier, Terrence

    Gifts in Memory of LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 James B. Abeltin `74 in memory of Roger K. McFillin `74 `04P James J. Addonizio `75 in memory of Roger K. McFillin `74 `04P Alan J. & Susan A. Fuirst Philanthropic Fund in memory of David J. Sielewicz `86 Betty W. Alderson in memory of James B. Hobbs Amaranth

  6. Event Understanding and Memory 1 Running head: Event Understanding and Memory

    E-print Network

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    Event Understanding and Memory 1 Running head: Event Understanding and Memory Event Understanding and Memory in Healthy Aging and Dementia of the Alzheimer Type Jeffrey M. Zacks, Nicole K. Speer, Jean M Understanding and Memory 2 Abstract Segmenting ongoing activity into events is important for later memory

  7. Working Memory Capacity and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Ros; José Miguel Latorre; Juan Pedro Serrano

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) performance of two healthy samples of younger and older adults and to analyse the relationship between overgeneral memory (OGM) and working memory executive processes (WMEP) using a structural equation modelling with latent variables. The AMT and sustained attention, short-term memory and working memory tasks were administered to

  8. A memory subsystem with comparator arrays for main memory database operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Miyazaki

    2006-01-01

    We propose hardware supported intelligent memory access schemes for high performance database operations. A comparator array is installed in a memory module to help database operations, which allows simple predicate matching to be processed in the memory to reduce traffic between the CPU and the main memory. In this paper, we evaluate the query processing performance using introduced memory access

  9. A durable and energy efficient main memory using phase change memory technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zhou; Bo Zhao; Jun Yang; Youtao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Using nonvolatile memories in memory hierarchy has been investigated to reduce its energy consumption because nonvolatile memories consume zero leakage power in memory cells. One of the difficulties is, however, that the endurance of most nonvolatile memory technologies is much shorter than the conventional SRAM and DRAM technology. This has limited its usage to only the low levels of a

  10. Identifying the root causes of memory bugs using corrupted memory location suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Jeffrey; Neelam Gupta; Rajiv Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We present a general approach for automatically isolat- ing the root causes of memory-related bugs in software. Our approach is based on the observation that most memory bugs involve uses of corrupted memory locations. By itera- tively suppressing (nullifying) the effects of these corrupted memory locations during program execution, our approach gradually isolates the root cause of a memory bug.

  11. Martensite Strain Memory in the Shape Memory Alloy Nickel-Titanium Under Mechanical Cycling

    E-print Network

    Daly, Samantha

    Martensite Strain Memory in the Shape Memory Alloy Nickel-Titanium Under Mechanical Cycling K. Kim that largely stabilize during the first loading cycle. Keywords Shape memory alloy. Nickel-Titanium . Nitinol . Cyclic . Pseudoelasticity. Strain memory Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of metallic

  12. Characterizing Application Memory Error Vulnerability to

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    -reliability memory (HRM) Store error-tolerant data in less-reliable lower-cost memory Store error-vulnerable data an application Observation 2: Data can be recovered by software ·Heterogeneous-Reliability Memory (HRM: Data can be recovered by software ·Heterogeneous-Reliability Memory (HRM) ·Evaluation 4 #12;Server

  13. Implementation techniques for main memory database systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

    1984-01-01

    With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

  14. Maximizing the Storage Capacity of Nonvolatile Memories

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Anxiao "Andrew"

    memories, phase-change memories, etc.). We derive its storage capacity, and analyze its performance on rewriting data. I. INTRODUCTION For nonvolatile memories (NVMs) ­ including flash mem- ories, phase-changeMaximizing the Storage Capacity of Nonvolatile Memories Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang Computer Science

  15. Slave Memories and Dynamic Storage Allocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Wilkes

    1965-01-01

    The use is discussed of a fast core memory of, say, 32000 words as a slave to a slower core memory of, say, one million words in such a way that in practical cases the effective access time is nearer that of the fast memory than that of the slow memory.

  16. Finding Memory Leaks in Java with JDeveloper

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    Finding Memory Leaks in Java with JDeveloper Benjamin Livshits Computer Science Department Stanford get rid of memory leaks such as those caused by use of the listener pattern. Contrary to the popular. In this article we look at how Oracle JDeveloper's memory profiler feature can be used to help find leaking memory

  17. An Integrated Theory of List Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Anderson; Dan Bothell; Christian Lebiere; Michael Matessa

    1998-01-01

    The ACT-R theory (Anderson, 1993; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) is applied to the list memory paradigms of serial recall, recognition memory, free recall, and implicit memory. List memory performance in ACT-R is determined by the level of activation of declarative chunks which encode that items occur in the list. This level of activation is in turn determined by amount of

  18. Analysis and Improvement of RTEMS Memory Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Li; Changhong Yin

    2009-01-01

    RTEMS uses the heap manager, the partition manager and the region manager to manage memory. A partition is a physically contiguous memory area divided into fixed-size buffers that can be dynamically allocated and deal located. A region provides facilities to dynamically allocate and free memory in variable sized units. RTEMS memory management is insecure because the data structure of managing

  19. Cascade Models of Synaptically Stored Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Fusi; Patrick J. Drew; L. F. Abbott

    2005-01-01

    Storing memories of ongoing, everyday experiences requires a high degree of plasticity, but retaining these memories demands protection against changes induced by further activity and experience. Models in which memories are stored through switch-like tran-sitions in synaptic efficacy are good at storing but bad at retaining memories if these transitions are likely, and they are poor at storage but good

  20. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory

  1. Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Brice A; Bainbridge, Wilma A; Chun, Marvin M

    2012-03-01

    Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to "see" competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was the following: (1) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories; (2) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance; and (3) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex--even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

  2. Dopamine and adaptive memory Daphna Shohamy1*

    E-print Network

    Adcock, R. Alison

    to as `adaptive memory'. Understand- ing adaptive memory at biological and psychological levels helps to resolveDopamine and adaptive memory Daphna Shohamy1* and R. Alison Adcock2* 1 Department of Psychology Research Center, Duke University, Box 90999, Durham, NC 27708, USA Memory is essential to adaptive behavior

  3. Nanotechnology enables a new memory growth model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-gyu Hwang

    2003-01-01

    As we enter the nanotechnology era, a big shift in paradigm comes to the memory industry. The traditional computer industry for dynamic RAM is expected to mature its memory-bit consumption with a relatively low growth rate. Meanwhile, the memory consumption and high-density memory usage in mobile handsets and digital consumer applications will grow very fast. For these new applications, NAND

  4. A Temporal Ratio Model of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Neath, Ian; Chater, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A model of memory retrieval is described. The model embodies four main claims: (a) temporal memory--traces of items are represented in memory partly in terms of their temporal distance from the present; (b) scale-similarity--similar mechanisms govern retrieval from memory over many different timescales; (c) local distinctiveness--performance on a…

  5. Armstrong remembered at memorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Neil Armstrong, who died on 25 August, was recognized during a 13 September memorial service as a courageous, humble, and reluctant hero who in 1969 became the first person to step onto the Moon. The service, held at the National Cathedral in Washington, D. C., included remembrances from astronauts and friends, an excerpt from President John Kennedy's 1962 “We choose to go to the Moon” speech, and a somber rendition of the jazz standard “Fly Me to the Moon.” NASA administrator Charles Bolden said that Armstrong, commander of NASA's Apollo 11 mission, “left a foundation for the future and paved the way for future American explorers to be first to step foot on Mars or another planet. Today, let us recommit ourselves to this grand challenge in honor of the man who first demonstrated it was possible to reach new worlds—and whose life demonstrated the quiet resolve and determination that makes every new, more difficult step into space possible.”

  6. Reversible shape memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Zhou, Jing; White, Sarah; Ashby, Valerie

    2012-02-01

    An ``Achilles' heel'' of shape memory materials is that shape transformations triggered by an external stimulus are usually irreversible. Here we present a new concept of reversible transitions between two well-defined shapes by controlling hierarchic crystallization of a dual-network elastomer. The reversibility was demonstrated for different types of shape transformations including rod bending, winding of a helical coil, and widening an aperture. The distinct feature of the reversible shape alterations is that both counter-shapes are infinitely stable at a temperature of exploitation. Shape reversibility is highly desirable property in many practical applications such as non-surgical removal of a previously inserted catheter and handfree wrapping up of an earlier unraveled solar sail on a space shuttle.

  7. Evolution of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit “system 2” forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  8. Memory and Aging Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Memory and Aging Center at the University of California, San Francisco is dedicated to providing care for adults with cognitive problems and age-related diseases. The center conducts research on diseases, their treatment, and the brain. The â??Educationâ?ť section has a variety of resources for patients and their families, and health care professionals. Topics in this section cover some of the cognitive and movement disorders affecting older adults, and treatment information. In the â??Educationâ?ť section, special topics such as â??Emotions,â?ť â??Speech & Language,â?ť and â??Social Behavior & Personalityâ?ť are also covered. Links to outside information sources are also provided in the â??Resourcesâ?ť section.

  9. Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories

    PubMed Central

    Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  10. Shape memory metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dworak, T.D.

    1993-09-01

    The ability to define a manufacturing process to form, heat-treat, and join parts made of nickel-titanium and/or copper-zinc-aluminum shape memory alloys was investigated. The specific emphasis was to define a process that would produce shape memory alloy parts in the configuration of helical coils emulating the appearance of compression springs. In addition, the mechanical strength of the finished parts along with the development of a electrical lead attachment method using shape memory alloy wire was investigated.

  11. Ultralow-Voltage Memory Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoo Itoh

    The key design issues for ultralow-voltage (0.5–2 V) memory circuits are reviewed in terms of stable memory-cell operation,\\u000a subthreshold current reduction, suppression of or compensation for design-parameter variations, and a single power supply\\u000a and its standardization. The results obtained are as follows. (1) In DRAMs, coupled with high signal-to-noise-ratio memory-cell\\u000a designs, the gate-source offset driving schemes suppress the cell-transistor subthreshold

  12. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  13. Cognitive neuroscience of false memory: the role of gist memory 

    E-print Network

    Bellamy, Katarina Jane

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of gist memory and gist representation in the formation of false recognition, specifically in the Deese, Roediger and McDermott Paradigm. We found that normal individuals displayed a range ...

  14. Is the WAIS-R an Acceptable Test for the Elderly? Opinions of Examinees 75 Years and Older.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolo, Anthony M.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    Older adults (n=224) completed Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and questionnaire eliciting information about subjects' perceptions of WAIS-R across five categories. Most subjects experienced WAIS-R as interesting, challenging, motivating, and within their endurance. Picture Arrangement and Block Design were only two subtests…

  15. The Validity of Scores on the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the factor structure of the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) (D. Jackson, 1984) and the overlap between the MAB and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Revised (WAIS-R) using a sample of 85 adults. Results show conditions under which the MAB is a suitable alternative to the MAB. The MAB is not suitable when detailed information…

  16. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  17. Evaluating competing models of the relationship between inspection time and psychometric intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-Eric Gustafsson

    1998-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test models of the relationship between inspection time (IT) and psychometric measures of intelligence (the eleven subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised). The sample consisted of 134 healthy adults and was broadly representative of the adult United Kingdom population in terms of the distributions of age and social class. A Nested Factors

  18. The Henmon-Nelson and Slosson Tests as Predictors of WAIS-R IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klett, William G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared the abilities of the most recent editions of the Henmon-Nelson and the Slosson tests to estimate Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) scaled scores and intelligence quotients. The Henmon-Nelson's validity coefficients were higher than their counterparts for the Slosson, but the Slosson had a higher ceiling and a lower floor.…

  19. Prediction of Future Achievement by the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery and the GISC-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Pehl, Jeanmarie

    1988-01-01

    Explored the relationship between third-grade children's (N=45) performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (WJ) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised (WISC-R) and subsequent ninth-grade reading and math achievement. Found significant correlations between third-grade WISC-R and WJ intellectual/achievement scores and…

  20. Predicting WAIS-R Scores from the Shipley Institute of Living Scale in a Homogeneous Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzlaff, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Adults were administered the Shipley Institute of Living Scale (SILS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) as a validation study of previously published procedures for estimating WAIS-R Full Scale intelligence quotients from SILS Vocabulary and Abstraction Scores. Correlations were low and prediction was poor. Partial support…

  1. Spatial memory: are lizards really deficient?

    PubMed Central

    LaDage, L. D.; Roth, T. C.; Cerjanic, A. M.; Sinervo, B.; Pravosudov, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    In many animals, behaviours such as territoriality, mate guarding, navigation and food acquisition rely heavily on spatial memory abilities; this has been demonstrated in diverse taxa, from invertebrates to mammals. However, spatial memory ability in squamate reptiles has been seen as possible, at best, or non-existent, at worst. Of the few previous studies testing for spatial memory in squamates, some have found no evidence of spatial memory while two studies have found evidence of spatial memory in snakes, but have been criticized based on methodological issues. We used the Barnes maze, a common paradigm to test spatial memory abilities in mammals, to test for spatial memory abilities in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). We found the existence of spatial memory in this species using this spatial task. Thus, our study supports the existence of spatial memory in this squamate reptile species and seeks to parsimoniously align this species with the diverse taxa that demonstrate spatial memory ability. PMID:22933038

  2. Storage Techniques in Flash Memories and Phase-change Memories 

    E-print Network

    Li, Hao

    2010-10-12

    Major Subject: Computer Engineering STORAGE TECHNIQUES IN FLASH MEMORIES AND PHASE-CHANGE MEMORIES A Dissertation by HAO LI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Anxiao Jiang Committee Members, Jianer Chen Jennifer Welch Alexander Sprintson Head of Department, Valerie E. Taylor August 2010 Major Subject: Computer Engineering iii ABSTRACT Storage Techniques...

  3. Implicit memory bias, explicit memory bias, and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Eysenck; Angela Byrne

    1994-01-01

    Normals high, medium, and low in trait anxiety performed two encoding tasks (one predominantly data-driven and the other conceptually driven) on threat-related and neutral words, followed by tests of word completion, cued recall, and free recall. Memory performance indicated the existence of negative memory biases in the high trait-anxious group, but it was generally not possible to decide whether the

  4. Resistive Memory Switching of Films for a Nonvolatile Memory Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Lv; M. Yin; X. F. Fu; Y. L. Song; L. Tang; P. Zhou; C. H. Zhao; T. A. Tang; B. A. Chen; Y. Y. Lin

    2008-01-01

    Poly crystalline CuxO films produced by plasma oxidation are investigated for nonvolatile memory applications. Reversible bistable resistive switching from a high-resistance state to a low-resistance state, and vice versa, is observed in an integrated Al\\/CuxO\\/Cu structure under voltage sweeping. More than 3000 repetitive cycles are observed in 180-mum memory devices with an on\\/off ratio of ten times. Data testing shows

  5. Evaluating the memory overhead required for COMA architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Truman Joe; John L. Hennessy

    1994-01-01

    Cache only memory architectures (COMA) have an inherent memory overhead due to the organization of main memory as a large cache called an attraction memory. This overhead consists of memory left unallocated for performance reasons as well as additional physical memory required due to the cache organization of memory. In this work, we examine the effect of data reshuffling and

  6. Handling "Out of Memory" Errors John Tang Boyland

    E-print Network

    Boyland, John Tang

    Handling "Out of Memory" Errors John Tang Boyland ECOOP EHWS, July 25, 2005 #12;Handling "Out Of Memory" Errors H Current advice for handling OutOfMemoryError ­ Use to find memory limits. ­ Don't! There-thread memory restrictions. ECOOP EHWS Handling OutOfMemoryError 1 #12;An OutOfMemoryError occurs ? Exception

  7. Main Memory Database Systems: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Garcia-molina; Kenneth Salem

    1992-01-01

    Abstract-Memory resident database systems (MMDB’s) store their data,in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular,characteristics,of disk,storage,mechanisms.,Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper,surveys,the major memory residence optimizations and briefly discusses some of the memory resident

  8. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY A. WRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural\\/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus

  9. Memory availability and referential access.

    PubMed

    Johns, Clinton L; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra L; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent's status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system. PMID:24443621

  10. Transactive memory in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Wegner, D M; Erber, R; Raymond, P

    1991-12-01

    Memory performance of 118 individuals who had been in close dating relationships for at least 3 months was studied. For a memory task ostensibly to be performed by pairs, some Ss were paired with their partners and some were paired with an opposite-sex partner from another couple. For some pairs a memory structure was assigned (e.g., 1 partner should remember food items, another should remember history items, etc.), whereas for others no structure was mentioned. Pairs studied together without communication, and recall was tested in individuals. Memory performance of the natural pairs was better than that of impromptu pairs without assigned structure, whereas the performance of natural pairs was inferior to that of impromptu pairs when structure was assigned. PMID:1774630

  11. Philip C. Hamm Memorial Lecture

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    . Hamm Memorial Lectureship in the Plant Sciences was established in 1980 by a grant from Monsanto positions with Monsanto before his appointment as Science Fellow in 1959 and Distinguished Science Fellow

  12. Episodic memory: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  13. Vine Street 1. Memorial Stadium

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    10th Street r Street Vine Street 1. Memorial Stadium 2. Coliseum/rec Center 3. Mabel Lee Hall 4. nebraska Union 11. Architecture Hall 12. Lied Center 13. Pound Hall 14. Vine Street Fields 15. 14th & Avery

  14. 100 Memorial ResidenceInn

    E-print Network

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    W89 Technology Square University Park 100 Memorial Drive Marriott Hotel ResidenceInn byM arriott 70 House EG&G Education Center Sloan Lab MIT Police McNair Bldg Whitehead Institute Indoor Tennis Facility

  15. 1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

  16. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  17. A Memorial to a President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Nash

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the plan for a living memorial to commemorate Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States: a 15-acre grove with hike and bike paths, white pine trees, rhododendrons, and other flowering shrubs. (JA)

  18. INGALLS MEMORIAL HOSPITAL CONFIDENTIALITY STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    INGALLS MEMORIAL HOSPITAL CONFIDENTIALITY STATEMENT To be completed by all students, residents Confidentiality Statement to the Medical Staff Office. Affiliation Period: ____________, 20 the confidentiality of any individually identifiable health information held or transmitted in any form or media

  19. A memory advantage for property.

    PubMed

    DeScioli, Peter; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2015-01-01

    People's access to resources depends on their status as the owner of particular items. To respect property, people need to remember who owns which objects. We test the hypothesis that people possess enhanced memory for ownership relations compared to unrelated objects. Participants viewed a sequence of 10 person-object pairs before completing a surprise associative memory test in which they matched each person with the previously paired object. We varied the description of the person-object pairs in the instructions. Across three experiments, participants showed better recall when the person was described as the owner of the object compared to being unrelated. Furthermore, memory for property was better than a physical relation (bumping), whereas it did not differ from mental relations (wanting and thinking). These patterns were observed both for memory of items (Experiments 1 and 2) and perceptual details (Experiment 3). We discuss implications for how people remember other people's property. PMID:25986536

  20. The Generation Effect and Memory

    E-print Network

    Rosner, Zachary Alexander

    2012-01-01

    generation effect: Further tests of the lexical activation hypothesis.generation effect: Some tests of the lexical activation hypothesis.generation effect for item memory was the cognitive effort hypothesis (

  1. Immunological memory to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Slifka, Mark K

    2004-08-01

    Immunological memory is defined by the ability of a host to remember a past encounter with a specific pathogen and to respond to it in an effective manner upon re-exposure. How long immunological memory can be maintained in the absence of re-infection continues to be a subject of great controversy. Recent studies on immunity following smallpox vaccination demonstrate that T-cell memory declines steadily with a half-life of 8-15 years, whereas antiviral antibody responses are maintained for up to 75 years without appreciable decline. By combining recent advances in quantitative immunology with historical accounts of protection against smallpox dating back to the time of Edward Jenner, we are gaining a better understanding of the duration and magnitude of immunological memory and how it relates to protective immunity. PMID:15245737

  2. Planning, Memory, and Decision Making

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Robert

    9 Planning, Memory, and Decision Making Amanda Seed, Nicola Clayton, Peter Carruthers, Anthony to delay consumption of an immediately available green apple until it is ripe but not so long that it gets

  3. Exploring the interaction between working memory and long-term memory: Evidence for the workspace model 

    E-print Network

    van der Meulen, Marian

    There is a large range of models of working memory, each with different scopes and emphases. Current interest focuses strongly on the interaction of working memory with long-term memory, as it has become clear that models ...

  4. Shape-Memory Polymer Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samy A. Madbouly; Andreas Lendlein

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The development of shape-memory polymer composites (SMPCs) enables high recovery stress levels as well as novel functions\\u000a such as electrical conductivity, magnetism, and biofunctionality. In this review chapter the substantial enhancement in mechanical\\u000a properties of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) by incorporating small amounts of stiff fillers will be highlighted exemplarily\\u000a for clay and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). Three different functions resulting

  5. Magnetically driven shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, Alexandre

    2002-04-01

    Magnetically driven shape memory alloys experience the martensitic transformation while being in a ferromagnetic state. Two-way shape memory can be achieved through the shift of martensite-austenite transition, and a giant magnetostriction could be obtained through the redistribution of martensitic variants under magnetic field. The realization of these effects can constitute grounds for the development of new technologies in medicine and industry.

  6. Multiple memory systems and extinction 

    E-print Network

    Gabriele, Amanda

    2005-08-29

    anterograde amnesia. Although H.M. was unable to form new declarative memories, he could still learn procedural tasks without any recollection of doing so (Scoville & Milner, 1957). This striking difference between impairment of conscious recollection (or... of H.M. (Scoville & Milner, 1957). Similarly, Parkinson?s patients with neostriatal damage show impairments in a weather-predicting probabilistic classification task but were able to accurately answer a questionnaire based on declarative memories...

  7. Working Memory and the Brain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2012-02-01

    Press release - Scientists have found evidence that visual working memory follows a more general pattern of brain activity than what researchers have shown with initial visual activity, instead activating a more diffuse area in the front of the brain for all categories of visual stimuli. The study is entitled "Mapping Brain Activation and Information During Category-Specific Visual Working Memory." It appears in the Articles in PresS section of the Journal of Neurophysiology, published by the American Physiological Society.

  8. Quantum memory in quantum cryptography

    E-print Network

    Tal Mor

    1999-06-21

    [Shortened abstract:] This thesis investigates the importance of quantum memory in quantum cryptography, concentrating on quantum key distribution schemes. In the hands of an eavesdropper -- a quantum memory is a powerful tool, putting in question the security of quantum cryptography; Classical privacy amplification techniques, used to prove security against less powerful eavesdroppers, might not be effective when the eavesdropper can keep quantum states for a long time. In this work we suggest a possible direction for approaching this problem. We define strong attacks of this type, and show security against them, suggesting that quantum cryptography is secure. We start with a complete analysis regarding the information about a parity bit (since parity bits are used for privacy amplification). We use the results regarding the information on parity bits to prove security against very strong eavesdropping attacks, which uses quantum memories and all classical data (including error correction codes) to attack the final key directly. In the hands of the legitimate users, a quantum memory is also a useful tool. We suggest a new type of quantum key distribution scheme where quantum memories are used instead of quantum channels. This scheme is especially adequate for networks of many users. The use of quantum memory also allows reducing the error rate to improve large scale quantum cryptography, and to enable the legitimate users to work with reasonable error rate.

  9. Shape-memory materials and hybrid composites for smart systems: Part I Shape-memory materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. G. Wei; R. Sandstroröm; S. Miyazaki

    1998-01-01

    A review is presented of the current research and development of shape-memory materials, including shape-memory alloys, shape-memory ceramics and shape-memory polymers. The shape-memory materials exhibit some novel performances, such as sensoring (thermal, stress or field), large-stroke actuation, high damping, adaptive responses, shape memory and superelasticity capability, which can be utilized in various engineering approaches to smart systems. Based on an

  10. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies.

    PubMed

    Meena, Jagan Singh; Sze, Simon Min; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new class of memory technologies and scaling of scientific procedures based on an investigation of recent progress in advanced Flash memory devices. PMID:25278820

  11. Memories of AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.

    2013-06-01

    I had the good fortune to be a student of A. B. Migdal - AB, as we called him in person or in his absence - and to work in the sector he headed at the Kurchatov Institute, along with his other students and my friends, including Vitya Galitsky, Spartak Belyayev and Tolya Larkin. I was especially close with AB in the second half of the 1950s, the years most important for my formation, and AB's contribution to this formation was very great. To this day, I've often quoted AB on various occasions, as it's hard to put things better or more precisely than he did; I tell friends stories heard from AB, because these stories enhance life as AB himself enhanced it; my daughter is named Tanya after AB's wife Tatyana Lvovna, and so on. In what follows, I'll recount a few episodes in my life in which AB played an important or decisive role, and then will share some other memories of AB...

  12. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  13. Montana Memory Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Montana Memory Project is a digitized collection of materials related to the cultural heritage and government of Montana. The website represents an intensive collaboration between libraries, museums, archives, and institutions, many of which are still adding materials to the site. The purpose of the site is to "serve as a resource for education, business, pleasure and lifelong learning." On the homepage, visitors will find a brief description of each of the features of the site, including the "Browse", "Advanced Search", "Preferences", and "My Favorites" features of the site. As the amount of information available on the site can be daunting, visitors would be wise to take a look at the easy-to-read "Help" link, to find assistance for such tasks as "Viewing Results", "Changing Preferences", and "Viewing Compound Objects". There are over 50 collections to browse, or search through individually. The collections range from the "Livingston High School Annuals", to the "Montana Indian Law Portal" to the "Parmly Billings Library Historic Collection".

  14. Central Florida Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Florida Memory project was started in 2002 by The University of Central Florida Library, The Orange County Regional History Center, and The Orange County Library System. The intent of the project is "to provide an online platform and focal point for gathering, preserving, and disseminating the documents, artifacts, and stories of the history of Central Florida." Over the past few years, the project has been awarded with additional funding grants from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Currently, the project site contains over 80,000 images, along with maps, plans, and other documents. Visitors to the homepage will find three primary sections of note: "Collection", "Share", and "Learn". In the "Collection" area, visitors can make their way through postcards, maps, and the "most recent" additions to the site. For people looking for a more organized experience, there's the "Learn" area. Here they can find thematic collections like "Dreams and Schemes", "Roads, Rivers and Rails", and "Critters, Crackers and Cottages". For those looking for a sample search, words like "Deland", "Stetson University", "Orlando", and "pineapple" will return a host of compelling items.

  15. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems. PMID:24702453

  16. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value, between the positive and negative FFET saturation values. This signal value would represent a numerical value of interest corresponding to multiple bits: for example, if the memory circuit were designed to distinguish among 16 different analog values, then each cell could store 4 bits. Simultaneously with writing the signal value in the storage FFET, a negative saturation signal value would be stored in the control FFET. The decay of this control-FFET signal from the saturation value would serve as a model of the decay, for use in regenerating the numerical value of interest from its decaying analog signal value. The memory circuit would include addressing, reading, and writing circuitry that would have features in common with the corresponding parts of other memory circuits, but would also have several distinctive features. The writing circuitry would include a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); the reading circuitry would include an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For writing a numerical value of interest in a given cell, that cell would be addressed, the saturation value would be written in the control FFET in that cell, and the non-saturation analog value representing the numerical value of interest would be generated by use of the DAC and stored in the storage FFET in that cell. For reading the numerical value of interest stored in a given cell, the cell would be addressed, the ADC would convert the decaying control and storage analog signal values to digital values, and an associated fast digital processing circuit would regenerate the numerical value from digital values.

  17. Pseudo-orthogonalization of memory patterns for associative memory.

    PubMed

    Oku, Makito; Makino, Takaki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-11-01

    A new method for improving the storage capacity of associative memory models on a neural network is proposed. The storage capacity of the network increases in proportion to the network size in the case of random patterns, but, in general, the capacity suffers from correlation among memory patterns. Numerous solutions to this problem have been proposed so far, but their high computational cost limits their scalability. In this paper, we propose a novel and simple solution that is locally computable without any iteration. Our method involves XNOR masking of the original memory patterns with random patterns, and the masked patterns and masks are concatenated. The resulting decorrelated patterns allow higher storage capacity at the cost of the pattern length. Furthermore, the increase in the pattern length can be reduced through blockwise masking, which results in a small amount of capacity loss. Movie replay and image recognition are presented as examples to demonstrate the scalability of the proposed method. PMID:24808619

  18. Shape memory alloys. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films.

    PubMed

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-29

    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle. PMID:26023135

  19. Role of the hippocampus in event memory in the rat 

    E-print Network

    Langston, Rosamund Fay

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the role of the hippocampus in declarative memory through the development of animal behavioural models of episodic memory for laboratory rats. Episodic memory- memory for unique events or ...

  20. Dynamics of auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions. PMID:26029146

  1. The history of memory arts.

    PubMed

    Patten, B M

    1990-02-01

    Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist. PMID:2405298

  2. Dynamics of auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions. PMID:26029146

  3. The Molecular Basis of Memory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (NA = 6 × 1023). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson’s disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of “synaptic plasticity” affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  4. Memory and self-neuroscientific landscapes.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Relations between memory and the self are framed from a number of perspectives-developmental aspects, forms of memory, interrelations between memory and the brain, and interactions between the environment and memory. The self is seen as dividable into more rudimentary and more advanced aspects. Special emphasis is laid on memory systems and within them on episodic autobiographical memory which is seen as a pure human form of memory that is dependent on a proper ontogenetic development and shaped by the social environment, including culture. Self and episodic autobiographical memory are seen as interlocked in their development and later manifestation. Aside from content-based aspects of memory, time-based aspects are seen along two lines-the division between short-term and long-term memory and anterograde-future-oriented-and retrograde-past-oriented memory. The state dependency of episodic autobiographical is stressed and implications of it-for example, with respect to the occurrence of false memories and forensic aspects-are outlined. For the brain level, structural networks for encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval are discussed both by referring to patient data and to data obtained in normal participants with functional brain imaging methods. It is elaborated why descriptions from patients with functional or dissociative amnesia are particularly apt to demonstrate the facets in which memory, self, and personal temporality are interwoven. PMID:24967303

  5. Habitat stability, predation risk and ‘memory syndromes’

    PubMed Central

    Dalesman, S.; Rendle, A.; Dall, S.R.X.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits (‘memory syndrome’) related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population. PMID:26013966

  6. Habitat stability, predation risk and 'memory syndromes'.

    PubMed

    Dalesman, S; Rendle, A; Dall, S R X

    2015-01-01

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits ('memory syndrome') related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population. PMID:26013966

  7. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    PubMed Central

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naďve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear conditioning training in rats. Fear conditioning had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory but specifically impaired its extinction. Extinguished fear memory, after fear extinction training, had no effect on future CTA memory extinction. Fear conditioning had no effect on CTA memory extinction if CTA memory was formed before fear conditioning. Conditioned taste aversion had no effect on fear conditioning memory extinction. We conclude that active cued fear conditioning memory can affect specifically the extinction, but not the formation, of future different memory. PMID:25324744

  8. Persistent fear of aftershocks, impairment of working memory, and acute stress disorder predict post-traumatic stress disorder: 6-month follow-up of help seekers following the L'Aquila earthquake.

    PubMed

    Roncone, Rita; Giusti, Laura; Mazza, Monica; Bianchini, Valeria; Ussorio, Donatella; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our 6-month follow-up study was to assess predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals seeking treatment at the General Hospital Psychiatric Unit within the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake. Clinical, trauma-related and neurocognitive variables were considered. At the 6-month follow-up, 91 (74.5%) out of 122 subjects were re-assessed and administered the Impact of Events Scale-revised (IES-R) for the detection of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. Within 4 weeks following the earthquake, patients were assessed with a checklist of traumatic-event-related variables, along with the Stanford Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire (SASDQ) for the detection of ASD, with a short battery on working (Wechler Memory Scale-R, Digit Forward and Backward) and verbal memory (subtest of Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MODA). A statistically significant higher proportion of subjects affected by 'partial' ASD showed a PTSD diagnosis (80.6%, N?=?29) compared to not diagnosed subjects (40%, N?=?22) and a PTSD diagnosis was shown by all the 4 subjects (4.4%) affected by 'full' ASD at the entry in the study. At the 6-month follow-up 56% of the sample could be considered affected by PTSD on the IES-R scale. The results of the logistic regression analysis on our selected predictors indicated that the persistent fear of aftershocks seemed to increase by over 57 times the likelihood of positive estimate of PTSD, followed by impairment of working memory backward (OR 48.2), and having being diagnosed as ASD case in the first 4 week after the earthquake (OR 17.4). This study underlines the importance of identifying PTSD predictors, in order to planning early treatment interventions after natural disasters. PMID:24324929

  9. Hippocampal ripples and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Girardeau, Gabrielle; Zugaro, Michaël

    2011-06-01

    During slow wave sleep and quiet wakefulness, the hippocampus generates high frequency field oscillations (ripples) during which pyramidal neurons replay previous waking activity in a temporally compressed manner. As a result, reactivated firing patterns occur within shorter time windows propitious for synaptic plasticity within the hippocampal network and in downstream neocortical structures. This is consistent with the long-held view that ripples participate in strengthening and reorganizing memory traces, possibly by mediating information transfer to neocortical areas. Recent studies have confirmed that ripples and associated neuronal reactivations play a causal role in memory consolidation during sleep and rest. However, further research will be necessary to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms of memory consolidation, in particular the selection of reactivated assemblies, and the functional specificity of awake ripples. PMID:21371881

  10. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals. PMID:21255024

  11. Novelty's effect on memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning. PMID:26005196

  12. Remote memory deficits in transient epileptic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Milton, Fraser; Muhlert, Nils; Pindus, Dominika M; Butler, Christopher R; Kapur, Narinder; Graham, Kim S; Zeman, Adam Z J

    2010-05-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia is a form of temporal lobe epilepsy in which sufferers often complain of irretrievable loss of remote memories. We used a broad range of memory tests to clarify the extent and nature of the remote memory deficits in patients with transient epileptic amnesia. Performance on standard tests of anterograde memory was normal. In contrast, there was a severe impairment of memory for autobiographical events extending across the entire lifespan, providing evidence for the occurrence of 'focal retrograde amnesia' in transient epileptic amnesia. There was a milder impairment of personal semantic memory, most pronounced for midlife years. There were limited deficits of public semantic memory for recent decades. These results may reflect subtle structural pathology in the medial temporal lobes or the effects of the propagation of epileptiform activity through the network of brain regions responsible for long-term memory, or a combination of these two mechanisms. PMID:20360051

  13. Hardware support for unbounded transactional memory

    E-print Network

    Lie, Sean, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, I propose a design for hardware transactional memory where the transaction size is not bounded by a specialized hardware buffer such as a cache. I describe an unbounded transactional memory system called ...

  14. Increasing and Detecting Memory Address Congruence

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Samuel

    A static memory reference exhibits a unique property when its dynamic memory addresses are congruent with respect to some non-trivial modulus. Extraction of this congruence information at compile-time enables new classes ...

  15. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and NEWFOUNDLAND ASSOCIATION) "Employer" shall mean the Memorial University of Newfoundland. (b) AAssociation or Union@ shall mean the Newfoundland and Labrador Association of Public and Private Employees. (c) "Bargaining Unit" shall mean

  16. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and NEWFOUNDLAND ASSOCIATION mean the Newfoundland Association of Public Employees. (b) "Bargaining Unit" shall mean the bargaining. (f) "Employer" shall mean the Memorial University of Newfoundland. #12;2 (g) "Gender" shall mean

  17. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and NEWFOUNDLAND ASSOCIATION" or "Union" shall mean the Newfoundland Association of Public and Private Employees. (b) "Bargaining Unit the Memorial University of Newfoundland. (h) "Layoff" shall mean a temporary cessation of employment because

  18. Program Transformations in Weak Memory Models 

    E-print Network

    Sevcik, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the validity of common optimisations on multi-threaded programs in two memory models—the DRF guarantee and the Java Memory Model. Unlike in the single-threaded world, even simple program transformations, such ...

  19. MEMORY SUBSYSTEMS IN HIGH-END ROUTERS

    E-print Network

    Hamdi, Mounir

    SUBSYSTEMS IN HIGH-END ROUTERS ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... AS INTERNET ROUTERS SCALE TO SUPPORT NEXT-GENERATION NETWORKS, THEIR MEMORY SUBSYSTEMS MUST ALSO SCALE routers, where memory size and latency significantly impact the design of high-end routers. First

  20. Working memory: a multi-component model 

    E-print Network

    Franzoi, Julia

    2010-11-21

    Previous studies have reported that combining two memory tasks or varying the level of cognitive demand in a task does not cause disruption in healthy adults’ performance. To examine whether a dual memory task would be more sensitive...

  1. Memory, Abuse, and Science: Questioning Claims About the False Memory Syndrome Epidemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Pope

    1996-01-01

    Careful assessment of purported scientific discoveries and the resulting interpretations is a responsibility of every scientist. The area of memory, particularly memory for abuse, has recently seen new, highly publicized claims. These include the proposal of a new diagnostic category, the false memory syndrome; claims about the ease with which extensive autobiographical memories can be implanted; and estimates of the

  2. Towards Phase Change Memory as a Secure Main Memory Andr Seznec

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards Phase Change Memory as a Secure Main Memory André Seznec Centre de Recherche INRIA Rennes for designing main memory systems. Unfortunately PCM technology suf- fers from a limited write endurance cells. In this paper, we propose the design of a secure PCM- based main memory that would

  3. Detecting and Eliminating Memory Leaks Using Cyclic Memory Huu Hai Nguyen and Martin Rinard

    E-print Network

    Rinard, Martin

    Detecting and Eliminating Memory Leaks Using Cyclic Memory Allocation Huu Hai Nguyen and Martin and eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic mem­ ory allocation. This technique observes the execution the site grows above m throughout the com­ putation, there is a memory leak at that site. To eliminate

  4. Detecting and Eliminating Memory Leaks Using Cyclic Memory Huu Hai Nguyen and Martin Rinard

    E-print Network

    Rinard, Martin

    Detecting and Eliminating Memory Leaks Using Cyclic Memory Allocation Huu Hai Nguyen and Martin and eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic mem- ory allocation. This technique observes the execution the site grows above throughout the com- putation, there is a memory leak at that site. To eliminate

  5. Stress impairs consolidation of recognition memory after blocking drug memory reconsolidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojie Zhao; Yang Li; Tao Peng; Ronald R. Seese; Zhenyuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    When a consolidated memory is retrieved, it returns to a vulnerable state. To persist it must undergo another process, called memory reconsolidation. It has been demonstrated that disrupting the reconsolidation of a drug-specific memory is a powerful method for intervention in drug addiction. More specifically, previous studies suggested that certain types of stress can successfully disrupt reconsolidation of drug memories.

  6. Micromechanical prediction of the two-way shape memory effect in shape memory alloy composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuval Freed; Jacob Aboudi

    2009-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect in monolithic shape memory alloys has been widely investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the present study, this effect is analyzed for shape memory alloy composites by employing a micromechanical model. To this end, the responses of polymeric matrix and metal matrix unidirectional composites with embedded shape memory alloy fibers are determined. For the polymeric

  7. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski, Zelinski,…

  8. Practicing What Is Preached: Self-Reflections on Memory in a Memory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    To apply several principles of memory covered in a first-year university memory course, I developed a series of one-page self-reflection papers on memory that require students to engage with the material in a meaningful way. These short papers cover topics related to memory, and the assignment itself applies these same principles, reinforcing…

  9. Effect of Negative Emotional Content on Working Memory and Long-Term Memory

    E-print Network

    Corkin, Suzanne

    Effect of Negative Emotional Content on Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Elizabeth A. Kensinger and Suzanne Corkin Massachusetts Institute of Technology In long-term memory, negative information is better remembered than neutral information. Differences in processes important to working memory may contribute

  10. A Memory Hierarchical Layer Assigning and Prefetching Technique to Overcome the Memory Performance/Energy Bottleneck

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Memory Hierarchical Layer Assigning and Prefetching Technique to Overcome the Memory Performance thanail@ee.duth.gr Abstract The memory subsystem has always been a bottleneck in performance as well as significant power contributor in memory intensive applications. Many researchers have pre- sented multi

  11. A Partial Memory Protection Scheme for Higher Effective Yield of Embedded Memory for Video Data

    E-print Network

    Eltawil, Ahmed

    A Partial Memory Protection Scheme for Higher Effective Yield of Embedded Memory for Video Data the on-chip embedded memory will occupy most of the silicon real estate. As the technology proceeds into very deep submicron, the yield of SoCs will drop sharply mainly because of the on-chip memory failure

  12. Brain&oscillations&mediate&memory&suppression&1! Running&Title:&BRAIN&OSCILLATIONS&MEDIATE&MEMORY&SUPPRESSION&

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Brain&oscillations&mediate&memory&suppression&1! & ! Running&Title:&BRAIN&OSCILLATIONS&MEDIATE&MEMORY&SUPPRESSION& & & Brain&oscillations&mediate&successful&suppression&of&unwanted&memories& Gerd&T.&Waldhauser1,&Karl1Heinz.de& Phone:&+49(0)753118815707& Fax:&+49(0)753118814829& #12;Brain&oscillations&mediate&memory&suppression&2

  13. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  14. Efficient partitioning of memory systems and its impor-tance for memory consolidation

    E-print Network

    Roxin, Alex

    -term memories are likely stored in the synaptic weights of neuronal networks in the brain. The storage capacityEfficient partitioning of memory systems and its impor- tance for memory consolidation Alex Roxin1 memories, but these are quickly over- written. On the other hand, less labile synapses result in long

  15. Manufactured Memory, Altered Belief and Self Report Mirage: The Alleged False Memory of Jean Piaget Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Frank

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that a Jean Piaget anecdote about an alleged memory implanted in a young child leading to both a visual and semantic memory that persists despite disconfirming evidence is entirely different than the recovered memory debate, which is about the alleged introduction of memories to grown adults. (CR)

  16. Using Managed Runtime Systems to Tolerate Holes in Wearable Memories

    E-print Network

    McKinley, Kathryn S.

    , memristors are under advanced development and phase-change memory (PCM) is in production [15]. PCM's storage New memory technologies, such as phase-change memory (PCM), promise denser and cheaper main memory-Tolerance General Terms Reliability Keywords Failure tolerance, memory management, phase-change memory 1

  17. In-Memory Computing of Akers Logic Array Eitan Yaakobi

    E-print Network

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    of a computer memory in a human memory. That is, our brain and memory do not apply the struc- ture of two report a be- havior of the brain's memory as a neural network that models an associative memory [2], [4In-Memory Computing of Akers Logic Array Eitan Yaakobi Electrical Engineering California Institute

  18. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety. PMID:23380810

  19. Dopamine and memory dedifferentiation in aging

    E-print Network

    Abdulrahman, Hunar; Fletcher, Paul C.; Bullmore, Edward; Morcom, Alexa M.

    2015-03-21

    investigated episodic 4 memory-related dedifferentiation in young and older adults, and its relation to dopaminergic 5 function, using a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design with the agonist 6 Bromocriptine (5mg) and the antagonist... of memory specificity in hippocampus 12 reflecting a relative boost to memory specificity on Bromocriptine in older adults whose memory 13 was poorer at baseline, and a relative boost on Sulpiride in older better performers, compared to the 14 young...

  20. Notes on implementation of sparsely distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, J. D.; Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Sparsely Distributed Memory (SDM) developed by Kanerva is an unconventional memory design with very interesting and desirable properties. The memory works in a manner that is closely related to modern theories of human memory. The SDM model is discussed in terms of its implementation in hardware. Two appendices discuss the unconventional approaches of the SDM: Appendix A treats a resistive circuit for fast, parallel address decoding; and Appendix B treats a systolic array for high throughput read and write operations.