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1

Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised logical\\/verbal memory score for healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was\\u000a to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical\\/verbal\\u000a memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169

Masami Goto; Osamu Abe; Tosiaki Miyati; Takeharu Yoshikawa; Naoto Hayashi; Hidemasa Takao; Sachiko Inano; Hiroyuki Kabasawa; Harushi Mori; Akira Kunimatsu; Shigeki Aoki; Kenji Ino; Kyouhito Iida; Keiichi Yano; Kuni Ohtomo

2011-01-01

2

Partial cross-validation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory-Attention/Concentration Malingering Index in a nonlitigating sample.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) malingering indices proposed by Mittenberg, Azrin, Millsaps, and Heilbronner [Psychol Assess 5 (1993) 34.] were partially cross-validated in a sample of 200 nonlitigants. Nine diagnostic categories were examined, including participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, stroke/vascular, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), epilepsy, depression/anxiety, medical problems, and no diagnosis. Results showed that the discriminant function using WMS-R subtests misclassified only 6.5% of the sample as malingering, with significantly higher misclassification rates of SDAT and stroke/vascular groups. The General Memory Index-Attention/Concentration Index (GMI-ACI) difference score misclassified only 8.5% of the sample as malingering when a difference score of greater than 25 points was used as the cutoff criterion. No diagnostic group was significantly more likely to be misclassified. Results support the utility of the GMI-ACI difference score, as well as the WMS-R subtest discriminant function score, in detecting malingering. PMID:14591479

Hilsabeck, Robin C; Thompson, Matthew D; Irby, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2003-01-01

3

Examiner Disability and Other Bias Sources in Administration of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine participant and examiner bias, graduate students posing as disabled examiners in a wheelchair administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised to 101 nondisabled college students. In terms of bias operating to influence subtest scores, only participant gender had a significant effect. Men scored higher than women on both the…

Voskuil, Susan; Tucker, Inez A.

1987-01-01

4

Validity and Time Savings in the Selection of Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validity and reliability were calculated from data in the standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised for 565 proposed short forms. Time saved in comparison with use of the long form was estimated. The most efficient combinations were generally those composed of subtests that were quick to administer. (SLD)

Ward, L. Charles; Ryan, Joseph J.

1996-01-01

5

Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant differences were found between college freshmen science (N=50) and nonscience (N=50) majors who were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement. (Author/CB)

Salvia, Shawn Amig; Salvia, John

1986-01-01

6

Sensitivity of the WAIS-R Verbal-Performance IQ difference and intersubtest scatter to traumatic brain injury. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Verbal IQ-Performance IQ (VIQ-PIQ) discrepancy and a number of indices of intersubtest scatter were examined in 25 subjects with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of structural brain abnormality. Abnormal VIQ-PIQ differences and scatter index values were identified by referring to published normal base rates. Only 16% of the subjects were identified as abnormal on any one of these WAIS-R measures, which suggests these measures are largely insensitive to the presence of structural brain abnormality in TBI. PMID:8853870

Kraiuhin, C; Shores, E A; Roberts, C

1996-09-01

7

Limitations in equivalence of alternate subtests for Russell's revision of the wechsler memory scale: Causes and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reasons for limited equivalence of Form II of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-II) Figural Memory Subtest as an alternate form for the Russell's Revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale (RWMS) Figural Memory Subtest were investigated. Thirty college students rated figural stimuli from RWMS and WMS-II on dimensions related to memory. Raters judged figural stimuli from RWMS to be less memorable,

E. Eugene Schultz Jr; Thomas Y. Keesler; Lisa Friedenberg; Anthony D. Sciara

1984-01-01

8

Neuropsychological Effects of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Memory and Intelligence of Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research involving adolescent marijuana abusers. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised found characteristics consistent with pattern produced by cerebral dysfunction including reduced memory indices in relation to intellectual function and attentional ability. Intelligence was found to be in…

Millsaps, Cheryl L.; And Others

1994-01-01

9

Equivalence of alternate subtests for the russell revision of the wechsler memory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine the adequacy of the Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory Subtests of Form II of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-II) as an alternate form for Russell's Revision of the WMS (RWMS). An archival data study on 46 inpatient alcoholics revealed greater pre-\\/post-treatment differences on Immediate Figural Recall scores for participants tested first on the RWMS,

Thomas Y. Keesler; E. Eugene Schultz Jr; Anthony D. Sciara; Lisa Friedenberg

1984-01-01

10

Serum Dioxin and Memory Among Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors used the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised to assess memory among Air Force veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlor odibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), during the Vietnam War. The index subjec...

J. Patches J. Robinson M. Cary W. Grubbs W. Jackson

2007-01-01

11

Neuropsychological Effects of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Memory and Intelligence of Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen marijuana-dependent adolescent abusers (mean age = 16.9 years) were administered the full Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Subjects had no history of other substance or alcohol abuse or dependence, cerebral trauma, psychiatric or nerological disorders. They had been abstinent form marijuana for an average of 27 days, and the majority of them were given urine tests

Cheryl L. Millsaps; Richard L. Azrin; Wiley Mittenberg

1994-01-01

12

Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the sensitivity of the Wechsler Memory Scale–Third Edition (WMS-III) Faces subtest to memory impairment associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, Faces performance was examined in 24 MCI patients, 46 mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and 98 elderly controls. We hypothesized that participants with diagnoses of MCI or AD would be impaired relative to controls on Faces. Analyses showed that AD participants performed significantly worse than MCI and intact participants, although there were no significant differences between MCI and intact participants. Data suggest that brain areas specialized for face recognition memory may be less affected by MCI and mild AD than regions specialized for verbal memory.

Seelye, Adriana M.; Howieson, Diane B.; Wild, Katherine V.; Moore, Mindy Milar; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

13

ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

2009-01-01

14

Memory functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury: an examination of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild/moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 matched controls from the WMS-IV normative dataset completed the WMS-IV. Multivariate analyses indicated that severe TBI participants had poorer performance than matched controls on all index scores and subtests. Individuals with complicated mild/moderate TBI performed more poorly than controls on all index scores, as well as on tests of visual memory (Designs I and II; Visual Reproduction I and II) and visual working memory (Spatial Addition; Symbol Span), but not on auditory verbal memory tests (Logical Memory I and II; Verbal Paired Associates I and II). After controlling for time since injury, severe TBI participants had significantly lower scores than the complicated mild/moderate TBI on 4 of the 5 WMS-IV index scores (Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate Memory, Delayed Memory) and 4 of the 10 WMS-IV subtests (Designs I and II, Verbal Pairs II, Logical Memory II). Effect sizes for index and subtest scores were generally moderate for the complicated mild/moderate group and moderate-to-large for the severe TBI group. Findings provide support for the construct validity of the WMS-IV in individuals with TBI. PMID:24033318

Carlozzi, Noelle E; Grech, Julie; Tulsky, David S

2013-01-01

15

Memory assessment and depression: testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample.  

PubMed

Between-group comparisons are permissible and meaningfully interpretable only if diagnostic instruments are proved to measure the same latent dimensions across different groups. Addressing this issue, the present study was carried out to provide a rigorous test of measurement invariance. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine which model solution could best explain memory performance as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in a clinical depression sample and in healthy controls. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence for measurement invariance. A three-factor model solution including the dimensions of auditory memory, visual memory, and visual working memory was identified to best fit the data in both samples, and measurement invariance was partially satisfied. The results supported clinical utility of the WMS-IV--that is, auditory and visual memory performances of patients with depressive disorders are interpretable on the basis of the WMS-IV standardization data. However, possible differences in visual working memory functions between healthy and depressed individuals could restrict comparisons of the WMS-IV working memory index. PMID:23886016

Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

2013-01-01

16

Traumatic Brain Injury and Memory: The Role of Hippocampal Atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traumatically brain-injured (TBI) patients (N = 83), memory performance was examined on the Warrington Recognition Memory Test, Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and the Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised in relationship to time postinjury and structural changes based on MRI volumetry, including hippocampus volume. Significant trauma-induced changes were observed, including hippocampal atrophy. Structure–function relationships generally

Erin D. Bigler; Sterling C. Johnson; Carol V. Anderson; Duane D. Blatter; Shawn D. Gale; Antonietta A. Russo; David K. Ryser; Susan E. Macnamara; Becky J. Bailey; Ramona O. Hopkins; Tracy J. Abildskov

1996-01-01

17

David Wechsler (1896-1981)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memorializes David Wechsler, who helped to provide clinical psychology with a tool (his scales) and with a humanistic philosophy toward the use of such tools (i.e., that assessment is not synonymous with testing). As a result, clinical psychologists working on a one-on-one basis in a variety of settings have provided a professional service which has been voluntarily sought out and

Joseph D. Matarazzo

1981-01-01

18

Relationship of iq to verbal learning and memory: Test and retest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ and performance on measures of memory was examined in 64 adults tested twice at a 2-week interval. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that individuals with Low-Average WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores performed significantly more poorly than did individuals with Average and High-Average Full Scale IQs on memory measures including the

Lisa J. Rapport; Bradley N. Axelrod; Mary E. Theisen; D. Brooke Brines; Ari D. Kalechstein; Joseph H. Ricker

1997-01-01

19

Validation of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Para Adultos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the comparability between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and its Spanish-language adaptation the Escala De Inteligencia Para Adultos (EIWA). Fifty Puerto Rican, bilingual examinees who showed equal language proficiency in English and Spanish using the Bilingual Syntax Measure II (BSM-II) were administered both intelligence tests.^ Results of this study showed a mean difference between the EIWA

Carlos Y Maldonado

1995-01-01

20

Memory Functions in Recreational Pistol Sport Shooters: Does Lead Matter?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the memory functions of pistol sport shooters using powder charges when exposure to lead is expected to be considerably lower than in occupational circumstances. Methods: A neuropsychological battery of memory and intelligence tests was administered to 20 sport shooters and 20 controls whose mean ages (SDs) were 55 (9.6) and 54 (9.3) years respectively. Memory functions were evaluated with three subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R) and an incidental memory test. Intelligence was assessed with four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (WAIS-R). The level of alcohol consumption and depression were examined in both groups. Blood lead level was determined among the shooters. Results: The shooters performed worse than the controls in the tests of incidental and logical memory. The groups did not differ in intelligence, mood or alcohol consumption. The mean (SD) blood lead level of the sport shooters was 0.52 ?mol/L (0.40), responding 10.76 ?g/dl (8.28). Conclusions: Low lead exposure in recreational shooting conditions may impair verbal memory. Therefore it is important to ensure that lead exposure is prevented among those shooting for sport.

Asa-Makitaipale, Sanna; Jehkonen, Mervi; Uitti, Jukka; Vilkki, Juhani

2009-01-01

21

Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for Persons 75 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

We factor analyzed the WAIS-R protocols of 130 normal elderly. For age and education, Ms = 81.24 years (SD = 5.24) and 9.54 years (SD = 2.50) . Results indicated that the WAIS-R may be interpreted as a 1-, a 2-, or a 3-factor battery. In the 1-factor solution, interpretative emphasis was placed on the Full Scale IQ as a

Joseph J. Ryan; Anthony M. Paolo; Terry M. Brungardt

1990-01-01

22

Relationship of IQ to verbal learning and memory: test and retest.  

PubMed

The relationship between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ and performance on measures of memory was examined in 64 adults tested twice at a 2-week interval. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that individuals with Low-Average WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores performed significantly more poorly than did individuals with Average and High-Average Full Scale IQs on memory measures including the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory and Delayed Recall indices, as well as California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) Total Words. Learning Slope, and Discriminability. Although all three groups demonstrated significant practice effects on each memory measure, group differences in performance persisted at retest. Multiple regression analyses revealed that WAIS-R factor scores Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility accounted for up to 42% of the variance in WMS-R and CVLT indices. Moreover, WAIS-R performance at initial testing accounted for 22-41% of the variance in memory performance at retest. These results are discussed in the context of the construct stabilities of intelligence and memory, as well as the psychometric precision of the tests used to measure these constructs. PMID:9408796

Rapport, L J; Axelrod, B N; Theisen, M E; Brines, D B; Kalechstein, A D; Ricker, J H

1997-10-01

23

MMPI-2 indices of psychological disturbance and attention and memory test performance in head injury.  

PubMed

A number of studies have investigated the relationship between psychological disturbance and neuropsychological (NP) test performance. The current study is a replication and extension of who found that MMPI-2 indices of psychological disturbance are related to performance on NP tests of attention and memory in psychiatric and head-injured patients. In a large sample (N=381) referred for evaluation after sustaining presumed head injury, we examined the relationship between MMPI-2 indices of psychological disturbance and measures of attention and memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and the Memory Assessment Scales (MAS). Although related to other domains, MMPI-2 variables were most consistently related to measures of attention and List Learning. Even when demographic variables, injury severity, and litigation status were controlled, MMPI-2 indices significantly predicted performance on six out of eight tests. However, the correspondence between similar indices on the WMS-R and MAS were relatively low, especially for Verbal Memory and Visual Reproduction. Further, litigation was significant in predicting only 2 of 8 attention and memory indices. PMID:14609584

Ross, Scott R; Putnam, Steven H; Gass, Carlton S; Bailey, Dan E; Adams, Kenneth M

2003-12-01

24

Intelligence, Memory, and Handedness in Pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 473 male patients with pedophilia (assessed by the patients' sexual history and penile response in the laboratory to standardized, erotic stimuli) or other problematic sexual interests or behaviors received brief neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychological measures included a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, D.

James M. Cantor; Ray Blanchard; Bruce K. Christensen; Robert Dickey; Philip E. Klassen; A. Lee Beckstead; Thomas Blak; Michael E. Kuban

2004-01-01

25

Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) developed for the most recent Wechsler intelligence scales comprises the working memory and processing speed subtests. It reflects the proficiency and efficiency of cognitive processing and provides another lens for analyzing children's abilities assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth…

Saklofske, Donald H.; Zhu, Jianjun; Coalson, Diane L.; Raiford, Susan E.; Weiss, Lawrence G.

2010-01-01

26

Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler

Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

2013-01-01

27

The effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition cognitive abilities on math achievement.  

PubMed

This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) subtests, on Quantitative Knowledge, as operationalized by the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II; Wechsler, 2002) subtests. Participants came from the WISC-IV/WIAT-II linking sample (n=550). We compared models that predicted Quantitative Knowledge using only Stratum III factors, only Stratum II factors, and both Stratum III and Stratum II factors. Results indicated that the model with only the Stratum III factor predicting Quantitative Knowledge best fit the data. PMID:22386081

Parkin, Jason R; Beaujean, A Alexander

2012-02-01

28

Approaches to memory assessment in the chronic psychiatric elderly.  

PubMed

Approaches to memory assessment generally fall into two categories: a) Evaluation of the integrity of specific cognitive processes, and b) Quantitative measurement of performance levels on global dimensions of behavior. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is an exemplar of both the process and global approaches, while the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) represents the global approach. Despite the popularity of both instruments little extant research, examining their convergent/divergent properties or their compatibility, exists. In the present study we replicated, on a mixed sample of normal and psychiatric elderly, a previous study's pattern of CVLT/WMS-R convergent and divergent findings. In addition, we found that both instruments are similar in their discrimination between normal and psychiatric elderly subjects. PMID:16318518

Gage, R; Burns, J; Sellers, A H; Roth, L; Mittenberg, W

1995-01-01

29

Wechsler Discrepancies and the Rorschach Experience Balance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested for a link between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and personality style by comparing WAIS scores with Rorschach Experience Balance scores in two studies using 47 children and 188 psychiatric patients. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationships, indicating lack of a common factor underlying the measures. (WAS)

Gordon, Michael; And Others

1983-01-01

30

Neuropsychological detection of the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment without objective memory impairment.  

PubMed

Aim: We investigate the assessment method to detect the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III). Methods: Three groups (normal group, aMCI group, and early aMCI group), controlled for age and years of education, underwent brain (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET), WAIS-III, WMS-R, and other tests. The early aMCI group does not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of aMCI because patients do not have objective memory impairment, but their clinical symptoms and results of (18)F-FDG PET indicate that they should be included in the category of aMCI. Results: The discrepancy of scores between Verbal IQ and General Memory had the highest accuracy in discriminating between normal and early aMCI groups. Conclusion: The cutoff point determined in this study is useful to detect an early stage of aMCI, which may be distinguished from aMCI using the current criteria. PMID:23392179

Murayama, Norio; Tagaya, Hirokuni; Ota, Kazumi; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Manabe, Yuta; Sato, Kiyoshi; Isek, Eizo

2013-01-01

31

Bigger is better and worse: on the intricate relationship between hippocampal size and memory.  

PubMed

The structure-function relationship between the hippocampal region and memory is a debated topic in the literature. It has been suggested that larger hippocampi are associated with less effective memory performance in healthy young adults because of a partial synaptic pruning. Here, we tested this hypothesis in individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) with known abnormal pruning and IQ- and age-matched individuals with hypoxic brain injury, preterm birth, and obstetric complications. Results revealed larger normalized hippocampal volume in FXS compared with neurotypical controls, whereas individuals with hypoxic injury had smaller hippocampi. In neurotypical controls and individuals with hypoxic injury, better general memory, as indexed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, was associated with larger hippocampus. In contrast, in FXS we observed the opposite relationship: larger hippocampus was associated with worse general memory. Caudate volume did not correlate with memory in either group. These results suggest that incomplete pruning in young healthy adults may not contribute to less efficient memory capacity, and hippocampal size is positively associated with memory performance. However, abnormally large and poorly pruned hippocampus may indeed be less effective in FXS. PMID:24423661

Molnár, Katalin; Kéri, Szabolcs

2014-04-01

32

A Developmental Index Using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Implications for the Diagnosis and Nature of ADHD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the utility of Wechsler's Deterioration Index, which compares short- and long-term memory capabilities. Three studies with a total of 120 children (ages 6-14) found that the index did not predict learning disability status but did distinguish children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from nondisabled children.…

Bowers, Thomas G.; And Others

1992-01-01

33

Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

2014-01-01

34

ACE polymorphism and use of ACE inhibitors: effects on memory performance.  

PubMed

Memory is an important cognition function, being fundamental to the development and independence of individuals. Our aim was to investigate the influence apolipoprotein E (APOE) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism and ACE inhibitors use, besides their interaction on memory performance of healthy subjects over 50 years. The sample consisted of 205 subjects assessed for five types of episodic memory, using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), who answered a questionnaire about drug use and were assessed for the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism and APOE polymorphism. We found no influence of the APOE gene. The use of ACE inhibitors beneficially influenced learning ability scores (p?=?0.02). Besides, I allele carriers of ACE polymorphism showed higher verbal memory scores compared with homozygous DD. Also, we observed an interaction influencing learning ability between the ACE polymorphism and the use of inhibitors, the beneficial influence of the I allele was present only in individuals who make use of ACE inhibitors. We conclude that the ACE gene has influence on memory performance, and that this influence is modulated by ACE inhibitors use. PMID:24696269

Schuch, Jaqueline B; Constantin, Pamela C; da Silva, Vanessa K; Korb, Camila; Bamberg, Daiani P; da Rocha, Tatiane J; Fiegenbaum, Marilu; de Oliveira, Alcyr; Tisser, Luciana A; de Andrade, Fabiana M

2014-06-01

35

Six-Minute Walking Distance Correlated with Memory and Brain Volume in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims High fitness levels play an important role in maintaining memory function and delaying the progression of structural brain changes in older people at risk of developing dementia. However, it is unclear which specific regions of the brain volume are associated with exercise capacity. We investigated whether exercise capacity, determined by a 6-min walking distance (6MWD), is associated with measures of logical and visual memory and where gray matter regions correlate with exercise capacity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Ninety-one community-dwelling older adults with MCI completed a 6-min walking test, structural magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and memory tests. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Tests were used to assess logical and visual memory, respectively. Results The logical and visual memory tests were positively correlated with the 6MWD (p < 0.01). Poor performance in the 6MWD was correlated with a reduced cerebral gray matter volume in the left middle temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and hippocampus in older adults with MCI. Conclusions These results suggest that a better 6MWD performance may be related to better memory function and the maintenance of gray matter volume in older adults with MCI.

Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Park, Hyuntae; Yoshida, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

36

Hippocampal neurochemistry, neuromorphometry, and verbal memory in nondemented older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of the behavioral correlates of neuromorphometry and neurochemistry in older adults has important implications for an improved understanding of the aging process. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a measure of hippocampal neuronal metabolism was associated with verbal memory in nondemented older adults after controlling for hippocampal volume. Methods 4-T MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), and neuropsychological assessment were conducted in 48 older adults (23 women; mean age 81 years). Average hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) and hippocampal volumes were obtained. Neuropsychological evaluation included tests of verbal memory (Buschke and Grober Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test–Immediate Recall [FCSRT-IR], Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised Logical Memory subtest) and attention and executive function (Trail Making Test Parts A and B). Results Linear regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for age, hippocampal NAA/Cr was a significant predictor of FCSRT-IR performance (? = 0.38, p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.21). Hippocampal volume was also a significant predictor of FCSRT-IR performance after adjusting for age and midsagittal area (? = 0.47, p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.24). In a combined model, hippocampal NAA/Cr (? = 0.33, p = 0.03) and volume (? = 0.35, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of FCSRT-IR performance, accounting for 30% of the variance in memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that nondemented older adults with smaller hippocampal volumes and lower levels of hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio metabolites perform more poorly on a test of verbal memory. The integrity of both the structure and metabolism of the hippocampus may underlie verbal memory function in nondemented elderly.

Zimmerman, M.E.; Pan, J.W.; Hetherington, H.P.; Katz, M.J.; Verghese, J.; Buschke, H.; Derby, C.A.; Lipton, R.B.

2009-01-01

37

Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: A preliminary study.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation. PMID:24704382

Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

2014-05-21

38

Susceptibility of Wechsler Spatial Ability to Experience with Related Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

J. Dirks (1982) reported that the Block-Design subtest score from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised is amenable to practice effects transferred from a game. Results from the assessment of two other spatial games, using 37 children in daycare (23 experimentals and 14 controls) indicate no transfer effects. (TJH)

Longstreth, Langdon E.; Alcorn, Mark B.

1990-01-01

39

OLD WINE IN NEW SKINS: GROUPING WECHSLER SUBTESTS INTO NEW SCALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A REACTION TO THE EXTENSIVE LITERATURE ON NEW WECHSLER SUBTEST COMBINATIONS (E.G., SHORT FORMS AND FACTOR SCALES). ANY NEW WECHSLER COMPOSITE RAISES ELEMENTARY ISSUES OF RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND SCORE STANDARDIZATION. IT IS ARGUED THAT IN THE PAST, THESE ISSUES HAVE NOT BEEN DEALT WITH IN A SATISFACTORY MANNER. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FORMULAS, APPROPRIATE FOR WECHSLER COMPOSITES, ARE PRESENTED. A MODIFIED

AUKE TELLEGEN; PETER F. BRIGGS

1967-01-01

40

Measurement Invariance of Core Cognitive Abilities in Heterogeneous Neurological and Community Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of…

Bowden, Stephen C.; Cook, Mark J.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Shores, E. Arthur; Carstairs, Jane R.

2004-01-01

41

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special educational…

Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

2011-01-01

42

Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

2009-01-01

43

Correlations between event-related potentials with pictures recognition and WMS-RC scores in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P(170) and P(500), that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P(500) amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P(500) responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (P<0.001) and lower in amplitude (P<0.001). P(500) latency showed significant negative correlation with MQ and the scores of "addition", "visual recognition", "picture recall", "visual reproduction" and "tactile memory" in WMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P(500) may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice. PMID:19107371

Liu, Zilong; Liu, Liang; Fan, Zebing; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lingli; Rao, Guangxun; Li, Haixia

2008-12-01

44

Wechsler-based CHC Cross-Battery Assessment and Reading Achievement: Strengthening the Validity of Interpretations Drawn from Wechsler Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the validity of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cross battery approach using elementary schools children (N=166) who were administered the Wechsler Scale Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised. Results suggest that a Wechsler-based CHC cross-battery approach is an effective…

Flanagan, Dawn P.

2000-01-01

45

Familial correlation of memory function in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Chronic schizophrenic patients with first- or second-degree schizophrenic relatives were evaluated for memory function. Wechsler memory scale scores were significantly correlated between index cases and relatives (r = 0.56, p less than 0.05), suggesting that poor memory function in schizophrenia may represent a familial subtype. PMID:3562744

Chazan, S; Bannet, J; Guttman, R; Belmaker, R H

1986-01-01

46

Measurement invariance of core cognitive abilities in heterogeneous neurological and community samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, and Processing Speed. Invariance of the

Stephen C. Bowden; Mark J. Cook; Fiona J. Bardenhagen; E. Arthur Shores; Jane R. Carstairs

2004-01-01

47

Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our memory must b exercised in order for it to function properly. Click on Memory Exhibition, then click on droodles and common cents. Memory Exhibition Now play the memory game Memory game Take this test Short Term Memory Test Play Simon Says Play Simon Says 2 ...

Hirschi, Mrs.

2005-10-25

48

Investigation of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism with Turkish Almost Perfect Scale-Revised.  

PubMed

The present study examined the factor structure of the Turkish Almost Perfect Scale-Revised to identify adaptive and maladaptive perfectionists and non-perfectionists and examined whether the participants (N= 383) in these groups differed on a measure of psychological distress. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Turkish Almost Perfect Scale-Revised yielded three subscales: High Standards, Order, and Discrepancy. A cluster analysis identified adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and non-perfectionists and these groups were found to be significantly different from each other on a measure of psychological distress. PMID:22897102

Ulu, Inci Pinar; Tezer, Esin; Slaney, Robert B

2012-06-01

49

Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

2012-01-01

50

Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised for African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of perfectionism using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; R. B. Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996) with 251 African American college students. A LISREL confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the 3 subscales of the APS-R: High…

Mobley, Michael; Slaney, Robert B.; Rice, Kenneth G.

2005-01-01

51

Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2010-01-01

52

The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised as a Tool to Improve Child Care Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of interest in this study were the factors that lead to quality child care centers. The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) was examined for its utility as an effective training device to enlighten directors and classroom teachers of what constitutes quality classrooms. An experimental design was employed for this study.…

Warash, Bobbie G.; Markstrom, Carol A.; Lucci, Brittani

2005-01-01

53

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2011-01-01

54

Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

2013-01-01

55

Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

2013-01-01

56

Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence…

Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

57

The Cylindrical Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--IV: A Retest of the Guttman Model of Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study on the underlying structure of the Wechsler intelligence test (WISC-R; [Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual WISC-R: Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation]), using smallest space analysis (SSA) [Guttman, L., and Levy, S. (1991). Two structural laws for intelligence tests. "Intelligence," 15,…

Cohen, Arie; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Farley, Frank H.

2006-01-01

58

The Archimedes negative aftereffect as an indication of memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of data obtained from 25 psychotics and 16 normals who had been given the Wechsler Memory scale and tested with the Archimedes spiral illusion, the author concludes that: (1) electric shock does not impair memory ability; (2) electric shock does not impair ability to experience the Archimedes negative aftereffect; (3) there is no relationship between memory ability

Lloyd S. Standlee

1953-01-01

59

The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale–Revised: An Assessment of Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the validity of the Child—Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale- Revised (CAMPIS-R) using multiple concurrent objective and subjective measures of child distress, approach-avoidance behavior, fear, pain, child cooperation, and parents' perceived ability to help their preschool children during routine immuni- zations. Parents', staffs', and children's behaviors in the treatment room were videotaped and coded. Results indicate that the validity of

Ronald L. Blount; Lindsey L. Cohen; Natalie C. Frank; Pamela J. Bachanas; Adina J. Smith; M. Reena Manimala; Joseph T. Pate

1997-01-01

60

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given increasing numbers of young culturally and\\/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help early childhood teacher candidates examine their beliefs concerning classroom ecology. Using

Belinda Bustos Flores; Cindy M. Casebeer; Mari Riojas-Cortez

2011-01-01

61

Factor analytic structure of the Impact of Events ScaleRevised when used with a firefighting sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The Impact of Events Scale (IES)\\/Impact of Events ScaleRevised (IES-R) is arguably one of the most well known tools used to assess post-traumatic symptomatology. The background literature reveals a significant gap with respect to the structural properties of the IES\\/IES-R when used with emergency service populations. In response to these identified gaps, this paper aims to

Shannon L. Wagner

2011-01-01

62

A French validation study of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the concurrent validity, inter-rater agreement and diagnostic sensitivity of a French adaptation of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) as compared to other coma scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness scale (FOUR) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Research design: Multi-centric prospective

Caroline Schnakers; Steve Majerus; Joseph Giacino; Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse; Marie-Aurelie Bruno; Melanie Boly; Gustave Moonen; Pierre Damas; Bernard Lambermont; Maurice Lamy; FranÇois Damas; Manfredi Ventura; Steven Laureys

2008-01-01

63

The neurobehavioural rating scale-revised: sensitivity and validity in closed head injury assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the neurobehavioural rating scale-revised (NRS-R) and to determine its usefulness in clinical trials.METHODSA consecutive series of patients sustaining severe closed head injury were evacuated to one of 11 large regional North American trauma centres and entered into a randomised, phase III, multicentre clinical trial investigating the therapeutic use of moderate hypothermia.

S R McCauley; H S Levin; M Vanier; J-M Mazaux; C Boake; P R Goldfader; D Rockers; M Butters; D A Kareken; J Lambert; G L Clifton

2001-01-01

64

The Impact of Event Scale-Revised: Psychometric properties in a sample of motor vehicle accident survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminative validity of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, [Weiss, D. S. & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In: J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399–411). New York: Guilford Press]) in a sample of 182 individuals who

J. Gayle Beck; DeMond M. Grant; Jennifer P. Read; Joshua D. Clapp; Scott F. Coffey; Luana M. Miller; Sarah A. Palyo

2008-01-01

65

Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. PC memory is one of the most critical and rapidly advancing assemblies within modern microcomputers. The challenge of developing learners' knowledge of PC memory and keeping it current and directly applicable to today's microcomputer industry is addressed by this module. The three major topics included in this module are ROM/Flash, System Memory, and Cache Systems. Hands-on practice and final skill assessment verify learners' readiness for working with memory in an Intel-based PC system.

2012-12-07

66

Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Progress towards amelioration and eventual cure of human cognitive disorders requires understanding the molecular signaling\\u000a mechanisms that normally govern learning and memory. The fly Drosophila melanogaster has been instrumental in the identification of molecules and signaling pathways essential for learning and memory, because\\u000a genetic screens have produced mutants in these processes and the system facilitates integrated genetic, molecular, histological\\u000a and

E. M. C. Skoulakis; S. Grammenoudi

2006-01-01

67

Differential Impact of Executive Function on Visual Memory Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their common use in neuropsychological evaluation, little is known about the differential contribution of executive functioning to visual memory tests. In this study, hierarchical regression was used to determine the role of executive functioning on the Visual Reproduction subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) in a mixed neurological sample of 193 patients.

Richard O. Temple; Jennifer Duncan Davis; Ilana Silverman; Geoffrey Tremont

2006-01-01

68

Alcohol use disorders and cognitive abilities in young adulthood: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on cognitive and neuropsychological abilities was investigated in a prospective study of 68 freshmen who met past-year criteria for AUD on 2 or more occasions during their college years and 66 matched controls. At baseline, participants were administered a total of 14 subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised, Wechsler Memory Scale, and

Phillip K. Wood; Kenneth J. Sher; Bruce D. Bartholow

2002-01-01

69

The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised: an assessment of validity.  

PubMed

Investigated the validity of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R) using multiple concurrent objective and subjective measures of child distress, approach-avoidance behavior, fear, pain, child cooperation, and parents' perceived ability to help their preschool children during routine immunizations. Parents', staffs', and children's behaviors in the treatment room were videotaped and coded. Results indicate that the validity of the CAMPIS-R codes of Child Coping and Distress, Parent Distress Promoting and Coping Promoting, and Staff Distress Promoting and Coping Promoting behavior were supported, with all significant correlations being in the predicted direction. An unanticipated finding was that the child, parent, and staff Neutral behaviors were inversely related to some measures of distress and positively related to some measures of coping. Interobserver reliability was high for each CAMPIS-R code. PMID:9019049

Blount, R L; Cohen, L L; Frank, N C; Bachanas, P J; Smith, A J; Manimala, M R; Pate, J T

1997-02-01

70

Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition among a National Sample of Referred Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003a) was analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis among a national sample of 355 students referred for psychoeducational evaluation by 93 school psychologists from 35 states. The structure of the WISC-IV core battery was best represented by four…

Watkins, Marley W.

2010-01-01

71

Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

2009-01-01

72

Aging and memory: Corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same

G. Zappalà; G. Measso; F. Cavarzeran; F. Grigoletto; B. Lebowitz; F. Pirozzolo; L. Amaducci; D. Massari; T. Crook

1995-01-01

73

Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of the…

Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

74

Configural Frequency Analysis as a Method of Determining Wechsler Profile Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the outset of multiscore test batteries such as the Wechsler scales, there has been scholarly debate regarding whether there is adequate empirical foundation for the practice of profile analysis, a uniquely clinical practice that focuses on distinguishing between groups of participants based on the participants’ configuration or pattern of test scores. Clinicians who focus on the relationship between groups

Harrison C. Stanton; Cecil R. Reynolds

2000-01-01

75

Wechsler Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Index in a Forensic Sample: A Reconsideration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other. (JAC)

DeWolfe, Alan S.

1984-01-01

76

Cognitive Process Development as Measured by an Adapted Version of Wechsler's Similarities Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the development of taxonomic processing as measured by an adapted version of the Wechsler Similarities subtest, which distinguishes between categorization of concrete and abstract words. Two factors--age and concreteness--are also tested by a recall task. The results show an age-related increase in taxonomic categorization,…

Rozencwajg, Paulette

2007-01-01

77

Norms for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised for Navajo Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norms were developed for Navajo Indian students for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, by sampling 16 percent of the Navajo school population from first through eighth grade in 8 schools in McKinley County, New Mexico. The norms, based on 539 students, help to separate cultural and language differences from learning…

Tempest, Phyllis; Skipper, Betty

1988-01-01

78

Observations and Recommendations on the Puerto Rican Version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations and criticisms are made which might result in a more reliable assessment of the Puerto Rican child's intelligence as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Many of these recommendations and criticisms involve typographical and grammatical errors, incorrect language usage, difficulty of item sequence and…

Moran, Roberto E.

79

Profile Analysis and the Abbreviated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: A Multivariate Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using multivariate profile analytic techniques and sampling from both brain-injured and psychiatric populations, results of this study provide strong evidence that the Satz-Mogel abbreviated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) may be substituted for the standard WAIS for both general IQ assessment (in agreement with previous research) and…

Goebel, Ronald A.; Satz, Paul

1975-01-01

80

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised.  

PubMed

The Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised (NPVS-R) is an instrument derived from the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses designed to measure nurses' professional values. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the NPVS-R in a random sample of baccalaureate and master's students and practicing nurses. The NPVS-R, a 26-item Likert-scale format instrument, was tested on 782 subjects. Responses to the NPVS-R were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization resulted in a five-factor solution explaining 56.7% of the common variance. Findings supported internal consistency reliability of five factors with alpha coefficients from .70 to .85 and a total scale alpha coefficient of .92. Construct validity was supported with an overall factor loading range of .46 to .79 across the five factors labeled Caring, Activism, Trust, Professionalism, and Justice. The NPVS-R is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring professional nurses' values and enhancing professional socialization. PMID:20069950

Weis, Darlene; Schank, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

81

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and malingering in traumatic brain injury: classification accuracy in known groups.  

PubMed

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c) moderate/severe (M/S) TBI not-MND (n = 26). A sample of 80 general clinical patients was used for comparison. Verbal IQ, Verbal Comprehension Index, and Working Memory Index detected approximately 25% of malingerers with a false positive (FP) error rate of approximately 5% in the mild TBI group. Comparable FP rates were obtained in M/S TBI. FP rates for Performance IQ, Perceptual Organization Index, and Processing Speed Index were acceptable in mild TBI but too high in M/S TBI. Previously studied specialized indicators (Vocabulary minus Digit Span and the Mittenberg formula) failed to differentiate malingerers from nonmalingerers. The clinical application of these findings is discussed. PMID:19797328

Curtis, Kelly L; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J

2009-12-01

82

The neurobehavioural rating scale-revised: sensitivity and validity in closed head injury assessment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the neurobehavioural rating scale-revised (NRS-R) and to determine its usefulness in clinical trials.?METHODS—A consecutive series of patients sustaining severe closed head injury were evacuated to one of 11 large regional North American trauma centres and entered into a randomised, phase III, multicentre clinical trial investigating the therapeutic use of moderate hypothermia. Acute care personnel were blinded to outcome and outcome personnel were blinded to treatment condition. The Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included the disability rating scale (DRS) and the NRS-R.?RESULTS—Exploratory factor analysis of NRS-R data collected at 6 months after injury (n=210) resulted in a five factor model including: (1) executive/cognition, (2) positive symptoms, (3) negative symptoms, (4) mood/affect, and (5) oral/motor. These factors showed acceptable internal consistency (0.62 to 0.88), low to moderate interfactor correlations (0.19 to 0.61), and discriminated well between GOS defined groups. Factor validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with specific neuropsychological domains. Significant change was measured from 3 to 6 months after injury for the total score (sum of all 29 item ratings) and all factor scores except mood/affect and positive symptoms. The total score and all factor scores correlated significantly with concurrent GOS and DRS scores.?CONCLUSIONS—The NRS-R is well suited as a secondary outcome measure for clinical trials as its completion rate exceeds that of neuropsychological assessment and it provides important neurobehavioural information complementary to that provided by global outcome and neuropsychological measures.??

McCauley, S; Levin, H; Vanier, M; Mazaux, J; Boake, C; Goldfader, P; Rockers, D; Butters, M; Kareken, D; Lambert, J; Clifton, G

2001-01-01

83

A Review of the Performance of Aged Adults on Various Wechsler Memory Scale Subtests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature reveals a marked decline in performance on the Visual Reproduction subtest with increasing age. Both level of education and intelligence seemed to exert a substantial influence on performance which may be significant in clinical evaluations. (Author)

Bak, Joseph S.; Greene, Roger L.

1981-01-01

84

Discourse analysis of logical memory recall in normal aging and in dementia of the Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the nature of errors in prose recall made in dementia compared with normal aging. Responses by 48 young adults, 47 nondemented older adults, and 70 people with very mild or mild Alzheimer's disease to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale were examined in a propositional analysis. Compared with young adults, healthy older adults showed

David K. Johnson; Martha Storandt; David A. Balota

2003-01-01

85

Perfectionism, self-efficacy, and depression: preliminary analysis of the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised.  

PubMed

The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised is a self-report measure of perfectionism. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the scale's Japanese version and its relation to self-efficacy and depression. Japanese university students (N = 249) completed the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised along with the General Self-Efficacy Scale-12 and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Exploratory factor analysis indicated three factors: Discrepancy, High Standards, and Order. Estimates of internal consistency reliability for the three subscales were high. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised in another group of Japanese university students (N = 206) supported the 3-factor structure. Cluster analyses using the three subscales yielded four clusters. In addition to adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists, identified in previous studies, a normal perfectionists group was identified, with mean scores similar to those of the total sample and depression and self-efficacy scores close to those of nonperfectionists. Adaptive perfectionists, characterized by high scores on High Standards and Order and low scores on Discrepancy, also had higher scores on self-efficacy and lower scores on depression than maladaptive perfectionists and even nonperfectionists. The influence of Japanese culture is discussed. PMID:19708416

Nakano, Keiko

2009-06-01

86

Fluid intelligence, memory and blood pressure in cognitive aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors of performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and Wechsler Logical Memory (LM) were examined in a longitudinal study of initially healthy old people in the HOPE (Healthy Old People in Edinburgh) study. In total, 387 subjects were tested twice, first (wave 1) when their mean age was 75.1 years and again (wave 2) when the mean age was 79.3

Ian J. Deary; John M. Starr; W. J. Maclennan

1998-01-01

87

Fatigue in Brazilian cancer patients, caregivers, and nursing students: a psychometric validation study of the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  The objective of this study was to validate the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised (PFS-R) for use in Brazilian culture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Translation of the PFS-R into Portuguese and validity and reliability tests were performed. Convenience samples in Brazil\\u000a we as follows: 584 cancer patients (mean age 57?±?13 years; 51.3% female); 184 caregivers (mean age 50?±?12.7 years; 65.8%\\u000a female); and 189 undergraduate

Dálete D. C. F. Mota; Cibele A. M. Pimenta; Barbara F. Piper

2009-01-01

88

Severity of depressive symptoms, hippocampal sclerosis, auditory memory, and side of seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and performance on three Wechsler Memory Scale-III auditory memory and learning subtests was examined in 84 inpatients diagnosed with medically intractable seizures of left (n=46, LTLE) or right (n=38, RTLE) temporal lobe origin. Depressive symptom severity was associated with auditory recall test performance in individuals with LTLE, but not RTLE. Multiple regression analyses

Mario F. Dulay; Bruce K. Schefft; Jamison D. Fargo; Michael D. Privitera; Hwa-shain Yeh

2004-01-01

89

The impact of event scale-revised: psychometric properties in a sample of motor vehicle accident survivors.  

PubMed

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminative validity of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, [Weiss, D. S. & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In: J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399-411). New York: Guilford Press]) in a sample of 182 individuals who had experienced a serious motor vehicle accident. Results supported the three-factor structure of the IES-R, Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, with adequate internal consistency noted for each subscale. Support was obtained for the concurrent and discriminative validity, as well as the absence of social desirability effects. Although some differences were noted between the IES-R Avoidance subscale and diagnostically based measures of this cluster of symptoms, these differences do not necessarily signify measurement problems with the IES-R. The IES-R seems to be a solid measure of post-trauma phenomena that can augment related assessment approaches in clinical and research settings. PMID:17369016

Beck, J Gayle; Grant, Demond M; Read, Jennifer P; Clapp, Joshua D; Coffey, Scott F; Miller, Luana M; Palyo, Sarah A

2008-01-01

90

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version: relation to factor indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition.  

PubMed

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbal memory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the relationship of this test to various domains of cognitive function has not been broadly studied empirically. To examine this issue, we evaluated the amount of unique variance in CVLT-C scores that could be predicted by the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Freedom from Distractibility, and Processing Speed indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) beyond that accounted for by age and gender in a sample of 62 children referred to an outpatient psychiatry clinic for neuropsychological evaluation. While the Processing Speed Index predicted a significant amount of variance for both short and long delay free and cued recall, the Verbal Comprehension Index was a poor predictor of CVLT-C performance on all outcome variables, accounting for only 1.5 to 4.5% additional variance above age and gender. These findings indicate that while the CVLT-C may be relatively independent of influences of verbal intelligence and abstract verbal reasoning, general speed and efficiency of processing play an important role in successful encoding for later retrieval on the CVLT-C. PMID:16183615

O'Jile, Judith R; Schrimsher, Gregory W; O'Bryant, Sid E

2005-10-01

91

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

2007-01-01

92

Feasibility, reproducibility, and clinical validity of the pediatric anxiety rating scale-revised for fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and the most common known genetic cause of autism. FXS is associated with psychiatric impairments, including anxiety disorders. There is a paucity of well-developed measures to characterize anxiety in FXS. However, such scales are needed to measure therapeutic responses to interventions. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (PARS-R) was evaluated in 49 individuals with FXS. Feasibility, reproducibility, and clinical validity were assessed. High inter-rater, test-retest, and cross-site reliability were achieved. PARS-R scores were correlated with parent-report and physician ratings of anxiety, suggesting good clinical validity. Results were similar within gender and age subgroups. The PARS-R is a promising tool for measuring the efficacy of interventions targeting anxiety in FXS. PMID:24450318

Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M; Yesensky, Jessica; Hessl, David; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

93

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Contributions to Human Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Although neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of prefrontal cortex in human memory, the necessity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for key competencies of working memory remains largely unexplored. We therefore studied human brain lesion patients to determine whether dlPFC is necessary for working memory function, administering subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the N-Back Task to three participant groups: dlPFC lesions (n = 19), non-dlPFC lesions (n = 152), and no brain lesions (n = 54). DlPFC damage was associated with deficits in the manipulation of verbal and spatial knowledge, with left dlPFC necessary for manipulating information in working memory and right dlPFC critical for manipulating information in a broader range of reasoning contexts. Our findings elucidate the architecture of working memory, providing key neuropsychological evidence for the necessity of dlPFC in the manipulation of verbal and spatial knowledge.

Barbey, Aron K.; Koenigs, Michael; Grafman, Jordan

2012-01-01

94

Lateralized Brain Damage, Intelligence, and Memory: A Failure to Find Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study failed to confirm previous reports of a difference in the sexes in the cognitive sequelae of lateralized brain damage. Although patients with left- and right-hemisphere infarcts (N = 45) showed differential impairment on measures of visual and verbal memory and on Performance scale IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, there were no differences between male and female

William G. Snow; Susan Sheese

1985-01-01

95

Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

2011-01-01

96

Referred Students' Performance on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the convergent relations of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Data from counterbalanced administrations of each instrument to 48 elementary school students referred for psychoeducational testing were examined. Analysis of the 96…

Edwards, Oliver W.; Paulin, Rachel V.

2007-01-01

97

Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new…

Keith, Timothy Z.; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Taub, Gordon E.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

2006-01-01

98

Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

2013-01-01

99

The Relationship among the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Ammons' Quick Test, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship among IQs of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), and Quick Test (QT) were investigated using 51 students (grades 2-8) with suspected learning problems. The subjects scored significantly higher on the TONI than on the WISC-R Verbal and Full Scales. (Author/VW)

Vance, Booney; And Others

1986-01-01

100

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

2007-01-01

101

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

102

Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition in a High-Stakes Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R) were examined using 153 classrooms from child-care centers where resources were tied to center performance. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the scale measures one global aspect of quality. To decrease redundancy, subsets of items were…

Bisceglia, Rossana; Perlman, Michal; Schaack, Diana; Jenkins, Jennifer

2009-01-01

103

Measurement of quality in preschool child care classrooms: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the early childhood environment rating scale-revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) with a large sample (1313 classrooms). We explored both the seven subscales and the possibility of fewer distinct aspects of quality being measured by the scale. The large sample size allowed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to be performed.

Deborah J. Cassidy; Linda L. Hestenes; Archana Hegde; Stephen Hestenes; Sharon Mims

2005-01-01

104

Cross-Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised on the College Students in the United States and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cultural validity of the almost perfect scale-revised (APS-R) with 300 Turkish and 300 American and international college students. First, the validity of the original APS-R was conducted on American students and international students. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) offered two-factor scale to be consistent…

Aydin, Kamile Bahar

2013-01-01

105

An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?  

PubMed

The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported. PMID:23544403

Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

2013-09-01

106

Mayo's older americans normative studies: WMS-R norms for ages 56 to 94  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained in Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) provide age-specific norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) on a sample of 441 cognitively normal persons age 56 to 94. Memory Indices derived from these norms are termed “MAYO Verbal Memory (MVeMI), MAYO Visual Memory (MViMI), MAYO General Memory (MGMI), MAYO Attention\\/Concentration (MACI), MAYO Delayed Recall (MDRI) and MAYO Percent

Robert J. Ivnik; James F. Malec; Glenn E. Smith; Eric G. Tangalos; Ronald C. Petersen; Emre Kokmen; Leonard T. Kurland

1992-01-01

107

The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised: psychometric properties and specificity in relation to anxiety disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-R) in a nonclinical sample (N=340). Principal components analysis of the DPSS-R revealed a two-factor structure consisting of Disgust Propensity and Disgust Sensitivity. Although the two-factor structure converged well with prior research, four of the 16 DPSS-R items did not load onto the predicted factor. The DPSS-R demonstrated good reliability and validity. The DPSS-R and its two factors were moderately correlated with spider fear and contamination fear and mildly correlated with injection fear. The relation between the DPSS-R and these anxiety disorder symptoms remained largely intact after controlling for negative affect. Regression analyses also revealed that the two DPSS-R factors demonstrate specificity in the prediction of anxiety disorder symptoms. These findings are discussed in terms of promoting a more valid and reliable assessment of disgust in anxiety disorders. PMID:17236747

Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cisler, Josh M; Deacon, Brett J; Connolly, Kevin; Lohr, Jeffrey M

2007-01-01

108

The Impact of Event Scale - Revised: psychometric properties of the Italian version in a sample of flood victims  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to verify the main psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Impact of Event ScaleRevised (IES-R) in a sample of flood victims. Methods The sample was composed of 262 subjects involved in the natural disaster of 2009 in the city of Messina (Italy). All participants completed the IES-R and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. Results The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, used to verify the construct validity of the measure, showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. The goodness-of-fit indices (non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.99; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.04; and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02) indicated a good adaptation of the model to the data. The IES-R scales showed satisfactory values of internal consistency (intrusion, ? = 0.78; avoidance, ? = 0.72; hyper-arousal, ? = 0.83) and acceptable values of correlation with the DES-II. Conclusion These results suggest that this self-reported and easily administered instrument for assessing the dimensions of trauma has good psychometric properties and can be adopted usefully, both for research and for practice in Italy.

Craparo, Giuseppe; Faraci, Palmira; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio

2013-01-01

109

The aggression observation short form identified episodes not reported on the staff observation aggression scale-revised.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the underreporting of violence and aggression on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) when compared to a simpler assessment: the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS). During a period of one year, two open and two closed wards gathered data on both the SOAS-R and the AOS for all of their patients. The 22-item SOAS-R is to be filled out after each violent episode. The 3-item AOS is to be filled out during each shift and should also record the absence of violence. The SOAS-R registered 703 incidents and the AOS registered 1,281 incidents. The agreement between the SOAS-R and the AOS was good (kappa = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.62-0.67). Among the 1,281 AOS episodes, 51% were also registered on the SOAS-R. For the 176 AOS episodes with harm, 42% were also registered on the SOAS-R. We found 44% missing registrations on the AOS, primarily for open wards and for patients with short admission lengths. Standard instruments such as the SOAS-R underreport aggressive episodes by 45% or more. Underreporting can be reduced by introducing shorter instruments, but it cannot be completely eliminated. PMID:24857530

Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

2014-06-01

110

Neuropsychological testing and functional outcome for individuals with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The relationship between performance on neuropsychological measures and the vocational and independent living functioning of individuals with traumatic brain injury was examined. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ and Stroop Color and Word Test scores differentiated individuals who required no assistance with activities of daily living from those requiring some level of assistance. Only the Stroop Color and Word Test scores differentiated individuals who were competitively employed or engaged in degree-oriented education from those who were unemployed or in sheltered or supported employment. Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores did not differentiate these groups. PMID:9876862

Leahy, B J; Lam, C S

1998-12-01

111

Memory-for-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and WISC-R Performance of Retarded and Adequate Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve reading-disabled and 12 nondisabled boys, of average intellectual ability, in Grades 3 to 6 were compared on the Memory-For-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R). (Author)

McManis, Donald L.; And Others

1978-01-01

112

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain InjuryClassification Accuracy in Known Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c) moderate\\/severe (M\\/S) TBI not-MND (n = 26). A

Kelly L. Curtis; Kevin W. Greve; Kevin J. Bianchini

2009-01-01

113

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient\\/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric analyses revealed an optimal SF8 comprising Vocabulary, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Picture Completion, Matrix

Bruce K. Christensen; Todd A. Girard; R. Michael Bagby

2007-01-01

114

FOC Plate Scale - Revised  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of these observations is to allow the platescale of the FOC f/48 and f/96 cameras to be monitored. This will be achieved by imaging a pair of astrometric stars (separation ~10.5") in the full (512x1024 zoomed) format. A sequence of exposures will be obtained using each relay at positions with known angular offsets. The offsets combined with the astrometric separation will serve to unambiguously define the platescale for both relays. The observations will be analyzed off-line using CDBS and the analysis will be used to update the FOC reference files in SOGS. These observations will be combined with an observation of the center of 47-Tuc in order to determine the separation of stars in 47-Tuc. Future monitoring of the FOC's plate scale will use single observations of 47-Tuc for comparisions; this will be much more efficient the current method. It is intended to run this proposal at intervals of 4-6 months until such timeas it is clearly no longer required.

Paresce, Francesco

1992-07-01

115

FOC Plate Scale - Revised  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of these tests is to measure the plate scale of the FOC f/48 and f/96 modes. This will be achieved by imaging a pair of astrometric stars (separation 10.5") in the full (512x1024 zoomed) format and the centered (512x512 normal) format of both the f/48 and the f/96 cameras. This sequence of observations will be repeated twice at intervals not less than 4 weeks and not greater than 8 weeks. The change in telescope roll angle over this period will rotate this pair of stars relative to the photocathode and will unambiguously define the platescale for both relays. The observations will be analyzed off-line using CDBS, and the analysis will be used to update the FOC reference files in SOGS.

Paresce, Francesco

1991-07-01

116

Dyadic short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III.  

PubMed

Various short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)/WAIS-R have been developed to obtain estimates of overall intellectual level, although little research of WAIS-III short forms has been published to date. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) estimatesfromfour WAIS-III dyadic short forms were obtained by entering selected subtest scores from a mixed neurologic/ psychiatric sample (n = 196) into regression equations. Results were cross validated on a second sample (n = 57). Within both samples, WAIS-III FSIQ scores were highly correlated (r = .90-.92, p < .001) with estimated FSIQ scores. Estimated FSIQ fell within 5 points of actual FSIQ in 49% to 74% of cross-validation cases and within 10 points of actual FSIQ in 81% to 93% of the sample. Comparable to findings from previous short-form investigations, actual and estimated FSIQ classification levels agreed in 46% to 67% of cases in the cross-validation sample. These dyadic WAIS-III forms appear appropriate for obtaining gross estimates of FSIQ in similar populations, although caution is recommended in interpreting estimated IQ scores. PMID:12216782

Ringe, Wendy K; Saine, Kathleen C; Lacritz, Laura H; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro

2002-09-01

117

Sensitivity of the Halstead and Wechsler Test Batteries to brain damage: Evidence from Reitan's original validation sample.  

PubMed

The Halstead-Reitan Battery has been instrumental in the development of neuropsychological practice in the United States. Although Reitan administered both the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and Halstead's test battery when evaluating Halstead's theory of biologic intelligence, the relative sensitivity of each test battery to brain damage continues to be an area of controversy. Because Reitan did not perform direct parametric analysis to contrast group performances, we reanalyze Reitan's original validation data from both Halstead (Reitan, 1955) and Wechsler batteries (Reitan, 1959a) and calculate effect sizes and probability levels using traditional parametric approaches. Eight of the 10 tests comprising Halstead's original Impairment Index, as well as the Impairment Index itself, statistically differentiated patients with unequivocal brain damage from controls. In addition, 13 of 14 Wechsler measures including Full-Scale IQ also differed statistically between groups (Brain Damage Full-Scale IQ = 96.2; Control Group Full Scale IQ = 112.6). We suggest that differences in the statistical properties of each battery (e.g., raw scores vs. standardized scores) likely contribute to classification characteristics including test sensitivity and specificity. PMID:16690543

Loring, David W; Larrabee, Glenn J

2006-06-01

118

The Accumulative Effect of Trauma Exposure on Short-Term and Delayed Verbal Memory in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Female Rape Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulative effect of prior high-magnitude trauma exposure on memory was examined in 73 rape victims, 92% of whom had current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were administered the Logical Memory component of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Quick Test to obtain an estimate of intelligence, and were assessed for prior traumatic experiences. Prior exposure to high-magnitude stressors (e.g., child

Reginald D. V. Nixon; Pallavi Nishith; Patricia A. Resick

2004-01-01

119

Memory for unfamiliar faces differentiates mild cognitive impairment from normal aging.  

PubMed

Memory for unfamiliar faces has received little attention in the effort to identify neuropsychological measures that could differentiate mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal aging and/or predict conversion from MCI to dementia. We used the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test to investigate facial memory in normal aging (n = 58), MCI (n = 74), and mild Alzheimer's disease (n = 22). After adjustment for age, gender, and years of education, MCI patients demonstrated significantly poorer memory for unfamiliar faces than their healthy peers. Lower scores were also associated with worsening cognition and functional abilities but not an increased risk of dementia. PMID:24848571

Nguyen, Vinh Q; Gillen, Daniel L; Dick, Malcolm B

2014-08-01

120

Chance performance and floor effects: threats to the validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale--fourth edition designs subtest.  

PubMed

The Designs subtest allows for accumulation of raw score points by chance alone, creating the potential for artificially inflated performances, especially in older patients. A random number generator was used to simulate the random selection and placement of cards by 100 test naive participants, resulting in a mean raw score of 36.26 (SD = 3.86). This resulted in relatively high-scaled scores in the 45-54, 55-64, and 65-69 age groups on Designs II. In the latter age group, in particular, the mean simulated performance resulted in a scaled score of 7, with scores 1 SD below and above the performance mean translating to scaled scores of 5 and 8, respectively. The findings indicate that clinicians should use caution when interpreting Designs II performance in these age groups, as our simulations demonstrated that low average to average range scores occur frequently when patients are relying solely on chance performance. PMID:24755573

Martin, Phillip K; Schroeder, Ryan W

2014-06-01

121

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition short form for index and IQ scores in a psychiatric population.  

PubMed

An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric analyses revealed an optimal SF8 comprising Vocabulary, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Picture Completion, Matrix Reasoning, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search, scored by linear scaling. Expanding on previous short forms, the current SF8 maximizes the breadth of information and reduces administration time while maintaining the original WAIS-III factor structure. PMID:17563205

Christensen, Bruce K; Girard, Todd A; Bagby, R Michael

2007-06-01

122

Normal variability of children's scaled scores on subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of Intelligence - third edition.  

PubMed

Intelligence tests are included in millions of assessments of children and adults each year (Watkins, Glutting, & Lei, 2007a , Applied Neuropsychology, 14, 13). Clinicians often interpret large amounts of subtest scatter, or large differences between the highest and lowest scaled subtest scores, on an intelligence test battery as an index for abnormality or cognitive impairment. The purpose of the present study is to characterize "normal" patterns of variability among subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III-NL; Wechsler, 2010 ). Therefore, the frequencies of WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scatter were reported for 1039 healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years. Results indicated that large differences between highest and lowest scaled subtest scores (or subtest scatter) were common in this sample. Furthermore, degree of subtest scatter was related to: (a) the magnitude of the highest scaled subtest score, i.e., more scatter was seen in children with the highest WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scores, (b) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores, i.e., higher FSIQ scores were associated with an increase in subtest scatter, and (c) sex differences, with boys showing a tendency to display more scatter than girls. In conclusion, viewing subtest scatter as an index for abnormality in WPPSI-III-NL scores is an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs within a population of healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years. PMID:23656355

Hurks, P P M; Hendriksen, J G M; Dek, J E; Kooij, A P

2013-01-01

123

A Comparison of the General Information Subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test with the Information Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Information subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was compared with the Information subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) to determine the utility of the PIAT subtest for screening purposes. It was concluded that a high correlation existed. (Author/CTM)

Beck, Frances W.; And Others

1979-01-01

124

The Usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the childhood behavioral disorders, yet is widely misunderstood and often difficult to correctly diagnose. Using a neuropsychological framework, this study explored the usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and Wisconsin Card…

Hooper, Elleen

125

Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

2010-01-01

126

The Concurrent Validity of the Cognitive Levels Test with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for a Sample of Referred Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the Cognitive Levels Test (CLT) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores for 55 children who were referred for remedial educational services. A comparison of the correlations for each of the criterion measures from the WISC-R showed a consistent significant positive relationship with the CLT. (Author/LLL)

Vance, Booney; And Others

1991-01-01

127

The Differential Diagnostic Properties of the Revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of differential diagnosis and its application to the use of the Revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) is discussed. The theoretical bases for differential diagnosis and the properties of assessment instruments with diagnostic properties are presented.…

Tierney, Robert J.; And Others

128

Exploratory factor analysis of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) in adult standardization and clinical samples.  

PubMed

Exploratory factor analyses were conducted separately on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; The Psychological Corporation, 1999) adult standardization sample (n = 1,145) and a diagnostically heterogeneous adult clinical sample (n = 201). In the latter group, means for age, education, and WASI Full Scale IQ were 59.25 years (SD = 17.52), 12.39 years (SD = 2.88), and 89.91 (SD = 16.00). For each sample, the four WASI subtests were subjected to a principal-axis factor analysis followed by varimax and promax rotations. Two factors were specified to be retained. Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization factors were identified in both analyses. Coefficients of congruence were 0.98 for Factor I and 0.99 for Factor II, suggesting factorial equivalence across the standardization and clinical samples. PMID:14690807

Ryan, Joseph J; Carruthers, Christine A; Miller, Lori J; Souheaver, Gary T; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Zehr, Martin D

2003-01-01

129

Wms-r patterns among patients with unilateral brain lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of unilateral brain lesions on memory functioning were examined among a sample of 115 patients with well lateralized lesions using the new Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Multivariate analysis of the WMS-R age-corrected summary indexes for the patients with right-(n = 56) and left-(n = 59) hemisphere lesions was significant (p<.008), although subsequent univariate comparisons revealed that only the

Gordon J. Chelune; Robert A. Bornstein

1988-01-01

130

Predictors of memory and processing speed dysfunctions after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors. PMID:24877054

Winardi, William; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Wang, Tse-Lun; Su, Yu-Feng; Yen, Chun-Po; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Sheehan, Jason; Su, Chwen-Yng

2014-01-01

131

Predictors of Memory and Processing Speed Dysfunctions after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors.

Winardi, William; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Wang, Tse-Lun; Su, Yu-Feng; Yen, Chun-Po; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Sheehan, Jason; Su, Chwen-Yng

2014-01-01

132

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

133

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

134

Orthogonal higher order structure and confirmatory factor analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).  

PubMed

According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization transformation (SLT) to the standardization data published in the French technical manual for the WAIS-III. Results showed that the general factor accounted for 63% of the common variance and that the specific contributions of the 1st-order factors were weak (4.7%-15.9%). We also addressed this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the bifactor model (with 1st-order group and general factors) better fit the data than did the traditional higher order structure. Models based on the CHC framework were also tested. Results indicated that a higher order CHC model showed a better fit than did the classical 4-factor model; however, the WAIS bifactor structure was the most adequate. We recommend that users do not discount the Full Scale IQ when interpreting the index scores of the WAIS-III because the general factor accounts for the bulk of the common variance in the French WAIS-III. The 4 index scores cannot be considered to reflect only broad ability because they include a strong contribution of the general factor. PMID:21171782

Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

2011-03-01

135

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

136

Working memory as a predictor of negative symptoms and functional outcome in first episode psychosis.  

PubMed

The relationship of neurocognitive course with clinical and functional outcomes in psychosis is not well known, especially in the long term. The aim of the study was to examine the clinical and neuropsychological course of first-episode psychosis patients at 5-year follow-up and analyze the relationship of cognitive performance with clinical and functional outcome. The 5-year follow-up was conducted with 26 first-episode psychosis patients. Psychotic symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, manic and depressive symptoms by the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale respectively, and psychosocial functioning by the Functioning Assessment Short Test. The cognitive domains were assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wechsler Memory Scale. Patients showed symptomatic improvement in the follow-up except in negative psychotic symptoms. There was also improvement in most cognitive domains except in working memory and processing speed in the follow-up. Working memory impairment was associated to negative psychotic symptoms and poor functional outcomes. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between working memory and outcome. Therefore, negative symptoms should be a primary target of treatment to improve functional outcomes. PMID:22985548

González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Los Mozos, Vanesa; Echeburúa, Enrique; Mezo, Maria; Besga, Ariadna; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; González-Pinto, Asunción; Gutierrez, Miguel; Zorrilla, Iñaki; González-Pinto, Ana

2013-03-30

137

[Memory systems and memory disorders].  

PubMed

Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

2003-02-15

138

Construct validity of the Bender-Gestalt II: comparison with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships of visuomotor constructs as measured by the Bender-Gestalt II with the subtests of the WISC-III. A factor analysis included the standardized Copy and Recall scores of the Bender-Gestalt II and subtest scores of the WISC-III. The Copy score was predicted to load on measures of visual and spatial thinking and the Recall score on a short-term memory factor. The results of a principal components analysis suggest a four-factor solution with the Bender-Gestalt II Copy score loading on a visual and spatial thinking factor primarily with WISC-III Perceptual Organization subtests. The Recall score loaded on a visual and spatial thinking factor as well as a short-term memory factor with the WISC-III Digit Span subtest. The results suggest the Bender-Gestalt II Copy subtest shared commonality with the visual and spatial tasks given the similarity in the visuomotor demands of each test and was less influenced by processing speed or cultural knowledge than other tests on the visual and spatial thinking factor. Also, results suggest Bender-Gestalt II Recall measures elements of both visual and spatial thinking as well as aspects of short-term memory and memory retrieval. Clinical guidelines for co-administration and underlying processing demands are discussed. PMID:16671611

Decker, Scott L; Allen, Ryan; Choca, James P

2006-02-01

139

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

140

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

141

Memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

142

Paradoxical Facilitation of Working Memory after Basolateral Amygdala Damage  

PubMed Central

Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot “see”. To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a ‘cooperation through competition’ networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical functional facilitation effect.

Morgan, Barak; Terburg, David; Thornton, Helena B.; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack

2012-01-01

143

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

144

High field structural MRI reveals specific episodic memory correlates in the subfields of the hippocampus.  

PubMed

The involvement of the hippocampus (HC) in episodic memory is well accepted; however it is unclear how each subfield within the HC contributes to memory function. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest differential involvement of hippocampal subfields and subregions in episodic memory. However, most structural MRI studies have examined the HC subfields within a single subregion of the HC and used specialised experimental memory paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between volumes of HC subfields throughout the entire HC structure and performance on standard neuropsychological memory tests in a young, healthy population. We recruited 34 healthy participants under the age of 50. MRI data was acquired with a fast spin echo (FSE) sequence yielding a 0.52×0.68×1.0 mm(3) native resolution. The HC subfields - the cornu ammonis 1-3 (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (SUB) - were segmented manually within three hippocampal subregions using a previously defined protocol. Participants were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale, 4th edition (WMS-IV) to assess performance in episodic memory using verbal (Logical Memory, LM) and visual (Designs, DE; visual-spatial memory, DE-Spatial; visual-content memory, DE-Content) memory subtests. Working memory subtests (Spatial Addition, SA; and Symbol Span, SSP) were included as well. Working memory was not associated with any HC volumes. Volumes of the DG were correlated with verbal memory (LM) and visual-spatial memory (DE-Spatial). Posterior CA volumes correlated with both visual-spatial and visual-object memory (DE-Spatial, DE-Content). In general, anterior subregion volumes (HC head) correlated with verbal memory, while some anterior and many posterior HC subregion volumes (body and tail) correlated with visual memory scores (DE-Spatial, DE-Content). In addition, while verbal memory showed left-lateralized associations with HC volumes, visual memory was associated with HC volumes bilaterally. This the first study to examine the associations between hippocampal subfield volumes across the entire hippocampal formation with performance in a set of standard memory tasks. PMID:24296251

Travis, S G; Huang, Y; Fujiwara, E; Radomski, A; Olsen, F; Carter, R; Seres, P; Malykhin, N V

2014-01-01

145

Retrograde amnesia: a study of its relation to anterograde amnesia and semantic memory deficits.  

PubMed

This group study of 24 amnesic patients and 40 control subjects examined the hypothesis that retrograde memory deficits result from a combination of two impairment mechanisms: (1) a deficit in the retrieval of contents that is related to dysfunctioning of the hippocampal anterograde memory system, and (2) a deficit in the storage and/or retrieval of contents that is related to concomitant neocortical lesions. Retrograde amnesia was evaluated with the use of new Famous Persons and Autobiographical Memory Tests. The postulated components of retrograde memory impairment were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale and a new Semantic Memory Test, respectively. Regression analyses showed that recent episodic autobiography was exclusively related to the hippocampal component, while memory for famous persons and childhood autobiography was related to the neocortical component. In the case of details concerning people of recent fame, both components were identified as independent determinants. The temporal gradient of patients' impairment at the Famous Persons Test was marked for detailed knowledge, but small for overlearned knowledge. The present results thus support the combination hypothesis. They conform to the view that the transition from a hippocampus-dependent to a neocortex-dependent mnemonic representation of new contents is mediated by reiteration, and occurs within 5-10 years. PMID:9106279

Schmidtke, K; Vollmer, H

1997-04-01

146

Memory Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When predicting application performance, allocating re- sources, and scheduling jobs, an accurate estimate of the required resources is essential. Although CPU and disk performance is relatively well understood, memory perfor- mance is often ignored or considered constant. Our re- search shows that memory bandwidth can vary by up to two orders of magnitude depending upon access pattern, read\\/write ratio, and

Tim Kaldewey; Andrea Di Blas; Jeff Hagen; Eric Sedlar; Scott Brandt

1998-01-01

147

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

148

Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short term memory are discussed.

L. N. Cooper

1985-01-01

149

Memory Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

150

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

151

Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

2007-12-01

152

Muscle tension induced after learning enhances long-term narrative and visual memory in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Arousing events are better remembered than mundane events. Indeed, manipulation of arousal, such as by muscle tension, can influence memory even when it occurs shortly after learning. Indeed, our founding study showed this approach can raise delayed memory performance in older adults to a level comparable to that of unaided young adults. Yet, systematic studies, especially those investigating different modalities or types of memory, have not been done. This study investigated the effects of a brief bout of isometric exercise via handgrip on narrative and visuospatial episodic memory in healthy elders. Forty-seven participants completed the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales III (LM) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), followed alternately by no treatment and by moderately squeezing a sand-filled latex ball for 1-min (counterbalanced order and test forms). Isometric exercise significantly increased both positive and negative affect ratings. Retention was tested 2 weeks later. Delayed recall and recognition of LM was enhanced by arousal relative to control, as was recognition of the BVRT. The results extend past findings that muscle tension induced after learning modulates memory consolidation, extending findings in elders to suggest that a simple form of isometric exercise can have practical effects, such as aiding memory for stories and images. PMID:24434768

Nielson, Kristy A; Wulff, Laura L; Arentsen, Timothy J

2014-03-01

153

False Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity (10th on the page) to help learners explore memory and how sometimes your brain makes up its own memories. Learners will read and try to remember the words in list #1. Five minutes later, learners will try to remember which words on list #2 they remember from list #1. Learners will be surprised to find out that their brains can be easily tricked. This activity guide includes two word challenges. Learners can make up their own lists to see if they can create false memories.

Chudler, Eric H.

2010-01-01

154

Memory disorders in probable Alzheimer's disease: the role of hippocampal atrophy as shown with MRI.  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance based volumetric measures of hippocampal formation, amygdala (A), caudate nucleus (CN), normalised for total intracranial volume (TIV), were analysed in relation to measures of cognitive deterioration and specific features of memory functions in 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychological examination included the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the Mattis dementia rating scale (DRS), tests of executive functions, assessment of language abilities and praxis, the Wechsler memory scale (WMS), the California verbal learning test (CVLT) and the Grober and Buschke test. The volume of the hippocampal formation (HF/TIV) was correlated with specific memory variables: memory quotient and paired associates of the WMS; intrusions and discriminability at recognition for the Grober and Buschke test. By contrast, except for intrusions, no correlations were found between memory variables and the volume of amygdala (A/TIV). No correlations were found between the volume of caudate nuclei (CN/TIV) and any neuropsychological score. The volume of the hippocampal formation was therefore selectively related to quantitative and qualitative aspects of memory performance in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Images

Deweer, B; Lehericy, S; Pillon, B; Baulac, M; Chiras, J; Marsault, C; Agid, Y; Dubois, B

1995-01-01

155

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

... to brain tissue or nerve cells, such as Parkinson disease , Huntington disease , or multiple sclerosis Low levels of ... suspected (such as low vitamin B12 or thyroid disease) Cerebral ... Lumbar puncture Treatment depends on the cause of memory loss.

156

Predictive and construct validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence with the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study instrument.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of the parent-report Taiwan Birth Cohort Study Developmental Instrument (TBCS-DI) with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition (BSID-II) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) at 6, 18, 36, and 60 months. 100 children were recruited at 6 months, 88 children followed-up at 18 months, 71 at 36 months, and 53 at 60 months. Longitudinally, the parent-report TBCS-DI, with the professional psychological assessments of the BSID-II and the WPPSI-R showed predictive validity. Looking at each time point in cross section, at 6 and 18 months the TBCS-DI had good concurrent validity with the BSID-II, and at 36 and 60 months the TBCS-DI was correlated only with the motor and performance domains of the BSID-II and WPPSI-R. With further investigation, the TBCS-DI may be used both in research and in clinical settings. PMID:23045850

Lung, For-Wey; Chen, Po-Fei; Shu, Bih-Ching

2012-08-01

157

Memory Solitaire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online game, learners practice memory recall. They are shown a collage of pictures for two minutes, then have to write down everything they remember and check how they did. After, they learn a memory-improving method of "tell yourself a story" to help train their brain, and try again. Although this activity is designed to be done online and individually, it can easily be adapted to be done using a printout and in a group setting.

Exploratorium

2000-01-01

158

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

159

Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory.  

PubMed

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

2014-01-01

160

Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory  

PubMed Central

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans.

Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schutze, Hartmut; Wustenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Duzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Bjorn H.

2014-01-01

161

Worthington Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Online Scrapbook of Worthington History is a collaborative project between the Worthington (Ohio) Libraries and the Worthington Historical Society to present local history materials. Visitors can search or browse the digitized collection, currently over 117 photographs and documents. Those unfamiliar with Worthington can use the browse feature to retrieve collection items organized into broad categories such as Arts, Architecture, Agriculture, Business and Commerce, or by decade from 1800 to 2002. Documentation, such as selection criteria, and a 36-page manual "Worthington Memory Digital Imaging Workflow" is provided, making Worthington Memory a handy resource for other public libraries wishing to begin a local history digitization project.

2002-01-01

162

Memory Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

Cassebaum, Anne

2011-01-01

163

Ferroelectric Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read/erase/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high dens...

J. F. Scott C. A. Paz De Arujo

1989-01-01

164

Memory slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional dynamic program slicing techniques are code-centric, meaning dependences are introduced between executed statement instances, which gives rise to various problems such as space requirement is decided by execution length; dependence graphs are highly redundant so that inspecting them is labor intensive. In this paper, we propose a data-centric dynamic slicing technique, in which dependences are introduced between memory locations.

Bin Xin; Xiangyu Zhang

2009-01-01

165

Hollow memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

2014-04-01

166

Super Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

Text, Word

2001-01-01

167

Retracing Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

Harrison, David L.

2005-01-01

168

Painting memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the Victorian fascination with the ways in which one visualizes, in the mind's eye, what is in fact invisible.†† In particular, it explores what happens when one exercises the faculty of memory.†† It argues that developments in painting during the period – especially the shift from an emphasis on realism to styles which invoke a spectator's subjective

Kate Flint

2003-01-01

169

Memory Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... a blockage in the pathway or because a blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. Continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury ... by a severe hit to the head. Traumatic brain injuries can happen in a lot of ways and can be ... accidents, bike accidents, and falls can cause TBIs. If ...

170

Semantic Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a model for the general structure of human long term memory. In this model, information about such things as the meanings of words is stored in a complex network, which then displays some of the desirable properties of a human's seman...

M. R. Quinlan

1966-01-01

171

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version: Relation to Factor Indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbal memory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the

Judith R. OJile; Gregory W. Schrimsher; Sid E. OBryant

2005-01-01

172

Memory coherence in shared virtual memory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the memory coherence problem in designing and implementing a shared virtual memory on looselycoupled multiprocessors. Two classes of algorithms for solving the problem are presented. A prototype shared virtual memory on an Apollo ring has been implemented based on these algorithms. Both theoretical and practical results show that the memory coherence problem can indeed be solved efficiently

Kai Li; Paul Hudak

1986-01-01

173

Radio Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Golden Age of Radio" that arguably lasted until the early 1950s may be hard to imagine today in an era of swirling iPod playlists and other genre-bending devices and technologies, but during this time the radio reigned supreme. People tuned in every week to hear the exploits of Flash Gordon, Sam Spade, and Amos n' Andy. Thanks to the Radio Memories website, many of these memories can be relived, or just experienced for the first time. Started in May 2005, the site contains a host of compelling programs, including episodes from the Interplanetary Adventures of Flash Gordon and a number of original episodes of the fabled Radio Detective Story Hour. If those types of programs fail to pique the interest of the casual visitor, the site also contains archived shows that explore the world of radio soap operas from the 1940s and the musical worlds of such stars as Tommy Dorsey and Harry James.

174

Memory Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before we go into detail with the theme of this chapter it is appropriate to introduce some terms that will be used in the\\u000a rest of the chapter. For this purpose we will define the field of application and the environment of the Flash memory card,\\u000a and some useful notions to better understand its basic architecture and use.

M. Iaculo; M. Picca; F. Tiziani; S. Ghezzi; P. Baggi

175

Short-term memory capacity (7 ± 2) predicted by theta to gamma cycle length ratio.  

PubMed

The number of items that can be held in human short-term memory (STM) is limited to 7 (± 2) elements. Lisman and Idiart's theoretical model of STM proposes that this value depends on the number of gamma cycles that can fit in one theta cycle. Previous studies on animals and humans provided support for this hypothesis but direct evidence from human EEG scalp recordings has not previously been reported. We recorded spontaneous EEG activity from 17 participants and measured their verbal STM capacity with a modified digit span task from the Wechsler battery. The strong and positive correlation we found between verbal STM capacity and theta/gamma cycle length ratio thus provides a direct argument in favor of this STM theoretical model. In this study we also demonstrated a new method for assessing individual theta and gamma frequencies by detecting functional coupling between these oscillations. PMID:20951219

Kami?ski, Jan; Brzezicka, Aneta; Wróbel, Andrzej

2011-01-01

176

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

177

No evidence of a homogeneous frontal neuropsychological profile in a sample of schizophrenic subjects.  

PubMed

The authors obtained a frontal functions profile for 81 schizophrenic patients using six neuropsychological tests that evaluate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functions, i.e., working memory, executive functions, and strategic performance. They then analyzed the test performances with a cluster analysis, which produced a four-cluster solution. The results support the hypothesis that neuropsychological dysfunctions in schizophrenia are heterogeneous. The performances on many of the neuropsychological tests were also strongly correlated with verbal and nonverbal IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. PMID:12556571

Gambini, Orsola; Campana, Arturo; Garghentini, Giacomo; Scarone, Silvio

2003-01-01

178

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

179

Studies of Perceptual Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perceptual memory refers to experience-induced changes in perceptual processing of particular objects or scenes. Part 1 of this report summarizes the results of 8 studies of the role of perceptual memory in recognition memory. The hypothesis was confirmed...

J. M. Farnham K. J. Hawley W. A. Johnston

1992-01-01

180

A randomized controlled trial of olanzapine improving memory deficits in Han Chinese patients with first-episode schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia, in which memory impairment is a core deficit. The methods of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV) and event-related potential (ERP) were used to study the effects of olanzapine on the cognitive function in the first-episode schizophrenic patients. We performed multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial to study the cognitive functioning in Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients in a 12-week treatment regime with olanzapine (129 cases) or placebo (132 cases). The results showed that (1) the patients with first-episode schizophrenia showed significant deficits in the long-term memory, short-term memory, immediate memory and memory quotient by WMS-IV assessment, and decreases the total scores, positive symptoms, negative symptoms and general psychopathology by PANSS assessment; (2) olanzapine could significantly improve the PANSS scores including total scores, positive symptoms, negative symptoms and general psychopathology in the first-episode schizophrenic patients; (3) olanzapine could significantly improve the short-term memory, immediate memory and memory quotient in the first-episode schizophrenic patients; and (3) although the latencies of P(2), N(2) and P(3) were significantly prolonged, P(2) and P(3) amplitudes were decreased and the latencies of N(1) did not change, olanzapine did not influence any P(300) items in the first-episode schizophrenic patients. The data suggested that that olanzapine could improve cognitive process, such as memorizing and extraction of the information although there were many changes of cognitive functions in Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients. PMID:23352776

Wang, Chang-Hong; Li, Yan; Yang, Jun; Su, Lin-Yan; Geng, Yao-Guo; Li, Hao; Wang, Ji-Kang; Mu, Jun-Lin

2013-03-01

181

A Beginner's Guide to Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

Hughes, Elizabeth M.

1981-01-01

182

Kansas Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can travel from Cheyenne County in the northwestern corner of Kansas all the way down to Cherokee County in the southeast with a just couple of clicks on the Kansas Memory site. It's a trip filled with compelling historical artifacts, photographs, and other ephemera, and it's an engaging way to learn about the Sunflower State's history. Created by the Kansas State Historical Society, Kansas Memory helps to fulfill the Society's mission "to identify collect, preserve, interpret, and disseminate materials and information pertaining to Kansas history." First-time visitors can explore the "Item of the Week" on the homepage, create their own profiles to save materials for future visits, and take a look at the "Special Exhibits" area. On the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors will find thematic headings that allow them to browse materials dealing with the subjects including the built environment, business, and agriculture. With over 17,000 items available on the site, it's safe to say that several visits will be in order for anyone with even the faintest interest in Kansas history.

2012-01-27

183

[Clinical diagnosis].  

PubMed

The commonly followed definition of dementia is the one described by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10, World Health Organization) or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V, American Psychiatric Association). The most important aspect in the diagnosis of dementia is the assessment of overall mental and functions, including living environment, activities of daily living, cognition, mental status, and behavior. Physicians should diagnose dementia on the basis of not only cognitive test results or radiological findings but also other available information, including that obtained from the families or caregivers. Tests for the quantitative evaluation of cognitive function and dementia include the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale Revised (HDS-R), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). PMID:24796095

Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Kamada, Maki; Ishiki, Aiko; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki

2014-04-01

184

Optical memory  

DOEpatents

Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

2013-07-02

185

Atomic memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental principles of atomic-memory effects related to the Loschmidt paradox in the second law of thermodynamics are introduced and illustrated with simple analogies, photographs, and diagrams; and the results of RF and laser experiments are summarized. Nuclear-spin echoes in response to RF pulses and the NMR free-induction decay phenomenon are described, and the extension of these concepts to the visible spectrum in laser-frequency-switching and multipulsed-laser experiments is examined with an emphasis on studies of free-induction decay in LaF3 crystals containing Pr impurities (DeVoe and Brewster). The laser-induced phenomena can be applied to studies of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, and an improved understanding of the RF effects is needed to enhance the performance of medical NMR imaging systems.

Brewer, R. G.; Hahn, E. L.

1984-12-01

186

Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Methods: Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Results: Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. Conclusion: These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; ANOVA = analysis of variance; MPRAGE = magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo; MS = multiple sclerosis; SRT = Selective Reminding Test; TVW = third ventricle width; WASI = Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.

Sumowski, James F.; Wylie, Glenn R.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

2010-01-01

187

Extending Mondrian Memory Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most modern operating systems implement some sort of memory protection scheme for user processes. These schemes make it is possible to set access permissions that determine whether a region of memory allocated for a process can be read, written, or executed by this process. Mondrian memory protection is a technique that extends the traditional memory protection scheme and allows fine-grain

Clemens Kolbitsch; Christopher Kruegel; Engin Kirda

188

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

189

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

190

Problems of neural memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, \\

Andrei L. Mikaelian

2005-01-01

191

Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects  

PubMed Central

We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 DAT ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests – ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test – the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.

Apostolova, Liana G.; Morra, Jonathan H.; Green, Amity E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

2010-01-01

192

Effectiveness of EEG-Biofeedback on Attentiveness, Working Memory and Quantitative Electroencephalography on Reading Disorder.  

PubMed

Objective: Cognitive factors are the important correlates of reading disorder and their impairments are established in children with reading disorder. Neurofeedback as an intervention has been reported to be useful in improvement of cognitive deficits. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of this treatment on attentiveness and working memory and related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in children with reading disorder. Methods: In this single subject study, six children with reading disorder aged 8-10 years old completed twenty 30-minunt sessions of treatment. Continuous performance task, the digit span subscale of the 3(rd) edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and quantitative electroencephalography were used to evaluate the changes at pre and post-treatment. The data were evaluated by visual inspection of the graph, the mean percentage improvement and signal detection measures. Results: The results showed improvements in attention and working memory. Furthermore, EEG analysis did not show notable changes in the power of the targeted bands (delta, theta, and beta), rather the normalization of coherence was explicit in theta band at T3-T4, delta band at Cz-Fz, beta band at Cz-Fz, Cz-Pz and Cz-C4. Conclusions: These significant changes in coherence are possible indications of the connectivity between frontal and posterior association and integration between sensory and motor areas that explain the improvements in attention and working memory. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644508

Mosanezhad Jeddi, Elnaz; Nazari, Mohammad Ali

2013-01-01

193

[Presenile dementia with marked recent memory disturbance--in relation to hippocampal dementia].  

PubMed

Two cases of presenile dementia with marked recent memory disturbance were reported. Patient 1 is a 54-year-old woman. She noticed forgetfulness at the age of 51 years. Neurological examination at aged 52 revealed marked recent memory disturbance, but examination by WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) showed good results (verbal IQ 106, performance IQ 104, total IQ 106). There was neither disorientation in place nor character change. Cranial CT scan and MRI revealed the absence of brain atrophy. About 3 years after the onset of the disease, the degree of dementia is slight and disorientation in place does not appear. Patient 2 is a 67-year-old man. He noticed forgetfulness at the age of 63 years. Neurological examination at aged 66 revealed marked recent memory disturbance, but examination by WAIS-R showed moderate results (verbal IQ 89, performance IQ 87, total IQ 88). There was neither disorientation in place nor character change. Cranial CT scan and MRI revealed slight dilatation of the inferior horns of the lateral ventricle and slight cortical atrophy. About 4 years after the onset of the disease, the degree of dementia was slight and disorientation in place did not appear. We can not rule out the possibility that our cases belong to Alzheimer's disease, but the clinical course of our cases is peculiar. In the relation of responsible lesion in pure amnestic syndrome, hippocampal dementia, and simple senile dementia, our cases are interesting and important. PMID:8136205

Tsuchiya, K; Watabiki, S; Li, E

1994-01-01

194

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

195

Problems of neural memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, "wave biochemistry" and autowaves. Brief consideration is given to the associative properties of holographic neural structures and the memory architecture using running chemical reactions. The paper also outlines the problem of developing artificial memory elements for restoring the brain functions and possible interface devices for coupling neurons to electronic systems.

Mikaelian, Andrei L.

2005-01-01

196

Validation of the WMS-III Facial Memory subtest with the Graduate Hospital Facial Memory Test in a sample of right and left anterior temporal lobectomy patients.  

PubMed

A number of studies have shown visuospatial memory deficits following anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in the right, nondominant temporal lobe (RATL). The current study examines 26 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent ATL in either the right (RATL, n = 16) or left temporal lobe (LATL, n = 10) on two tests of facial memory abilities, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Faces subtest and the Graduate Hospital Facial Memory Test (FMT). Repeated measures ANOVA on the FMT indicated a significant main effect of side of surgery. The RATL group performed significantly below the LATL group overall. Both groups showed a slight, but non-significant, improvement in performance from pre- to postsurgery on the FMT immediate memory, likely due to practice effects. Repeated measures ANOVA on the WMS-III Faces subtest revealed a significant interaction of group (RATL vs. LATL) by delay (immediate vs. delayed). Overall, the LATL group showed an improvement in recognition scores from immediate to delayed memory, whereas the RATL group performed similarly at both immediate and delayed testing. No effects of surgery were noted on the WMS-III. Following initial data analysis the WMS-III Faces I and II data were re-scored using the scoring suggested by Holdnack and Delis (2003), earlier in this issue. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a trend toward significance in the three-way interaction of group (RATL vs. LATL) x time of testing (pre- versus postop) x delay (immediate vs. delayed memory). On the Faces I subtest, both the RATL and LATL groups showed a decline from preoperative to postoperative testing. However, on Faces II the LATL group showed an increase in performance from preoperative to postoperative testing, while the RALT group showed a decline in performance from preoperative to postoperative testing. While the FMT appears to be superior to the WMS-III Faces subtest in identifying deficits in facial memory prior to and following RATL, the application of the scoring methodology presented by Holdnack and Delis earlier in this issue does serve to increase the clinical utility of the WMS-III Faces subtest in this population. PMID:15512936

Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Tulsky, David S; Glosser, Guila

2004-06-01

197

Understanding Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When You Have Trouble ... home may be signs of a more serious memory problem. This booklet will help you learn about: ...

198

Medications for Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Medications for Memory Loss Tweet Although current medications cannot cure Alzheimer’s or stop it from progressing, they may help lessen symptoms, such as memory loss and confusion, for a limited time. Types ...

199

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for ... from those that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for ...

200

GDM: Global Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global Distributed Memory (GDM) is a distributed memory system in the spirit of Linda. Its distinctive features are multiple object spaces and efficient write-invalidate caching of frequently accessed objects. The report describes the GDM model and the Tr...

A. Gustafsson H. Aronsson H. Suonsivu

1991-01-01

201

Sparse Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in the...

P. J. Denning

1989-01-01

202

Memory Technology Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola,...

1981-01-01

203

The Harris Data Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the commercially produced Harris Data Memory is presented. Operation instructions, memory capabilities, data storage, and applications are included. Usefulness of the instrument to instruction in all of the sciences is considered. (SA)

Muir, D. H. T.; Elwell, M. J.

1979-01-01

204

Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

2010-01-01

205

T Cell Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell memory induced by prior infection or vaccination provides enhanced protection against subsequent microbial infections.\\u000a The processes involved in generating and maintaining T cell memory are becoming better understood due to recent technological\\u000a advances in identifying memory T cells and monitoring their behavior and function in vivo. Memory T cells develop in response\\u000a to a progressive set of cues—starting

J. Tan; C. Surh

206

Imagery and memory illusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a summary of current knowledge about memory illusions. The memory illusions described here focus on\\u000a the recall of imagined events that have never actually occurred. The purpose is to review theoretical ideas and empirical\\u000a evidence about the reality-monitoring processes involved in memory illusions. Reality monitoring means deciding whether the\\u000a memory has been perceptually derived or been self-generated

Frédérique Robin

2010-01-01

207

Testing eyewitness memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies a memory-testing procedure that is relatively resistant to the documented effects of suggestibility on eyewitness memory. Most studies on suggestibility have used averbal recognition memory test in which the alternative test items are sentences, each to be verified as true or false regarding an originally viewedvisual sequence. In this study, participants were tested with either the verbal

Kathy Pezdek; Joelle Greener

1993-01-01

208

Suggesting a Memory Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Suggesting a Memory Screening... Text Size: Email This Post Print This Post Suggesting a Memory Screening By Kevin Gault It can be a ... cognitive abilities, want to suggest screening for possible memory deficit, but aren’t sure how to go ...

209

Memories (Children's Books).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents brief annotations of 46 children's books that explore memories of childhood, memories of love, keepsakes that capture those memories, memorable tales from long ago, memorable journeys, times that are painful to remember, and heroes and heroines who have provided hope and change in a troubled world. (SR)

McKinley, Carol; Peters, Donna; Semer, Susie; White, W. Quinn; Scharer, Patricia L.

1998-01-01

210

Generation and Context Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

2006-01-01

211

Organizing Corporate Memories 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some preliminary thoughts on how corporate memories should be organized in such a way that they maximally contribute to the competitiveness of an organization. We argue that a corporate memory should support three types of organizational learning, which are described. Then we formulate functional requirements and present an architecture for corporate memories that would satisfy these requirements.

Rob van der Spek; Eelco Kruizinga; Gertjan van Heijst

1996-01-01

212

Music, memory and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either\\u000a about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Lutz Jäncke

2008-01-01

213

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

214

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

215

Botulism and memory.  

PubMed

Although botulinum toxin is thought not to affect the human CNS, previous studies have not examined those behaviors, such as memory, that have been shown to be dependent on central acetylcholine transmission. In eight patients with type A botulism, subjective analysis, bedside memory testing, and formal memory testing with Hebb's verbal sequencing test, Corsi's nonverbal sequencing test, and Buschke's verbal serial list learning test failed to demonstrate impairment in immediate and recent memory. Botulism severe enough to block peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic transmission does not block those central cholinergic synapses involved in memory. PMID:7425889

Haaland, K Y; Davis, L E

1980-10-01

216

Child maltreatment and memory.  

PubMed

Exposure to childhood trauma, especially child maltreatment, has important implications for memory of emotionally distressing experiences. These implications stem from cognitive, socio-emotional, mental health, and neurobiological consequences of maltreatment and can be at least partially explained by current theories concerning the effects of childhood trauma. In this review, two main hypotheses are advanced: (a) Maltreatment in childhood is associated with especially robust memory for emotionally distressing material in many individuals, but (b) maltreatment can impair memory for such material in individuals who defensively avoid it. Support for these hypotheses comes from research on child abuse victims' memory and suggestibility regarding distressing but nonabusive events, memory for child abuse itself, and autobiographical memory. However, more direct investigations are needed to test precisely when and how childhood trauma affects memory for emotionally significant, distressing experiences. Legal implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:19575622

Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Ogle, Christin M

2010-01-01

217

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

1992-01-01

218

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

1992-09-01

219

Comparability of WISC-R and WAIS-R IQ Scores with Educable Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised were administered in a conterbalanced design to 14 educable mentally handicapped 16-year-olds. Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores were compared. Correlations and matched t-tests were computed and the results indicated that Verbal and…

Egolf, Franklin D.

220

Memory for Speech and Speech for Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. (Author)

Locke, John L.; Kutz, Kathryn J.

1975-01-01

221

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of theories posit a relationship between autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity in 20 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 age?matched controls, and investigated whether degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests of autobiographical memory (Autobiographical Memory Interview, autobiographical fluency) and

Donna Rose Addis; Lynette Tippett

2004-01-01

222

Memory Demands and the Development of Young Children's Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the nature of and changes in early memory demands and assesses the relationship between memory demands and memory performance among 10 children 30 and 42 months old and their mothers. Results suggested that mothers' memory demands have an impact on children's memory performance--providing at least partial support for Vygotsky's…

Ratner, Hilary Horn

1984-01-01

223

Psychophysiology of prospective memory.  

PubMed

Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages. PMID:24138288

Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

2014-10-01

224

Reconsolidation of drug memories  

PubMed Central

Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse.

Sorg, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

225

Relationships among Four Methods of Assessment of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship among Conners Teacher Rating Scale, Revised Conners Parent Rating Scale, Revised Behavior Problem Checklist, and Freedom-from-Distractibility (FD) factor score of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for 135 children and adolescents referred to learning disabilities clinic. Results appear to corroborate evidence…

Cohen, Morris; And Others

1990-01-01

226

Is the WMS-IV verbal paired associates as effective as other memory tasks in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging?  

PubMed

Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults. PMID:23767765

Pike, Kerryn E; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Storey, Elsdon; Ames, David; Saling, Michael; Clare, Linda; Parsons, Samuel

2013-01-01

227

Children's Memory for Early Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction reviews recent trends in childhood memory research, focusing on closer relations between the study of memory development and the study of cognitive and neurological development, new relations between the study of memory development and the study of adult memory, and new relations between the study of memory development and…

Newcombe, Nora; And Others

1995-01-01

228

Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

2004-01-01

229

Does fascia hold memories?  

PubMed

The idea that tissues may possess some sort of memory is a controversial topic in manual medicine, calling for research and clinical exploration. Many bodyworkers, at some point in their practice, have experienced phenomena that may be interpreted as representing a release of memory traces when working on dysfunctional tissues. This feeling may have been accompanied by some type of sensory experience, for the therapist and/or the patient. In some cases, early traumatic experiences may be recalled. When this happens, the potency of the memory may be erased or eased, along with restoration of tissue function. Hence the questions: can memories be held in the fascia? And: are these memories accessible during manual fascial work? Modern research has proposed a variety of different interpretations as to how memory might be stored in soft tissues, possibly involving other forms of information storage not exclusively processed neurologically (Box 1). PMID:24725795

Tozzi, Paolo

2014-04-01

230

Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.

231

Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia.

Herbener, Ellen S.

2008-01-01

232

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

233

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

Kanerva, Pentti

1988-01-01

234

Schemas and Memory Consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative ``schema'' into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place

Dorothy Tse; Rosamund F. Langston; Masaki Kakeyama; Ingrid Bethus; Patrick A. Spooner; Emma R. Wood; Menno P. Witter; Richard G. M. Morris

2007-01-01

235

Removing pathogenic memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional\\u000a and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are\\u000a currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and\\u000a phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and

Diego Centonze; Alberto Siracusano; Paolo Calabresi; Giorgio Bernardi

2005-01-01

236

Testing Shared Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Sequential consistency is the most-widely used correctness condition for multiprocessormemory systems. This paper studies the problem of testing shared memory multiprocessors todetermine if they are indeed providing a sequentially consistent memory. It presents the first formalstudy of this problem, which has applications to testing new memory system designs and realizations,providing run-time fault tolerance, and detecting bugs in parallel programs.A

Phillip B. Gibbons; Ephraim Korach

1997-01-01

237

The Memory Management Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

2001-01-01

238

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

239

Thinking and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Remembering the past is crucially important for cognitive functions, such as anticipating and planning future activities or\\u000a thinking about one’s own self. In Tulving’s hierarchy of long-term memory systems, episodic memory is the highest one that\\u000a is most likely uniquely human. One of the characteristics of episodic memory is the ability to mentally travel into the past\\u000a and the future.

Matthias Brand; Hans J. Markowitsch

240

Memory Golf Clubs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

1997-01-01

241

Memory Load and Dump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proposal is a test and verification of the STIS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity STIS-02;

Welty, Alan

2008-07-01

242

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

243

Memory on time.  

PubMed

Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-02-01

244

Memory on time  

PubMed Central

Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can ‘replay’ sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons – called time cells – encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories.

Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-01-01

245

Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present research was to determine whether short-term memory and working memory could be distinguished. In two\\u000a studies, 7- to 13-year-olds (N = 155,N = 132) were administered tasks thought to assess short-term memory as well as tasks thought to assess working memory. Both\\u000a exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses distinguished short-term memory tasks from working memory tasks.

Robert Kail; Lynda K. Hall

2001-01-01

246

Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

2012-01-01

247

Memory-to-memory connection structures in FPGAs with embedded memory arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the speed of FPGAs with large embedded memory arrays can be improved by adding direct programmable connections between the memories. Nets that connect to multiple memory arrays are often difficult to route, and are often part of the critical path of circuit implementations. The memory-to-memory connection structure proposed in this paper allows for the efficient implementation

Steven J. E. Wilton; Jonathan Rose; Zvonko G. Vranesic

1997-01-01

248

Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

1991-01-01

249

Shape Memory Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

2007-01-01

250

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

251

Learning & Memory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press has placed online the journal Learning & Memory, an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. Online full-text content begins with the May/June 1998 issue; abstracts begin with the September/October, 1995 issue. The journal is produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1998-01-01

252

The Biology of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the conflicting evidence and points of view presented by scientists involved in research on the nature of memory. The research of one group supports a chemical basis for memory, while the other group presents evidence supporting an electro-physiological basis. (JR)

Arehart-Treichel, Joan

1973-01-01

253

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

254

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

255

Memory and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews the memories of 40 Holocaust survivors who reflected on their lives more than 60 years after liberation. The participants were randomly selected from the larger group of Holocaust survivors in the “Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship Among Holocaust Survivors” study funded by the John Templeton Foundation. Data collected from open-end questions about their memories were analyzed. The findings

Harriet L. Cohen; Katie Meek; Mary Lieberman

2010-01-01

256

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

257

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

258

Composable memory transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing concurrent programs is notoriously difficult, and is of increasing practical importance. A particular source of concern is that even correctly-implemented concurrency abstractions cannot be composed together to form larger abstractions. In this paper we present a new concurrency model, based on transactional memory, that offers far richer composition. All the usual benefits of transactional memory are present (e.g. freedom

Tim Harris; Simon Marlow; Simon Peyton-Jones; Maurice Herlihy

2005-01-01

259

Extending Mondrian Memory Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most modern operating systems implement some sort of memory protection scheme for user processes. These schemes make it is possible to set access permissions that determine whether a region of memory allocated for a process can be read, written, or execut...

C. Kolbitsch C. Kruegel E. Kirda

2010-01-01

260

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

261

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

262

Regret as Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

2008-01-01

263

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

264

When forgetting preserves memory.  

PubMed

There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48?h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48?h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies. PMID:23382724

Hupbach, Almut

2013-01-01

265

Linux Physical Memory Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tool suite for analysis of physical memory usage within the Linux kernel environment. This tool suite can be used to collect and analyze how the physi- cal memory within a Linux environment is being used. Embedded subsystems are common in today's computer systems. These embedded subsystems range from the very simple to the very complex. In such

Paul Movall; Ward Nelson; Shaun Wetzstein

2005-01-01

266

Computer Associative Memory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work done in the Computer Associative Memory Study Program is described. The object was to determine whether use of an Associative Memory would be of value in spaceborne computing problems. The results of the study are that a class of spaceborne problems ...

1964-01-01

267

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

268

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... remember until you pass it on. Long-term memory stores information that your brain retains because it is important to you. Basic information remembered includes names of family and friends, your address, as ... Long-term memory can be further divided into explicit, implicit and ...

269

Age and prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation into the effects of age, intelligence, and retrospective memory on performance in a prospective memory task in which subjects aged between 52 and 95 were required to telephone once a day either between two times or at an exact time. The most important influence on performance was how subjects chose to remember to make the

Elizabeth A. Maylor

1990-01-01

270

When Forgetting Preserves Memory  

PubMed Central

There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48?h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48?h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies.

Hupbach, Almut

2013-01-01

271

High Density Memory Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention provides novel high density memory devices that are electrically addressable permitting effective reading and writing, that provide a high memory density (e.g., 10.sup.15 bits/cm.sup.3), that provide a high degree of fault tolerance, and th...

D. E. Bocian D. T. Gryko J. Lindsey P. C. Clausen W. G. Kuhr

2005-01-01

272

Holographic Random Access Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We designed and demonstrated a fully working, large-scale random-access holographic memory. The recording medium is a Fe-doped LiNb03 photorefractive crystal. The storage capacity of the memory is limited by the dynamic range and geometric limitation. The...

D. Psaltis

1997-01-01

273

Cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A neuropsychological test battery, including subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Test, and Trail Making Test, which assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, processing speed, logical reasoning, verbal intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, was administered to 13- to 19-year-old patients with IBD (n = 34; active disease n = 20). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings were compared with peers with non-acute juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; n = 23). Patients with coexisting psychiatric disorders were excluded. RESULTS: The IBD group, especially patients in the acute phase, made more perseverative errors in the CVLT test that assessed verbal memory than the JIA group (6.0 ± 4.3 vs 3.3 ± 2.9, P < 0.01), but no other differences between the IBD and JIA groups were observed in the neuropsychological tests. The difference was close to statistical significance, even when glucocorticoid medication was controlled for (P < 0.052). The IBD group had more depressive symptoms than the JIA group (7.9 ± 7.6 vs 4.0 ± 4.0, P < 0.05). Approximately one third of the IBD group had at least mild depressive symptoms, and those with acute illness had the highest scores. However, depressive symptoms were not related to the difference in the verbal memory test (perseverative errors in the CVLT) between the IBD and JIA groups. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with acute IBD may have mild verbal memory problems but no major cognitive deficits compared to peers with JIA.

Castaneda, Anu E; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

2013-01-01

274

Schemas and memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation. PMID:17412951

Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

2007-04-01

275

Computer memory management system  

DOEpatents

A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

2002-01-01

276

Learning and memory.  

PubMed

Learning and memory functions are crucial in the interaction of an individual with the environment and involve the interplay of large, distributed brain networks. Recent advances in technologies to explore neurobiological correlates of neuropsychological paradigms have increased our knowledge about human learning and memory. In this chapter we first review and define memory and learning processes from a neuropsychological perspective. Then we provide some illustrations of how noninvasive brain stimulation can play a major role in the investigation of memory functions, as it can be used to identify cause-effect relationships and chronometric properties of neural processes underlying cognitive steps. In clinical medicine, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used as a diagnostic tool to understand memory and learning deficits in various patient populations. Furthermore, noninvasive brain stimulation is also being applied to enhance cognitive functions, offering exciting translational therapeutic opportunities in neurology and psychiatry. PMID:24112934

Brem, Anna-Katharine; Ran, Kathy; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

277

Memory Event Clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce logics and automata based on memory event clocks. A memory clock is not really reset: instead, a new clock is created, while the old one is still accessible by indexing. We can thus constrain not only the time since the last reset (which was the main limitation in event clocks), but also since previous resets. When we introduce these clocks in the linear temporal logic of the reals, we create Recursive Memory Event Clocks Temporal Logic (RMECTL). It turns out to have the same expressiveness as the Temporal Logic with Counting (TLC) of Hirshfeld and Rabinovich. We then examine automata with recursive memory event clocks (RMECA). Recursive event clocks are reset by simpler RMECA, hence the name "recursive". In contrast, we show that for RMECA, memory clocks do not add expressiveness, but only concision. The original RECA define thus a fully decidable, robust and expressive level of real-time expressiveness.

Jerson Ortiz, James; Legay, Axel; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves

278

Graphene flash memory.  

PubMed

Graphene's single atomic layer of sp(2) carbon has recently garnered much attention for its potential use in electronic applications. Here, we report a memory application for graphene, which we call graphene flash memory (GFM). GFM has the potential to exceed the performance of current flash memory technology by utilizing the intrinsic properties of graphene, such as high density of states, high work function, and low dimensionality. To this end, we have grown large-area graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition and integrated them into a floating gate structure. GFM displays a wide memory window of ?6 V at significantly low program/erase voltages of ±7 V. GFM also shows a long retention time of more than 10 years at room temperature. Additionally, simulations suggest that GFM suffers very little from cell-to-cell interference, potentially enabling scaling down far beyond current state-of-the-art flash memory devices. PMID:21854056

Hong, Augustin J; Song, Emil B; Yu, Hyung Suk; Allen, Matthew J; Kim, Jiyoung; Fowler, Jesse D; Wassei, Jonathan K; Park, Youngju; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jin; Kaner, Richard B; Weiller, Bruce H; Wang, Kang L

2011-10-25

279

Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

2012-01-01

280

Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Noradrenaline (NA) is implicated in arousal. Working memory is dependent upon prefrontal cortex, and moderate levels of NA are thought to facilitate working memory whereas higher levels during extreme stress may impair working memory and engage more posterior cortical and sub-cortical circuitry. The NA system also influences emotional memory via modulation of the amygdalae and related mediotemporal structures. NA dysfunction

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Ulrich Müller; Andrew D. Blackwell; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

281

Mobile Memory: Improving Memory Locality in Very Large Reconfigurable Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the size of reconfigurable fabrics increases we can envision entire applications being mapped to a reconfig- urable device; not just the code, but also the memory. These larger circuits, unfortunately, will suffer from the problem of a growing memory bottleneck. In this paper we explore how mobile memory techniques, inspired by cache-only memory architectures, can be applied to help

Rong Yan; Seth Copen Goldstein

2002-01-01

282

Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

Schaefer, Carl F.

1980-01-01

283

From Corporate Memories to Supply Web Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern production has discovered knowledge as an additional factor of production and a new trend of research, development and implementation of corporate memory systems is arising. The global economy leads to tighter corporation relations be- tween enterprises. Therefore the knowledge of one product does not exist in a single company but within participating companies respective the sup- ply chain. A

Ingo J. Timm; Heiner Stuckenschmidt

2001-01-01

284

Memory of myself: autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

A number of theories posit a relationship between autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity in 20 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 age-matched controls, and investigated whether degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests of autobiographical memory (Autobiographical Memory Interview, autobiographical fluency) and two measures of identity (Twenty Statements Test, identity items of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale) were administered. AD participants exhibited significant impairments on both memory tests, and changes in the strength, quality, and direction of identity relative to controls. Impairments of some components of autobiographical memory, particularly autobiographical memory for childhood and early adulthood, were related to changes in the strength and quality of identity. These findings support the critical role of early adulthood autobiographical memories (16-25 years) in identity, and suggest autobiographical memory loss affects identity. PMID:15098621

Addis, Donna Rose; Tippett, Lynette J

2004-01-01

285

Memory consolidation for duration.  

PubMed

Humans and animals encode and store in memory elapsed intervals as evidenced through their temporal expectancies. However, there are very few experimental studies on long-term memory of duration. The aim of this original study was to examine the consolidation process for duration and its effect on time judgement. In our study, memory of duration was tested in humans with a temporal generalization task. Consolidation was assessed by means of a 15-min nontemporal interference task introduced at different delays after the initial learning of a 4-s standard duration. The results showed that (a) when tested 24?hours after the learning phase, memory of the 4-s duration was disrupted (less precision and lengthening effect) if the interference task was introduced 30-45?min after learning; (b) no disruption was observed when memory was tested immediately after the interference task; and (c) there was a temporal gradient of the disruptive interference effect within the first hour after learning. Overall, these results fulfil the key criteria for the inference of a synaptic/cellular consolidation process and thus demonstrate that, as is the case for other memories, memory of duration undergoes a consolidation process that lasts at least one hour. PMID:24279983

Cocenas-Silva, Raquel; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Doyère, Valérie; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

2014-07-01

286

Magnetic Core Memory Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A researcher from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow provides this website on Magnetic RAM (MRAM) -- a non-volatile memory storage system similar to Flash memory except that it uses less power and switches faster. Predicting that "2005 could see mass production of MRAM parts" to be used in powering instant-on computers and computers that are in stand-by power-savings mode (as is currently done with PDAs and laptops), the author reviews some of the physical challenges yet to be overcome. The website provides some basic information on magnetic memory and binary notation, as well as sections on: the Principle of the Magnetic Memory, The Rectangular Hysterisis Loop, A Magnetic Memory Element, Arrangement of Magnetic Core Memories, Relation between the Decimal and Binary Codes, How Numbers Are Stored in a Memory, How a Binary-Coded Decimal Digit is 'written in,' How a Digit is 'read out,' and a Complete Wiring Diagram of a Matrix Plane.

Doherty, Frederico A.

2008-01-23

287

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory is Special  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski, 2008), while other research suggests retrieval from secondary memory is only partly responsible for the observed link between working memory and reasoning (Unsworth & Engle, 2006, 2007b). The present study investigates the relationship between processing speed, working memory, secondary memory, primary memory, and fluid intelligence. Although our findings show all constructs are significantly correlated with fluid intelligence, working memory, but not secondary memory, accounts for significant unique variance in fluid intelligence. Our data support predictions made by Unsworth and Engle, and suggest that the combined need for maintenance and retrieval processes present in working memory tests makes them “special” in their prediction of higher-order cognition.

Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

2010-01-01

288

Aging and flexible remembering: contributions of conceptual span, fluid intelligence, and frontal functioning.  

PubMed

Aging attenuates the capacity to adaptively and flexibly use episodic memory at different levels of specificity. Older and younger adults were tested on a picture recognition task that required them to make episodic memory decisions at an item-specific (verbatim) versus category-based (gist-based) level on randomly intermixed trials. Specificity modulation was assessed using a measure of the likelihood that participants retrieved verbatim information in order to reject test items that were categorically related to studied items under item-specific recognition instructions (recollection rejection). We found that this measure positively correlated with conceptual span (an index of short-term semantic memory) and with level of fluid intelligence in older and younger adults. However, when we simultaneously considered each of four possible contributors (age, conceptual span, fluid intelligence, and frontal function), the only significant predictor of recollection rejection was the composite fluid intelligence measure (assessed by the Culture Fair Intelligence Test [Cattell & Cattell, 1960] and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Block Design subtest [Wechsler, 1981]). These findings suggest that interventions that facilitate adaptive specificity modulation in episodic memory may enhance the flexibility of thinking, and vice versa, in both older and younger adults. PMID:20230139

Aizpurua, Alaitz; Koutstaal, Wilma

2010-03-01

289

Memory, language, and ageing.  

PubMed Central

This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing.

Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

1997-01-01

290

Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects.  

PubMed

We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests--ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test-the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution. PMID:20083211

Apostolova, Liana G; Morra, Jonathan H; Green, Amity E; Hwang, Kristy S; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

2010-05-15

291

Sequoia: Programming the Memory Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Sequoia, a programming language designed to facilitate the development of memory hierarchy aware parallel programs that remain portable across modern machines featuring different memory hierarchy configurations. Sequoia abstractly exposes hierarchical memory in the programming model and provides language mechanisms to describe communication vertically through the machine and to localize computation to particular memory locations within it. We have

Kayvon Fatahalian; Timothy J. Knight; Mike Houston; Mattan Erez; Daniel Reiter Horn; Larkhoon Leem; Ji Young Park; Manman Ren; Alex Aiken; William J. Dally; Pat Hanrahan

2006-01-01

292

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

293

The Composition of Episodic Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

294

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

295

The relationship between hippocampal volume and declarative memory in a population of combat veterans with and without PTSD.  

PubMed

Both reduced hippocampal volume and cognitive alterations have been found in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between hippocampal volume, combat exposure, symptom severity, and memory performance in a sample of combat veterans with and without a history of PTSD. Subjects were 33 male veteran volunteers (16 PTSD+, 17 PTSD-) who underwent an MRI and neuropsychological testing with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), a measure of declarative memory. Relationships between hippocampal volume (i.e., right + left hippocampal volume/whole brain volume) and performance on the CVLT were determined using partial correlational analysis controlled for age and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores. Percent hippocampal volume for the entire sample was positively associated with several aspects of memory performance as reflected by the CVLT. In the PTSD+ group, CVLT performance was negatively correlated with lifetime, but not current CAPS symptoms. CVLT performance appears to be strongly correlated with hippocampal volume in a group of trauma survivors with and without PTSD. Insofar as CVLT performance in the PTSD group was negatively associated with worst episode, but not to current PTSD symptoms, memory performance in combat veterans may reflect some aspect of risk related to the magnitude of the psychological response to trauma, rather than current symptoms that may be interfering with cognitive performance. It will be of interest to study cognitive abilities that may relate to the likelihood of specific PTSD symptoms and to track changes in CVLT performance and hippocampal volume over time in persons with and without a history of trauma exposure. PMID:16891587

Tischler, Lisa; Brand, Sarah R; Stavitsky, Karina; Labinsky, Ellen; Newmark, Randall; Grossman, Robert; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Yehuda, Rachel

2006-07-01

296

Channel Select Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fully decoded 512-bit (32 x 16) MNOS electrically word alterable, semiconductor memory was developed for use in channel preselect applications to control the frequency in UHF communication systems. It includes address and timing buffers, row decoders, c...

W. Peck

1976-01-01

297

CONSOLIDATION OF MOTOR MEMORY  

PubMed Central

A question of great recent interest is whether motor memory consolidates in a manner analogous to declarative memories, with the formation of a memory that progresses over time from a fragile state, susceptible to interference by a lesion or a conflicting motor task, to a stabilized state, resistant to such interference. Here, we first review studies that examine the anatomical basis for motor consolidation: evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry for two types of associative motor learning, eyelid conditioning and vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, and primary motor cortex for skilled finger movements. We then review evidence for and against a consolidation process for adaptation of arm movements. We propose that contradictions have arisen because consolidation can be masked by inhibition of memory retrieval.

Krakauer, John W.; Shadmehr, Reza

2008-01-01

298

Memory Circuit Fault Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

2013-01-01

299

Optical Memory Application Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this effort was to determine the potential user base of the three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric memory (VM) technology currently under development at AFRL, Rome Research Site. A secondary objective was to determine the system characteristi...

J. J. Riolo J. R. Wilson

1999-01-01

300

Hierarchical model of memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layered hierarchical memory model is constructed. The model can store families of correlated images ordered in the form of a hierarchical tree. The structure of the model is similar to that of the visual cortex of the brain.

Dotsenko, Viktor S.

1986-12-01

301

Object Location Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

302

Holographic Random Access Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program, originally proposed in early 1991 and eventually funded in late 1992, represented a pioneering effort to demonstrate, using only commercially available components and proven technologies, the technical feasibility of 3-D holographic memories...

S. Raffensperger

1996-01-01

303

Stress and Memory: Opposing Effects of Glucocorticoids on Memory Consolidation and Memory Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones, secreted by the adrenal cortex after a stressful event, influence cognitive performance. Some studies have found glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement. However, many studies have reported impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory function. This paper reviews recent findings from this laboratory on the acute effects of glucocorticoids in rats on specific memory phases, i.e., memory

Benno Roozendaal

2002-01-01

304

Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity.  

PubMed

The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

Johnson, Elizabeth L; Miller Singley, Alison T; Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L; Bunge, Silvia A

2014-01-01

305

Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity  

PubMed Central

The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM.

Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Bunge, Silvia A.

2014-01-01

306

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

307

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

308

Mondrian memory protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mondrian memory protection (MMP) is a fine-grained protection scheme that allows multiple protection domains to flexibly share memory and export protected services. In contrast to earlier page-based systems, MMP allows arbitrary permissions control at the granularity of individual words. We use a compressed permissions table to reduce space overheads and employ two levels of permissions caching to reduce run-time overheads.

Emmett Witchel; Josh Cates; Krste Asanovi?

2002-01-01

309

Phase change memory technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the current state of phase change memory (PCM), a non-volatile solid-state memory technology built around the large electrical contrast between the highly-resistive amorphous and highly-conductive crystalline states in so-called phase change materials. PCM technology has made rapid progress in a short time, having passed older technologies in terms of both sophisticated demonstrations of scaling to small device dimensions,

Geoffrey W. Burr; Matthew J. Breitwisch; Michele Franceschini; Davide Garetto; Kailash Gopalakrishnan; Bryan Jackson; Bulent Kurdi; Chung Lam; Luis A. Lastras; Alvaro Padilla; Bipin Rajendran; Simone Raoux; Rohit S. Shenoy

2010-01-01

310

Emergence of Collective Memories  

PubMed Central

Background We understand the dynamics of the world around us as by associating pairs of events, where one event has some influence on the other. These pairs of events can be aggregated into a web of memories representing our understanding of an episode of history. The events and the associations between them need not be directly experienced—they can also be acquired by communication. In this paper we take a network approach to study the dynamics of memories of history. Methodology/Principal Findings First we investigate the network structure of a data set consisting of reported events by several individuals and how associations connect them. We focus our measurement on degree distributions, degree correlations, cycles (which represent inconsistencies as they would break the time ordering) and community structure. We proceed to model effects of communication using an agent-based model. We investigate the conditions for the memory webs of different individuals to converge to collective memories, how groups where the individuals have similar memories (but different from other groups) can form. Conclusions/Significance Our work outlines how the cognitive representation of memories and social structure can co-evolve as a contagious process. We generate some testable hypotheses including that the number of groups is limited as a function of the total population size.

Lee, Sungmin; Ramenzoni, Veronica C.; Holme, Petter

2010-01-01

311

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memory.  

PubMed

A consensus exists that cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are efficacious for mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Unfortunately, the number of non-responders is large and the therapeutic effect is usually short-lasting. In experimental animals, ChEIs exert three main actions: inhibit cholinesterase (ChE), increase extracellular levels of brain acetylcholine (ACh), improve cognitive processes, particularly when disrupted in models of AD. In this overview we shall deal with the cognitive processes that are improved by ChEI treatment because they depend on the integrity of brain cholinergic pathways and their activation. The role of cholinergic system in cognition can be investigated using different approaches. Microdialysis experiments demonstrate the involvement of the cholinergic system in attention, working, spatial and explicit memory, information encoding, sensory-motor gating, skill learning. No involvement in long-term memory has yet been demonstrated. Conversely, memory consolidation is facilitated by low cholinergic activity. Experiments on healthy human subjects, notwithstanding caveats concerning age, dose, and different memory tests, confirm the findings of animal experiments and demonstrate that stimulation of the cholinergic system facilitates attention, stimulus detection, perceptual processing and information encoding. It is not clear whether information retrieval may be improved but memory consolidation is reduced by cholinergic activation. ChEI effects in AD patients have been extensively investigated using rating scales that assess cognitive and behavioural responses. Few attempts have been made to identify which scale items respond better to ChEIs and therefore, presumably, depend on the activity of the cholinergic system. Improvement in attention and executive functions, communication, expressive language and mood stability have been reported. Memory consolidation and retrieval may be impaired by high ACh levels. Therefore, considering that in AD the degeneration of the cholinergic system is associated with alteration of other neurotransmitter systems and a diffuse synaptic loss, a limited efficacy of ChEIs on memory processes should be expected. PMID:19941841

Pepeu, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

2010-09-01

312

Memory function and supportive technology  

PubMed Central

Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems.

Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

2013-01-01

313

Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age123  

PubMed Central

Background: The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n?3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n?3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. Design: In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test–Children's Version. Results: Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n?3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA–related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n?3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W

2011-01-01

314

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

315

Diagnostic Validity of Wechsler Substest Scatter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive subtest scatter has often been considered to be diagnostically significant. The current study tested the diagnostic validity of four separate operationalizations of WISC-III subtest scatter: (a) range of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (b) variance of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (c) number of subtests…

Watkins, Marley W.

2005-01-01

316

Serum dioxin and cognitive functioning among veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.  

PubMed

We used the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological test battery, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised, the Wechsler memory scale, and the wide range achievement test to assess cognitive functioning among Air Force veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), during the Vietnam war The index subjects were veterans of Operation Ranch Hand (N = 937), the unit responsible for aerial herbicide spraying in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of other Air Force veterans (N= 1,052), who served in Southeast Asia during the same period but were not involved with spraying herbicides served as referents. Cognitive functioning was assessed in 1982, and dioxin levels were measured in 1987 and 1992. We assigned each Ranch Hand veteran to the background, low, or high dioxin exposure category on the basis of a measurement of dioxin body burden. Although we found no global effect of dioxin exposure on cognitive functioning, we did find that several measures of memory functioning were decreased among veterans with the highest dioxin exposure. These results became more distinct when we restricted the analysis to enlisted personnel, the subgroup with the highest dioxin levels. An analysis based on dioxin quintiles in the combined cohort produced consistent results, with veterans in the fifth quintile exhibiting reduced verbal memory function. Although statistically significant, these differences were relatively small and of uncertain clinical significance. PMID:11577806

Barrett, D H; Morris, R D; Akhtar, F Z; Michalek, J E

2001-08-01

317

Memory MISER: Improving Main Memory Energy Efficiency in Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main memory power in volume and mid-range servers is growing as a fraction of total system power. The resulting energy consumption increases system cost and the heat produced reduces reliability. Emergent memory technology will provide systems with the ability to dynamically turn-on (online) and turn-off (offline) memory devices at runtime. This technology, coupled with slack in memory demand, offers the

Matthew E. Tolentino; Joseph Turner; Kirk W. Cameron

2009-01-01

318

Memory Capacity Tests and Uses Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides methods for assessing memory in a subject and for screening for agents directed to treating or preventing memory impairment and dementia characterized by memory impairment. The memory tests provide within-person measures of ...

H. Buschke

2004-01-01

319

Vietnam Veterans Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC can be an emotional experience, and it has garnered substantial acclaim since it was unveiled in 1982. The people behind the Footnote historical records site recently crafted this interactive version of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and it's well worth a look. The interactive image was assembled from 6301 images photographed by Peter Krogh and stitched together by Darren Higgins. Visitors can type in names to the search engine at the top of the homepage, browse names by category, and also look up names by military branch. Additionally, visitors can leave a tribute, a story, or a photograph about any of the 58,256 veterans listed on the Memorial.

320

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

321

Shape Memory Alloys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers Shape Memory Alloys or Smart Materials. A Smart Material or Shape Memory Alloys belongs to a class of materials which displays the shape memory effect (SME); they possess the ability to radically change crystal structure or phase at a distinct temperature. The lab will "explore how smart materials work and what applications these materials are used in." Additionally, students will be provided with a brief history lesson about the origins of smart material. The experiment is quite fun, students will observe how smart materials can "think and do amazing things." A student and teacher guide is provided with the lab. Overall, this is a great exercise for any science classroom interested in the workings of nanotechnology.

2009-01-26

322

Schizotypy and false memory.  

PubMed

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

2009-03-01

323

Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

324

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique for eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memory allocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on a sequence of training inputs to find m-bounded allocation sites, wh...

H. H. Nguyen M. Rinard

2005-01-01

325

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems  

MedlinePLUS

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem In our busy lives, all of us forget things at one time ... people have little or no change in their memory, but, in others, forgetfulness can begin to interfere ...

326

Entropic memory erasure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have considered a Brownian particle confined in a two-dimensional bilobal enclosure where the state of the particle represents a bit of information having binary value 0 (left lobe) or 1 (right lobe). A time linear force is applied on the particle, driving it selectively to a particular lobe, and thus erasing one bit of information. We explore the statistics of heat and work associated with memory erasure to realize the Landauer limit in the entropic domain. Our results suggest that the mean value of work done associated with the complete erasure procedure satisfies the Landauer bound even when the memory is purely entropic in nature.

Das, Moupriya

2014-03-01

327

Making sense of memory.  

PubMed

The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

Bernstein, Daniel M

2005-09-01

328

[Visual memory in aphasics].  

PubMed

The capacity of memorization and subsequent recognition and reproduction of visual images of various degrees of verbalization was studied experimentally in patients with different forms of aphasia. The nature of visual memory disorders was found to correlate with specific characteristics of disturbances of higher psychic functions in different forms of aphasia. It was revealed that in aphasic versus normal subjects, the way of trace ecphoria was more important for memorization than the degree of material verbalization. The authors analyze specific features of the reverse development of visual memory disorders associated with various forms of aphasia over rehabilitation training. PMID:6198827

Glozman, Zh M; Pylaeva, N M; Sal'nikova, T Iu

1983-01-01

329

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

330

About Sleep's Role in Memory  

PubMed Central

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

2013-01-01

331

Anemone: adaptive network memory engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a constant battle to break-even between continuing improvements in DRAM capacities and the demands for even more memory by modern memory-intensive high-performance applications. Such applications do not take long to hit the physical memory limit and start paging to disk, which in turn considerably slows down their performance. We tackle this problem in the Adaptive Network Memory Engine

Michael R. Hines; Mark Lewandowski; Kartik Gopalan

2005-01-01

332

Shape memory alloys — characterization techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape memory alloys are the generic class of alloys that show both thermal and mechanical memory. The basic physics involved\\u000a in the shape memory effect is the reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In general, there exists two phases\\u000a in shape memory alloys, viz., a high-temperature phase or austenitic phase (A) and a low-temperature phase or martensitic\\u000a phase (M). In addition, an

Jayagopal Uchil

2002-01-01

333

Memory dynamics in the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reward learning in honeybees initiates a sequence of events which leads to long-lasting memory passing through multiple phases\\u000a of transient memories. The study of memory dynamics is performed at the behavioral (both natural foraging behavior and appetitive\\u000a conditioning), neural circuit and molecular levels. The results of these combined efforts lead to a model which assumes five\\u000a kinds of sequential memories,

R. Menzel

1999-01-01

334

Shape memory polymer medical device  

DOEpatents

A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

Maitland, Duncan (Pleasant Hill, CA) [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S. (San Leandro, CA) [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA) [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA) [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E. (Livermore, CA); Loge, Jeffrey M. (Stockton, CA) [Stockton, CA

2010-06-29

335

About sleep's role in memory.  

PubMed

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

2013-04-01

336

Play Memories and Place Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

Sandberg, Anette

2003-01-01

337

Dual redundant core memory systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

Hull, F. E.

1972-01-01

338

A Generalized Memory Test Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm ca...

E. J. Milner

1982-01-01

339

Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

2010-01-01

340

Autobiographical Memory in Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood-memory phenomena have been studied using laboratory mood induction procedures with nondepressed subjects and with clinically depressed individuals. The present study examined both hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of autobiographical memory in people who had recently attempted suicide by overdose. Attempted suicide subjects, who were required to retrieve specific personal memories to positive or negative cue words, showed biased retrieval when

J. Mark G. Williams; Keith Broadbent

1986-01-01

341

First Words and First Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

2010-01-01

342

A theory of memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Develops a theory of memory retrieval and shows that it applies over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probe–memory item relatedness, just as a ringing tuning fork evokes sympathetic vibrations in other tuning forks. Evidence is accumulated in

Roger Ratcliff

1978-01-01

343

Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

2009-01-01

344

Cognitive neuroscience of emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional events often attain a privileged status in memory. Cognitive neuroscientists have begun to elucidate the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying emotional retention advantages in the human brain. The amygdala is a brain structure that directly mediates aspects of emotional learning and facilitates memory operations in other regions, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Emotion–memory interactions occur at various stages

Roberto Cabeza; Kevin S LaBar

2006-01-01

345

Transacted Memory for Smart Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation \\/ SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system itself and on the development process involving multiple notations and tools.

Pieter H. Hartel; Michael J. Butler; Eduard De Jong; Mark Longley

2001-01-01

346

A model for hierarchical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the Hierarchical Memory Model (HMM) of computation. It is intended to model computers with multiple levels in the memory hierarchy. Access to memory location x is assumed to take time ? log x ?. Tight lower and upper bounds are given in this model for the time complexity of searching, sorting, matrix multiplication and FFT.

Alok Aggarwal; Bowen Alpern; Ashok K. Chandra; Marc Snir

1987-01-01

347

Individual Differences in Memory Span.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One series of experiments examined the correlation between memory span and the speed of symbol manipulation in short-term memory, and another experiment analyzed the effects of extended practice on memory span. In the first study, most of the estimates of...

W. G. Chase D. R. Lyon K. A. Ericsson

1979-01-01

348

Alcohol, Middle Age and Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Memory Transcript Can daily drinking lead to memory loss later in life? Results of a new study suggest it can in men. The British study involved 5,054 men and 2,099 women with an average age of 56. Their self ... were also given memory and executive function tests over the same time ...

349

Sleep Loss Produces False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether

Susanne Diekelmann; Hans-Peter Landolt; Olaf Lahl; Jan Born; Ullrich Wagner

2008-01-01

350

What people believe about memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings,

Svein Magnussen; Jan Andersson; Cesare Cornoldi; Rossana De Beni; Tor Endestad; Gail S. Goodman; Tore Helstrup; Asher Koriat; Maria Larsson; Annika Melinder; Lars-Göran Nilsson; Jerker Rönnberg; Hubert Zimmer

2006-01-01

351

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals  

PubMed Central

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

352

Shape Memory Alloy Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

353

Shape Memory Alloy Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

354

Memory Mechanisms in Grasping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

2009-01-01

355

Optical Cache Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this effort is to build an Exploratory Development Model (EDM), of an optical cache memory utilizing existing off-the-shelf components to demonstrate system feasibility, key system concepts, and validation of the overall system approach. An op...

C. P. Kuo

1991-01-01

356

Silicon optical nanocrystal memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the operation of a silicon optical nanocrystal memory device. The programmed logic state of the device is read optically by the detection of high or low photoluminescence intensity. The suppression of excitonic photoluminescence is attributed to the onset of fast nonradiative Auger recombination in the presence of an excess charge carrier. The device can be programmed and erased

R. J. Walters; P. G. Kik; J. D. Casperson; H. A. Atwater; R. Lindstedt; M. Giorgi; G. Bourianoff

2004-01-01

357

Dreams Memories & Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

Young, Bernard

2012-01-01

358

Profiling Transactional Memory Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional Memory (TM) has become an active research area as it promises to simplify the development of highly scalable parallel programs. Scalability is quickly becom- ing an essential software requirement as successive commodity processors integrate ever larger numbers of cores. Non-trivial TM applications to test TM implementations have only recently begun to emerge, but have been written in different programming

Mohammad Ansari; Kim Jarvis; Christos Kotselidis; Mikel Luján; Chris C. Kirkham; Ian Watson

2009-01-01

359

Working Memory and Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and think-alouds, focusing on the issue of reactivity. Two WM span tasks (listening span and operation span) were administered to 42 English-speaking learners of Spanish. Learner performance on reading comprehension and written production was measured under two…

Goo, Jaemyung

2010-01-01

360

Concept attainment and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In one experiment the same 6 problems were administered under 3 different memory conditions to 3 groups of 33 Ss, a total of 99 Ss. The most efficient performance was in the simultaneous condition that kept all instances in sight. The least efficient performance was in the successive condition where each instance was removed before the next instance was exposed.

Solis L. Kates; Lee Yudin

1964-01-01

361

Software transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronizationoperations greatly simplifies the task of designinghighly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existinghardware is inflexible and is at best on the levelof a Load Linked\\/Store Conditional operation on a singleword. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronizationmethodology of Herlihy and Moss, we offersoftware transactional memory (STM), a novel softwaremethod for supporting flexible transactional...

Nir Shavit; Dan Touitou

1995-01-01

362

Memory Tube Diffusion Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memory tubes were devised to sample the gas composition in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) duct at many locations (33-100) using only a few mass spectrometers. The feasibility of this technique was evaluated by examining the capability of long tubes ...

L. R. Martin R. A. Hertz R. B. Cohen R. N. Abernathy

1988-01-01

363

Creating Media Center Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the goals of the school library media specialist is to "Promote the library media program as an attractive, welcoming, and essential venue" (AASL 89). The media center should convey an atmosphere where students feel welcome. Creating media center memories can help library media specialists to achieve this goal. This article describes…

Spann, Youlita

2008-01-01

364

Memory for Serial Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

1989-01-01

365

Child Maltreatment and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to childhood trauma, especially child maltreatment, has important implications for memory of emotionally distressing experiences. These implications stem from cognitive, socio-emotional, mental health, and neurobiological consequences of maltreatment and can be at least partially explained by current theories concerning the effects of childhood trauma. In this review, two main hypotheses are advanced: (a) Maltreatment in childhood is associated with

Gail S. Goodman; Jodi A. Quas; Christin M. Ogle

2010-01-01

366

Maintaining the corporate memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well known fact is that corporations don’t have memories. This is because the majority of the knowledge is maintained in the employees’ heads and when they leave that knowledge walks out with them. This continues to be the bane of process safety as errors get perpetuated and incidents repeated. A system can be created, though, to form and keep a

Jack Chosnek

2010-01-01

367

A MEMORY SCHEDULE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR PROBLEMS OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IS THE "GRADUATED INTERVAL RECALL," A PROCEDURE FOR AIDING STUDENTS TO REMEMBER THE VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURES THEY HAVE LEARNED. WHEN A NEW WORD IS LEARNED, THE PROCESS OF FORGETTING BEGINS AT ONCE AND PROCEEDS VERY RAPIDLY. IF THE STUDENT IS REMINDED OF THE WORD BEFORE HE HAS…

PIMSLEUR, PAUL

368

Money Is Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the sets of feasible allocations in a large class of economic environments in which commitment is impossible (following Myerson [8], the standard definition of feasibility is adapted to take account of the lack of commitment). The environments feature eithermemoryormoney. Memory is defined as knowledge on the part of an agent of the full histories of all agents

Narayana R. Kocherlakota

1998-01-01

369

Prospective memory and aging: The effects of working memory and prospective memory task load  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person's level of engagement in other actions may influence whether a prospective action is correctly performed. This study used a computerized prospective memory task in which participants remembered to perform an action when a specified background pattern appeared while they simultaneously performed a verbal working memory task. Amount of engagement in the working memory task was manipulated by increasing

Daniel P. Kidder; Denise C. Park; Christopher Hertzog; Roger W. Morrell

1997-01-01

370

Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of rollback recovery in distributed shared virtual environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software in a loosely coupled distributed multicomputer system, is examined. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and a new twin-page disk storage management technique are presented for implementing recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme can be integrated with the memory coherence protocol for managing the shared virtual memory. The twin-page disk design allows checkpointing to proceed in an incremental fashion without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a checkpoint without a global restart.

Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

1990-01-01

371

Prospective memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

The content of prospective memory is comprised of representations of an action to perform in the future. When people form prospective memories, they temporarily put the memory representation in an inactive state while engaging in other activities, and then activate the representation in the future. Ultimately, successful activation of the memory representation yields an action at an appropriate, but temporally distant, time. A hallmark of prospective memory is that activation of the memory representation has a deleterious effect on current ongoing activity. Recent evidence suggests that scrub jays and non-human primates, but not other species, are capable of future planning. We hypothesized that prospective memory produces a selective deficit in performance at the time when rats access a memory representation but not when the memory representation is inactive. Rats were trained in a temporal bisection task (90 min/day). Immediately after the bisection task, half of the rats received an 8-g meal (meal group) and the other rats received no additional food (no-meal group). Sensitivity to time in the bisection task was reduced as the 90-min interval elapsed for the meal group but not for the no-meal group. This time-based prospective-memory effect was not based on response competition, an attentional limit, anticipatory contrast, or fatigue. Our results suggest that rats form prospective memories, which produces a negative side effect on ongoing activity.

Wilson, A. George; Crystal, Jonathon D.

2011-01-01

372

The staff observation aggression scale-revised (SOAS-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper assessment of aggressive behavior is essential for an understanding of its causes. In 1987, Palmstierna and Wistedt (Acta Psychiatr Scand 76:657-663) introduced the Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS), an instrument for monitoring the frequency, nature, and severity of aggressive incidents. In the present study, the validity of the SOAS severity scoring system was examined, and the severity scores were

Henk L. I. Nijman; Peter Muris; Harald L. G. J. Merckelbach; Tom Palmstierna; Borje Wistedt; A. M. Vos; Ans van Rixtel; Wiel Allertz

1999-01-01

373

Longevity pathways and memory aging  

PubMed Central

The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation.

Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

2014-01-01

374

[Organization and substrate of memory].  

PubMed

Recently, we have witnessed considerable progress in the field of memory research. New approaches and techniques have allowed the fractionation of memory in several subentities. Working memory, in which sensory information is manipulated for 10-20 seconds, is served by an area laterally in the frontal lobes. Long-lasting memories are either of the explicit or implicit variety. Contents of explicit memory stores can be accessed by conscious processes and depend upon medial temporal lobe structures, in particular the hippocampal formation. Implicit memories can not be consciously accessed and have its many substrates distributed to different parts of the brain, depending upon the material or procedures involved. Long-term memories are reconstructive and thus amenable to forgetting, alteration and, in some cases, even repression. PMID:9914762

Andersen, P

1998-12-10

375

Constructive memory: past and future  

PubMed Central

Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

376

Heroin inhalation-induced unilateral complete hippocampal stroke.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old man presented to our clinic with amnesia 48 hours after his first heroin inhalation. Examination showed lateral tongue biting and anterograde amnesia demonstrated by impaired performance on verbal and visual Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised tests carried out 10 days after onset, suggesting hippocampal involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed 48 hours after heroin snorting and evoked cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) of the left hippocampus without vascular abnormality. This is the first description of complete hippocampal CLN as a complication subsequent to acute intranasal heroine abuse. While the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain, our case provides a very specific MRI lesion pattern and highlights the risk of intranasal heroin uptake-induced neurological complication. PMID:22624985

Benoilid, Aurélien; Collongues, Nicolas; de Seze, Jérôme; Blanc, Fréderic

2013-08-01

377

Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

2008-01-01

378

Basic memory module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

Tietze, F. C.

1974-01-01

379

Plant electrical memory.  

PubMed

Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap. PMID:19704496

Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

2008-07-01

380

Mozilla Digital Memory Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

381

Synapses and Memory Storage  

PubMed Central

The synapse is the functional unit of the brain. During the last several decades we have acquired a great deal of information on its structure, molecular components, and physiological function. It is clear that synapses are morphologically and molecularly diverse and that this diversity is recruited to different functions. One of the most intriguing findings is that the size of the synaptic response in not invariant, but can be altered by a variety of homo- and heterosynaptic factors such as past patterns of use or modulatory neurotransmitters. Perhaps the most difficult challenge in neuroscience is to design experiments that reveal how these basic building blocks of the brain are put together and how they are regulated to mediate the information flow through neural circuits that is necessary to produce complex behaviors and store memories. In this review we will focus on studies that attempt to uncover the role of synaptic plasticity in the regulation of whole-animal behavior by learning and memory.

Mayford, Mark; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Kandel, Eric R.

2012-01-01

382

Content addressable memory project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

1991-01-01

383

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

Denning, Peter J.

1989-01-01

384

Sleep loss produces false memories.  

PubMed

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

385

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2014-01-01

386

Memory Complaints in Chronic Stroke Patients Are Predicted by Memory Self-Efficacy rather than Memory Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Memory self-efficacy (MSE) is the belief about one’s mastery of memory functioning. In healthy elderly, memory complaints are related to MSE rather than to objectively measured memory capacity. MSE has scarcely been studied in patients that suffered a stroke. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to examine whether memory capacity and MSE can predict the presence of

Laurien Aben; Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds; Majanka H. Heijenbrok-Kal; Marieke M. Visser; Jan J. V. Busschbach; Gerard M. Ribbers

2011-01-01

387

Tracking memory's trace.  

PubMed

There is strong converging evidence that the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale of the chick brain is a memory store for information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. Neurons in this memory system come, through imprinting, to respond selectively to the imprinting stimulus (IS) neurons and so possess the properties of a memory trace. Therefore, the responses of the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale neurons to a visual imprinting stimulus were determined before, during, and after training. Of the total recorded population, the proportions of IS neurons shortly after each of two 1-h training sessions were significantly higher (approximately 2 times) than the pretraining proportion. However, approximately 4.5 h later this proportion had fallen significantly and did not differ significantly from the pretraining proportion. Nevertheless, approximately 21.5 h after the end of training, the proportion of IS neurons was at its highest (approximately 3 times the pretraining level). No significant fluctuations occurred in the proportions of neurons responding to the alternative stimulus. In addition, nonmonotonic changes were found commonly in the activity of 230 of the neurons tracked individually from before training to shortly after the end of training. Thus the pattern of change in responsiveness both at the population level and at the level of individual neurons was highly nonmonotonic. Such a pattern of change is not consistent with simple models of memory based on synaptic strengthening to asymptote. A model is proposed that accounts for the changes in the population responses to the imprinting stimulus in terms of changes in the responses of individual neurons. PMID:11296266

Horn, G; Nicol, A U; Brown, M W

2001-04-24

388

Episodic Memory in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory impairments in individuals with schizophrenia have been well documented in the literature. However, despite\\u000a the abundance of findings, constituent cognitive, neural, behavioral, and genetic components of the deficits continue to elude\\u000a full characterization. This review provides a characterization of these deficits by organizing findings within three frameworks\\u000a of interest: 1) neuroanatomical; 2) genetic; and 3) behavioral. Within each

Victoria M. Leavitt; Terry E. Goldberg

2009-01-01

389

Oxide heterostructure resistive memory.  

PubMed

Resistive switching devices are widely believed as a promising candidate for future memory and logic applications. Here we show that by using multilayer oxide heterostructures the switching characteristics can be systematically controlled, ranging from unipolar switching to complementary switching and bipolar switching with linear and nonlinear on-states and high endurance. Each layer can be tailed for a specific function during resistance switching, thus greatly improving the degree of control and flexibility for optimized device performance. PMID:23724783

Yang, Yuchao; Choi, ShinHyun; Lu, Wei

2013-06-12

390

A Christmas Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will read the autobiographical story "A Christmas Memory" by Truman Capote and watch a film version, determining what was emphasized in each account. Students will then write an extended paragraph comparing how the content is addressed through the different mediums of print and film. This activity will develop students' analytical reading and viewing skills, including evaluating the author's / director's craft and purpose.

2013-01-04

391

Shape memory alloy actuator  

DOEpatents

An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

392

Single capstan tape memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital tape memories, because of their large capacity and their ability to store data on removable reels at an extremely low cost per bit, are a powerful component in electronic data processing systems. A typical capacity is 108 to 109 bits, typical cost is $3.6 × 10-5 cents per bit for a reel of tape and 1.25 × 10-2 cents

R. A. Kleist; M. A. Lewis; B. C. Wang

1963-01-01

393

VMOS memory technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

VMOS technology is discussed as it applies to semiconductor memory. A 45-ns 1-kbit static RAM with a die size of 81 mil×125 mil and a cell area of 3.0 square mils is presented. The device is fabricated with the original grounded-source version of the VMOS process. Design considerations and electrical data are given for a 30-ns scaled version of the

T. J. Rodgers; W. RANDY HILTPOLD; BRUCE FREDERICK; JOHN J. BARNES; FREDRICK B. JENNE; JAMES D. TROTTER

1977-01-01

394

Software Transactional Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronization operations greatly simplifies the task of designing\\u000a highly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existing hardware is inflexible and is at best on the level of a Load–Linked\\/Store–Conditional operation on a single word. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronization methodology of Herlihy and Moss,\\u000a we offer software transactional memory (STM), a novel

Nir Shavit; Dan Touitou

1997-01-01

395

Molecules, Networks, and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A profound evolution of modeling scope and scale has occurred in the field as we have sought to understand how memory works\\u000a at the level of molecular networks. We have moved from an initial concept of a small number of relatively simple syn-aptic\\u000a functions to the current appreciation of the complexity of function and cellular mechanisms that support these functions.

Upinder S. Bhalla

396

Adenosine and memory storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Caffeine is a non-selective A1\\/A2 adenosine receptor antagonist which is known to improve cognitive performance in humans. This effect of caffeine has been\\u000a attributed to its antagonism of adenosine receptors. Objective: The present study was devised to identify the role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in the facilitation of memory consolidation in mice performing a passive avoidance task.

Silvia R. Kopf; Alessia Melani; Felicita Pedata; Giancarlo Pepeu

1999-01-01

397

Memory improvement in octogenarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pre-post quasiexperimental study tested the eight-session Cognitive Behavioral Model of Everyday Memory in residents (58 women, 20 men) of a retirement village in Northeast Ohio. Their average age was 82 years, with 16 years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score of 28; 13% were depressed. All participants were pretested and posttested at 8 weeks. The largest gains were

Graham J. McDougall

2002-01-01

398

Fuzzy associative memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

Kosko, Bart

1991-01-01

399

Sudoku associative memory.  

PubMed

This work presents bipolar neural systems for check-rule embedded pattern restoration, fault-tolerant information encoding and Sudoku memory construction and association. The primitive bipolar neural unit is generalized to have internal fields and activations, which are respectively characterized by exponential growth and logistic differential dynamics, in response to inhibitory and excitatory stimuli. Coupling extended bipolar units induces multi-state artificial Potts neurons which are interconnected with inhibitory synapses for Latin square encoding, K-alphabet Latin square encoding and Sudoku encoding. The proposed neural dynamics can generally restore Sudoku patterns from partial sparse clues. Neural relaxation is based on mean field annealing that well guarantees reliable convergence to ground states. Sudoku associative memory combines inhibitory interconnections of Sudoku encoding with Hebb's excitatory synapses of encoding conjunctive relations among active units over memorized patterns. Sudoku associative memory is empirically shown reliable and effective for restoring memorized patterns subject to typical sparse clues, fewer partial clues, dense clues and perturbed or damaged clues. On the basis, compound Sudoku patterns are further extended to emulate complex topological information encoding. PMID:24981308

Wu, Jiann-Ming; Hsu, Pei-Hsun; Liou, Cheng-Yuan

2014-09-01

400

Dielectric elastomer memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

2011-03-01

401

Dreams are made of memories, but maybe not for memory.  

PubMed

Llewellyn's claim that rapid eye movement (REM) dream imagery may be related to the processes involved in memory consolidation during sleep is plausible. However, whereas there is voluntary and deliberate intention behind the construction of images in the ancient art of memory (AAOM) method, there is a lack of intentionality in producing dream images. The memory for dreams is also fragile, and dependent on encoding once awake. PMID:24304749

Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste

2013-12-01

402

Does Green's Word Memory Test really measure memory?  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the Multiple Choice, Paired Associates, Free Recall, and Long Delayed Free Recall subtests of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) were sensitive to memory impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 107 persons who passed performance validity criteria on the same instrument. Whereas several of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition indices demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with coma duration, and also showed statistically significant mean differences between TBI severity groups, none of the four WMT memory subtests did so. It is concluded that, although the WMT is an excellent performance validity test, it is not sensitive to memory impairment after TBI. PMID:23957844

Donders, Jacobus; Strong, Carrie-Ann H

2013-10-01

403

Subjective Memory in Older African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater

Regina C. Sims; Keith E. Whitfield; Brian J. Ayotte; Alyssa A. Gamaldo; Christopher L. Edwards; Jason C. Allaire

2011-01-01

404

Knowledge Of Memory Aging In Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood for research or educational purposes. Half of the questions pertain to normal memory aging and the other half cover pathological memory deficits due to non-normative factors, such as adult dementia. In this study, we compared memory

Hawley, Karri S.; Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Jazwinski, S. Michal

2006-01-01

405

The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

Richards, Regina G.

406

Augmenting human memory using personal lifelogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is a key human facility to support life activities, including social interactions, life management and problem solving. Unfortunately, our memory is not perfect. Normal individuals will have occasional memory problems which can be frustrating, while those with memory impairments can often experience a greatly reduced quality of life. Augmenting memory has the potential to make normal individuals more effective,

Yi Chen; Gareth J. F. Jones

2010-01-01

407

Explaining the Development of False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory

Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

2002-01-01

408

Computational Cognitive Neuroscience of Early Memory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous brain areas work in concert to subserve memory, with distinct memory functions relying differentially on distinct brain areas. For example, semantic memory relies heavily on posterior cortical regions, episodic memory on hippocampal regions, and working memory on prefrontal cortical regions. This article reviews relevant findings from…

Munakata, Yuko

2004-01-01

409

Prospective Memory: A New Focus for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective memory is required for many aspects of everyday cognition, its breakdown may be as debilitating as impairments in retrospective memory, and yet, the former has received relatively little attention by memory researchers. This article outlines a strategy for changing the fortunes of prospective memory, for guiding new research to shore up the claim that prospective memory is a distinct

Peter Graf; Bob Uttl

2001-01-01

410

Memory Enhancement for Educators. Fastback 365.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Fastback contends that educators are in the memory business, that memory is probably our most maligned faculty, that forgetting is a fact of life, and that overall memory skills can be learned. The booklet addresses the following questions: How justified are people's complaints about memory? How much is myth and how much is fact? What memory

Kelly, Evelyn B.

411

The primate working memory networks  

PubMed Central

Working memory has long been associated with the prefrontal cortex, as damage to this brain area can critically impair the ability to maintain and update mnemonic information. Anatomical and physiological evidence suggest however that the prefrontal cortex is part of a broader network of interconnected brain areas involved in working memory. These include the parietal and temporal association areas of the cerebral cortex, cingulate and limbic areas, and subcortical structures such as the mediodorsal thalamus and the basal ganglia. Neurophysiological studies in primates confirm the involvement of areas beyond the frontal lobe and illustrate that working memory involves parallel, distributed neuronal networks. The article reviews our current understanding on the anatomical organization of networks mediating working memory and the neural correlates of memory manifested in each of their nodes. The neural mechanisms of memory maintenance and the integrative role of the prefrontal cortex are also discussed.

Constantinidis, Christos; Procyk, Emmanuel

2004-01-01

412

Optical memories for document security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the use of diffractive optical memories for official documents, such as machine-readable identity or fiduciary papers. Through engineering of the diffractive micro- structures, the direction and intensity distribution of the diffracted light can be tailored to optical memories for high security, uniqueness and unambiguous verification. The proposed optical memory is of the WORM-type, that is, write-once, read-many times. In order to write in the optical memory, the diffractive structure is changed irreversibly through the interaction of the diffractive surface with a beam of laser light. We demonstrate optical memories based on diffractive structures with a memory capacity of up to 100 kBits/cm2 which are appropriate for use in securing official documents.

Tompkin, Wayne R.; Staub, Rene; Moser, Jean-Frederic

1996-03-01

413

Environmental Enrichment: Aging and Memory  

PubMed Central

A decline in learning and memory is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, certain forms of dementia and memory loss are inevitable due to the normal aging process. The unavoidable effect of age on memory is an ongoing study, as the findings assist in identifying cortical functions of the brain. Histone acetylation is a mechanism in synaptic plasticity and a key function in learning and memory because changes within the process alter gene transcription and the quantity of synthesized proteins. Similar to histone acetylation, environmental enrichment has also been found to improve memory formation by stimulating synaptic plasticity. Through understanding the mechanisms by which environmental enrichment and histone acetylation interact in the brain and affect learning and memory, novel applications can be developed for therapeutic interventions to neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

Patel, Toral Rohit

2012-01-01

414

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective  

PubMed Central

Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective.

Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

2011-01-01

415

Towards Terabit Memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm², a very small read energy of 0.1 ?W/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

416

Memory performance of Prolog architectures  

SciTech Connect

Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

Tick, E.

1988-01-01

417

Molecular mechanisms of memory formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies with neonate chicks, trained on a passive avoidance task, suggest that at least two shorter-term memory stages precede\\u000a long-term, protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation. Posttetanic neuronal hyperpolarization arising from two distinct\\u000a mechanisms is postulated to underlie formation of these two early memory stages. Maintenance of the second of these stages\\u000a may involve a prolonged period of hyperpolarization brought about by

K. T. Ng; M. E. Gibbs; S. F. Crowe; G. L. Sedman; F. Hua; W. Zhao; B. O'Dowd; N. Rickard; C. L. Gibbs; E. Syková; J. Svoboda; P. Jendelová

1991-01-01

418

Load and dump onboard memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proposal is a test and verification of the ACS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity ACS-01;

Welty, Alan

2008-07-01

419

Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In describing memory phenomena in natural language, a spatial metaphor is typically employed. Memories are considered to be\\u000a objects that are stored in a mind space, and the process of retrieval is conceived as a search for these objects. It is argued\\u000a that this metaphor has been carried over into many of the popular theories of memory in cognitive psychology

Henry L. Roediger

1980-01-01

420

Modeling floating body memory devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

TCAD simulations have been performed using SILVACO ATLAS 2D device simulator for a Zero-Capacitor Random Access Memory (ZRAM), a new generation memory cell which is being researched as an alternative for DRAM memory cells in order to get rid of the bulky storage capacitor. In our study we have taken into consideration a Dual Gate-ZRAM (DGZRAM) as it helps reduce

Ramya Hindupur

2010-01-01

421

Cashmere-VLM: Remote Memory Paging for Software Distributed Shared Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software distributed shared memory (DSM) systems have successfully provided the illusion of shared memory on dis- tributed memory machines. However, most software DSM systems use the main memory of each machine as a level in a cache hierarchy, replicating copies of shared data in local memory. Since computer memories tend to be much larger than caches, DSM systems have largely

Sandhya Dwarkadas; Robert Stets; Nikos Hardavellas; Leonidas I. Kontothanassis; Rishiyur S. Nikhil

1999-01-01

422

Motor Action and Emotional Memory  

PubMed Central

Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction of movement was congruent with the valence of the memory (upward for positive, downward for negative memories). Given neutral-valence prompts in Experiment 2, participants retrieved more positive memories when instructed to move marbles up, and more negative memories when instructed to move them down, demonstrating a causal link from motion to emotion. Results suggest that positive and negative life experiences are implicitly associated with schematic representations of upward and downward motion, consistent with theories of metaphorical mental representation. Beyond influencing the efficiency of memory retrieval, the direction of irrelevant, repetitive motor actions can also partly determine the emotional content of the memories people retrieve: moving marbles upward (an ostensibly meaningless action) can cause people to think more positive thoughts.

Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

2009-01-01

423

Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation  

PubMed Central

There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled.

Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

2014-01-01

424

Entanglement fidelity of quantum memories  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a figure of merit for a quantum memory which measures the preservation of entanglement between a qubit stored in and retrieved from the memory and an auxiliary qubit. We consider a general quantum memory system consisting of a medium of two level absorbers, with the qubit to be stored encoded in a single photon. We derive an analytic expression for our figure of merit taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in the Hamiltonian parameters, which, for example, model inhomogeneous broadening and storage time dephasing. Finally we specialize to the case of an atomic quantum memory where fluctuations arise predominantly from Doppler broadening and motional dephasing.

Surmacz, K.; Nunn, J.; Waldermann, F. C.; Wang, Z.; Walmsley, I. A.; Jaksch, D. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

2006-11-15

425

Generalized Model for Generating Memory Traces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new generalized method for producing system independent memory traces (memory request sequences) is described. The general model consists of two substructures; a basic memory trace generation model and an extended model which deals explicitly with multi...

J. D. Irwin J. M. Thorington

1971-01-01

426

If I Had - A Memory Problem  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... is a memory problem managed? Dr. Gordon: The management of a memory problem depends on what’s causing ... I try to reassure people. I suggest memory management techniques and there are several books available, including ...

427

A shared resource between declarative memory and motor memory  

PubMed Central

The neural systems that support motor adaptation in humans are thought to be distinct from those that support the declarative system. Yet, during motor adaptation changes in motor commands are supported by a fast adaptive process that has important properties (rapid learning, fast decay) that are usually associated with the declarative system. The fast process can be contrasted to a slow adaptive process that also supports motor memory, but learns gradually and shows resistance to forgetting. Here we show that after people stop performing a motor task, the fast motor memory can be disrupted by a task that engages declarative memory, but the slow motor memory is immune from this interference. Furthermore, we find that the fast/declarative component plays a major role in the consolidation of the slow motor memory. Because of the competitive nature of declarative and non-declarative memory during consolidation, impairment of the fast/declarative component leads to improvements in the slow/non-declarative component. Therefore, the fast process that supports formation of motor memory is not only neurally distinct from the slow process, but it shares critical resources with the declarative memory system.

Keisler, Aysha; Shadmehr, Reza

2010-01-01

428

Memory attributions for choices: How beliefs shape our memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When remembering past choices, people tend to attribute positive features to chosen options and negative features to rejected options. The present experiments reveal the important role beliefs play in memory reconstruction of choices. In Experiment 1, participants who misremembered which option they chose favored their believed choice in their memory attributions more than their actual choice. In Experiment 2, we

Linda A. Henkel; Mara Mather

2007-01-01

429

Memory for Sentences: Implications for Human Associative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates associative theories of sentence memory, based on the model of J.R. Anderson and G.H. Bower. A model of Human Associative Memory (HAM) is generalized and defined, and alternative models incorporating configural information are presented. (CK)

Foss, Donald J.; Harwood, David A.

1975-01-01

430

Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

431

Content addressable memory project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

1992-01-01

432

Nonvolatile Analog Memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

433

Nanoparticle shuttle memory  

DOEpatents

A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

Zettl, Alex Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

2012-03-06

434

Porous Shape Memory Polymers  

PubMed Central

Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use.

Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

2013-01-01

435

Nanoreinforced shape memory polyurethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are functional materials, which find applications in a broad range of temperature sensing elements and biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These polymers are capable of fixing a transient shape and recovering to their original shape after a series of thermo-mechanical treatments. Generally, these materials are thermoplastic segmented polyurethanes composed of soft segments, usually formed by a polyether macroglycol, and hard segments formed from the reaction of a diisocyanate with a low molecular mass diol. The hard segment content is a key parameter to control the final properties of the polymer, such as rubbery plateau modulus, melting point, hardness, and tensile strength. The long flexible soft segment largely controls the low temperature properties, solvent resistance, and weather resistance properties. The morphology and properties of polyurethanes (PU) are greatly influenced by the ratio of hard and soft block components and the average block lengths. However, in some applications, SMPs may not generate enough recovery force to be useful. The reinforcement of SMPs using nanofillers represents a novel approach of enhancing the performance of these materials. The incorporation of these fillers into SMPs can produce performance enhancements (particularly elastic modulus) at small nanoparticle loadings (˜1-2 wt %). An optimal performance of nanofiller-polymer nanocomposites requires uniform dispersion of filler in polymers and good interfacial adhesion. The addition of nanofillers like cellulose nanofibers (CNF), conductive cellulose nanofibers (C-CNF), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows for the production of stiffer materials with deformation capacity comparable to that of the unfilled polymer. Additionally, the use of conductive nanoreinforcements such as C-CNF and CNTs leads to new pathways for actuation of the shape memory effect. During this work, thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes were synthesized with varying chemical composition and molecular weight. This was achieved by controlling the moles of reactants used, by using polyols with different molecular weights, and by using different diisocyanates. Using these controls, polymer matrices with different but controlled structures were synthesized and then reinforced with CNF, C-CNF, and CNTs in order to study the influence of chemical structure and polymer-nanoreinforcement interactions on polymer nanocomposite morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, and shape memory behavior.

Richardson, Tara Beth

436

Future memory technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the concepts, status and technical challenges for high density working memory will be reviewed. The main technology covering this application space today is DRAM, based on a 1 transistor 1 capacitor cell (1T1C). 50-60nm DRAM technologies have been already introduced into mass production. Full process integration results for 40nm DRAM, and key technologies for the 30nm DRAM node have been presented previously. No technical roadblock is seen for further scaling down to the 30nm node, however some of the key technology concepts such as the capacitor dielectrics with capacitance equivalent (oxide) thickness (CET) of <0.5nm have still to be proven. The DRAM cell sizes currently in mass production are ranging between 8F2 and 6F2. The development of the further cell size reduction to 4F2 is under development. The status and scaling potential of the most probable DRAM successor candidate technologies: capacitor-less DRAM, phase-change RAM (PCRAM), and spin transfer torque MRAM (STT MRAM) will be discussed. Capacitor-less DRAM or floating body FB DRAM cells have been proposed, both for stand-alone memory and embedded memory applications. Different cell device schemes (transistor and capacitor-coupled thyristor) have been investigated. Recently a number of papers covering cell device data and integration schemes for 50nm feature sizes have been published. However so far no results based on a high density demonstrator chip or product have been shown. PCRAM is the most mature technology out of the candidates mentioned. Product demonstrators with 90nm design rules and densities up to 512Mb have been presented. The introduction of first products in 65-45nm technology for 2009 has been announced recently. Scalability of the phase change element to below 10nm has been demonstrated. Spin transfer torque (STT) MRAM has been proposed as a fast, nonvolatile, and scalable cell concept. The memory concept has been experimentally verified at structure sizes down to 50nm. Theoretical estimations indicate the scalability down to 20nm. A 2Mb product demonstrator has been published, utilizing a rather large cell size, however. Based on these data the comparison of the key parameters for the different technologies will be presented, and a mapping of the different technologies to the current DRAM application segments will be proposed.

Mueller, Wolfgang; Kund, Michael

2009-05-01

437

Hippocampus, time, and memory.  

PubMed

Five experiments were conducted to determine the effects of hippocampal damage on timing and the memory for temporal events. In Experiments 1-3, rats were trained to discriminate between auditory signals that differed in both duration (2 or 8 s) and rate (2 or 16 cycles/s). Half of the rats were trained to discriminate duration, and half were trained to discriminate rate. After rats acquired the relevant discrimination, signals with intermediate durations and rates were presented to obtain psychophysical functions that related signal duration and/or rate to response choice. Rats then received either lesions of the fimbria-fornix or control operations. Postoperatively, the accuracy of duration and rate discriminations as measured by the difference limen (DL) was unaffected by the lesion, but the point of subjective equality (PSE) was shifted to a shorter duration and a slower rate by the lesion in Experiment 1. Both rats with lesions and rats with control operations showed cross-modal transfer of duration and rate from the auditory signals used in training to visual signals used in testing in Experiment 2. A 5-s delay was imposed between the end of a signal and the opportunity to respond in Experiment 3. The delay served as a retention interval for the rats trained in the rate discrimination, and the rats with fimbria-fornix lesions were selectively impaired by the addition of the delay as measured by an increase in the DL. The delay did not serve as a retention interval for rats trained in the duration discrimination because they were able to continue timing through the delay. A peak procedure was employed in Experiment 4. The maximum response rate of control rats was approximately at the time of scheduled reinforcement (20 s), but the maximum response rate of rats with fimbria-fornix lesions was reliably earlier than the time of scheduled reinforcement. When a 5-s gap was imposed in the signal, control rats summed the signal durations before and after the gap, whereas rats with fimbria-fornix lesions showed no retention of the signal duration prior to the gap. Experiment 5 continued the testing of the rats used in Experiments 1-4 and showed that rats with lesions had an impairment in a test of spatial working memory in an eight-arm radial maze. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a fimbria-fornix lesion interferes with temporal and spatial working memory, reduces the remembered time of reinforcement stored in reference memory, and has no effect on the animal's sensitivity to stimulus duration. PMID:24128355

Meck, Warren H; Church, Russell M; Olton, David S

2013-10-01

438

Retinotopic memory is more precise than spatiotopic memory  

PubMed Central

Successful visually guided behavior requires information about spatiotopic (i.e., world-centered) locations, but how accurately is this information actually derived from initial retinotopic (i.e., eye-centered) visual input? We conducted a spatial working memory task in which subjects remembered a cued location in spatiotopic or retinotopic coordinates while making guided eye movements during the memory delay. Surprisingly, after a saccade, subjects were significantly more accurate and precise at reporting retinotopic locations than spatiotopic locations. This difference grew with each eye movement, such that spatiotopic memory continued to deteriorate, whereas retinotopic memory did not accumulate error. The loss in spatiotopic fidelity is therefore not a generic consequence of eye movements, but a direct result of converting visual information from native retinotopic coordinates. Thus, despite our conscious experience of an effortlessly stable spatiotopic world and our lifetime of practice with spatiotopic tasks, memory is actually more reliable in raw retinotopic coordinates than in ecologically relevant spatiotopic coordinates.

Golomb, Julie D.; Kanwisher, Nancy

2012-01-01

439

Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory - Memory coherence and storage structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the problem of implementing rollback recovery in multicomputer distributed shared virtual memory environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software and exists only virtually. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and new twin-page disk storage management are presented to implement a recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme is integrated with the shared virtual memory management. The twin-page disk approach allows incremental checkpointing without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. A single consistent checkpoint state is maintained on stable disk storage. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a previous checkpoint due to a processor failure without a global restart.

Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

1989-01-01

440

Circadian Rhythms in Human Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments are described that examined the influence of time-of-day of presentation on immediate and delayed retention and its potential effects on retrieval from long-term memory. Time of presentation was found to influence both immediate and delayed (28 day) retention, but not retrieval from long-term memory. (Author/SJL)

Folkard, Simon; Monk, Timothy H.

1980-01-01

441

Output Interference in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

2011-01-01

442

Magnetically driven shape memory alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made both in experimentation and theoretical modelling of the magnetic shape memory (MSM) effect, where magnetic field can induce strains of 10%. The theoretical models used to analyze and interpret the different experiments provide reliable information and insight into the physical changes involved in the magnetically driven shape memory alloys. The aim of this review is

J. Enkovaara; A. Ayuela; A. T. Zayak; P. Entel; L. Nordström; M. Dube; J. Jalkanen; J. Impola; R. M. Nieminen

2004-01-01

443

Poor Memory: A Case Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of a person who had a cardiac arrest with some right-sided brain damage. Describes the effects of poor memory on cognition, personality, and interpersonal relationships based on personal observations during memory impairment. Highlights the course of rehabilitation over a two-year period. (PAS)

Meltzer, Malcolm L.

1983-01-01

444

Extended memory management under RTOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

Plummer, M.

1981-01-01

445

Shape memory alloy thaw sensors  

DOEpatents

A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

446

Making Connections with Memory Boxes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

Whatley, April

2000-01-01

447

Checking the Correctness of Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the notion of program checking to include programs which alter theirenvironment. In particular, we consider programs which store and retrieve data frommemory. The model we consider allows the checker a small amount of reliable memory.The checker is presented with a sequence of requests (on-line) to a data structure whichmust reside in a large but unreliable memory. We view

Manuel Blum; William S. Evans; Peter Gemmell; Sampath Kannan; Moni Naor

1994-01-01

448

Genetic approaches to memory storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to remember is perhaps the most significant and distinctive feature of our mental life. We are who we are largely because of what we have learned and what we remember. In turn, impairments in learning and memory can lead to disorders that range from the moderately inconvenient benign senescent forgetfulness associated with normal aging to the devastating memory

Mark Mayford; Eric R Kandel

1999-01-01

449

Developmental changes in source memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remembering how one learned a fact can be important in itself (e.g. for considering the value of information). However, source memory is also important, along with the temporal and perceptual information on which it is based, in giving memory an episodic or autobiographical quality. The present study investigated developmental changes in children's ability to monitor source, in a paradigm adapted

Anna B. Drummey; Nora S. Newcombe

2002-01-01

450

Professional Memory and English Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article concerns the way that research into Professional Memory (PM) in English teaching might re-connect the school subject with constituencies--the individuals, communities and social values--it once served. By PM I mean the collective memories of a generation of English teachers which, when brought into conjunction with existing histories,…

Tarpey, Paul

2009-01-01

451

Disruption of Conditioned Drug Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first made a brief review on historical development of drug craving theories. A special emphasis was given on the proposal that conditioned drug memories can be a critical psychopathological basis to elicit compulsive drug taking, craving and subsequent relapse. We then discussed the different processes associated with drug learning and memory as well as recent findings pertaining to these

Chianfang G. Cherng; Lung Yu

2009-01-01

452

Memory transformation and systems consolidation.  

PubMed

With time and experience, memories undergo a process of reorganization that involves different neuronal networks, known as systems consolidation. The traditional view, as articulated in standard consolidation theory (SCT), is that (episodic and semantic) memories initially depend on the hippocampus, but eventually become consolidated in their original forms in other brain regions. In this study, we review the main principles of SCT and report evidence from the neuropsychological literature that would not be predicted by this theory. By comparison, the evidence supports an alternative account, the transformation hypothesis, whose central premise is that changes in neural representation in systems consolidation are accompanied by corresponding changes in the nature of the memory. According to this view, hippocampally dependent, episodic, or context-specific memories transform into semantic or gist-like versions that are represented in extra-hippocampal structures. To the extent that episodic memories are retained, they will continue to require the hippocampus, but the hippocampus is not needed for the retrieval of semantic memories. The transformation hypothesis emphasizes the dynamic nature of memory, as well as the underlying functional and neural interactions that must be taken into account in a comprehensive theory of memory. PMID:21729403

Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2011-09-01

453

Memory Capacity of Balanced Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of memory capacity in balanced networks of spiking neurons. Associative memories are represented by either synfire chains (SFC) or Hebbian cell assemblies (HCA). Both can be embedded in these balanced networks by a proper choice of the architecture of the network. The size WE of a pool in an SFC or of an HCA is limited

Yuval Aviel; David Horn; Moshe Abeles

2005-01-01

454

Plated wire random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

455

Review of optical memory technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical technologies for meeting the demands of large capacity fast access time memory are discussed in terms of optical phenomena and laser applications. The magneto-optic and electro-optic approaches are considered to be the most promising memory approaches.

Chen, D.

1972-01-01

456

When Emotion Intensifies Memory Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of our most vivid memories are of emotional events; in research studies, emotional events or items are often more likely to be remembered than neutral events or items. However, as pointed out in this chapter, the same character- istics that make emotional information memorable can also make it more subject to interference effects in memory. Thus: (1) being reminded

Mara Mather

457

Memory card address bus design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of signal line impedance, crosstalk, chip capacitive loading and driver circuit output impedance on the operation of a memory address bus is demonstrated. The ASTAP circuit simulation program is used for detailed studies. The results of three parallel address lines connected to memory chips for unterminated far ends are discussed. Signal-line impedance decreases when adjacent lines are introduced.

Debra A. Gernhart; Chi Shih Chang; Keith K. T. Ho

1990-01-01

458

Memory Card Camera and Player.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A memory card camera which records digital still images on a semiconductor memory card has been developed. The camera contains image data compression LSIs and is capable of recording 12 high-quality frame images on an 18-Mbit SRAM card. In addition, it is...

F. Izawa T. Saga T. Suyama

1991-01-01

459

Troubleshooting plated-wire memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Faults in plated wire memories are identified and located from outside of system by applying electrical impulses and analyzing their reflectance in technique of Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Intermittent faults are easier to find because memory system is not disturbed by probing or disassembly.

Baker, C. M.; Bright, T. M.; Constable, R. C.

1979-01-01

460

Optimizing Kernel Block Memory Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the performance of block memory operations in the operating system, including memory copies, page zeroing, interprocess communication, and network- ing. The performance of these common operating system opera- tions is highly dependent on the cache state and future use pattern of the data, and no single routine maximizes performance in all situations. Current systems use a statically

Michael Calhoun; Scott Rixner; Alan L. Cox

461

The bankruptcy of everyday memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A new approach to the study of memory,has emerged recently, characterized by a preoccupation with natural settings and with the immediate applicability of research findings. In contrast, the laboratory study of memory,relies on experimental techniques for theory test- ing and is concerned with the discovery of generalizable principles. Although both approaches share the goal of generalizability, they differ sharply

Mahzarin R. Banaji; Robert G. Crowder

1989-01-01

462

Corporate Memory Management through Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CoMMA project (Corporate Memory Management through Agents) aims at developing an open, agent-based platform for the management of a corporate memory by using the most advanced results on the technical, the content, and the user interaction level. We focus here on methodologies for the set-up of multi-agent systems, requirement engineering and knowledge acquisition approaches.

Philippe PEREZ; Rose DIENG; Olivier CORBY; Fabien GANDON INRIA; Joel QUINQUETON LIRMM; Agostino POGGI; Giovanni RIMASSA; Claudio FIETTA CSELT; Juergen MUELLER; Joachim HACKSTEIN T-Nova

2000-01-01

463

The genetics of episodic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Studies suggest that there is a considerable genetic contribution to individual episodic memory performance. Identifying genes which impact recollection may further elucidate an emerging biology and pave the way towards novel cognitive interventions. To date, several candidate genes have been explored and a few seem to have modest but measurable effects. Methods: Here we review the biology of memory

Jeremy Koppel; Terry Goldberg

2009-01-01

464

Priming effects in prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine whether an increased activation of knowledge structures facilitates memory for future actions. Priming effects were manipulated by giving subjects a category fluency task for half of the target categories used in the subsequent prospective memory task. In this task, younger and older adults performed an action whenever an instance of a given

Timo Mäntyla

1993-01-01

465

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF HUMAN MEMORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is re- viewed about the

J. D. E. Gabrieli

1998-01-01

466

Gender, Power, and Autobiographical Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the influence of gender and power on autobiographical memory following a brief social interaction. The hypothesis stated that gender and social role (that of leaders versus helpers) would interact in predicting the affective tone and themes (agency and communion) of an autobiographical memory for previous leadership…

Nakash-Eisikovits, Ora; Brody, Leslie R.; Sotoo, Naomi; Gonzalez, Karla

467

Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-01-01

468

The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594

Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah

2013-12-30

469

Arizona Memory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arizona Memory Project serves as a vast repository of items related to the state of Arizona and its people. It's quite impressive as they have over 100,000 items kindly offered by a range of institutions from around the state. This wealth of information can be a bit overwhelming for first-time visitors who might do well to check out the "Spotlight On" section. Here, visitors can get started with a few select items, such as WPA posters, portraits, and architectural renderings. Folks with a geographical bent may wish to look over the "Where in Arizona?" interactive map where visitors can learn about the Arizona Memory Project's partners, such as the Mohave Museum of History and Arts, and the items they have contributed. Also, visitors can use the Browse function to find items arranged by collection, time period, or topic. Educators shouldn't miss the Teacher Resources and the project's Flickr feed is a great addition, housing a trove of Arizona-related images.

470

Material for optical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and highly promising optical memory technology based on a proprietary metal oxide material has been developed in an on-going Rome Laboratory/Laser Chemical Corporation effort. Metal oxide materials are being evaluated for use as optical disk media and optically addressable electronic memory. Simultaneously presented Nd:YAG laser beams at 1.06 micrometer and doubled YAG at 532 nm are used to write blue bits on the metal oxide material. The 532 nm radiation causes electron transfer from oxygen to metal atoms. This weakens the metal- oxygen bonds, allowing lattice oxygen to be driven out. This additional electron then can move from one metal atom in the written spot to another. This process, called 'intervalence transfer,' involves absorption of visible light, making the material appear a different color then the unwritten material. The color change is permanent until the material is reheated to a temperature greater than 350 degrees Celsius either in an oven for global erase, or by a concentrated infrared laser beam for spot erase. Multiwavelength schemes are incorporated into optically reading the bits. Design, fabrication and evaluation of WO3 thin films is discussed.

Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Osman, Joseph M.; Villarica, R. M.; Chaiken, Joseph

1997-07-01

471

The Sonic Memorial Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initiated by the Kitchen Sisters (Davia Nelson and Nikki Silva), producers of the NPR series Lost and Found Sound, with the work of a host of collaborators, the Sonic Memorial Project collects all types of audio, from voice mail messages to oral histories, that documents the World Trade Center (WTC) area as a neighborhood and workplace, before, during, and after the events of September 11, 2001. Sonic Memorial is hosted by the September 11 Digital Archive, (last mentioned in the March 1, 2002 Scout Report). Some of the sounds have been broadcast on NPR. At the Web site, visitors can use the Sonic Browser to explore the audio collection. The Sonic Browser interface includes a background sound collage and a blue screen with wavy lines representing audio clips. Click a line to play a clip, and click again for textual information. But, don't move the mouse off a line, or the clip will fade out. Examples include a wedding ceremony recorded in 1976 at Windows on the World, the restaurant on the 107th floor of the WTC; the voices of two men collecting ashes in the street and saving them in a bottle; and voice mail from a Minnesota woman, who works for a company that maintained servers on the 90th - 97th floors of the WTC, telling that the WTC server stopped responding at 8:47 AM on 9/11.

2002-01-01

472

Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures  

PubMed Central

In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs.

2012-01-01

473

Flexible organic transistor memory devices.  

PubMed

The flexible nonvolatile organic memory devices were developed on the plastic substrates based on the organic thin-film transistors embedding self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au(NP)). The organic memory devices exhibited good programmable memory characteristics with respect to the program/erase operations, resulting in controllable and reliable threshold voltage shifts. Additionally, the endurance, data retention, and bending cyclic measurements confirmed that the flexible memory devices exhibited good electrical reliability as well as mechanical stability. The memory devices were composed of the solution-processed organic dielectric layers/metallic nanoparticles and the low-temperature processed organic transistors. Therefore, this approach could potentially be applied to advanced flexible/plastic electronic devices as well as integrated organic device circuits. PMID:20578683

Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Jang-Sik

2010-08-11

474

Current Status of Nonvolatile Semiconductor Memory Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, an overview of the current status of nonvolatile semiconductor memory technology is presented. We are reaching the integration limit of flash memories, and many new types of memories to replace conventional flash memories have been proposed. Unlike flash memories, new nonvolatile memories do not require electric charge storing. The possibility of phase-change random access memory (PRAM) or resistive-change RAM (ReRAM) replacing ultrahigh-density NAND flash memories has been discussed; however, there are many issues to overcome, making the replacement difficult. Nonetheless, ferroelectric RAMs (FeRAMs) and MRAMs are gradually penetrating into fields where the shortcomings of flash memories, such as high operating voltage, slow rewriting speed, and limited number of rewrites, make their use inconvenient. For the successful application of new nonvolatile semiconductor memories, they must be practically utilized in new fields in which flash memories are not applicable, and the technology for them must be developed.

Fujisaki, Yoshihisa

2010-10-01

475

Shape memory alloy cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional structural cables (or wire ropes) are composed of steel wires helically wound into strands, which, in turn, are wound around a core. Cables made from shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are a new structural element with promising properties for a broad range of new applications. Among the many potential advantages of this form are increased bending flexibility for spooling/packaging, better fatigue performance, energy absorption and damping, reduced thermal lag, redundancy, and signicant design flexibility. Currently there are no known studies of SMA cables in the literature, so exploratory thermo-mechanical experiments were performed on two commercially available cable designs as part of an ongoing research program to systematically characterize their thermomechanical behavior and demonstrate their potential utility as adaptive or resilient tension elements.

Reedlunn, Benjamin; Shaw, John A.

2008-05-01

476

Shape memory heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

Salzbrenner, R.

1984-06-01

477

Sam Houston Memorial Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Huntsville, Texas, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum pays homage to this celebrated American and first President of the Republic of Texas. Their homepage provides interested parties with information on his life in the "Sam's Life" area (including a timeline), along with a calendar of events and updates on their annual folk festival. It's worth nothing that the "Sam's Life" area also includes a FAQ area, quotes from the man himself, a family photo album, and a bibliography. Moving on, the "Virtual Tour" area is a bit of a treat as visitors can use the graphic to wander around the grounds. Finally, the "Fun Stuff" area includes information about the six flags of Texas, the Republic, and a few regional recipes, including one for molasses pie that sounds delicious.

478

Fluids with memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological "fluids" have some pretty interesting properties not the least of which is the fact that many of the most important ones are solid rocks in everyday experience. Other interesting properties include the fact that deforming geomaterials often remember the history of their deformation --- e.g. viscoelastic materials which carry their stress history, softening-plastic materials which carry a record of the total deformation or the damage caused by the deformation, and anisotropic materials which may gradually align their internal orientations with the local deformation field. This poster will explore some of these memory effects using analogy with everyday materials and common experience --- buckets of snot, pond slime and oozing sludge will all feature very prominently.

Moresi, L.

2006-12-01

479

Memory and Aging Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Memory and Aging Center at the University of California, San Francisco is dedicated to providing care for adults with cognitive problems and age-related diseases. The center conducts research on diseases, their treatment, and the brain. The âÂÂEducationâ section has a variety of resources for patients and their families, and health care professionals. Topics in this section cover some of the cognitive and movement disorders affecting older adults, and treatment information. In the âÂÂEducationâ section, special topics such as âÂÂEmotions,â âÂÂSpeech & Language,â and âÂÂSocial Behavior & Personalityâ are also covered. Links to outside information sources are also provided in the âÂÂResourcesâ section.

2007-07-14

480

Familiarity in Source Memory  

PubMed Central

Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered.

Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

2012-01-01

481

Working Memory Load Attenuates Emotional Enhancement in Recognition Memory  

PubMed Central

Emotionally arousing stimuli are perceived and remembered better than neutral stimuli. Under threat, this negativity bias is further increased. We investigated whether working memory (WM) load can attenuate incidental memory for emotional images. Two groups of participants performed the N-back task with two WM load levels. In one group, we induced anxiety using a threat of shock paradigm to increase attentional processing of negative information. During task performance we incidentally and briefly flashed emotional distracter images which prolonged response times in both load conditions. A subsequent unannounced immediate recognition memory test revealed that when load at exposure had been low, recognition was better for negative items in both participant groups. This enhancement, however, was attenuated under high load, leaving performance on neutral items unchanged regardless of the threat of shock manipulation. We conclude that both in threat and in normal states WM load at exposure can attenuate immediate emotional memory enhancement.

Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; van Elswijk, Gijs; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; van Ee, Raymond

2013-01-01

482

Quantum dissipation from power-law memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. Dynamics of open and closed quantum systems with power-law memory is considered. The processes with power-law memory are described by using integration and differentiation of non-integer orders, by methods of fractional calculus. An example of quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is considered.

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2012-06-01

483

Depression and the Test of Memory Malingering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) [Tombaugh, T. N., 1996. The Test of Memory Malingering. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems], has consistently shown that it is sensitive to exaggerated or deliberate faking of memory impairment, but it is relatively unaffected by a wide variety of neurological impairments causing genuine memory dysfunction. However, there is little research on the effects

Laura M Rees; Tom N Tombaugh; Luc Boulay

2001-01-01

484

Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

Alloway, Tracy

2012-01-01

485

Slave Memories and Dynamic Storage Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use is discussed of a fast core memory of, say, 32000 words as a slave to a slower core memory of, say, one million words in such a way that in practical cases the effective access time is nearer that of the fast memory than that of the slow memory.

M. V. Wilkes

1965-01-01

486

Reconsolidation: the samsara of memory consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory formation is a complex and very dynam- ic process. After a learning event, the acquired information undergoes a number of changes that eventually result in memory storage. Stored memories are very malleable. Recent rediscoveries show that after reactivation, for example by retrieval, an established memory can become transiently sensitive to disruption and needs to undergo a process of restabilization,

Cristina M. Alberini

2007-01-01

487

Shape memory polymer networks from styrene copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned about the synthesis of shape memory styrene copolymer and the investigation of the influence of cross-linking degree on its shape memory effect. As one of novel actuators in smart materials, shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been investigated intensively. Styrene copolymer with proper cross-linking degree can exhibit shape memory effect (SME). In this paper, the influence of

Dawei Zhang; Xiaoguang Wang; Wuyi Zhang; Yanju Liu; Jinsong Leng

2007-01-01

488

Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory  

PubMed Central

Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated.

Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

2012-01-01

489

Aging and interference in verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to inhibitory views of working memory, old adults should have particular problems deleting irrelevant information from working memory, leading to greater interference effects compared with young adults. The authors investigated this hypothesis by using variations of an A-B, C-D retroactive interference paradigm in working memory with young and old adults. They used a recognition measure of memory, assessing both

Trey Hedden; Denise Park

2001-01-01

490

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

491

A Cooperative Approach to Corporate Memory Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the importance of Knowledge Management is growing in organizational contexts. Corporate Memory is an appropriate tool to represent organizational knowledge. This work presents an ontology-based approach to Corporate Memory modeling. In it, the members of an organization act as 'knowledge builders' and they construct the Corporate Memory co- operatively. Furthermore, the employees who take part of the Corporate Memory

Jesualdo Tomás; Fernández Breis; Rodrigo Martínez-Béjar; Laura María Campoy-Gómez; Fernando Martín-Rubio; Juan José García-Martínez

492

Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

2005-01-01

493

Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…

Lindsay, D. Stephen

494

Nanotechnology enables a new memory growth model  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we enter the nanotechnology era, a big shift in paradigm comes to the memory industry. The traditional computer industry for dynamic RAM is expected to mature its memory-bit consumption with a relatively low growth rate. Meanwhile, the memory consumption and high-density memory usage in mobile handsets and digital consumer applications will grow very fast. For these new applications, NAND

Chang-gyu Hwang

2003-01-01

495

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

496

BDNF and TNF-? polymorphisms in memory.  

PubMed

Here, we investigate the genetic basis of human memory in healthy individuals and the potential role of two polymorphisms, previously implicated in memory function. We have explored aspects of retrospective and prospective memory including semantic, short term, working and long-term memory in conjunction with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). The memory scores for healthy individuals in the population were obtained for each memory type and the population was genotyped via restriction fragment length polymorphism for the BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) SNP and via pyrosequencing for the TNF-? rs113325588 SNP. Using univariate ANOVA, a significant association of the BDNF polymorphism with visual and spatial memory retention and a significant association of the TNF-? polymorphism was observed with spatial memory retention. In addition, a significant interactive effect between BDNF and TNF-? polymorphisms was observed in spatial memory retention. In practice visual memory involves spatial information and the two memory systems work together, however our data demonstrate that individuals with the Val/Val BDNF genotype have poorer visual memory but higher spatial memory retention, indicating a level of interaction between TNF-? and BDNF in spatial memory retention. This is the first study to use genetic analysis to determine the interaction between BDNF and TNF-? in relation to memory in normal adults and provides important information regarding the effect of genetic determinants and gene interactions on human memory. PMID:23918043

Yogeetha, B S; Haupt, L M; McKenzie, K; Sutherland, H G; Okolicsyani, R K; Lea, R A; Maher, B H; Chan, R C K; Shum, D H K; Griffiths, L R

2013-09-01

497

Memory diodes with nonzero crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memristors combine switching, memory, and rectification functions in two-terminal nanoelectronic devices. The theory says that their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics cross over at the zero crossing point (I = V = 0), and the results reported hitherto conform to this theorem. Here, we extend the family of memristive devices, adding memory diodes (memdiodes) comprising SrTiO3 pn junctions that display unique combination of rectification, hysteresis, and nonzero crossing. Reverse bias polarization gives rise to a nonzero open circuit voltage that persists after the junction is disconnected from the external circuit. This opens up an opportunity for a new type of nonvolatile memories.

Saraf, Shimon; Markovich, Miri; Vincent, Tracey; Rechter, Roman; Rothschild, Avner

2013-01-01

498

Stochastic models with memory effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim in this work to derive non-Markovian stochastic models. We generalize the discrete random walk by using the method of conditional arrival probability and different types of time distribution in order to get the memory effect. Similarly, we apply this method in case of continuous time random walk with different time distributions and different jump distributions to get stochastic models with memory effect. Also, we may know the memory effect from the statistical properties of the model, especially the second moment.

Malaikah, Honaida

2012-11-01

499

Ultralow-Voltage Memory Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key design issues for ultralow-voltage (0.5–2 V) memory circuits are reviewed in terms of stable memory-cell operation,\\u000a subthreshold current reduction, suppression of or compensation for design-parameter variations, and a single power supply\\u000a and its standardization. The results obtained are as follows. (1) In DRAMs, coupled with high signal-to-noise-ratio memory-cell\\u000a designs, the gate-source offset driving schemes suppress the cell-transistor subthreshold

Kiyoo Itoh

500

Amyloid beta mediates memory formation  

PubMed Central

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid ? (1–42) peptide (A?[1–42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated, endogenous A? in normal hippocampi mediates learning and memory formation. Furthermore, hippocampal injection of picomolar concentrations of exogenous A?(1–42) enhances memory consolidation. Correlative data suggest that A? peptides may exert their function via nicotinic acethylcoline receptors. Hence, A? peptides, including A?(1–42), play an important physiological role in hippocampal memory formation.

Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

2009-01-01

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