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1

Confirmatory factor analysis of the wechsler memory scale-revised in a mixed clinical population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) have yielded highly disparate factor structures, while the few reported confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of this instrument have been more consistent. The present study employed a CFA approach to identify the factor structure of the WMS-R in a mixed clinical sample of 306 patients, the majority of whom had

John L. Woodard

1993-01-01

2

Partial cross-validation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory-Attention/Concentration Malingering Index in a nonlitigating sample.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) malingering indices proposed by Mittenberg, Azrin, Millsaps, and Heilbronner [Psychol Assess 5 (1993) 34.] were partially cross-validated in a sample of 200 nonlitigants. Nine diagnostic categories were examined, including participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, stroke/vascular, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), epilepsy, depression/anxiety, medical problems, and no diagnosis. Results showed that the discriminant function using WMS-R subtests misclassified only 6.5% of the sample as malingering, with significantly higher misclassification rates of SDAT and stroke/vascular groups. The General Memory Index-Attention/Concentration Index (GMI-ACI) difference score misclassified only 8.5% of the sample as malingering when a difference score of greater than 25 points was used as the cutoff criterion. No diagnostic group was significantly more likely to be misclassified. Results support the utility of the GMI-ACI difference score, as well as the WMS-R subtest discriminant function score, in detecting malingering. PMID:14591479

Hilsabeck, Robin C; Thompson, Matthew D; Irby, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2003-01-01

3

Modal profiles for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modal profile analysis was used to cluster Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised subtest and factor profiles in a sample of patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results yielded five modal profiles for subtest profiles and four modal profiles for factor profiles. However, when a classification rule was used to assign subtest profiles to modal groups, the subtest modal profiles classified only 37%

David A. Pritchard

1996-01-01

4

Neurodiagnostic Implications of Unique Profiles of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

P. A. McDermott, J.J. Glutting, J.N. Jones, and J.V. Noonan (1989) cluster analyzed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981) standardization data and found that a 9-cluster solution provided the best typology of core profiles. They recommended that a profile be considered unique in relation to the general population if it did not conform to one of the normative

Joseph J. Ryan; Daryl L. Bohac

1994-01-01

5

Comparison of Age-Extended Norms for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies (R. J. Ivnik et al., 1992; J. F. Malec et al., 1992; J. J. Ryan, A. M. Paolo, & T. M. Brungardt, 1990) have provided age-extended norms for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (WAIS–R; Wechsler, 1981). The current study compared IQ scores based on these newer age-extended norms in 216 elderly Alzheimer's disease patients. Results showed that when

Susan M. McCurry; Allan G. Fitz; Linda Teri

1994-01-01

6

Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson PsychoEducational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshman at The Pennsylvania State University were stratified on the basis of SAT scores and major (science or nonscience), and a stratified random sample of 100 was selected. All subjects were given the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Pscycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement (WJ). WAIS-R VIQs, PIQs, and FSIQs were correlated with scale scores on

Shawn Amig Salvia; John Salvia

1986-01-01

7

The Effects of Age and Sex on the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Memory Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is one of the central intellectual functions characteristic of human behavior. Increasing age affects memory processes by requiring more time and increased learning trials in such tasks as memory for digits, symbols, and figures, and in the acquisition of new information. Factor analytic studies of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) have been contradictory because of the confounding effects of

Jack Arbit; Robert Zagar

1979-01-01

8

Parsimonious prediction of Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition scores: Immediate and delayed memory indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on previous versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) found that index scores could be predicted using a parsimonious selection of subtests (e.g., Axelrod & Woodard, 2000). The release of the Fourth Edition (WMS–IV) requires a reassessment of these predictive formulas as well as the use of indices from the California Verbal Learning Test–II (CVLT–II). Complete WMS–IV and CVLT–II

Justin B. Miller; Bradley N. Axelrod; Lisa J. Rapport; Scott R. Millis; Sarah VanDyke; Christian Schutte; Robin A. Hanks

2012-01-01

9

Review of Russell's (1975) norms for the Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews and critiques the system for administering and scoring the Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale presented by E. W. Russell . Innovations (e.g., obtaining a delayed recall) are considered useful; however, impairment ratings for Logical Memory classify too many nonneurological Ss from other studies as impaired. A short-term alternative to Russell's scoring categories is

Bruce Crosson; Carroll W. Hughes; David L. Roth; Paul G. Monkowski

1984-01-01

10

Neuropsychological Effects of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Memory and Intelligence of Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes research involving adolescent marijuana abusers. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised found characteristics consistent with pattern produced by cerebral dysfunction including reduced memory indices in relation to intellectual function and attentional ability. Intelligence was found to be in…

Millsaps, Cheryl L.; And Others

1994-01-01

11

Detection of Insufficient Effort Using the Advanced Clinical Solutions for the Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the ability of the Wechsler Memory Scale-4th Edition (WMS-IV) and the Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) package including the new Word Choice test (WCT) to distinguish poor performance due to intentional response bias among simulators of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from poor performance due to actual TBI. Participants were 45 survivors of moderate to severe TBI and 39

Justin B. Miller; Scott R. Millis; Lisa J. Rapport; Jesse R. Bashem; Robin A. Hanks; Bradley N. Axelrod

2011-01-01

12

Parsimonious Estimation of the Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition Demographically Adjusted Index Scores: Immediate and Delayed Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent release of the Wechsler Memory Scale Fourth Edition contains many improvements from a theoretical and administration perspective, including demographic corrections using the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Although the administration time has been reduced from previous versions, a shortened version may be desirable in certain situations given practical time limitations in clinical practice. The current study evaluated two- and three-subtest

Justin B. Miller; Bradley N. Axelrod; Christian Schutte

2012-01-01

13

Testing the limits: cautions and concerns regarding the new Wechsler IQ and Memory scales.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) are 2 of the most common psychological tests used in clinical care and research in neurology. Newly revised versions of both instruments (WAIS-IV and WMS-IV) have recently been published and are increasingly being adopted by the neuropsychology community. There have been significant changes in the structure and content of both scales, leading to the potential for inaccurate patient classification if algorithms developed using their predecessors are employed. There are presently insufficient clinical data in neurologic populations to insure their appropriate application to neuropsychological evaluations. We provide a perspective on these important new neuropsychological instruments, comment on the pressures to adopt these tests in the absence of an appropriate evidence base supporting their incremental validity, and describe the potential negative impact on both patient care and continuing research applications. PMID:20177123

Loring, David W; Bauer, Russell M

2010-02-23

14

Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments often include adjustments for subject variables. There are reasons to believe, however, that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, “years of formal education” may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this third of four reanalyses of results

Brett A. Steinberg; Linas A. Bieliauskas; Glenn E. Smith; Robert J. Ivnik

2005-01-01

15

Substitution of California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition for Verbal Paired Associates on the Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two common measures used to evaluate verbal learning and memory are the Verbal Paired Associates (VPA) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales (WMS) and the second edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II). For the fourth edition of the WMS, scores from the CVLT-II can be substituted for VPA; the present study sought to examine the validity of the

Justin B. Miller; Bradley N. Axelrod; Lisa J. Rapport; Robin A. Hanks; Jesse R. Bashem; Christian Schutte

2012-01-01

16

Changes of subtests of Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive function in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine  

PubMed Central

Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with disturbed cognitive function. In this study, changes of subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale and memory quotient were investigated in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine. The aim of the study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Material and methods Sixty subjects (51 females and 9 males) with subclinical hypothyroidism were enrolled. Memory quotient was evaluated at the beginning of the study and three months after enrollment, using Wechsler's memory test. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as serum TSH level between 4.5 mU/l and 10 mU/l in the presence of normal free-T4 (0.8-2 ng/dl) and positive anti-TPO-Ab. The intervention and control groups received levothyroxine and placebo respectively for 3 months. Re-evaluation was done using the Wechsler Memory Scale at the end of the study. Results The mean age was 34 ±10 years, mean TSH level was 8.25 ±3.64 muIU/l. Memory quotient was similar in both groups at the beginning of the study: 105.70 ±2.1 in intervention group vs. 105.87 ±2.1 in control group (p = 0.89). At the end of the study, the memory quotient rose by 9.3 points in the intervention group and by 3.23 in the controls (p = 0.002). Analysis of the scores of Wechsler Memory subtests in the intervention group indicated significant improvement of mental control (p = 0.002), logical memory (p < 0.001), associate learning (p = 0.014), age corrected score (p = 0.002), and memory quotient (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed the efficacy of levothyroxine for cognitive function of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism.

Aghili, Rokhsareh; Khamseh, Mohammad E.; Malek, Mojtaba; Hadian, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid R.; Emami, Zahra

2012-01-01

17

Comparison of Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS–IV) and Third Edition (WMS–III) dimensional structures: Improved ability to evaluate auditory and visual constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensional structures underlying the Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS–IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale–Third Edition (WMS–III) were compared to determine whether the revised measure has a more coherent and clinically relevant factor structure. Principal component analyses were conducted in normative samples reported in the respective technical manuals. Empirically supported procedures guided retention of dimensions. An invariant two-dimensional WMS–IV structure reflecting constructs

James B. Hoelzle; Nathaniel W. Nelson; Clifford A. Smith

2011-01-01

18

Neuropsychological Effects of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Memory and Intelligence of Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen marijuana-dependent adolescent abusers (mean age = 16.9 years) were administered the full Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Subjects had no history of other substance or alcohol abuse or dependence, cerebral trauma, psychiatric or nerological disorders. They had been abstinent form marijuana for an average of 27 days, and the majority of them were given urine tests

Cheryl L. Millsaps; Richard L. Azrin; Wiley Mittenberg

1994-01-01

19

Cognitive complaints in closed-head injury: Relationship to memory test performance and emotional disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-appraisal of cognitive difficulties by a sample of 63 male patients with closed-head injury (CHI) was examined in relation to their performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R; Wechsler, 1987), WA1S-R Digit Span (Wechsler, 1981), and to their scores on MMP1–2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) measures of anxiety and depression. In an initial step, the Cognitive Difficulties

Carlton S. Gass; Christine Apple

1997-01-01

20

ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

2009-01-01

21

Memory functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury: An examination of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild/moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 matched controls from the WMS-IV normative dataset completed the WMS-IV. Multivariate analyses indicated that severe TBI participants had poorer performance than matched controls on all index scores and subtests. Individuals with complicated mild/moderate TBI performed more poorly than controls on all index scores, as well as on tests of visual memory (Designs I and II; Visual Reproduction I and II) and visual working memory (Spatial Addition; Symbol Span), but not on auditory verbal memory tests (Logical Memory I and II; Verbal Paired Associates I and II). After controlling for time since injury, severe TBI participants had significantly lower scores than the complicated mild/moderate TBI on 4 of the 5 WMS-IV index scores (Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate Memory, Delayed Memory) and 4 of the 10 WMS-IV subtests (Designs I and II, Verbal Pairs II, Logical Memory II). Effect sizes for index and subtest scores were generally moderate for the complicated mild/moderate group and moderate-to-large for the severe TBI group. Findings provide support for the construct validity of the WMS-IV in individuals with TBI. PMID:24033318

Carlozzi, Noelle E; Grech, Julie; Tulsky, David S

2013-09-16

22

Spatial working memory as an endophenotype for schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSpatial working memory impairments are among the neurocognitive deficits that may mark genetic predisposition toward schizophrenia. We previously reported that impairment on the spatial span subtask of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing genetic predisposition toward schizophrenia in a sample of discordant twins; however, it remains to be determined whether these deficits reflect difficulties

David C Glahn; Sebastian Therman; Marko Manninen; Matti Huttunen; Joakko Kaprio; Jouko Lönnqvist; Tyrone D Cannon

2003-01-01

23

Intersubtest Scatter on the Mainland Chinese Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intersubtest scatter on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for China (WAIS-RC) for 1,979 subjects was evaluated and compared with that of the WAIS-R standardization sample. Findings were similar, and differences in scatter range may be explained by cultural differences in values, educational approaches, and educational opportunities.…

Ryan, Joseph J.; And Others

1992-01-01

24

Correlations between event-related potentials with pictures recognition and WMS-RC scores in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory\\u000a and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused\\u000a by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals.\\u000a Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral

Zilong Liu; Liang Liu; Zebing Fan; Xiaorui Chen; Xiaohong Zhao; Lingli Zhang; Guangxun Rao; Haixia LI

2008-01-01

25

The validity of Wechsler's Mental Deterioration Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the validity of Wechsler's Mental Deterioration Index, a population of adult male San Quentin prisoners, who had been given the Wechsler-Bellevue, were compared with Wechsler's own population. An analysis of the different subtests and combinations of subtests was made for each of the groups. It is concluded that serious clinical use of Wechsler's Mental Deterioration Index

Raymond J. Corsini; Katherine K. Fassett

1952-01-01

26

Six-Minute Walking Distance Correlated with Memory and Brain Volume in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims High fitness levels play an important role in maintaining memory function and delaying the progression of structural brain changes in older people at risk of developing dementia. However, it is unclear which specific regions of the brain volume are associated with exercise capacity. We investigated whether exercise capacity, determined by a 6-min walking distance (6MWD), is associated with measures of logical and visual memory and where gray matter regions correlate with exercise capacity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Ninety-one community-dwelling older adults with MCI completed a 6-min walking test, structural magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and memory tests. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Tests were used to assess logical and visual memory, respectively. Results The logical and visual memory tests were positively correlated with the 6MWD (p < 0.01). Poor performance in the 6MWD was correlated with a reduced cerebral gray matter volume in the left middle temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and hippocampus in older adults with MCI. Conclusions These results suggest that a better 6MWD performance may be related to better memory function and the maintenance of gray matter volume in older adults with MCI.

Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Park, Hyuntae; Yoshida, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

27

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special educational…

Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

2011-01-01

28

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2011-01-01

29

Wechsler-based CHC Cross-Battery Assessment and Reading Achievement: Strengthening the Validity of Interpretations Drawn from Wechsler Test Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the validity of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cross battery approach using elementary schools children (N=166) who were administered the Wechsler Scale Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised. Results suggest that a Wechsler-based CHC cross-battery approach is an effective…

Flanagan, Dawn P.

2000-01-01

30

Nicotine Effects on Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory After Substance Use Detoxification  

PubMed Central

Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent (ALCS N=29; 14 male), illicit stimulant (predominantly cocaine) dependent (STIMS N = 25; 15 male) and alcohol and illicit stimulant dependent (ALC/STIMS N = 50; 35 male) participants with co-morbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41(±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (~8–10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (High dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively or Low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale -Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMS receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMS who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMS demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory and, that considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval) underlying endpoint indicators (e.g. correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes.

Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

2010-01-01

31

Nicotine effects on immediate and delayed verbal memory after substance use detoxification.  

PubMed

Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n?=?29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n?=?25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n?=?50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41 (±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (?8-10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (high dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively, or low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMs receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMs who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMs demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance-using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory; and that in considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval), underlying endpoint indicators (e.g., correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes. PMID:21526444

Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

2011-06-24

32

Memory Functions in Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the paper, the authors deal with memory functions in cannabis users, which were examined using the Wechsler Memory Scales - Third Edition (WMS-III), as part of a pro- ject implemented by the Department of Psychology at the Philosophical Faculty of Palacky University in Olomouc in partnership with the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Science and

Lenka Miovská; Michal Miovský

2004-01-01

33

Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were

Cheng-Sheng Chen; Chung-Ping Cheng; Cheng-Fang Yen; Tze-Chun Tang; Pinchen Yang; Rei-Cheng Yang; Ming-Shyan Huang; Yuh-Jyh Jong; Hsin-Su Yu

34

The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale–Revised: An Assessment of Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the validity of the Child—Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale- Revised (CAMPIS-R) using multiple concurrent objective and subjective measures of child distress, approach-avoidance behavior, fear, pain, child cooperation, and parents' perceived ability to help their preschool children during routine immuni- zations. Parents', staffs', and children's behaviors in the treatment room were videotaped and coded. Results indicate that the validity of

Ronald L. Blount; Lindsey L. Cohen; Natalie C. Frank; Pamela J. Bachanas; Adina J. Smith; M. Reena Manimala; Joseph T. Pate

1997-01-01

35

The differential impact of executive attention dysfunction on episodic memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with checking symptoms vs. those with washing symptoms.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have pointed to memory and attention deficits among its sufferers, but these reports have largely ignored the possibility that cognitive disturbances may vary across OCD clinical subtypes, or that their interactions may differ between subtypes. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether "checkers" and "washers" demonstrate differences in their memory and executive attention function. Fifty-three outpatients with primary DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD with typical checking (n=27) or washing (n=26) rituals participated in the study. Patients were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess executive attention function. Various neuropsychological tests were then subjected to factor analysis. Neuropsychological test results and obtained factor scores were compared between "washers" and "checkers". Effects of these factor scores on memory by OCD subtypes were examined. No significant difference in terms of demographic and clinical variables was found between the two groups. Checkers displayed performance deficits on Stroop test, Trail Making Test, GO/NO GO test (commission errors) and category fluency. Three factors, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and multi-tasking, were obtained. Statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups on the inhibition and the cognitive flexibility scores, but not on the general memory or the multi-tasking score. There was a statistically significant interaction between groups and the inhibition score. Only among "checkers", a significant correlation was noted between the inhibition factor and the general memory, while no such correlation was observed among "washers". Among "checkers", poor general memory was related to inhibition deficits. PMID:16824544

Omori, Ichiro M; Murata, Yoshie; Yamanishi, Tomoaki; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Akechi, Tatsuo; Mikuni, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiaki A

2006-07-07

36

Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

2012-01-01

37

Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

2012-01-01

38

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)|

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

39

Evaluation of memory endophenotypes for association with CLU, CR1, and PICALM variants in black and white subjects.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants at the CLU, CR1, and PICALM loci associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in genomewide association studies. In this study, our aim was to determine whether the LOAD risk variants at these three loci influence memory endophenotypes in black and white subjects. METHODS: We pursued an association study between single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes at the CLU, CR1, and PICALM loci and memory endophenotypes. We assessed black subjects (AA series: 44 with LOAD and 224 control subjects) recruited at Mayo Clinic Florida and whites recruited at Mayo Clinic Minnesota (RS series: 372 with LOAD and 1690 control subjects) and Florida (JS series: 60 with LOAD and 529 control subjects). Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the LOAD risk loci CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs6656401, rs3818361), and PICALM (rs3851179) were genotyped and tested for association with Logical Memory immediate recall, Logical Memory delayed recall, Logical Memory percent retention, Visual Reproduction immediate recall, Visual Reproduction delayed recall, and Visual Reproduction percent retention scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised using multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for age at exam, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E ?4 dosage. RESULTS: We identified nominally significant or suggestive associations between the LOAD-risky CR1 variants and worse Logical Memory immediate recall scores in blacks (P = .068-.046, ? = -2.7 to -1.2). The LOAD-protective CLU variant is associated with better logical memory endophenotypes in white subjects (P = .099-.027, ? = 0.31-0.93). The CR1 associations persisted when the control subjects from the AA series were assessed separately. The CLU associations appeared to be driven by one of the white series (RS) and were also observed when the control subset from RS was analyzed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest for the first time that LOAD risk variants at CR1 may influence memory endophenotypes in blacks. In addition, the CLU LOAD-protective variant may confer enhanced memory in whites. Although these results would not remain significant after stringent corrections for multiple testing, they need to be considered in the context of the LOAD associations with which they have biological consistency. They also provide estimates for effect sizes on memory endophenotypes that could guide future studies. The detection of memory effects for these variants in clinically normal subjects, implies that these LOAD risk loci might modify memory prior to clinical diagnosis of AD. PMID:23643458

Pedraza, Otto; Allen, Mariet; Jennette, Kyle; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Crook, Julia; Serie, Daniel; Pankratz, V Shane; Palusak, Ryan; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

2013-05-01

40

The impact of a genome-wide supported psychosis variant in the ZNF804A gene on memory function in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A recent genome-wide association study showed that a variant (rs1344706) in the ZNF804A gene was associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Replication studies supported the evidence for association between this variant in the ZNF804A gene and schizophrenia and that this variant is the most likely susceptibility variant. Subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in healthy subjects demonstrated the association of the high-risk ZNF804A variant with neural activation during a memory task and a theory of mind task. As these cognitive performances are disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, this gene may play a role in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential relationship between this ZNF804A polymorphism and memory function. The effects of the high-risk ZNF804A genotype, diagnosis, and genotype-diagnosis interaction on verbal memory, visual memory (VisM), attention/concentration, and delayed recall (measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) were analyzed by two-way analysis of covariance in 113 patients with schizophrenia and 184 healthy subjects. Consistent with previous studies, patients with schizophrenia exhibited poorer performance on all indices as compared to healthy control subjects (P??0.05). Our data suggest that rs1344706 may be related to memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20957649

Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Iwase, Masao; Iike, Naomi; Azechi, Michiyo; Ikezawa, Koji; Takaya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Okochi, Tomo; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Tagami, Shinji; Morihara, Takashi; Okochi, Masayasu; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kudo, Takashi; Kazui, Hiroaki; Iwata, Nakao; Takeda, Masatoshi

2010-10-18

41

Factor structure of the disgust scale-revised in an adolescent sample.  

PubMed

Although recent research with the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R) has contributed to current knowledge regarding the structure of disgust, this line of research has exclusively employed adult samples. The current study extended existing research by examining the factor structure of the DS-R in an adolescent sample (N = 637). Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors: Contagion, Mortality, and Contact Disgust. Subsequent to removing three items due to inadequate factor loadings, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the 3-factor model across gender, grade level, and racial subgroups. Tests of item-intercept invariance also revealed no differences in item means across grade level. However, three and four items were associated with differences across race and gender, respectively. Latent factor means were also found to be invariant across racial groups and grade level, but not across gender. Implications of the DS-R factor structure in this adolescent sample and its domains are discussed. PMID:22290443

Kim, Eun Ha; Ebesutani, Chad; Young, John; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2012-01-30

42

Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. PC memory is one of the most critical and rapidly advancing assemblies within modern microcomputers. The challenge of developing learners' knowledge of PC memory and keeping it current and directly applicable to today's microcomputer industry is addressed by this module. The three major topics included in this module are ROM/Flash, System Memory, and Cache Systems. Hands-on practice and final skill assessment verify learners' readiness for working with memory in an Intel-based PC system.

2012-12-07

43

Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

2009-01-01

44

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised in an African American Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used confirmatory factor analysis techniques to investigate the construct validity of the child version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) in a community sample of low socioeconomic status (SES), urban, African American, fifth and sixth graders (n = 174). The SRAS-R is the best-researched measure of school…

Lyon, Aaron R.

2010-01-01

45

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised.  

PubMed

The Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised (NPVS-R) is an instrument derived from the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses designed to measure nurses' professional values. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the NPVS-R in a random sample of baccalaureate and master's students and practicing nurses. The NPVS-R, a 26-item Likert-scale format instrument, was tested on 782 subjects. Responses to the NPVS-R were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization resulted in a five-factor solution explaining 56.7% of the common variance. Findings supported internal consistency reliability of five factors with alpha coefficients from .70 to .85 and a total scale alpha coefficient of .92. Construct validity was supported with an overall factor loading range of .46 to .79 across the five factors labeled Caring, Activism, Trust, Professionalism, and Justice. The NPVS-R is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring professional nurses' values and enhancing professional socialization. PMID:20069950

Weis, Darlene; Schank, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

46

Dependence and physical exercise: Spanish validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). To achieve this goal, a sample of 531 sport center users was used and the psychometric properties of the EDS-R were examined through different analyses. The results supported both the first-order seven-factor model and the higher-order model (seven first-order factors and one second-order factor). The structure of both models was invariant across age. Correlations among the subscales indicated a related factor model, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for Reduction in Other Activities) and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Users practicing more than three days per week had higher scores in all subscales than the group practicing with a frequency of three days or fewer. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the EDS-R in a Spanish context. PMID:21568198

Sicilia, Alvaro; González-Cutre, David

2011-05-01

47

Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides. PMID:22208539

Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yu, Hsin-Su

2011-11-23

48

Individual Change After Epilepsy Surgery: Practice Effects and Base-Rate Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of practice and to establish statistically meaningful methods for assessing cognitive outcome after epilepsy surgery, test–retest scores for 47 left (LTL) and 49 right (RTL) temporal lobectomy patients on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (WAIS–R) and the Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised (WMS–R) were compared with the scores of 40 epilepsy patients who had not received lobectomies (SZCs).

Gordon J. Chelune; Richard I. Naugle; Hans Lüders; Jeffery Sedlak; Issam A. Awad

1993-01-01

49

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

50

Alcohol use disorders and cognitive abilities in young adulthood: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on cognitive and neuropsychological abilities was investigated in a prospective study of 68 freshmen who met past-year criteria for AUD on 2 or more occasions during their college years and 66 matched controls. At baseline, participants were administered a total of 14 subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised, Wechsler Memory Scale, and

Phillip K. Wood; Kenneth J. Sher; Bruce D. Bartholow

2002-01-01

51

Korean Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Reliability and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of the present study were 1) to standardize the validity and reliability of the Korean version of Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98-K) and 2) to establish the optimum cut-off value, sensitivity, and specificity for discriminating delirium from other non-delirious psychiatric conditions. Methods Using DSM-IV criteria, 157 subjects (69 delirium, 29 dementia, 32 schizophrenia, and 27 other psychiatric patients) were enrolled. Subjects were evaluated using DRS-R98-K, DRS-K, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results DRS-R98-K total and severity scores showed high correlations with DRS-K. They were significantly different across all groups (p=0.000). However, neither MMSE-K nor CGI-S distinguished delirium from dementia. All DRS-R98-K diagnostic items (#14-16) and items #1 and 2 significantly discriminated delirium from dementia. Cronbach's alpha coefficient revealed high internal consistency for DRS-R98-K total (r=0.91) and severity (r=0.89) scales. Interrater reliability (ICC between 0.96 and 1) was very high. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve of DRS-R98-K total score was 0.948 between the delirium group and all other groups and 0.873 between the delirium and dementia groups. The best cut-off scores in DRS-R98-K total score were 18.5 and 19.5 between the delirium and the other three groups and 20.5 between the delirium and dementia groups. Conclusion We demonstrated that DRS-R98-K is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing delirium severity and diagnosis and discriminating delirium from dementia and other psychiatric disorders in Korean patients.

Ryu, Jian; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Hwi-Jung; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Trzepacz, Paula T.

2011-01-01

52

Dimensionality of hallucinatory predisposition: Confirmatory factor analysis of the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-revised in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hallucinatory predisposition, as measured by the Launay-Slade Hallucination scale-revised (LSHS-R) (Bentall & Slade, 1985), is a multi- dimensional construct, although its factor structure is not yet well estab- lished. The purpose of this work was to analyze the dimensional structure of hallucinatory predisposition in nonclinical population. The sample comprised 807 young adults, 562 female (63.3%), with a mean age of

Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero; Serafín Lemos-Giráldez; Mercedes Paino; Susana Sierra-Baigrie; Úrsula Villazón-García; María Paz; García-Portilla González; José Muñiz

2010-01-01

53

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

2006-01-01

54

Confirmatory Analyses of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Replication and Extension to a Truancy Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

School absenteeism and school refusal behavior are prevalent and serious issues for youth, but few measures have been developed\\u000a specifically for this population. The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (child and parent versions) provides clinicians\\u000a with a profile of the relative strength of four functions or maintaining variables regarding school refusal behavior. The\\u000a scales have been previously tested largely on clinical

Courtney Haight; Christopher A. Kearney; Marisa Hendron; Rachel Schafer

2011-01-01

55

The Oral History Rating Scale–Revised: Preliminary Evaluation of a Clinician-Rated Measure of Divorce Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a preliminary psychometric investigation of the Oral History Rating Scale–Revised (OHRS–R), a therapist-rated measure of married couples' divorce potential based a 90-min oral history interview. Findings suggest the OHRS–R shows promise as a clinical tool. Therapist and observing raters' total OHRS–R scores demonstrated high interrater reliability and discriminated from client reports of psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire-45.2) and

Amber L. Brewer; D. Eugene Mead

2008-01-01

56

The Correspondence Between the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised and Two Other Indicators for Aggressive Incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown good psychometric properties of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). However, it has never been investigated what proportion of aggressive incidents occurring in facilities is documented with the SOAS-R. Furthermore, if incidents are underreported, the consequences for the categorization of clients into aggressive and nonaggressive subgroups based on the SOAS-R are unknown. To examine this, in

Nienke H. Tenneij; Laurette E. Goedhard; Joost J. Stolker; Henk Nijman; Hans M. Koot

2009-01-01

57

Addicted to Exercise: Psychometric Properties of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in a Sample of Greek Exercise Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent and discriminant validity, and test-retest reliability of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised scores (EDS-R: Symons-Downs, Hausenblas, & Niggs, 2004) in a sample of Greek exercise participants. The Greek translation of the EDS-R was completed by 581 exercise participants along with measures of exercise addiction. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the hypothesized

Irini S. Parastatidou; Georgios Doganis; Yannis Theodorakis; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos

2011-01-01

58

A suggested method for analyzing and extending the use of Bellevue-Wechsler vocabulary responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that Wechsler vocabulary responses may be classified in 3 ways: (1) concretistic or descriptive (an apple is red); (2) functional or usage (an apple is something you eat); (3) categorical or conceptual (an apple is a fruit). Analysis of vocabulary responses in this way orients the field of intelligence testing to a frame of reference concerned with

Reva A. Gerstein

1949-01-01

59

Estimating the full scale score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale from scores on four subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abbreviated form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was determined by selecting the two best predictors of the total Verbal Score and the two best predictors of the total Performance Score. The four tests were Arithmetic, Vocabulary, Block Design, and Picture Arrangement  The correlation coefficients between the sum of scaled scores on the four tests and the Full Scale

Jerome E. Doppelt

1956-01-01

60

Peeking inside the "Black Box" of the Flynn Effect: Evidence from Three Wechsler Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the Wechsler Performance IQ (PIQ) or Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)/ Perceptual Organization Index (POI) change over time and its relation to ability levels. PIQ or PRI/ POI was analyzed because of the known sensitivity of nonverbal scales to the Flynn effect. Scores were analyzed using two methods. First, analysis of…

Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jianjun; Weiss, Lawrence G.

2010-01-01

61

Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of the…

Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

62

Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

2012-01-01

63

Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.  

PubMed

A total of 54 participants (age M?=?20.9; education M?=?14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M?=?111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment. PMID:22353021

Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

2012-02-21

64

A Formula for the Standard Error of Estimate of Deviation Quotients on Short Forms of Wechsler's Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A formula is presented for the standard error of estimate of Deviation Quotients (DQs). The formula is shown to perform well when used with data on short forms of two of Wechsler's scales. (Author/JAC)

Silverstein, A. B.

1985-01-01

65

Menstrual Cycle Phase Effects on Memory and Stroop Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined differences in Stroop and memory task performances modulated by gonadal steroid hormones during\\u000a the menstrual cycle in women. Thirty women with regular menstrual cycles performed a logical memory task (Wechsler Memory\\u000a Scale) and the Stroop task. The results showed a significant difference in Stroop task performance between low and high levels\\u000a of estradiol and progesterone during

Takeshi Hatta; Keiko Nagaya

2009-01-01

66

Discourse analysis of logical memory recall in normal aging and in dementia of the Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the nature of errors in prose recall made in dementia compared with normal aging. Responses by 48 young adults, 47 nondemented older adults, and 70 people with very mild or mild Alzheimer's disease to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale were examined in a propositional analysis. Compared with young adults, healthy older adults showed

David K. Johnson; Martha Storandt; David A. Balota

2003-01-01

67

Memory abilities during normal aging.  

PubMed

One hundred and five normal subjects from 20 to 89 years old, and with a minimum of six years of formal education were selected. Subjects were divided into seven age ranges, with 15 subjects in each group. The following tests were individually administered: (1) Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945); (2) Serial Verbal Learning (Ardila, Rosselli & Puente, 1994; Ardila & Ostrosky, 1991); (3) The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) (Osterrieth, 1944) (copy, immediate, and delayed reproduction); (4) Corsi's blocks (Milner, 1971) (forwards and backwards); and (5) Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (Wilson, Cockburn, & Baddeley, 1985). This last test may be considered as a functional or ecological memory test. All test scores declined across ages between 4.1% and 76.6%. In all the tests, excepting Digits, standard deviations increased with age. It was observed that the youngest subjects could retain about three-fourths of the information presented, whereas the oldest retained around one-third of this information. About half of the test significantly correlated with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test. A factor analysis revealed four different factors accounting for 63.3% of the variance. A single nonverbal memory factor accounted for over 40% of the variance. PMID:9604177

Ostrosky-Solis, F; Jaime, R M; Ardila, A

1998-02-01

68

Orbitofrontal contributions to human working memory.  

PubMed

Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in human memory, the necessity of the orbitofrontal cortex for key competencies of working memory remains largely unexplored. We therefore studied human brain lesion patients to determine whether the orbitofrontal cortex is necessary for working memory function, administering subtests of the Wechsler memory scale, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale, and the n-back task to 3 participant groups: orbitofrontal lesions (n = 24), prefrontal lesions not involving orbitofrontal cortex (n = 40), and no brain lesions (n = 54). Orbitofrontal damage was reliably associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests involving the coordination of working memory maintenance, manipulation, and monitoring processes (n-back task) but not on pure tests of working memory maintenance (digit/spatial span forward) or manipulation (digit/spatial span backward and letter-number sequencing). Our findings elucidate a central component of the neural architecture of working memory, providing key neuropsychological evidence for the necessity of the orbitofrontal cortex in executive control functions underlying the joint maintenance, manipulation, and monitoring of information in working memory. PMID:20724371

Barbey, Aron K; Koenigs, Michael; Grafman, Jordan

2010-08-19

69

Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

2013-01-01

70

The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale-Revised (BFRS-R): Factor Analysis, Internal Consistency, Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability, and Convergent Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the psychometric properties of the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R), a new scale intended for assessing behavioral flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Seventy-six direct care staff members and 56 parents completed the BFRS-R for 70 children with developmental disabilities. Factor analysis…

Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Korzilius, Hubert; Pituch, Keenan; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio

2008-01-01

71

Evaluation of reliability, validity, and preference for a pediatric pain intensity scale: the Catalan version of the faces pain scalerevised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to determine the initial psychometric properties of the Faces Pain ScaleRevised (FPS-R) as a measure of pain intensity for use with Catalan children and adolescents. Results of the Catalan version of this scale (FPS-R-C) are similar to those obtained with the original instrument. In order to assess the validity and reliability

Jordi Miró; Anna Huguet

2004-01-01

72

Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

2013-01-01

73

Overcoming the Challenge of Re-assessing Logical Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practice effects present a challenge for neuropsychological re-assessments. Insufficiently controlled test-learning effects could result in “improved” test scores on re-assessment, which could wrongly be interpreted as recovery when in fact the underlying cognitive function has remained unchanged or deteriorated. Logical memory is highly sensitive to practice effects. Clients often remember the commonly used stimulus stories of the Wechsler Memory Scales

Ralf Schnabel

2011-01-01

74

Overcoming the Challenge of Re-assessing Logical Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practice effects present a challenge for neuropsychological re-assessments. Insufficiently controlled test-learning effects could result in “improved” test scores on re-assessment, which could wrongly be interpreted as recovery when in fact the underlying cognitive function has remained unchanged or deteriorated. Logical memory is highly sensitive to practice effects. Clients often remember the commonly used stimulus stories of the Wechsler Memory Scales

Ralf Schnabel

2012-01-01

75

Validation of the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate Method to Predict Premorbid Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ Among Children With Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of neuropsychological impairment involves contrasting obtained performances with a comparison standard, which is often an estimate of premorbid IQ. M. R. Schoenberg, R. T. Lange, T. A. Brickell, and D. H. Saklofske (2007) proposed the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (CPIE) to predict premorbid Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—4th Edition (WISC–IV; Wechsler, 2003). The

Mike R. Schoenberg; Rael T. Lange; Donald H. Saklofske; Mariann Suarez; Tracey A. Brickell

2008-01-01

76

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

2007-01-01

77

Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and…

Brooks, Brian L.

2010-01-01

78

The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R): adaptation and construct validity in the Brazilian context.  

PubMed

This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R). The sample was made up of 627 subjects (69.8% women) aged between 18 and 88 years (mean = 38.3; SD = 13.26) from 17 Brazilian states. Exploratory factor analysis of part of the sample (n1 = 200) yielded a three-factor solution which showed adequate levels of reliability. Two confirmatory factor analyses of the other part of the sample (n2 = 427) tested both the exploratory and the original model. The analysis of convergent validity using the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2) demonstrated adequate levels of validity. A significant correlation was found between levels of self-care agency and age, level of education and income. The analysis of sample members with chronic disease (n = 134) showed that higher levels of self-care agency indicated lower levels of negative impact of the chronic illness in the individual's everyday life. PMID:24127101

Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

2013-10-01

79

The Impact of Event Scale - Revised: psychometric properties of the Italian version in a sample of flood victims  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to verify the main psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Impact of Event ScaleRevised (IES-R) in a sample of flood victims. Methods The sample was composed of 262 subjects involved in the natural disaster of 2009 in the city of Messina (Italy). All participants completed the IES-R and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. Results The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, used to verify the construct validity of the measure, showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. The goodness-of-fit indices (non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.99; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.04; and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02) indicated a good adaptation of the model to the data. The IES-R scales showed satisfactory values of internal consistency (intrusion, ? = 0.78; avoidance, ? = 0.72; hyper-arousal, ? = 0.83) and acceptable values of correlation with the DES-II. Conclusion These results suggest that this self-reported and easily administered instrument for assessing the dimensions of trauma has good psychometric properties and can be adopted usefully, both for research and for practice in Italy.

Craparo, Giuseppe; Faraci, Palmira; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio

2013-01-01

80

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment.…

Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

2007-01-01

81

Subject and Stimulus Variables that Effect Performance on the Block Design Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Block Design test, a subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, is a visuospatial task on which participants are required to arrange red and white blocks in a pattern similar to one presented on a stimulus card. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of subject variables and stimulus variables on participants' performance on the

Valorie N. Salimpoor; Steve Joordens

2002-01-01

82

Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal-crystallized abilities and nonverbal-fluid-visual abilities. With a sample of 152…

Canivez, Gary L.; Konold, Timothy R.; Collins, Jason M.; Wilson, Greg

2009-01-01

83

The Relationship among the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Ammons' Quick Test, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship among IQs of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), and Quick Test (QT) were investigated using 51 students (grades 2-8) with suspected learning problems. The subjects scored significantly higher on the TONI than on the WISC-R Verbal and Full Scales. (Author/VW)|

Vance, Booney; And Others

1986-01-01

84

Replication of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition Four-Factor Model in the Canadian Normative Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Confirmatory factor analyses of the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) using the Canadian normative sample (n=1,100 children) were conducted to verify the four-factor model found in the U.S. normative sample. Results paralleled those of the U.S. sample and support use of the WISC-III factor indexes. (SLD)|

Roid, Gale H.; Worrall, William

1997-01-01

85

Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were

Jianghong Liu; Richard Lynn

2011-01-01

86

Assessment of the accuracy of regression equations proposed for estimating premorbid intellectual functioning on the wechsler adult intelligence scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the accuracy of regression equations proposed by Wilson et al. (1978) for estimating premorbid intellectual quotients (IQs) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Actual Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs in a sample of 69 neurologically normal adults were compared against their estimated premorbid levels. While the equations provided an adequate overall fit to the data,

Felicia C. Goldstein; Howard E. Gary Jr; Harvey S. Levin

1986-01-01

87

Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

2004-01-01

88

Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): what does the WAIS-IV measure?  

PubMed

Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages. Results suggest that a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-inspired structure provides a better description of test performance than the published scoring structure does. Broad CHC abilities measured by the WAIS-IV include crystallized ability (Gc), fluid reasoning (Gf), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs), although some of these abilities are measured more comprehensively than are others. Additionally, the WAIS-IV provides a measure of quantitative reasoning (QR). Results also suggest a lack of cross-age invariance resulting from age-related differences in factor loadings. Formulas for calculating CHC indexes and suggestions for interpretation are provided. PMID:20230158

Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Kranzler, John H

2010-03-01

89

Validation of the College Alcohol Problem Scale—revised (CAPS-r) for use with non-adjudicated first-year students  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-year students in transition to college are at increased risk for consuming greater amounts of alcohol and are subject to subsequent alcohol-related problems. The 8-item College Alcohol Problem Scale—revised (CAPS-r) has been used to measure alcohol-related problems in adjudicated undergraduates and psychology majors. However, structural validity of the CAPS-r has not been examined in a general first-year student population. Confirmatory

Laura L. Talbott; M. Renée Umstattd; Stuart L. Usdan; Ryan J. Martin; Brian F. Geiger

2009-01-01

90

The five-factor model (NEO-FFI) and The Personality Deviance Scales-Revised (PDS-R): going around in interpersonal circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two dimensions of the Personality Deviance Scales-Revised [PDS-R; Deary, I.J., Bedford, A., & Fowkes, F.G.R. (1995). The Personality Deviance Scales: their development, associations, factor structure and restructuring. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 175–291], the five NEO-Five Factor Inventory Adult Form S domains [NEO-FFI; Costa Jr., P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory and five-factor inventory professional manual.

M. C. Whiteman; A. Bedford; E. Grant; F. G. R. Fowkes; I. J. Deary

2001-01-01

91

The Impact of Event Scale—Revised: evaluation of the subscales and correlations to psychophysiological startle response patterns in survivors of a life-threatening cardiac event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) with special emphasis on the evaluation of the hyperarousal subscale against a standardized psychophysiological measurement. Methods: A total of 129 survivors of a life-threatening cardiac event underwent a psychodiagnostic evaluation and a psychophysiological acoustic startle reflex (ASR) paradigm. The

Jens Baumert; Heidi Simon; Harald Gündel; Claus Schmitt; Karl-Heinz Ladwig

2004-01-01

92

Serum Dioxin and Cognitive Functioning among Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the Halstead–Reitan neuropsychological test battery, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised, the Wechsler memory scale, and the wide range achievement test to assess cognitive functioning among Air Force veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), during the Vietnam war. The index subjects were veterans of Operation Ranch Hand (N=937), the unit responsible for aerial herbicide spraying

Drue H Barrett; Robert D Morris; Fatema Z Akhtar; Joel E Michalek

2001-01-01

93

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates. PMID:22394018

Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

2012-03-07

94

Age-related change in Wechsler IQ norms after adjustment for the Flynn effect: estimates from three computational models.  

PubMed

A previous study found that the Flynn effect accounts for 85% of the normative difference between 20- and 70-year-olds on subtests of the Wechsler intelligence tests. Adjusting scores for the Flynn effect substantially reduces normative age-group differences, but the appropriate amount of adjustment is uncertain. The present study replicates previous findings and employs two other methods of adjusting for the Flynn effect. Averaged across models, results indicate that the Flynn effect accounts for 76% of normative age-group differences on Wechsler IQ subtests. Flynn-effect adjustment reduces the normative age-related decline in IQ from 4.3 to 1.1 IQ points per decade. PMID:23767697

Agbayani, Kristina A; Hiscock, Merrill

2013-06-14

95

Performances of problem children on the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scales and the Revised Stanford-Binet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scales and the Revised Stanford-Binet, Form L, were given to a group of 61 delinquent and problem children. A study of the relationships between these two tests yielded the following results:1.The mean I. Q. scores of the subjects on both tests indicate that they score dull normal intelligence. The mean age for the group is 12

Arthur Weider; Joseph Levi; Frank Risch

1963-01-01

96

Comparison of memory impairments among two groups of patients with diabetes with different disease durations  

PubMed Central

Background Modest cognitive impairment has been reported in adults with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to compare memory impairments among two groups of patients with diabetes with different disease durations. This study included 120 patients treated at the diabetes clinic at Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ardebil, Iran, over 14 months (2009–2010). The patients were divided into two groups according to their disease duration as >5 years or <1 year (recently diagnosed). The two groups were approximately matched in terms of age and education. Memory impairments were examined using the Wechsler Memory Scale. Data are presented descriptively, and were compared between groups using multivariate analysis of variance. Finding Overall, there were no significant differences in total scores or individual subscales between the two groups. However, 59% of all patients had below-average scores on the Wechsler memory questionnaire. Conclusion Both groups reported below-average scores on the Wechsler Memory Scale that were independent of disease duration. The present study agreed with the results of other studies showing impaired memory among patients with diabetes. The current findings require further investigation in longitudinal studies.

2012-01-01

97

[Relationship between memory complaints and memory performance, mood and sociodemographic variables in young adults].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Neurological consultations due to memory complaints have increased in recent years in both older and younger people. Few investigations have studied the variables related to memory complaints in young adults. AIM. To analyze, in a sample of young adults, the relationship between memory complaints and objective memory performance, depressive and anxiety symptoms, age, sex and level of studies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The study included 582 healthy workers, without cognitive impairment, aged 22-64 years. Assessment: Word List and Family Scenes of Wechsler Memory Scale-III, Memory Failures of Everyday Questionnaire (MFE) and Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS. We did not find any significant association between subjective assessment of memory and objective performance, both immediate and delayed in verbal and visual memory. Depression and anxiety had the highest correlation with MFE. The significant variables in the multiple regression analysis were: depression, with the largest effect size, age, college studies and sex. CONCLUSION. In young adults, those which had a greater perception of daily forgetfulness were not those with lesser memory performance. The most important variables involved in memory complaints were depression and anxiety. Younger people, people with college education and men reported less memory complaints. PMID:24150951

Montenegro, M; Montejo, P; Claver-Martin, M D; Reinoso, A I; de Andres-Montes, M E; Garcia-Marin, A; Llanero-Luque, M; Huertas, E

2013-11-01

98

Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.  

PubMed

The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level. PMID:20822259

Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

2010-12-01

99

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): a scale to assist the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in adults: an international validation study.  

PubMed

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of the questions and total mean ASD vs. the comparison groups' scores were significantly different (p < .0001). Concurrent validity with Constantino Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult = 95.59%. Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%, test-retest reliability r = .987. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subscales and 4 derived factors were good. We conclude that the RAADS-R is a useful adjunct diagnostic tool for adults with ASD. PMID:21086033

Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J; Hufnagel, Demetra H; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

2011-08-01

100

Substantive validity of working memory measures in major cognitive functioning test batteries for children.  

PubMed

Working memory scales of commonly used measures of cognitive functioning for children are evaluated for substantive validity by comparing processes needed for subtest performance to component processes in Baddeley's working memory model. Comprehensive measures of working memory need to assess phonological and visuospatial working memory as well as storage-retrieval and manipulation in both components. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WISCIV) working memory index and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities broad short-term memory factor do not assess visuospatial working memory. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition and WISCIV Integrated have potential for being comprehensive, substantively valid measures of working memory, but they need improvement and further investigation. It is imperative that solid, empirically based definitions of constructs serve as the foundation for comprehensive assessment when measures are used to form hypotheses and make decisions regarding a child's future. PMID:17362143

Leffard, Stacie A; Miller, Jeffrey A; Bernstein, Joshua; DeMann, John J; Mangis, Hillary A; McCoy, Erika L B

2006-01-01

101

A Comparison of the General Information Subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test with the Information Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the General Information subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with the Information subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence for Children-Revised (WISC-R) to determine the utility of the PIAT subtest for screening purposes. One hundred subjects, 69 males and 31 females ranging in chronological age from seven years, two months to 16

Frances W. Beck; Jimmy D. Lindsey; Betty Facziende

1979-01-01

102

The Chinese Intelligence Scale for Young ChildrenTesting Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance Using the Framework of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler intelligence test has four factors representing four components of intellectual function. In China, there are marked cultural, educational, and economic disparities between rural and urban dwellers, which could lead to cultural bias. The aim of this study was to apply the four-factor structure to responses to the Chinese Intelligence Scale for Young Children (CISYC) of 820 rural and

Boliang Guo; Paul Aveyard; Xiaoyang Dai

2009-01-01

103

The Chinese Intelligence Scale for Young Children: Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance Using the Framework of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Wechsler intelligence test has four factors representing four components of intellectual function. In China, there are marked cultural, educational, and economic disparities between rural and urban dwellers, which could lead to cultural bias. The aim of this study was to apply the four-factor structure to responses to the Chinese Intelligence…

Guo, Boliang; Aveyard, Paul; Dai, Xiaoyang

2009-01-01

104

A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were divided into three…

Wilson, Patti

2004-01-01

105

Memory Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded

K. Anders Ericsson

1985-01-01

106

Deficits of Organizational Strategy and Visual Memory in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the deficits of organizational strategy and visual memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty OCD patients and 30 healthy controls aged 20–35 years participated. The Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test were administered to participants. The authors scored ROCF performances using the Boston Qualitative Scoring

M. S. Shin; S. J. Park; M. S. Kim; Y. H. Lee; T. H. Ha; J. S. Kwon

2004-01-01

107

Nonverbal Cognitive Development in Children With Cochlear Implants: Relationship Between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Later Performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised  

PubMed Central

Methodologically, longitudinal assessment of cognitive development in young children has proven difficult because few measures span infancy through school age. This matter is further complicated when the child presents with a sensory deficit such as hearing loss. Few measures are validated in this population, and children who are evaluated for cochlear implantation are often reevaluated annually. The authors sought to evaluate the predictive validity of subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) on Leiter International Performance Scales–Revised (LIPS-R) Full-Scale IQ scores. To further elucidate the relationship of these two measures, comparisons were also made with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale–Second Edition (VABS), which provides a measure of adaptive functioning across the life span. Participants included 35 children (14 female, 21 male) who were evaluated both as part of the precandidacy process for cochlear implantation using the MSEL and VABS and following implantation with the LIPS-R and VABS. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that the MSEL Visual Reception subdomain score significantly predicted 52% of the variance in LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores at follow-up, F(1, 34) = 35.80, p < .0001, R2 = .52, ? = .72. This result suggests that the Visual Reception subscale offers predictive validity of later LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores. The VABS was also significantly correlated with cognitive variables at each time point.

Caudle, Susan E.; Katzenstein, Jennifer M.; Oghalai, John S.; Lin, Jerry; Caudle, Donald D.

2013-01-01

108

Hypoactivation of the prefrontal cortex during verbal fluency test in PTSD: a near-infrared spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have suggested that there is frontal dysfunction in subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the relationship between alterations of the hemodynamic response of the prefrontal cortex during a cognitive task (verbal fluency task; VFT) and memory function measured using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). The subjects were victims of the Tokyo Subway Sarin attack with (n=8)

Koji Matsuo; Kotaro Taneichi; Akio Matsumoto; Toshiyuki Ohtani; Hidenori Yamasue; Yuji Sakano; Tsukasa Sasaki; Miyuki Sadamatsu; Kiyoto Kasai; Akira Iwanami; Nozomi Asukai; Nobumasa Kato; Tadafumi Kato

2003-01-01

109

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III inter-subtest scatter: a comparison of brain-damaged patients and normal controls.  

PubMed

This study assessed the validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) inter-subtest scatter (as measured by the scaled score range) as an indication of cognitive impairment due to brain dysfunction. Participants were 174 individuals with documented brain damage. Means for age, education, and WAIS-III full-scale IQ were 49.19 years (SD = 15.33), 12.57 years, (SD = 2.78), and 88.45 (SD = 17.78). The scatter ranges for brain-damaged participants were compared with those of the WAIS-III standardization sample. Results indicated that the full-scale IQ is significantly correlated with amount of scatter, r(172) = .42, p < .0001, so that a definitive answer to the question requires control of full-scale IQ. In the present analyses, inter-subtest scatter among the individuals for the sample as a whole was no greater than that for persons in the standardization sample, but subtest scatter was significantly greater for participants with IQs > or = 90. This finding suggests that there may be small differences in scatter between brain-damaged persons and normal controls, but that scatter is relatively insensitive to the presence of brain damage or dysfunction. Therefore, interpretation of marked inter-subtest variability as a sign of brain damage appears unwarranted. PMID:16897733

Ryan, Joseph J; Tree, Heather A; Morris, Jeri; Gontkovsky, Samuel T

2006-10-01

110

Estimating Premorbid General Cognitive Functioning for Children and Adolescents Using the American Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition: Demographic and Current Performance Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychologic evaluation requires current test performance be contrasted against a comparison standard to determine if change has occurred. An estimate of premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) is often used as a comparison standard. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is a commonly used intelligence test. However, there is no method to estimate premorbid IQ for the WISC-IV, limiting the

Mike R. Schoenberg; Rael T. Lange; Tracey A. Brickell; Donald H. Saklofske

2007-01-01

111

An Investigation of the Reported Discrepancy between the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern generated by results of previously published research led to this replication and comparison study. The purpose was to investigate the validity of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJTCA) by analyzing the reported discrepancies between the WJTCA and Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-Revised (WISC-R). Means and correlations from the performance of normal, learning disabled, and emotionally disturbed children (n=60=

Shyla M. Ipsen; James H. McMillan; Nancy H. Fallen

1983-01-01

112

Neuroticism (Not Depressive Symptoms) Predicts Memory Complaints in Some Community-Dwelling Older Adults.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: To examine whether depressive symptoms are useful predictors of subjective memory complaints in community-dwelling older adults, beyond the predictive utility already provided by memory performance and characteristics of personality. DESIGN:: Using hierarchical regression, we examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective memory complaints, controlling for age, gender, education, memory performance, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. PARTICIPANTS:: Community-dwelling older adults aged 66 to 90 years (N = 177) who responded to a newspaper advertisement for a memory study in Perth, Western Australia. MEASUREMENTS:: The General Frequency of Forgetting scale (for memory complaints), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (for depressive symptoms), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (for conscientiousness and neuroticism), and the Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-4th Edition (for visual and verbal memory). RESULTS:: The hierarchical regression analysis indicated that while depressive symptoms significantly predicted memory complaints after variance associated with age, gender, education, memory performance, and conscientiousness was partialled out, it accounted for almost none of the variance in complaints when neuroticism was partialled out. CONCLUSIONS:: The well-established relationship between depression and memory complaints may exist in some community-dwelling older adult populations only on account of the manner in which both are associated with neuroticism. PMID:23013622

Merema, Matt R; Speelman, Craig P; Foster, Jonathan K; Kaczmarek, Elizabeth A

2012-09-25

113

Memory Palaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

Wood, Marianne

2007-01-01

114

Memory Palaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language…

Wood, Marianne

2007-01-01

115

Working memory as a predictor of negative symptoms and functional outcome in first episode psychosis.  

PubMed

The relationship of neurocognitive course with clinical and functional outcomes in psychosis is not well known, especially in the long term. The aim of the study was to examine the clinical and neuropsychological course of first-episode psychosis patients at 5-year follow-up and analyze the relationship of cognitive performance with clinical and functional outcome. The 5-year follow-up was conducted with 26 first-episode psychosis patients. Psychotic symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, manic and depressive symptoms by the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale respectively, and psychosocial functioning by the Functioning Assessment Short Test. The cognitive domains were assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wechsler Memory Scale. Patients showed symptomatic improvement in the follow-up except in negative psychotic symptoms. There was also improvement in most cognitive domains except in working memory and processing speed in the follow-up. Working memory impairment was associated to negative psychotic symptoms and poor functional outcomes. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between working memory and outcome. Therefore, negative symptoms should be a primary target of treatment to improve functional outcomes. PMID:22985548

González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Los Mozos, Vanesa; Echeburúa, Enrique; Mezo, Maria; Besga, Ariadna; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; González-Pinto, Asunción; Gutierrez, Miguel; Zorrilla, Iñaki; González-Pinto, Ana

2012-09-15

116

Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centra-Temporal Spikes: Quantitative EEG and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) is a form of focal idiopathic epilepsy, with seizure remission by the age of 18. Recent studies have suggested that some children with BECTS can suffer from deficits of memory, attention and learning ability and in auditory-verbal and performance sub-tests. On the other hand, alterations in the baseline brain electrical activity determined by

Gloria M. A. S. Tedrus; Lineu C. Fonseca; Josiane M. F. Tonelotto; Rebeca M. Costa; Marcelo G. Chiodi

2006-01-01

117

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

118

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

119

CLONAL MEMORY  

PubMed Central

A single clone of B cells producing anti-DNP antibody recognizable by the isoelectric-focusing spectrum has been used, in a double transfer system, to study clonal memory. Trasnsferable B memory develops between 4 and 7 days after the first transfer with antigen. B-memory cells thus proliferate before or concomitantly with antibody-forming cells.

McMichael, A. J.; Williamson, A. R.

1974-01-01

120

Distinct contribution of working memory and social comprehension failures in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological impairment represents a core characteristic of schizophrenia, but its underlying components have yet to be clearly established. Using a comprehensive battery of standardized measures of intelligence, declarative episodic memory, and executive function, we hypothesized that the variance in neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia may reflect at least 2 distinct sources related to failures of (a) the central executive division of working memory and (b) social comprehension. In comparison to age-matched controls, patients with schizophrenia showed not only overall reduced scores on Wechsler intelligence and memory scales and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) of executive function, but they also demonstrated different patterns of performance for each of these tests. Hierarchical regression revealed executive attentional control, measured by Trails B performance speed, and social comprehension, measured by Wechsler IQ Comprehension and Picture Arrangement subtests, each accounted for a unique and specific proportion of variance in test scores for the patient group, even when controlling for general intelligence. Failures in social comprehension and executive attentional control may account for distinct sources of variance in the neuropsychological impairment of schizophrenia. PMID:20215998

Nestor, Paul G; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; McCarley, Robert W

2010-03-01

121

Picture Completion Test, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence; Technical Report 16. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Technical Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Picture Completion subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence was included in this study as a measure of analytic functioning, an aspect of psychological differentiation. Twelve of the 23 items on the test were taken from the WISC and 11 were new. The child is shown a series of 23 pictures, each of which has some…

Dermen, Diran

122

Quantum memory Quantum memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

2012-06-01

123

[Drug evaluation of huperzine A in the treatment of senile memory disorders].  

PubMed

Huperzine A is an alkaloid which was first isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thumb) Trev by Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences and Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It exhibits a significant anticholinesterase activity and has been used on myasthenia gravis patients. The therapeutic effects were studied by random, match and double-blind method on 56 patients of multi-infarct dementia or senile dementia and 104 patients of senile and presenile simple memory disorders. The curative effects were evaluated by Wechsler memory scale. The im dose for multi-infarct dementia was 0.05 mg bid for 4 wk, whereas that for senile and presenile simple memory disorders was 0.03 mg bid for 2 wk. Saline was used on control group. The result showed that the curative effect of huperzine A was significant. Only a few patients felt slight dizziness and this did not affect the therapeutic effects. PMID:1781288

Zhang, R W; Tang, X C; Han, Y Y; Sang, G W; Zhang, Y D; Ma, Y X; Zhang, C L; Yang, R M

1991-05-01

124

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

125

Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short term memory are discussed.

L. N. Cooper

1985-01-01

126

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

127

VLSI Memories,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article, an update on Mitsubishi VLSI memory technology, discusses main products including dynamic RAMs, static RAMs, ROM, and application-specific memory devices. The Corporation has developed a 4Mb dynamic RAM with a submicron (0.8 micrometer) desig...

M. Yamada S. Kayano T. Yoshihara H. Harima H. Hamano

1988-01-01

128

Moseley Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE fund founded in the University of Manchester for the provision of a memorial to the late H. G. J. Moseley (killed in action at Gallipoli, 1915), and originally proposed as a private memorial from Moseley's personal friends and fellow-workers in Manchester, has now been extended in order to give other scientific bodies, both in England and abroad, an opportunity

Henry A. Miers; C. G. Darwin; H. Robinson

1920-01-01

129

Quantum memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light–atom interaction, quantum memory also appears

Jean-Louis Le Gouët; Sergey Moiseev

2012-01-01

130

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

131

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

132

Augmenting the core battery with supplementary subtests: Wechsler adult intelligence scale--IV measurement invariance across the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including core and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) were compared across the U.S. and Canadian standardization samples. Populations were compared on the 15 subtest version of the test in people aged 70 and younger and on the 12 subtest version in people aged 70 or older. Results indicated that a slightly modified version of the four-factor model reported in the WAIS-IV technical manual provided the best fit in both populations and in both age groups. The null hypothesis of measurement invariance across populations was not rejected, and the results provide direct evidence for the generalizability of convergent and discriminant validity studies with the WAIS-IV across populations. Small to medium differences in latent means favoring Canadians highlight the value of local norms. PMID:20826685

Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

2010-09-08

133

Memory reconsolidation.  

PubMed

The formation, storage and use of memories is critical for normal adaptive functioning, including the execution of goal-directed behavior, thinking, problem solving and decision-making, and is at the center of a variety of cognitive, addictive, mood, anxiety, and developmental disorders. Memory also significantly contributes to the shaping of human personality and character, and to social interactions. Hence, understanding how memories are formed, stored, retrieved, modified, updated and used potentially impacts many areas in human life, including mental health. PMID:24028957

Alberini, Cristina M; Ledoux, Joseph E

2013-09-01

134

The relationship between the PASS model (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive Processing), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition and reading achievement in school-aged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study addressed the relationship of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (based on the PASS model), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III)--(a traditional intelligence test) and two subtests of the Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised (Word Attack and Letter-Word Identification). More specifically, reading decoding skills were predicted from the WISC-III and the DN:CAS using hierarchical regression analyses. It was

Elizabeth Anne Volpe

1996-01-01

135

Memory Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... without even being knocked out (like in some concussions). Car accidents, bike accidents, and falls can cause ... an injury, which is not unusual with a concussion. Sometimes, these memories come back. More significant problems ...

136

Memory Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980...

1995-01-01

137

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

... alcohol abuse Migraine headache Mild head injury or concussion Nutritional problems (vitamin deficiencies such as low vitamin ... person suffering from low moods that impair concentration? Time pattern Has the memory loss been getting worse ...

138

Memory Grows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is reaffirmed that form memory (recognition) resides in the morphology of neuronal arborescences, the latter constituting physiological counterparts of local phase portraits of the infinitesimal transformation groups involved. At birth the brai...

W. C. Hoffman

1970-01-01

139

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

140

The Impact of Event Scale: Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced into the world psychiatric nomenclature in 1978 (World Health Organization,\\u000a 1978) with the publication of the ICD-9, documenting the cross-cultural recognition of the typical symptomatic response to\\u000a exposure to traumatic life events (e.g., Horowitz, 1976). The characteristic core of the disorder includes the distressing\\u000a oscillation between intrusion and avoidance. Intrusion is characterized by nightmares,

Daniel S. Weiss

141

Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Episodic memory,and semantic memory,are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory,functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

1998-01-01

142

Super Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

Text, Word

2001-01-01

143

Retracing Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

Harrison, David L.

2005-01-01

144

Memory Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

Cassebaum, Anne

2011-01-01

145

Memory grows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis is reaffirmed that form memory (recognition) resides in the morphology of neuronal arborescences, the latter constituting physiological counterparts of local phase portraits of the infinitesimal transformation groups involved. At birth the brain comes equipped with essentially its full complement of neurons. These are initially in a very primitive, almost neuroblast form, but subsequently rapidly proliferate and branch, thus

William C. Hoffman

1971-01-01

146

Minimal effects on human memory following long-term living at moderate altitude.  

PubMed

A number of studies describe memory deficits at extremely high altitudes. However, little is known about the effect of long-term living at moderate altitude (MA). The subjects for this study were 52 college students originally from sea level (SL), but studying at a MA of 2260?m over a 7-month period, with a return to SL for 30 days in the middle of the period. Fifty-two matched college students who stayed at SL all the time were the control group. The neuropsychological battery of assessments included the Chinese revised version of Wechsler Memory Scale tests (WMS-CR), verbal and spatial two-back working memory tests, long-term explicit memory (word recall and recognition of words, faces, and pictures) tests, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test, degraded picture naming test, and the Serial Reaction Time Test. We found that the MA subjects showed significantly poorer performances than SL controls only in short-term visual construction assessed in the visual reproduction test from WMS-CR and in the ROCF immediate test. There were no significant differences in all other tasks between the MA group and SL group. These findings suggest that long-term hypoxic exposure at moderate altitude has minimal effects on human memory. PMID:21452964

Zhang, Jiaxing; Liu, Haichen; Yan, Xiaodan; Weng, Xuchu

2011-01-01

147

Memorial Poems and the Poetics of Memorializing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public war memorials are sites of intense ideological negotiation, expressing the meaning of specific wars and their losses, whilst also speaking to private grief. War poetry also memorializes the experience of warfare and its effects. In poetry about war memorials, one form confronts the other. This essay initially considers poems that either embrace the values of the memorial or strenuously

Andrew Palmer; Sally Minogue

2010-01-01

148

Memorial Poems and the Poetics of Memorializing  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Public war memorials are sites of intense ideological negotiation, expressing the meaning of specific wars and their losses, whilst also speaking to private grief. War poetry also memorializes the experience of warfare and its effects. In poetry about war memorials, one form confronts the other. This essay initially considers poems that either embrace the values of the memorial or

Andrew Palmer; Sally Minogue

2010-01-01

149

Radio Memories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Golden Age of Radio" that arguably lasted until the early 1950s may be hard to imagine today in an era of swirling iPod playlists and other genre-bending devices and technologies, but during this time the radio reigned supreme. People tuned in every week to hear the exploits of Flash Gordon, Sam Spade, and Amos n' Andy. Thanks to the Radio Memories website, many of these memories can be relived, or just experienced for the first time. Started in May 2005, the site contains a host of compelling programs, including episodes from the Interplanetary Adventures of Flash Gordon and a number of original episodes of the fabled Radio Detective Story Hour. If those types of programs fail to pique the interest of the casual visitor, the site also contains archived shows that explore the world of radio soap operas from the 1940s and the musical worlds of such stars as Tommy Dorsey and Harry James.

150

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

151

Mechanisms of Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the brain processes and brain systems involved in learning and memory from a neuropsychological perspective of analysis. Reports findings related to the locus of memory storage, types of memory and knowledge, and memory consolidation. Models of animal memory are also examined. An extensive reference list is included. (ML)|

Squire, Larry R.

1986-01-01

152

Spatial working memory dysfunction in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: an ethology and BOLD-fMRI study.  

PubMed

The term "minimal hepatic encephalopathy" (MHE) refers to a population of individuals who have no recognizable clinical symptoms but perform abnormally on neuropsychological and neurophysiological tests. Research shows that MHE patients have impairments in cognition affecting their daily lives that should be treated. This study explored the neural basis of spatial working memory impairment in MHE patients using behavioral test and BOLD-fMRI. Twelve normal controls, twelve cirrhosis patients without MHE and twelve MHE patients took part. The memory quotient of the MHE group (Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese revised: WMS-CR) was lower than the normal control group and the cirrhosis-without-MHE group, and primarily concerned short-term memory and transient memory. Performance accuracy was lower for the MHE group than the control group and the cirrhosis-without-MHE group, and mean reaction time was prolonged. The fMRI data highlighted a neural network consisting of: bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilateral premotor area (PreMA), supplementary motor area (SMA) and bilateral parietal areas (PA), which was activated in the n-back task. The load effect of BOLD-fMRI response appeared in all regions of interest (ROI) for the normal control group, but only appeared in PreMA and PA, and did not vary with n-back load in PFC or SMA for the MHE group. Activation intensities for all ROIs were higher for the normal control group than the MHE group, especially in 2-back load. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that MHE patients have debilitated spatial working memory, and that impairments of bilateral PFC, PMA, SMA, and PA commonly lead to spatial working memory dysfunction. Furthermore, PFC impairment may form the neural basis of spatial working memory impairment. PMID:22325099

Liao, Ling-Min; Zhou, Li-Xue; Le, Hong-Bo; Yin, Jing-Jing; Ma, Shu-Hua

2012-01-24

153

Neuropsychological deficit profiles in senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type.  

PubMed

Recent studies using Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) Reading scores as estimates of premorbid abilities have demonstrated that distinct neuropsychological deficit profiles may be associated with specific cognitive disorders such as traumatic brain injury [Brain Inj. 9 (1995) 377] and lupus [Appl. Neuropsychol. 7 (2000) 96], and that these deficit scores predict both functional and financial outcomes [J. Head Trauma Rehab. 14 (1999) 220]. Although the main cognitive deficits associated with senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) are well known, the relative degree of impairment in each has yet to be adequately determined. The present study calculated indices of relative decline (zDiff) for 32 patients with probable SDAT by comparing estimates of premorbid functioning to concurrent neuropsychological test scores. The results suggest that intelligence is least declined in SDAT [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) FIQ, zDiff=-0.72], followed by attention [Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) Attention Index, zDiff=-1.14], memory (WMS-R General Memory, zDiff=-2.12; WMS-R Delay Memory, zDiff=-2.33), speed of processing (Trails A, zDiff=-2.85), and cognitive flexibility (Trails B, zDiff=-5.33). Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:14589727

Johnstone, Brick; Hogg, John R; Schopp, Laura H; Kapila, Cindy; Edwards, Staci

2002-04-01

154

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory. Explicit memories are facts that you made ... as driving a car or riding a bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained ...

155

Coping with Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Coping With Memory Loss Search the Consumer Updates Section Cerebral Cortex Previously formed memories are thought to be stored in the cerebral ... have a role in the formation of new memories partly through their connections with the hippocampus, and ...

156

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

157

Memorial Session  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memorial session to honor Heinz H. Barschall's contributions to physics, to the physics community, and to The American Physical Society. 11:00 D. Allan Bromley, Yale University and president-elect, The American Physical Society 11:15 Robert K. Adair, Yale University 11:30 Sam M. Austin, Michigan State University 11:45 Jay C. Davis, Associate Director, LLNL 12:00 Ruth H. Howes, Ball State University 12:15 Harry Lustig, APS Treasurer Emeritus 12:30 Robert G. Sachs, University of Chicago

Bromley, D. Allan; Adair, Robert K.; Austin, Sam M.; Davis, Jay C.; Howes, Ruth H.; Lustig, Harry; Sachs, Robert G.

1997-04-01

158

Mnemosyne: lightweight persistent memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

New storage-class memory (SCM) technologies, such as phase-change memory, STT-RAM, and memristors, promise user-level access to non-volatile storage through regular memory instructions. These memory devices enable fast user-mode access to persistence, allowing regular in-memory data structures to survive system crashes. In this paper, we present Mnemosyne, a simple interface for programming with persistent memory. Mnemosyne addresses two challenges: how to

Haris Volos; Andres Jaan Tack; Michael M. Swift

2011-01-01

159

[Memory and its dysfunction].  

PubMed

In the last decades interdisciplinary research of memory takes place and it connects regions as cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Learning and memory are theoretical concepts, which enable to explain the fact that personal experience influences the behavior of the particular person. Memory has neuronal representation, which enables recollection of obtained experiences and information, and subsequently enables changes in behavior. The review describes events as registration, formation of memory trace as well as memory retrieval. Memory classification is possible according to many criteria, e.g. according to the length, its conscious recollection and the character of deposited information. Main types of memories are episodic memory (for facts and events), semantic memory (for general knowledge) and procedural memory (the ability to learn behavioral and cognitive abilities and algorithms). At present it is generally accepted that memory is a complicated process, which utilizes several brain structures at the same time that are called memory systems; according to the type of memory the experiences and information are deposited in various brain regions. The present research enables many approaches for determination of the sites of memory deposition. In the present period important role in memory localization have the brain imaging techniques. Together with the study of memory under physiological conditions, in the center of interest there is the study of memory during various life periods, under pathological conditions and diseases. The review is closed by the list of most important diseases in which we observe memory dysfunctions, including the retrograde and anterograde amnesias. PMID:21254663

Klenerová, V; Hynie, S

2010-01-01

160

Factors associated with individual differences in clinical measures of speech recognition among the elderly.  

PubMed

In the present study, the speech-recognition performance of 50 subjects aged 63 to 83 years was measured for a wide range of materials (nonsense syllables, monosyllabic words, sentences) and listening conditions (presentation levels of 70 and 90 dB SPL, both in quiet and in a noise background). In addition to complete audiologic evaluations, measures of auditory processing (the Test of Basic Auditory Capabilities [TBAC], Watson, 1987) and cognitive function (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised [WAIS-R], and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R], Wechsler, 1981, 1987) were obtained from all subjects. Principal component analyses were applied to each of the three sets of measures (speech-recognition, auditory, and cognitive) prior to examining associations among the sets using canonical analyses. Two principal components captured most of the systematic variation in performance sampled by the set of 20 speech-recognition measures. Hearing loss emerged as the single largest factor associated with individual differences in speech-recognition performance among the elderly, accounting for 70-75% of the total variance in speech-recognition performance, with the measures of auditory processing and cognitive function accounting for little or no additional variance. PMID:8028328

Humes, L E; Watson, B U; Christensen, L A; Cokely, C G; Halling, D C; Lee, L

1994-04-01

161

Working memory deficits in multiple sclerosis: a controlled study with auditory P600 correlates  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, the P600 component of event related potentials, a waveform that is conceived to be generated and/or modulated by basal ganglia and cingulate area has been considered an index of the completion of any synchronised operation after target detection, having much in common with working memory operation. Moreover, dysfunction of these brain structures as well as working memory deficits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of P600 elicited during a working memory test in multiple sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls. Methods: Twenty two definite, chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients, with recent exacerbation of their illness, and 20 normal subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level, were studied with a computerised version of the digit span test of Wechsler batteries. Auditory P600 were measured during the anticipatory period of this test. Results: The patient group, as compared with healthy controls, showed significantly reduced latencies of P600 at left frontal areas and reduced P600 amplitudes at left temporoparietal region. Moreover, memory performance of patients was significantly more impaired when compared with healthy controls. Conclusions: These findings may indicate that multiple sclerosis is associated with abnormal features of the completion of synchronised operation after target detection, as they are reflected by P600 amplitudes and latencies. Dysfunction of this mechanism may contribute to the identification of basic cognitive processes that could account for the cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis.

Sfagos, C; Papageorgiou, C; Kosma, K; Kodopadelis, E; Uzunoglu, N; Vassilopoulos, D; Rabavilas, A

2003-01-01

162

Kansas Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can travel from Cheyenne County in the northwestern corner of Kansas all the way down to Cherokee County in the southeast with a just couple of clicks on the Kansas Memory site. It's a trip filled with compelling historical artifacts, photographs, and other ephemera, and it's an engaging way to learn about the Sunflower State's history. Created by the Kansas State Historical Society, Kansas Memory helps to fulfill the Society's mission "to identify collect, preserve, interpret, and disseminate materials and information pertaining to Kansas history." First-time visitors can explore the "Item of the Week" on the homepage, create their own profiles to save materials for future visits, and take a look at the "Special Exhibits" area. On the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors will find thematic headings that allow them to browse materials dealing with the subjects including the built environment, business, and agriculture. With over 17,000 items available on the site, it's safe to say that several visits will be in order for anyone with even the faintest interest in Kansas history.

2012-01-27

163

Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.  

PubMed

Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (?65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke. PMID:22955236

Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

2012-10-01

164

Memory for pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes some of the recent advances in the neurobiology of memory. Current research helps us to understand how memories are created and, conversely, how our memories can be influenced by stress, drugs, and aging. An understanding of how memories are encoded by the brain may also lead to new ideas about how to maximize the long-term retention of

Jason W. Brown

1979-01-01

165

Error tolerant associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We present a new approach to enlarging the basin of attraction of associative memory, including auto-associative memory and\\u000a temporal associative memory. The memory trained by means of this method can tolerate and recover from seriously noisy patterns.\\u000a Simulations show that this approach will greatly reduce the number of limit cycles.

Cheng-Yuan Liou; Shao-Kuo Yuan

1999-01-01

166

Memories of Things Unseen  

Microsoft Academic Search

New findings reveal more about the malleability of memory. Not only is it possible to change details of memories for previously experienced events, but one can sometimes also plant entirely false memories into the minds of unsuspecting individuals, even if the events would be highly implausible or even impossible. False memories might differ statistically from true ones, in terms of

Elizabeth F. Loftus

2004-01-01

167

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

168

Infant Visual Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

2004-01-01

169

Nanoscale memory devices.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO(2). PMID:20852352

Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

2010-09-17

170

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

171

A UK pilot study: The specificity of the Word Memory Test effort sub-tests in acute minimal to mild head injury.  

PubMed

The specificity of the Word Memory Test (WMT) effort indices was examined in 48 individuals with minimal to mild head injury (MHI) in the acute stages post-injury. None of the individuals was involved in litigation or disability claims. At the established cut-offs, the WMT had an unacceptable false-positive rate (18%). T test analysis was also carried out for WMT passers and failures on a battery of neuropsychometric measures and across a range of demographic variables. The WMT was performed at a significantly lower level on the Wechsler Memory Scale - III word list sub-tests and verbal fluency tests (p < .05). This suggests that WMT failure may be indicative of a specific deficit in verbal processing in the acute phase of MHI. PMID:23679892

Hall, Vicki L; Worthington, Andrew; Venables, Katie

2013-05-16

172

Memory loss.  

PubMed

Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

2012-02-01

173

Virginia Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

174

Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects  

PubMed Central

We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 DAT ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests – ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test – the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.

Apostolova, Liana G.; Morra, Jonathan H.; Green, Amity E.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

2010-01-01

175

Understanding Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When You Have Trouble ... I get more information? Words to know Understanding Memory Loss What To Do When You Have Trouble ...

176

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for ... from those that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for ...

177

Sparse Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in the...

P. J. Denning

1989-01-01

178

Memory System for Microcircuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to design and develop manufacturing processes for a compact, low power, modular memory is described. The memory uses electroplated magnetic film storage elements, vacuum evaporated wiring and insulation, integrated circuits ultrasonically face-d...

M. I. Weilerstein

1968-01-01

179

Memory Technology Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola,...

1981-01-01

180

Sparse Distributed Memory Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characterist...

M. Raugh

1990-01-01

181

Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

2010-01-01

182

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

183

External Memory Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sets in large applications are often too massive to fit completely inside the computer’s internal memory. The resulting\\u000a input\\/output communication (or I\\/O) between fast internal memory and slower external memory (such as disks) can be a major\\u000a performance bottleneck. In this tutorial, we survey the state of the art in the design and analysis of external memory algorithms (also

Jerey Scott Vitter

184

Suggesting a Memory Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Suggesting a Memory Screening... Text Size: Email This Post Print This Post Suggesting a Memory Screening By Kevin Gault It can be a ... cognitive abilities, want to suggest screening for possible memory deficit, but aren’t sure how to go ...

185

Music, memory and emotion  

PubMed Central

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Jancke, Lutz

2008-01-01

186

Music, memory and emotion.  

PubMed

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

Jäncke, Lutz

2008-08-08

187

Testing eyewitness memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies a memory-testing procedure that is relatively resistant to the documented effects of suggestibility on eyewitness memory. Most studies on suggestibility have used averbal recognition memory test in which the alternative test items are sentences, each to be verified as true or false regarding an originally viewedvisual sequence. In this study, participants were tested with either the verbal

Kathy Pezdek; Joelle Greener

1993-01-01

188

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

189

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

190

Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.  

PubMed

Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood. PMID:23137723

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

2012-11-05

191

Cognitive activities delay onset of memory decline in persons who develop dementia  

PubMed Central

Background: Persons destined to develop dementia experience an accelerated rate of decline in cognitive ability, particularly in memory. Early life education and participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities later in life are 2 factors thought to reflect cognitive reserve, which may delay the onset of the memory decline in the preclinical stages of dementia. Methods: We followed 488 initially cognitively intact community residing individuals with epidemiologic, clinical, and cognitive assessments every 12 to 18 months in the Bronx Aging Study. We assessed the influence of self-reported participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities on the onset of accelerated memory decline as measured by the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in 101 individuals who developed incident dementia using a change point model. Results: Each additional self-reported day of cognitive activity at baseline delayed the onset of accelerated memory decline by 0.18 years. Higher baseline levels of cognitive activity were associated with more rapid memory decline after that onset. Inclusion of education did not significantly add to the fit of the model beyond the effect of cognitive activities. Conclusions: Our findings show that late life cognitive activities influence cognitive reserve independently of education. The effect of early life education on cognitive reserve may be mediated by cognitive activity later in life. Alternatively, early life education may be a determinant of cognitive reserve, and individuals with more education may choose to participate in cognitive activities without influencing reserve. Future studies should examine the efficacy of increasing participation in cognitive activities to prevent or delay dementia. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BL = baseline; CAS = Cognitive Activity Scale; CI = confidence interval; DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; dx = diagnosis; NIA = National Institute on Aging; SRT = Selective Reminding Test; WAIS VIQ = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Verbal IQ.

Hall, C B.; Lipton, R B.; Sliwinski, M; Katz, M J.; Derby, C A.; Verghese, J

2009-01-01

192

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

193

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

1992-01-01

194

Memory access in shared virtual memory  

SciTech Connect

Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

1992-09-01

195

Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

2010-07-01

196

Memory Lane and Morality: How Childhood Memories Promote Prosocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has established that autobiographical memory affects one's self-concept, little is known about how it affects moral behavior. We focus on a specific type of autobiographical memory: childhood memories. Drawing on research on memory and moral psychology, we propose that childhood memories elicit moral purity, which we define as a psychological state of feeling morally clean and innocent. In

Francesca Gino; Sreedhari D. Desai

2012-01-01

197

Memory and Meaning: Individual and Social Aspects of Memory Narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is critical to an understanding of traumatic stress, but most research has focused on individual traumatic memories and not accounted for broader social and cultural memories. The present theoretical article focuses on memory and meaning, and the clinical implications of this, demonstrating that an understanding of traumatic memory requires an understanding of the impact of both individual narrative and

Nigel Hunt; Sue McHale

2007-01-01

198

CAN EXPERIMENTAL MEMORY RESEARCH ADEQUATELY EXPLAIN MEMORY FOR TRAUMA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the debate on memories of traumatic events (especially childhood abuse), traumatic memories and dissociative amnesia are central topics. These phenomena are frequently described as dissociative memory problems. The aim of the present article is to assess to what extent memory mechanisms as identified in experimental research (such as encoding, storage, and retrieval factors) are adequate in explaining memories of

Philip Spinhoven; Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis; Richard Van Dyck

1999-01-01

199

Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

200

Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

2004-01-01

201

Memory, emotion, and REM sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explored the manner in which REM sleep deprivation might affect various aspects of memory processing. A series of tests, including S. Sternberg's test of scanning of immediate memory, past personal and nonpersonal memory, and past emotional memories, was administered to 8 college students after baseline, control-awakening, and REM-deprivation nights. Results show that only past, emotionally important memories may have been

Ramon Greenberg; Chester Pearlman; Wynn R. Schwartz; Hildreth Y. Grossman

1983-01-01

202

False Memories and Persuasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on false memories, which has increased drastically in the past decade, has mainly focused on the cognitive influences that lead to the creation of false memories, such as the theoretical causes of decreased memory strength and source confusion. Although there is certainly a cognitive component to false memories, in this article, I argue that false memories are more likely

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

203

Ethanol Enhances Reactivated Fear Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ethanol has been shown to impair acquisition of memory, its effect on consolidated memories is not clear. Recent reports revealed that memory retrieval converted consolidated memory into a labile state and initiated the reconsolidation process. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of ethanol on reactivated fear memory. We used contextual fear conditioning where rats were conditioned

Hiroshi Nomura; Norio Matsuki

2008-01-01

204

Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

2004-01-01

205

Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.

206

Psychopharmacology and memory  

PubMed Central

Psychotropic and other drugs can alter brain mechanisms regulating the formation, storage, and retrieval of different types of memory. These include “off label” uses of existing drugs and new drugs designed specifically to target the neural bases of memory. This paper discusses the use of beta?adrenergic antagonists to prevent or erase non?conscious pathological emotional memories in the amygdala. It also discusses the use of novel psychopharmacological agents to enhance long term semantic and short term working memory by altering storage and retrieval mechanisms in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Although intervention in the brain to alter memory as therapy or enhancement holds considerable promise, the long term effects of experimental drugs on the brain and memory are not known. More studies are needed to adequately assess the potential benefits and risks of these interventions.

Glannon, W

2006-01-01

207

Quadratic Hadamard Memories I: Adaptive Stochastic Content-Addressable Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel associative memory is discussed which overcomes the early saturation problem of Hopfield memories, without resorting to dilute state vectors or nonlocal learning rules. The memory uses a Bidirectional Linear Transformer (BLT) which transforms the ...

H. G. Loos

1989-01-01

208

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

209

Removing pathogenic memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional\\u000a and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are\\u000a currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and\\u000a phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and

Diego Centonze; Alberto Siracusano; Paolo Calabresi; Giorgio Bernardi

2005-01-01

210

Silicon Nanocrystal Nonvolatile Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Silicon nanocrystal memory devices [1],[2] such as shown in Fig. 4.1, offer the potential to solve the challenging problem of scaling nonvolatile memories. Scaling of floating-gate (FG) nonvolatile\\u000a memory cells has been limited to bottom oxide thicknesses in the range of 80–110 Å primarily because of the vulnerability\\u000a to charge loss from the conducting FG through isolated defects in the

R. A. Rao; M. A. Sadd; R. F. Steimle; C. T. Swift; H. Gasquet; M. Stoker

211

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

212

Development of extended memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory development is described in terms of a bio-social–cultural theory of human cognition. The development from a private unshareable system of basic memory in infancy and very early childhood is framed within an experiential perspective wherein all memory is derived from experience. It is the nature of changing experience, the result of both biological and social–cultural conditions that eventuates in

Katherine Nelson

2007-01-01

213

Cortical memory dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Biological memories have a number of unique features, including (1) hierarchical, reciprocally interacting layers, (2) lateral\\u000a inhibitory interactions within layers, and (3) Hebbian synaptic modifications. We incorporate these key features into a mathematical\\u000a and computational model in which we derive and study Hebbian learning dynamics and recall dynamics. Introducing the construct\\u000a of a feasible memory (a memory that formally

Edward W. Kairiss; Willard L. Miranker

1998-01-01

214

Contribution of Specific Cognitive Processes to Executive Functioning in an Aging Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated executive function measures emphasizing Alpha Span (ASp) to understand relationships among executive and nonexecutive tasks. Nondemented older participants (N = 417) received a comprehensive cognitive battery. Age and vocabulary adjusted correlations revealed associations among ASp, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981) Digit Span subtests, and fluency tasks. Principal-components analysis with varimax rotation revealed a 4

Melissa Lamar; Alan B. Zonderman; Susan Resnick

2002-01-01

215

Verbal IQ–performance IQ differentials in traumatic brain injury samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies of head trauma utilizing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) reported large sample differentials between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ), leading some writers to claim that the VIQ is largely unaffected by traumatic brain injury (TBI), and that a superiority of VIQ over PIQ should be expected. In contrast, our review of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised

Keith A Hawkins; Kirsten Plehn; Susan Borgaro

2002-01-01

216

Probabilistic Quantum Memories  

SciTech Connect

Typical address-oriented computer memories cannot recognize incomplete or noisy information. Associative (content-addressable) memories solve this problem but suffer from severe capacity shortages. I propose a model of a quantum memory that solves both problems. The storage capacity is exponential in the number of qbits and thus optimal. The retrieval mechanism for incomplete or noisy inputs is probabilistic, with postselection of the measurement result. The output is determined by a probability distribution on the memory which is peaked around the stored patterns closest in Hamming distance to the input.

Trugenberger, C. A.

2001-08-06

217

The future of memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

Marinella, M.

218

Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.  

PubMed Central

Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged.

Kihlstrom, J F

1997-01-01

219

Memory on time.  

PubMed

Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

Eichenbaum, Howard

2013-01-12

220

Is Random Access Memory Random.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor ...

P. J. Denning

1986-01-01

221

Memory Reconsolidation and Computational Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memory models are central to Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, since memories hold knowledge and their updates are the heart of flexibility and adaptivity. Reconsolidation is a key process of human learning, modifying learned memories with new...

H. T. Siegelmann

2010-01-01

222

Long-Term Memory Improvement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests Piaget's interpretation of long-term memory improvement among 82 five- and six-year-old children. Concludes that there is little evidence for long-term memory improvement or for Piaget's theory of memory. (Author/RH)

Maurer, Daphne; And Others

1979-01-01

223

Risdon Vale: Place, Memory, and Suburban Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reflects upon the notions of personal memory, collective memory, myth, and evolved memory within her lived experience of Risdon Vale. These interrelated forms of memory influence understanding of place and sense of place. Personal memories corroborate and collaborate with intersubjective memories to inform collective memory. Both personal and collective memories are held within a fusion of cultural myths.

Kate Booth

2008-01-01

224

Schizophrenia comorbid with panic disorder: Evidence for distinct cognitive profiles  

PubMed Central

Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and panic symptoms share a distinct clinical presentation and biological characteristics, prompting some to propose panic psychosis as a separate subtype of schizophrenia. Less is known about these patients’ neuropsychological profiles, knowledge of which may facilitate target-specific treatments and research into the etiopathophysiology for such cases. A total of 255 schizophrenia patients with panic disorder (n=39), non-panic anxiety disorder (n=51), or no anxiety disorder (n=165) were assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleRevised, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Animal Naming subtest of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, and the Wechsler Memory ScaleRevised. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Patients with panic disorder demonstrated a higher verbal IQ and better problem solving, set switching, delayed recall, attention, and verbal fluency as compared to schizophrenia patients without comorbid anxiety. The schizophrenia-panic group reported a higher level of dysthymia on stable medication. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia and comorbid panic disorder exhibit distinct cognitive functioning when compared to other schizophrenia patients. These data offer further support for a definable panic-psychosis subtype and suggest new etiological pathways for future research.

Rapp, Erica Kirsten; White-Ajmani, Mandi Lynn; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond Richard; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill Martine; Savitz, Adam Jonathan; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey Paul

2012-01-01

225

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

226

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

227

Working Memory and Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension in aphasia. A measurement of working memory capacity was obtained using a modified version of Daneman and Carpenter's (1980) Reading Span Task. Sets of sentences ranging in length from one to six words were presented to 22 aphasic subjects who were required to retain the terminal words following

Isabelle Caspari; Stanley R. Parkinson; Leonard L. LaPointe; Richard C. Katz

1998-01-01

228

Magnetic content addressable memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics

Zhenye Jiang

2009-01-01

229

Emotional memory is perceptual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two

Arnoud Arntz; Corlijn de Groot; Merel Kindt

2005-01-01

230

Asymmetric bidirectional associative memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a potentially promising model for heteroassociative memories. However, its applications are severely restricted to networks with logical symmetry of interconnections and pattern orthogonality or small pattern size. Although the restrictions on pattern orthogonality and pattern size can be relaxed to a certain extent, all previous efforts are at the cost of increase in connection complexity.

Zong-Ben Xu; Yee Leung; Xiang-Wei He

1994-01-01

231

Memory and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it may be disconcerting to contemplate, true and false memories arise in the same way. Memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. This article describes an approach to studying the nature of these…

Johnson, Marcia K.

2006-01-01

232

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

233

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

234

Shape memory polymer nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

2002-01-01

235

When forgetting preserves memory.  

PubMed

There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48?h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48?h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies. PMID:23382724

Hupbach, Almut

2013-02-04

236

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

237

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

238

When autobiographical memory begins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in what processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes play in the emergence of autobiographical memory and the temporal

Mark L. Howe; Mary L. Courage; Shannon C. Edisonb

2003-01-01

239

Testing Flash Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash memories can undergo three different types of disturbances, DC-programming, DC-erasure, and drain disturbance. These faults are specific to flash memories and do not occur in RAMs. In this paper, we discuss these disturbances, their causes, and develop fault models that capture the characteristics of these faults. We present optimal and near optimal algorithms to detect these faults in flash

Mohammad Gh. Mohammad; Kewal K. Saluja; Alex Yap

2000-01-01

240

Introduction to flash memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly focuses on the development of the NOR flash memory technology, with the aim of describing both the basic functionality of the memory cell used so far and the main cell architecture consolidated today. The NOR cell is basically a floating-gate MOS transistor, programmed by channel hot electron and erased by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The main reliability issues, such

ROBERTO BEZ; EMILIO CAMERLENGHI; ALBERTO MODELLI; ANGELO VISCONTI

2003-01-01

241

Dynamic Photorefractive Optical Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extremely large storage density of volume holographic memories is applicable to numeric and neural network optical computing. Such photorefractive memories, can be used to provide optical storage of binary bit-plane or gray scale images as well as wei...

1992-01-01

242

Optical quantum memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication

Alexander I. Lvovsky; Barry C. Sanders; Wolfgang Tittel

2009-01-01

243

The Psychology of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed

Alan D. Baddeley

1976-01-01

244

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

245

Advertising and Consumer Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the idea that advertising interferes with consumers' memories of product experiences. We consider a two-period model where a monopolist sells an ex- perience good to a buyer who may only imperfectly recall her first period experience. When advertising activates memory, it enables learning and may induce the buyer to try out the good initially. Moreover, while costly

Daniel Krähmer

2004-01-01

246

Memory after silent stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective: Memory decline commonly occurs among elderly individuals. This observation is often attributed to early neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus and related brain regions. However, the contribution of vascular lesions, such as brain infarcts, to hippocampal integrity and age-associated memory decline remains unclear. Methods: We studied 658 elderly participants without dementia from a prospective, community-based study on aging and dementia who received high-resolution structural MRI. Cortical and subcortical infarcts were identified, and hippocampal and relative brain volumes were calculated following standard protocols. Summary scores reflecting performance on tasks of memory, language, processing speed, and visuospatial function were derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. We used multiple regression analyses to relate cortical and subcortical infarcts, hippocampal and relative brain volume, to measures of cognitive performance in domains of memory, language, processing speed, and visuospatial ability. Results: Presence of brain infarcts was associated with a smaller hippocampus. Smaller hippocampus volume was associated with poorer memory specifically. Brain infarcts were associated with poorer memory and cognitive performance in all other domains, which was independent of hippocampus volume. Conclusions: Both hippocampal volume and brain infarcts independently contribute to memory performance in elderly individuals without dementia. Given that age-associated neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, are defined primarily by impairment in memory, these findings have clinical implications for prevention and for identification of pathogenic factors associated with disease symptomatology.

Blum, S.; Luchsinger, J.A.; Manly, J.J.; Schupf, N.; Stern, Y.; Brown, T.R.; DeCarli, C.; Small, S.A.; Mayeux, R.

2012-01-01

247

Memory Event Clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce logics and automata based on memory event clocks. A memory clock is not really reset: instead, a new clock is created, while the old one is still accessible by indexing. We can thus constrain not only the time since the last reset (which was the main limitation in event clocks), but also since previous resets. When we introduce these clocks in the linear temporal logic of the reals, we create Recursive Memory Event Clocks Temporal Logic (RMECTL). It turns out to have the same expressiveness as the Temporal Logic with Counting (TLC) of Hirshfeld and Rabinovich. We then examine automata with recursive memory event clocks (RMECA). Recursive event clocks are reset by simpler RMECA, hence the name "recursive". In contrast, we show that for RMECA, memory clocks do not add expressiveness, but only concision. The original RECA define thus a fully decidable, robust and expressive level of real-time expressiveness.

Jerson Ortiz, James; Legay, Axel; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves

248

Graphene flash memory.  

PubMed

Graphene's single atomic layer of sp(2) carbon has recently garnered much attention for its potential use in electronic applications. Here, we report a memory application for graphene, which we call graphene flash memory (GFM). GFM has the potential to exceed the performance of current flash memory technology by utilizing the intrinsic properties of graphene, such as high density of states, high work function, and low dimensionality. To this end, we have grown large-area graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition and integrated them into a floating gate structure. GFM displays a wide memory window of ?6 V at significantly low program/erase voltages of ±7 V. GFM also shows a long retention time of more than 10 years at room temperature. Additionally, simulations suggest that GFM suffers very little from cell-to-cell interference, potentially enabling scaling down far beyond current state-of-the-art flash memory devices. PMID:21854056

Hong, Augustin J; Song, Emil B; Yu, Hyung Suk; Allen, Matthew J; Kim, Jiyoung; Fowler, Jesse D; Wassei, Jonathan K; Park, Youngju; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jin; Kaner, Richard B; Weiller, Bruce H; Wang, Kang L

2011-08-25

249

Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

2012-01-01

250

Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Memory loss: 7 tips to improve your memory By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... not share your e-mail address Sign up Memory loss: 7 tips to improve your memory Concerned ...

251

Genuine memory deficits in age?associated memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairment in aging may seem evident from the forgetfulness of the aged and their poor performance on memory tests, but the amelioration or elimination of apparent memory deficits in the aged when they are induced to process efficiently has shown that most, if not all, of their apparent memory deficits are due to inefficient processing, reduced processing capacity, or

Herman Buschke; Ellen Grober

1986-01-01

252

Single-Item Memory, Associative Memory, and the Human Hippocampus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented…

Squire, Larry R.; Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

2006-01-01

253

Working memory and the memory distortion component of hindsight bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion: Individuals' recollections of their predictions are biased towards known outcomes. The present study examined the role of working memory in the memory distortion component of hindsight bias. Participants answered almanac-like questions, completed a measure of working memory capacity, were provided with the correct answers, and attempted to recollect their original judgements in

Dustin P. Calvillo

2012-01-01

254

Memory Systems in the Brain and Localization of a Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now clear that there are a number of different forms or aspects of learning and memory that involve different brain systems. Broadly, memory phenomena have been categorized as explicit or implicit. Thus, explicit memories for experience involve the hippocampus-medial temporal lobe system and implicit basic associative learning and memory involves the cerebellum, amygdala, and other systems. Under normal

Richard F. Thompson; Jeansok J. Kim

1996-01-01

255

Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated

Jeffrey J. Gold; Ramona O. Hopkins; Larry R. Squire

2006-01-01

256

Memories of Reading, Memories in Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how literature (especially African-American) affected and shaped the author all her life. Explores how her writing drew on her own experiences and memories. Discusses her experiences writing historical fiction further exploring African-American history. Portrays a spirit of freedom that will show her readers confidence and self-esteem…

Hansen, Joyce

1999-01-01

257

Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

2008-01-01

258

Cache-Memory Interfaces in Compressed Memory Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract?e consider a number of cache\\/memory hierarchy design issues in systems with compressed random access memories (C-RAMs) in which compression and decompression occur automatically to and from main memory. Using a C-RAM as main memory, the bulk of main memory contents are stored in a compressed format and dynamically decompressed to handle cache misses at the next higher level of

Caroline D. Benveniste; Peter A. Franaszek; John T. Robinson

2001-01-01

259

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

260

Combinable memory-block transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formalizes and studies combinable memory-block transactions (MBTs). The idea is to encode short programs that operate on a single cache\\/memory block and then to specify such a program with a memory request. The code is then executed at the cache or memory controller, atomically with respect to other accesses to that block by this or other processors. The

Guy E. Blelloch; Phillip B. Gibbons; S. Harsha Vardhan

2008-01-01

261

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

262

Memory Processes and Experiential Continuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the memory processes that produce coherent representations of temporally discontinuous experiences? In this ar- ticle, we describe the memory process ofresonance, a process that provides renewed access to long-term memory information that is relevant to cues in working memory. Our experiments demonstrate parallel waxing and waning of information as a function of relevance to a current episode, a

Richard J. Gerrig; Gail McKoon

2001-01-01

263

Stroke and episodic memory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory

Chun Lim; Michael P. Alexander

2009-01-01

264

Molecular Mechanisms of Memory Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory retrieval is a fundamental component or stage of memory processing. In fact, retrieval is the only possible measure of memory. The ability to recall past events is a major determinant of survival strategies in all species and is of paramount importance in determining our uniqueness as individuals. Most biological studies of memory using brain lesion and\\/or gene manipulation techniques

German Szapiro; Julieta M. Galante; Daniela M. Barros; Miguelina Levi de Stein; Monica R. M. Vianna; Luciana A. Izquierdo; Ivan Izquierdo; Jorge H. Medina

2002-01-01

265

Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus.  

PubMed

We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and new words. In a separate test, they studied word pairs and then took a memory test involving studied word pairs and recombined word pairs. In both experiments, patients were impaired at memory for single items as well as memory for associations, suggesting that the hippocampus is important for both of these memory functions. In Experiment 1, patients appeared to be more impaired at associative memory than item memory. In Experiment 2, patients were similarly impaired at associative memory and item memory. These different findings are considered, including the fact that in Experiment 1 the results depended on the fact that controls produced unexpectedly low false-alarm rates to recombined pairs. We discuss single-item and associative memory from the perspective that the hippocampus and adjacent cortex work cooperatively to signal recognition and that simple dichotomies do not adequately describe the division of labor within the medial temporal lobe. PMID:16980546

Gold, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

2006-09-15

266

Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus  

PubMed Central

We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and new words. In a separate test, they studied word pairs and then took a memory test involving studied word pairs and recombined word pairs. In both experiments, patients were impaired at memory for single items as well as memory for associations, suggesting that the hippocampus is important for both of these memory functions. In Experiment 1, patients appeared to be more impaired at associative memory than item memory. In Experiment 2, patients were similarly impaired at associative memory and item memory. These different findings are considered, including the fact that in Experiment 1 the results depended on the fact that controls produced unexpectedly low false-alarm rates to recombined pairs. We discuss single-item and associative memory from the perspective that the hippocampus and adjacent cortex work cooperatively to signal recognition and that simple dichotomies do not adequately describe the division of labor within the medial temporal lobe.

Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2006-01-01

267

TOPICAL REVIEW Nanoscale memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO2.

Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M.

2010-10-01

268

Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects.

MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

2013-01-01

269

Stress and Memory: Opposing Effects of Glucocorticoids on Memory Consolidation and Memory Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones, secreted by the adrenal cortex after a stressful event, influence cognitive performance. Some studies have found glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement. However, many studies have reported impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory function. This paper reviews recent findings from this laboratory on the acute effects of glucocorticoids in rats on specific memory phases, i.e., memory

Benno Roozendaal

2002-01-01

270

Optical Shared Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this effort was to investigate and evaluate OPTIMUL, an Optical Interconnect for Multiprocessor Systems, which could be used to interconnect a range of granularity of processors and memories for access to very large/knowledge bases (10**...

S. T. Kowel N. Matloff C. Eldering T. Schubert M. Loving

1989-01-01

271

High Density Optical Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourth quarter activities included research into electron coloration techniques, investigation of acousto-optic deflector and optical system parameters, construction of computer interface and memory control electronics and the construction of a mechanical...

1974-01-01

272

High Density Optical Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this period, the problem of producing uniformly colored crystals using electron bombardment has been investigated. Computer interface hardware has been completed and preliminary programs have been written for computer testing of the memory.

1975-01-01

273

Iconic memory requires attention  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

2012-01-01

274

Sleep, Learning, and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Robert Stickgold discusses how sleep plays a role in memory, both before and after a new learning situation. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low QuickTime - high | low

275

Ontogeny of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Authors call for renewed research into phenomenon of infantile amnesia"--the inability of human beings to retain memories from infancy. Included are summaries of neurological, psychological and physiological studies and theories to date. (PD)|

Campbell, Byron; Spear, Norman E.

1972-01-01

276

Reading: Interactions with Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research proposed that the representation of linguistic and contextual information be kept in working memory during reading or listening can be described as a discourse model, representing the concepts referenced in the discourse and the relations amo...

G. McKoon

1991-01-01

277

Mondrian memory protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mondrian memory protection (MMP) is a fine-grained protection scheme that allows multiple protection domains to flexibly share memory and export protected services. In contrast to earlier page-based systems, MMP allows arbitrary permissions control at the granularity of individual words. We use a compressed permissions table to reduce space overheads and employ two levels of permissions caching to reduce run-time overheads.

Emmett Witchel; Josh Cates; Krste Asanovi?

2002-01-01

278

Marine Corps War Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

279

Iwo Jima Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

280

Cultural Memories: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon\\u000a and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized\\u000a societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which ostensibly floats free of all historical\\u000a moorings, disconnected from earlier

Peter Meusburger; Michael Heffernan; Edgar Wunder

281

Working Memory in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that the development of children's abilities in short-term memory reflects changes in a unitary short-term store. This approach makes only poor contact with recent research on adults, which suggests the idea of a more complex `working memory' system consisting of a limited-capacity central processor controlling a number of special-purpose stores. Two such stores are (i) the

G. J. Hitch; M. S. Halliday

1983-01-01

282

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

283

Emergence of Collective Memories  

PubMed Central

Background We understand the dynamics of the world around us as by associating pairs of events, where one event has some influence on the other. These pairs of events can be aggregated into a web of memories representing our understanding of an episode of history. The events and the associations between them need not be directly experienced—they can also be acquired by communication. In this paper we take a network approach to study the dynamics of memories of history. Methodology/Principal Findings First we investigate the network structure of a data set consisting of reported events by several individuals and how associations connect them. We focus our measurement on degree distributions, degree correlations, cycles (which represent inconsistencies as they would break the time ordering) and community structure. We proceed to model effects of communication using an agent-based model. We investigate the conditions for the memory webs of different individuals to converge to collective memories, how groups where the individuals have similar memories (but different from other groups) can form. Conclusions/Significance Our work outlines how the cognitive representation of memories and social structure can co-evolve as a contagious process. We generate some testable hypotheses including that the number of groups is limited as a function of the total population size.

Lee, Sungmin; Ramenzoni, Veronica C.; Holme, Petter

2010-01-01

284

Multiprocessor memory contention  

SciTech Connect

Caches are frequently incorporated in processor architectures to increase the effective memory speed and to reduce memory contention. However, task switches and the coherency problems of large n-way, mainframe-class multiprocessors lessen the effectiveness of cache architectures for general-purpose applications. A proposed alternative approach is to increase the effective memory bandwidth and decrease memory-access delays through instruction prefetch, operand buffering, highly interleave memory, and multiple-word width processor-memory data paths. This approach was evaluated by comparing cache and noncache system performance, using discrete-event simulation. Since the performance of a multiprocessor architecture is a function of its operating environment was well as its design, the system workload was defined. General-purpose applications, running under multitasking operating systems, were characterized with respect to addressing patterns, paging rates, and frequency of input/output operations. The proposed noncache architecture was found to have performance comparable to that of the cache architectures and obviated then need to solve the cache coherency problem.

Knadler, C.E. Jr.

1989-01-01

285

Cortical memory dynamics.  

PubMed

Biological memories have a number of unique features, including (1) hierarchical, reciprocally interacting layers, (2) lateral inhibitory interactions within layers, and (3) Hebbian synaptic modifications. We incorporate these key features into a mathematical and computational model in which we derive and study Hebbian learning dynamics and recall dynamics. Introducing the construct of a feasible memory (a memory that formally responds correctly to a specified collection of noisy cues that are known in advance), we study stability and convergence of the two kinds of dynamics by both analytical and computational methods. A conservation law for memory feasibility under Hebbian dynamics is derived. An infomax net is one where the synaptic weights resolve the most uncertainty about a neural input based on knowledge of the output. The infomax notion is described and is used to grade memories and memory performance. We characterize the recall dynamics of the most favorable solutions from an infomax perspective. This characterization includes the dynamical behavior when the net is presented with external stimuli (noisy cues) and a description of the accuracy of recall. The observed richness of dynamical behavior, such as its initial state sensitivity, provides some hints for possible biological parallels to this model. PMID:9652078

Kairiss, E W; Miranker, W L

1998-04-01

286

[Memory and epilepsy].  

PubMed

Medial temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that begins in the early age and that is associated with frequent and disturbing memory deficits. Repeated seizures will lead to the formation of an epileptogenic network that may interfere with physiological neuronal networks and thus with normal brain function: by direct activation or indirectly by deactivation during a seizure, see for example the dreamy state or the ''déja vécu'' phenomenon during temporal seizures; by ictal or post-ictal inhibition, see for example ictal or post-ictal amnesia; by a repetitive and chronic modulation leading to a reorganization of the physiological neuronal networks. The study of these interactions between epileptic and physiological neural networks must lead to better explore the patient's memory and predict memory worsening before temporal lobe surgery and to better understand the reorganization of memory networks in chronic epilepsy. The goal is double: (1) improve the prediction of post-operative memory worsening and guide rehabilitation in epileptic clinical practice; (2) improve the pathophysiological knowledge about memory processes. PMID:20950561

Dupont, Sophie

2010-06-21

287

False memories for aggressive acts.  

PubMed

Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

2013-04-29

288

The staff observation aggression scale-revised (SOAS-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper assessment of aggressive behavior is essential for an understanding of its causes. In 1987, Palmstierna and Wistedt (Acta Psychiatr Scand 76:657-663) introduced the Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS), an instrument for monitoring the frequency, nature, and severity of aggressive incidents. In the present study, the validity of the SOAS severity scoring system was examined, and the severity scores were

Henk L. I. Nijman; Peter Muris; Harald L. G. J. Merckelbach; Tom Palmstierna; Borje Wistedt; A. M. Vos; Ans van Rixtel; Wiel Allertz

1999-01-01

289

Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer's Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women  

PubMed Central

We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men.

Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

290

Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail Making Test (TMT) direct and derived scores. A comprehensive review of the literature on the topic was carried out to clarify which cognitive factors had been related to TMT performance. Following the review, we explored the relative contribution from working memory, inhibition/interference control, task-switching ability, and visuomotor speed to TMT performance. Forty-one healthy old subjects participated in the study and performed a battery of neuropsychological tests including the TMT, the Digit Symbol subtest [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Third Version) (WAIS-III)], a Finger Tapping Test, the Digits Forward and Backward subtests (WAIS-III), Stroop Test, and a task-switching paradigm inspired in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Correlation and regression analyses were used in order to clarify the joint and unique contributions from different cognitive factors to the prediction of TMT scores. The results suggest that TMT-A requires mainly visuoperceptual abilities, TMT-B reflects primarily working memory and secondarily task-switching ability, while B-A minimizes visuoperceptual and working memory demands, providing a relatively pure indicator of executive control abilities. PMID:19402930

Sánchez-Cubillo, I; Periáñez, J A; Adrover-Roig, D; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J M; Ríos-Lago, M; Tirapu, J; Barceló, F

2009-05-01

291

A Balanced Memory Network  

PubMed Central

A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

2007-01-01

292

A balanced memory network.  

PubMed

A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

2007-06-05

293

Quantum Channels with Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeatably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then.

Rybár, Tomáš

2012-11-01

294

Memory on the beach: an Australian memory (and hypnosis) laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The memory (and hypnosis) lab at the University of New South Wales investigates a broad range of memory topics. We try to\\u000a find innovative methods from cognitive and clinical psychology to address theoretical and empirical questions about memory.\\u000a We aso use hypnosis as one major methodological tool in our investigations of memory (as well as other cognitive processes).\\u000a In this

Amanda J. Barnier; Richard A. Bryant; Leah Campbell; Rochelle Cox; Celia Harris; Lynette Hung; Fiona Maccallum; Stefanie J. Sharman

2005-01-01

295

Full Memory in Memory-Based Learning of Word Pronunciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory-based learning, keeping full memory ofleaxning material, appeaxs a viable approach to learning N-~ tasks, and is often superior in genera~sation accuracy to eager learning approaches that abstract from learning mate- riaL Here we investigate three pa~'tial memory- based learning approaches which remove from memory specific task instance types estimated to be exceptional. The three approaches each implement one heuristic

Antal van den Bosch; Walter Daelemans

296

False Memory in a Short-Term Memory Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deese\\/Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm reliably elicits false memories for critical nonpresented words in recognition tasks. The present studies used a Sternberg (1966) task with DRM lists to determine whether false memories occur in short-term memory tasks and to assess the contribution of latency data in the measurement of false memories. Subjects studied three, five, or seven

Jennifer H. Coane; Dawn M. McBride; Bascom A. Raulerson III; J. Scott Jordan

2007-01-01

297

Memory MISER: Improving Main Memory Energy Efficiency in Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main memory power in volume and mid-range servers is growing as a fraction of total system power. The resulting energy consumption increases system cost and the heat produced reduces reliability. Emergent memory technology will provide systems with the ability to dynamically turn-on (online) and turn-off (offline) memory devices at runtime. This technology, coupled with slack in memory demand, offers the

Matthew E. Tolentino; Joseph Turner; Kirk W. Cameron

2009-01-01

298

Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

299

A Bidirectional Associative Memory Based on Optimal Linear Associative Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bidirectional associative memory is presented. Unlike many existing BAM algorithms, the presented BAM uses an optimal associative memory matrix in place of the standard Hebbian or quasi correlation matrix. The optimal associative memory matrix is determined by using only simple correlation learning, requiring no pseudoinverse calculation. Guaranteed recall of all training pairs is ensured by the present BAM. The

Zheng-Ou Wang

1996-01-01

300

Priming and Multiple Memory Systems: Perceptual Mechanisms of Implicit Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining the relation between explicit and implicit forms of memory has generated a great deal of evidence concerning the issue of multiple memory systems. This article focuses on an extensively studied implicit memory phenomenon, known as direct or repetition priming, and examines the hypothesis that priming effects on various tasks reflect the operation of a perceptual representation system (PRS)a

Daniel L. Schacter

1992-01-01

301

Memory, amnesia, and the issue of recovered memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main thesis of this article is that the debate about the credibility of “recovered memories”—reports by adults of recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and trauma that were allegedly repressed for many years—can be usefully informed by considering the biological and behavioral facts and ideas about how memory works. Accordingly, the first section of this review describes current facts

Stuart M. Zola

1998-01-01

302

How Can Organizational Memory Theories Contribute to Organizational Memory Systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational memory systems (OMS) support organizations to ensure organizational learning, flexibility and efficiency and the management of change. The paper describes the term organizational memory and reviews a set of theories contributing to this field. As organizational memory is considered interdisciplinary, theories are drawn from research fields as different as organization science, psychology, sociology and artificial intelligence. The consequence is

Franz Lehner; Ronald K. Maier

2000-01-01

303

Providing good memory cues for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease impairs episodic memory and subtly and progressively robs people of their ability to remember their recent experiences. In this paper, we describe two studies that lead to a better understanding of how caregivers use cues to support episodic memory impairment and what types of cues are best for supporting recollection. We also show how good memory cues differ

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2007-01-01

304

Memory Complaint, Memory Performance, and Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Community Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of memory complaint and poor memory performance on brief screening measures within a community sample of 810 adults. All individuals received an extensive household interview and a clinical psychiatric evaluation. Overall, 22% indicated that they currently had trouble with their memory. This percentage increased with age, rising to 43% for those 65 to 74 years

Susan Spear Bassett; Marshal F. Folstein

1993-01-01

305

Storied Memories: Memory as Resistance in Contemporary Women's Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the power for resistance contained within narratives of personal memory. By applying current psychological concepts of autobiographical memory theory to eight contemporary women's novels, Carole Maso's The Art Lover; Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale; Dorothy Allison's Bastard Out of Carolina; Edwidge Danticat's Breath, Eyes, Memory; Barbara Kingsolver's The Poisonwood Bible; Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things;

Sarah Katherine Foust Vinson

2010-01-01

306

Lifelogging memory appliance for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelogging technologies have the potential to prov ide memory cues for people who struggle with episodic memory impairment (EMI). These memory cues enable the recollection of significant experiences, which is i mportant for people with EMI to regain a sense of normalcy i n their lives. However, lifelogging technologies often coll ect an overwhelmingly large amount of data to review.

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

307

Public memorializing in postmodernity: The Vietnam veterans memorial as prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues for a reading of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse. Beginning with a contrast of modernist and postmodern rhetorics of architecture, the authors suggest that the Memorial reflects the typical gestures of postmodern architecture. Moreover, they suggest that a consideration of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse accounts for differences among other critical

Carole Blair; Marsha S. Jeppeson; Enrico Pucci Jr

1991-01-01

308

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

309

Dynamic Memory Disambiguation Using the Memory Conflict Buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To exploit instruction level parallelism, compilers forVLIW and superscalar processors often employ staticcode scheduling. However, the available code reorderingmay be severely restricted due to ambiguous dependencesbetween memory instructions. This paperintroduces a simple hardware mechanism, referred to asthe memory conflict buffer, which facilitates static codescheduling in the presence of memory store\\/load dependences.Correct program execution is ensured by thememory conflict...

David M. Gallagher; William Y. Chen; Scott A. Mahlke; John C. Gyllenhaal; Wen-mei W. Hwu

1994-01-01

310

Digital Storage (Memory)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Digital Storage, is the fifteenth chapter in Volume IV âÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: digital memory terms and concepts; modern nonmechanical memory; and historical, nonmechanical memories. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-25

311

Emotion and autobiographical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-03-01

312

Memory and content.  

PubMed

The paper argues that any theory of content has to adopt a "functionalistic core" to concord with the cognitive sciences. This functionalistic core requires that representations are defined as substitutes in functions that describe the flexible behavior to be explained by the representation. The content of a representation can thus only be determined if the representation is "in use", i.e. if it is an argument in such a function. The stored entities in memory are not in use while they are stored, and hence cannot be assigned a specific content. The term "template" is introduced to describe stored entities in memory. The discussion of some implications of this result show that some deep philosophical problems follow from this argument as well as consequences for empirical research on memory. PMID:20739191

Vosgerau, Gottfried

2010-08-23

313

Flexible memory networks.  

PubMed

Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;?)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

2011-08-09

314

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems  

MedlinePLUS

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem In our busy lives, all of us forget things at one time ... people have little or no change in their memory, but, in others, forgetfulness can begin to interfere ...

315

Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: Concordant findings from fMRI and memory-impaired patients  

PubMed Central

We studied item and source memory with fMRI in healthy volunteers and carried out a parallel study in memory-impaired patients. In experiment 1, volunteers studied a list of words in the scanner and later took an item memory test and a source memory test. Brain activity in the hippocampal region, perirhinal cortex, and parahippocampal cortex was associated with words that would later be remembered (item memory). The activity in these regions that predicted subsequent success at item memory predicted subsequent source memory to a similar degree. In experiment 2, memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region were given an item memory test and a source memory test, as in experiment 1. The patients were similarly impaired on the item memory test and the source memory test. Together, the findings suggest that medial temporal lobe structures broadly support recognition memory function and that item memory and source memory similarly depend on these structures.

Gold, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Christine N.; Bayley, Peter J.; Shrager, Yael; Brewer, James B.; Stark, Craig E. L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2006-01-01

316

How misinformation alters memories.  

PubMed

Over the past quarter of a century, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Researchers have used several methods to try to understand this phenomenon and have also put forward different theories to account for the effect. Brainerd and Reyna's (1998, this issue) conjoint misinformation method and their fuzzy-trace theory are welcomed additions on both these fronts. We describe how their contribution fits with the other methods and theories which have been used to understand how misleading postevent information affects people's memory. PMID:9843620

Wright, D B; Loftus, E F

1998-11-01

317

Dreams, conscience, and memory.  

PubMed

The interpretation of certain dreams, as opposed to the direct examination of behavior, makes it possible to explore the conscience of the dreamer, detect hidden sources of guilt, and interpret them with less likelihood of arousing intractable resistance. Through the recovery of memories and the establishment of an intimate familiarity with one's personal history, it becomes possible to resolve problems of "neurotic" guilt, based ultimately on distortions of repressed childhood memories. The resolution of these conflicts allows a greater role for the operation of "appropriate" guilt, based on genuine transgressions, and the establishment of a more mature ethical structure. PMID:2062973

Stein, M H

1991-04-01

318

Making sense of memory.  

PubMed

The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

Bernstein, Daniel M

2005-09-01

319

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

320

Memory dynamics in the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reward learning in honeybees initiates a sequence of events which leads to long-lasting memory passing through multiple phases\\u000a of transient memories. The study of memory dynamics is performed at the behavioral (both natural foraging behavior and appetitive\\u000a conditioning), neural circuit and molecular levels. The results of these combined efforts lead to a model which assumes five\\u000a kinds of sequential memories,

R. Menzel

1999-01-01

321

Large-capacity semiconductor memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated-circuit memories using bipolar transistor technology are compared with memories based on various forms of the insulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET). A combination of p-channel IGFET memory cells with bipolar transistor access circuits appears to offer a desirable combination of characteristics. Memory organization, chip design, packaging, and interconnection alternatives are considered. Beam-lead sealed-junction technology has significant advantages over other packaging and

D. A. Hodges

1968-01-01

322

Knowledge, Cultural Memory, and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a After categorizing different types of collective memories, the author discusses tensions between collective memories and the\\u000a knowledge of individuals. He notes that collective memories are often based on Manichean morality and that “memory industries”\\u000a try to manipulate well-informed and highly educated societies in ways similar to those used by emerging nineteenth-century\\u000a nation-states to manipulate their undereducated or illiterate societies. It

Peter Meusburger

323

A theory of memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Develops a theory of memory retrieval and shows that it applies over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probe–memory item relatedness, just as a ringing tuning fork evokes sympathetic vibrations in other tuning forks. Evidence is accumulated in

Roger Ratcliff

1978-01-01

324

Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

2010-01-01

325

Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.  

PubMed

Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. PMID:24028963

Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

2013-09-01

326

Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

2012-01-01

327

Reversible Causes of Memory Change  

MedlinePLUS

... such as diabetes or failure of the lungs, liver or kidneys, are known to have an effect on memory function. Adequate treatment and control of these functions can improve overall brain/memory function. Alcoholism It is known that alcohol abuse results in memory loss and possibly dementia. ...

328

Memory Storage and Neural Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)|

Alkon, Daniel L.

1989-01-01

329

SMG: SHARED MEMORY FOR GRIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the salient issues involved in implementing the illusion of a shared-memory program- ming model across a group of distributed memory proces- sors from a cluster through to an entire Grid. This illusion can be provided by a distributed shared memory (DSM) runtime system. Mechanisms that have the potential to increase the perfor- mance by minimizing

John P. Ryan; Brian A. Coghlan

330

Hippocampus, Ageing, and Taste Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that ageing may induce deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, the spatial task being most extensively applied in rats. It is proposed that taste learning and memory tasks may assist in understanding the ageing of memory systems, giving access to a more complete picture. Taste learning tasks allow us to explore a variety of learning

Tatiana Manrique; Ignacio Moron; MaAngeles Ballesteros; Rosa MaGuerrero; Milagros Gallo

2007-01-01

331

Motor Action and Emotional Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

2010-01-01

332

Modeling Long Memory in REITs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One stylized feature of financial volatility impacting the modeling process is long memory. This article examines long memory for alternative risk measures, observed absolute and squared returns for Daily Equity real estate investment trust (REITs) and compares the findings for a market equity index. The article utilizes a variety of tests for long memory finding evidence that REIT volatility does

John Cotter; Simon Simon Stevenson

2008-01-01

333

Collective memory: theory and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay outlines key issues in current approaches to cultural and collective memory. It reflects on memory's relation to history and its social, cultural and political roles, drawing on theoretical insights from Halbwachs, Ricoeur, Nora and Hirsch. It addresses the issues of affect, postmemory and counter-memory, locating the articles in the special section within this broader cultural political field.

Chris Weedon; Glenn Jordan

2012-01-01

334

Some targets for memory models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory article to the Journal of Memory and Language special issue on memory models discusses the progress made in the field of memory modeling during the last few decades in terms of a number of previously suggested criteria, using the articles in this issue as examples. There has been considerable progress, both at a technical level (e.g., concerning model

Stephan Lewandowsky; Evan Heit

2006-01-01

335

Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

2010-01-01

336

Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

2009-01-01

337

What people believe about memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings,

Svein Magnussen; Jan Andersson; Cesare Cornoldi; Rossana De Beni; Tor Endestad; Gail S. Goodman; Tore Helstrup; Asher Koriat; Maria Larsson; Annika Melinder; Lars-Göran Nilsson; Jerker Rönnberg; Hubert Zimmer

2006-01-01

338

First Words and First Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory

Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

2010-01-01

339

Does Sleep Promote False Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word

Annabelle Darsaud; Hedwige Dehon; Olaf Lahl; Virginie Sterpenich; Mélanie Boly; Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Stephen Gais; Luca Matarazzo; Frédéric Peters; Manuel Schabus; Christina Schmidt; Gilberte Tinguely; Gilles Vandewalle; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Fabienne Collette

2011-01-01

340

Does Sleep Promote False Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word

Annabelle Darsaud; Hedwige Dehon; Olaf Lahl; Virginie Sterpenich; Mélanie Boly; Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Stephen Gais; Luca Matarazzo; Frédéric Peters; Manuel Schabus; Christina Schmidt; Gilberte Tinguely; Gilles Vandewalle; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Fabienne Collette

2010-01-01

341

Memory Processes in Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)|

Kellermann, Kathy

1985-01-01

342

Remote memory during marijuana intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of acute marijuana intoxication on remote memory and new learning were assessed. To test for the effects of marijuana on remote memory, titles of oneseason television shows, aired up to 14 years previously, were used in three tests measuring recognition, temporal judgement and detailed recall of facts from the shows. Marijuana did not affect remote memory in comparison

C. Douglas Wetzel; David S. Janowsky; Paul L. Clopton

1982-01-01

343

Sleep Loss Produces False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether

Susanne Diekelmann; Hans-Peter Landolt; Olaf Lahl; Jan Born; Ullrich Wagner

2008-01-01

344

Enhancing Memory with Redundant Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESPITE nearly a century of active research into memory, the academic psychologist is singularly ill equipped to offer good advice when asked how to enhance memory. He can only point to the apparent efficacy of techniques developed by informal study since the ancient Greeks first expounded the ``art of memory''1. These techniques were rejected as irrelevant gimmickry by the early

H. C. A. Dale; Alex McGlaughlin

1970-01-01

345

Memory Allocation with Lazy Fits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic memory allocation is an important part of modern pro- gramming languages. It is important that it be done fast without wasting too much memory. Memory allocation using lazy fits is introduced, where pointer increments, which is very fast, is used as the primary allocation method and where conventional fits such as best fit or first fit are used as

Yoo C. Chung; Soo-Mook Moon

2000-01-01

346

Memory allocation with lazy fits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic memory allocation is an important part of modern programming languages. It is important that it be done fast without wasting too much memory. Memory allocation using lazy fits is introduced, where pointer increments, which is very fast, is used as the primary allocation method and where conventional fits such as best fit or first fit are used as backup.

Yoo C. Chung; Soo-Mook Moon

2001-01-01

347

Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

2012-01-01

348

Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but…

Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

2009-01-01

349

MEMORY IMPROVEMENT AMONG ADULT LEARNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive body of research exists that examines the effects of interventions aimed at maintaining or improving memory function among older adults. Slowing the pace of learning, encouragement to organize learning materials, training in the use of imagery, loci mnemonics, and face?name mnemonics, as well as supportive environments and information about normal age?related memory changes, have resulted in improved memory

Cheryl Greenberg; Sandra M. Powers

1987-01-01

350

Memory independence and memory interference in cognitive development.  

PubMed

Recent experiments have established the surprising fact that age improvements in reasoning are often dissociated from improvements in memory for determinative informational inputs. Fuzzy-trace theory explains this memory-independence effect on the grounds that reasoning operations do not directly access verbatim traces of critical background information but, rather, process gist that was retrieved and edited in parallel with the encoding of such information. This explanation also envisions 2 ways in which children's memory and reasoning might be mutually interfering: (a) memory-to-reasoning interference, a tendency to process verbatim traces of background inputs on both memory probes and reasoning problems that simultaneously improves memory performance and impairs reasoning, and (b) reasoning-to-memory interference, a tendency for reasoning activities that produce problem solutions to erase or reduce the distinctiveness of verbatim traces of background inputs. Both forms of interference were detected in studies of children's story inferences. PMID:8426881

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

1993-01-01

351

Software transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronizationoperations greatly simplifies the task of designinghighly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existinghardware is inflexible and is at best on the levelof a Load Linked\\/Store Conditional operation on a singleword. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronizationmethodology of Herlihy and Moss, we offersoftware transactional memory (STM), a novel softwaremethod for supporting flexible transactional...

Nir Shavit; Dan Touitou

1995-01-01

352

Growth with memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model for cluster growth is introduced. The model is built with a long time memory which is similar to the one found in cluster growth in disordered media. The model, as a function of its parameter, interpolates between Eden growth and invasion percolation-like growth and has a behavior similar to self-avoiding walks in another limit.

Marsili, M.; Vendruscolo, M.

1997-03-01

353

Migrant Memories and Temporality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text analyses rituals as endeavours to preserve the identity of a people or a portion of a people. Rituals present or re-present the supposed common history of all the migrants. Social memory and history then tend to merge and to forget... forgetfulness is the driving force behind the writing of history. Particularly critical is the moment when the migration

Luiz Felipe Baêta Neves

2004-01-01

354

Stretching transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing abstraction for programming multi-core systems. Potential target applications for TM, such as business software and video games, are likely to involve complex data structures and large transactions, requiring specific software solutions (STM). So far, however, STMs have been mainly evaluated and optimized for smaller scale benchmarks. We revisit the main STM design choices from

Aleksandar Dragojevi?; Rachid Guerraoui; Michal Kapalka

2009-01-01

355

Judgments of Associative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

Maki, William S.

2007-01-01

356

Protein-Based Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been pursuing protein-based memory using genetically altered bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and exploring limits of high density optical recording using far-field and near-field approach. bR was immobilized on very thin LB films

V. Renugopalakrishnan; S. Khizroev; L. Lindvold; Pingzuo Li; H. Anand

2006-01-01

357

Creating Media Center Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the goals of the school library media specialist is to "Promote the library media program as an attractive, welcoming, and essential venue" (AASL 89). The media center should convey an atmosphere where students feel welcome. Creating media center memories can help library media specialists to achieve this goal. This article describes…

Spann, Youlita

2008-01-01

358

A MEMORY SCHEDULE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR PROBLEMS OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IS THE "GRADUATED INTERVAL RECALL," A PROCEDURE FOR AIDING STUDENTS TO REMEMBER THE VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURES THEY HAVE LEARNED. WHEN A NEW WORD IS LEARNED, THE PROCESS OF FORGETTING BEGINS AT ONCE AND PROCEEDS VERY RAPIDLY. IF THE STUDENT IS REMINDED OF THE WORD BEFORE HE HAS…

PIMSLEUR, PAUL

359

Creating Media Center Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the goals of the school library media specialist is to "Promote the library media program as an attractive, welcoming, and essential venue" (AASL 89). The media center should convey an atmosphere where students feel welcome. Creating media center memories can help library media specialists to achieve this goal. This article describes…

Spann, Youlita

2008-01-01

360

A Balanced Memory Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory -- the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like 10s of seconds -- is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work,

Yasser Roudi; Peter E. Latham

2007-01-01

361

Memorials: Art for Remembering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…

Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

1995-01-01

362

Limited memory optimal filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear and nonlinear optimal filters with limited memory length are developed. The filter output is the conditional probability density function and, in the linear Gaussian case, is the conditional mean and covariance matrix where the conditioning is only on a fixed amount of most recent data. This is related to maximum-likelihood least-squares estimation. These filters have application in problems where

A. Jazwinski

1968-01-01

363

Dreams Memories & Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim…

Young, Bernard

2012-01-01

364

Genealogy and Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments studied how people determine relationships among family members. In one experiment, subjects were to determine relationships in hypothetical families. In the second, the families were in the subjects' experience. It was determined that memory was organized in terms of parent-child relations together with knowledge of which members…

Rips, Lance J. Stubbs, Margaret E.

1980-01-01

365

It's all about memory!  

PubMed

This short overview introduces the fundamental scientific concepts of immunological memory, vaccination, and the effects of ageing on these parameters, which were the focus of the second Merial European Comparative Vaccinology Symposium (MECVS) held in Prague from 13th-15th May, 2009. Significant differences in the way that ageing impacts on different domestic animal species are reviewed. PMID:19892362

Pastoret, P-P

2009-11-05

366

Flash memory reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

With reference to the mainstream technology, the most relevant failure mechanisms which affect yield and reliability of Flash memory are reviewed, showing the primary role played by tunnel oxide defects. The effectiveness of a good test methodology combined with a proper product design for screening at wafer sort latent defects of tunnel oxide is highlighted as a key factor for

P. Cappelletti; A. Modelli

1998-01-01

367

Delaware Memorial Bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Delaware Memorial Bridge was built in two spans. The first, completed in 1951, is on the left in this photograph, is now used to carry New Jersey bound traffic on Interstate Highway 295. Originally it carried traffic in both directions, but within a decade a second span was added because of large amounts of traffic from the newly constructed

Chet Smolski; Othmar Ammann

1970-01-01

368

Memory enhancement through audio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have proposed interactive applications for blind people. One line of research is the use of interactive interfaces based on sound to enhance cognition in blind children. Even though these studies have emphasized learning and cognition, there is still a shortage of applications to assist the development and use of memory in these children. This study presents

Jaime Sánchez; Héctor Flores

2003-01-01

369

Antenatal memories and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed.

Neighbour, Roger

1981-01-01

370

Quantum Memory in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum memories are likely to be critical components in any future long range quantum communication network. A method is described for storing light that operates by controlling the local group velocity of light in a crystal, using an applied electric field gradient to Stark shift an optical transition. Unlike other proposals for quantum memories no optical control pulses are required greatly simplifying the operation of the memory and improving its signal to noise. It is shown that the technique has the potential to operate with near 100% efficiency with little excess noise, making it suitable as a quantum memory. Preliminary experimental results will be presented demonstrating efficiencies up to 45%. These experiments utilized the ^3H4<->^1D2 optical transition (605.7 nm) in a 4 mm long crystal of Pr^3+:Y2SiO5 cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The experiments are well described by Maxwell-Bloch simulations and such simulations suggest efficiencies much closer to unity should be possible with only modest improvements to the experiment. This work was carried out in collaboration with G. Hetet, J. J. Longdell, A. L. Alexander, P. K. Lam and M. P. Hedges.

Sellars, Matthew

2008-05-01

371

Plated Wire Memory Subsystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along ...

K. H. Carpenter

1974-01-01

372

Person memory and judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two general types of information about a person are considered in this article: One pertains to specific behaviors a person has manifested, and the other refers to more abstract personality disposi- tions or behavioral tendencies. A theoretical model of person memory that incorporates both types of information is developed. The model accounts for a large number of factors that are

Thomas K. Srull; Robert S. Wyer

1989-01-01

373

Quantum associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines quantum computation with classical neural network theory to produce a quantum computational learning algorithm. Quantum computation uses microscopic quantum level effects to perform computational tasks and has produced results that in some cases are exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. The unique characteristics of quantum theory may also be used to create a quantum associative memory with

Dan Ventura; Tony R. Martinez

2000-01-01

374

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski,…

Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

2010-01-01

375

Dissociation and memory fragmentation: experimental effects on meta-memory but not on actual memory performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between state dissociation and fragmentary memory was investigated by assessing both actual memory performance and meta-memory. From a sample of 330 normal subjects, two subsamples were selected on basis of trait dissociation, as measured by the Dissociative Experience Scale. Twenty subjects scoring above 30 and 20 subjects scoring below 10 were selected. Subjects watched an extremely aversive film,

Merel Kindt; Marcel van den Hout

2003-01-01

376

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski,…

Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

2010-01-01

377

Cr metal thin film memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As state of the art flash memory technologies scale down to sub 30 nm node, conventional floating gate flash memory approaches its physical scaling limit mainly because of the high gate coupling ratio (GCR) requirement to secure proper memory window. Here, we report a novel flash memory device called Cr metal thin film memory (MTFM) that can circumvent the GCR issue and extend flash memory scalability by employing Cr thin film as a storage layer. Cr metal thin film memory devices with simple and low temperature processes produced a wide memory window of 10 V at the +/-18 V voltage sweep with GCR of only 0.3. Such a large window can be adopted for multi-level cell operations, which can further increase the memory density. Also, retention measurement shows more than 10 years retention time due to higher energy barrier between Cr metal and tunnel oxide than conventional poly silicon and tunnel oxide. Cross section transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed the structure and accurate dimensions of the Cr MTFM device with continuous Cr film and sharp interfaces. As for material characterizations, an amorphous like Cr phase was observed through TEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Cr-Cr bond and Cr-O bond near the Cr surface after evaporation and rapid thermal annealing. This metal thin film memory may open a new route to achieve the terabit level flash memory.

Hong, Augustin J.; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoungwhan; Wang, Yong; Xiu, Faxian; Jeon, Jaeseok; Park, Jemin; Rauda, Iris; Chen, Li-Min; Yang, Yang; Tolbert, Sarah; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L.

2011-09-01

378

Individual differences in working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

2005-12-01

379

MEMORY MATTERS IN ASSISTED LIVING  

PubMed Central

Memory loss often signifies loss of independence, which is a growing concern for residents in assisted living (AL). The purpose of this exploratory study was to characterize the memory experiences and concerns of AL residents. Residents (N=6) voluntarily participated in one-hour recorded interviews focusing on memory, guided by eight open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The subjects reported varying degrees of memory loss that they found frightening and frustrating, but also accepted as a natural part of the aging process. Concerns primarily focused on inability to recall staff and resident names and activities, schedules, and appointments. Understanding the memory experiences and concerns is important for nursing staff that care for AL residents. Memory challenges identified by these residents were used to develop a memory intervention for AL residents. Improving cognitive skills may help AL residents maintain their functional abilities, enabling them to “age in place” in AL.

Marchant, Jenna Asha Malini; Williams, Kristine N.

2013-01-01

380

High-speed memory system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The disclosed embodiments relate to a Flash-based memory module having high-speed serial communication. The Flash-based memory module comprises, among other things, a plurality of I/O modules, each configured to communicate with an external device over one or more external communication links, a plurality of Flash-based memory cards, each comprising a plurality of Flash memory devices, and a plurality of crossbar switching elements, each being connected to a respective one of the Flash-based memory cards and configured to allow each one of the I/O modules to communicate with the respective one of the Flash-based memory cards. Each I/O module is connected to each crossbar switching element by a high-speed serial communication link, and each crossbar switching element is connected to the respective one of the Flash-based memory cards by a plurality of parallel communication links.

Frost; Holloway H. (Houston, TX); Hutsell; Rebecca J. (Houston, TX)

2013-02-26

381

Constructive memory: past and future  

PubMed Central

Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

382

Face memory and its disorders.  

PubMed

Face recognition is an essential biologic and social skill. Accurate recognition depends on the ability to encode, store, and retrieve distinct memory representations for the faces of countless individuals encountered in everyday life. In addition, face memory records must be integrated with specific biographic and name information in order to allow the recognition of each person's unique identity. Converging evidence from functional imaging, cortical electrical recording, and neuropsychologic studies suggests that face memory operations in the human brain are mediated by a distributed neural system. Components of this network include specialized memory storage sites within temporal neocortex that interact with medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortical areas during face memory encoding and retrieval. Selective damage to these neuroanatomic regions gives rise to face recognition disorders characterized by memory loss or memory distortion. PMID:14565904

Rapcsak, Steven Z

2003-11-01

383

Working memory and the memory distortion component of hindsight bias.  

PubMed

One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion: Individuals' recollections of their predictions are biased towards known outcomes. The present study examined the role of working memory in the memory distortion component of hindsight bias. Participants answered almanac-like questions, completed a measure of working memory capacity, were provided with the correct answers, and attempted to recollect their original judgements in two conditions: with and without a concurrent working memory load. Participants' recalled judgements were more biased by feedback when they recalled these judgements with a concurrent memory load and working memory capacity was negatively correlated with memory distortion. These findings are consistent with reconstruction accounts of the memory distortion component of hindsight bias and, more generally, with dual process theories of cognition. These results also relate the memory distortion component of hindsight bias with other cognitive errors, such as source monitoring errors, the belief bias in syllogistic reasoning and anchoring effects. Implications for the separate components view of hindsight bias are discussed. PMID:22871160

Calvillo, Dustin P

2012-08-08

384

Dissociation and memory fragmentation: experimental effects on meta-memory but not on actual memory performance.  

PubMed

The relation between state dissociation and fragmentary memory was investigated by assessing both actual memory performance and meta-memory. From a sample of 330 normal subjects, two subsamples were selected on basis of trait dissociation, as measured by the Dissociative Experience Scale. Twenty subjects scoring above 30 and 20 subjects scoring below 10 were selected. Subjects watched an extremely aversive film, after which state dissociation was measured by the Peri-traumatic Dissociative Experience Scale. Four hours later memory fragmentation was assessed in two ways. Actual fragmentation was measured by a sequential memory task, and perceived fragmentation (meta-memory) was measured using a visual analogue scale. Subjects who tended to dissociate during the film judged their recollections of the film as more fragmentary. Although this finding is in line with clinical reports given by trauma victims, it was not sustained by objective evidence. That is, no effect was observed of state dissociation on the sequential memory task. The present findings suggest that the claim that dissociation induces memory fragmentation may have to be confined to meta-memory. Implications of this divergence between actual memory and meta-memory are discussed. PMID:12547378

Kindt, Merel; van den Hout, Marcel

2003-02-01

385

Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

2008-01-01

386

Neuropsychological factors related to returning to work in patients with higher brain dysfunction.  

PubMed

We conducted neuropsychological tests of patients with higher brain dysfunction to examine the characteristics of barriers to employment. Subjects and Methods: We tested 92 patients with higher brain dysfunction (average age of 36.3 +/- 13.8 years old, ranging between 16 and 63 years old, with an average post-injury period of 35.6 +/- 67.8 months) who were hospitalized at the university hospital between February 2002 and June 2007 for further neuropsychological evaluation, conducting the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). The outcomes after discharge were classified between competitive employment, sheltered employment and non-employment, and the three groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe test. The WAIS-R subtests were mutually compared based on the standard values of significant differences described in the WAIS-R manual. Verbal performance and full scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of WAIS-R were 87.7 +/- 15.6 (mean +/- standard deviation), 78.5 +/- 18.1 and 81.0 +/- 17.2, respectively, and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration and delayed recall were 74.6 +/- 20.0, 76.6 +/- 21.4, 72.0 +/- 20.4, 89.0 +/- 16.5 and 65.2 +/- 20.8, respectively. The competitive employment group showed significantly higher scores in performance IQ and full IQ on the WAIS-R and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory and delayed recall on the WMS-R and RBMT than the non-employment group. The sheltered employment group showed a significantly higher score in delayed recall than the non-employment group. No difference was observed in the FAB or BADS between the three groups. In the subtests of the WAIS-R, the score for Digit Symbol-Coding was significantly lower than almost all the other subtests. For patients with higher brain dysfunction, IQ (full scale IQ > 53.2) and memory (general memory > 74.1) are important indicators in returning to work under the conditions of competitive employment. PMID:19086698

Kai, Akiko; Hashimoto, Manabu; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

2008-12-01

387

Optoelectronic associative memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

1993-11-01

388

Place memory in crickets.  

PubMed

Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

2008-04-22

389

Plant electrical memory.  

PubMed

Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap. PMID:19704496

Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

2008-07-01

390

The Sonic Memorial Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a way to cope during the difficult period after the attacks on the Word Trade Center on September 11, 2001, many people began to revisit their memories of the buildings themselves. With a keen eye towards preserving some of these materials, National Public Radio brought together artists, historians, and other interested parties in order to collect and preserve various audio traces of these impressive structures. Through an impressive browsing feature, visitors can aurally move through the audio clips contained within the archive, such as an interview with a Taiwanese tourist and a voice mail from a concerned fellow fire fighter based in Austin to his fellow firefighters. Visitors can also search all of the materials by theme, such as commute, elevators, witness, work, and concourse. The ÂFor Educators section is a real gem, as it contains a number of lesson modules that will help teachers use the site to talk about the nature of historical events, memorials, and civic practices.

391

Learning, Memory, and Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here we report on 11 color-grapheme synesthetes with startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These data are the first and only to show learned synesthesia of this kind in a group larger than a single case. While some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, these results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, where perceptual contents are brought to mind, akin to mental imagery or the perceptual reinstatement effects found in the memory literature.

Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

2013-01-01

392

Sleep Loss Produces False Memories  

PubMed Central

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

393

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2013-03-18

394

The evolution of episodic memory.  

PubMed

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a "(neo)Darwinian evolution" [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1-25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A; Fortin, Norbert J

2013-06-10

395

The relationship between prospective memory, working memory and self-rated memory performance in individuals with intellectual disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, prospective memory, working memory and self-rated memory performance were assessed in five individuals with intellectual disability and 10 individuals without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was taxed by means of a video-based procedure and a more naturalistic task, working memory was taxed by means of digit and picture span tasks, and a questionnaire was used to measure

Anna Levén; Björn Lyxell; Jan Andersson; Henrik Danielsson; Jerker Rönnberg

2011-01-01

396

Memory Complaints in Chronic Stroke Patients Are Predicted by Memory Self-Efficacy rather than Memory Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Memory self-efficacy (MSE) is the belief about one’s mastery of memory functioning. In healthy elderly, memory complaints are related to MSE rather than to objectively measured memory capacity. MSE has scarcely been studied in patients that suffered a stroke. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to examine whether memory capacity and MSE can predict the presence of

Laurien Aben; Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds; Majanka H. Heijenbrok-Kal; Marieke M. Visser; Jan J. V. Busschbach; Gerard M. Ribbers

2011-01-01

397

Memory for humorous cartoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidental memory for three types of cartoons was compared: original cartoons, literal translations of the originals, andweird cartoons created by inserting incongruous material into the literal translations. In Experiment 1, the three types of cartoons\\u000a were mixed together in lists. In Experiment 2, each list contained only two cartoon types. In both experiments, original cartoons\\u000a were remembered better than the

Stephen R. Schmidt; Alan R. Williams

2001-01-01

398

Color matching from memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term color memory of two groups of university students, 20 with prior color coursework, and 20 with no color-related training, was evaluated in four hue categories: yellow, yellow-red, green, and purple. Munsell dimensions of hue, value, and chroma were used to select four target colors and nine distractor colors for each of the targets. Four of the distractor colors differed

Helen H. EPPS; Naz KAYA

399

Chaotic bidirectional associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chaotic bidirectional associative memory (CBAM) is proposed and simulated. It can deal with one-to-many associations such as {(A,a), (A,b), (A,c),···}. In the CBAM, in order to enable one-to-many associations, each training pair is memorized together with its own contextual information and chaotic neurons are employed in a part of the network corresponding to the contextual information. Since the chaotic

Yuko OSANA; Motonobu HATTORI; Masafumi HAGIWARA

1996-01-01

400

Flash memory electromagnetic compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the radiated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) behavior of AMD\\/Spansion Flash memory integrated circuits. Using The Engineering Society For Advanced Mobility Land Sea Air and Space (SAE) J1752\\/3 method, the peak RF noise (EMC with respect to radiated emissions) was measured for various technologies and product features, determining statistically valid sensitivity factors for several independent variables. The findings show

Adam D. Fogle; Don Darling; Richard C. Blish; Gene Daszko

2006-01-01

401

A balanced memory network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory --\\u000athe ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like 10s of\\u000aseconds -- is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely\\u000acandidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has\\u000agone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter\\u000acentury of intense work,

Yasser Roudi; Peter E. Latham

2007-01-01

402

Certification of Memory Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe a type-based approach for inferring heap space usage of certain functional programs and a mechanism for generating\\u000a certificates as to the thus inferred memory consumption in the form of proofs in a VDM-style program logic fore Java bytecode\\u000a (Java bytecode being the target of compilation). This gives a current snapshot of our work in the EU-funded project ‘Mobile

Martin Hofmann

2003-01-01

403

Shape memory alloy actuator  

DOEpatents

An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

404

Origins of autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the predictions of M. L. Howe and M. L. Courage's (1993, 1997) theory of infantile amnesia compared with a social-interac tionist account of autobiographi cal memory development (R. Fivush & E. Reese, 1992; K. Nelson, 1993b). Fifty-eight mother-child dyads were assessed for maternal styles of talking about the past and for children's self-recognition, language production, and nonverbal

Keryn Harley; Elaine Reese

1999-01-01

405

Nanomaterials: Memory Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine metal eyeglass frames that you can roll in a ball, only to watch it uncoil back to its original shape! How can an inanimate object, such as metal, do such a thing? There is a metal alloy that can do just that and it's one of the many discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology. Students will explore the properties of memory metal and consider the many applications it might have today and in the future.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

406

Oxide heterostructure resistive memory.  

PubMed

Resistive switching devices are widely believed as a promising candidate for future memory and logic applications. Here we show that by using multilayer oxide heterostructures the switching characteristics can be systematically controlled, ranging from unipolar switching to complementary switching and bipolar switching with linear and nonlinear on-states and high endurance. Each layer can be tailed for a specific function during resistance switching, thus greatly improving the degree of control and flexibility for optimized device performance. PMID:23724783

Yang, Yuchao; Choi, ShinHyun; Lu, Wei

2013-06-04

407

Memory improvement in octogenarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pre-post quasiexperimental study tested the eight-session Cognitive Behavioral Model of Everyday Memory in residents (58 women, 20 men) of a retirement village in Northeast Ohio. Their average age was 82 years, with 16 years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score of 28; 13% were depressed. All participants were pretested and posttested at 8 weeks. The largest gains were

Graham J. McDougall

2002-01-01

408

Working memory in chess.  

PubMed

Three experiments investigated the role of working memory in various aspects of thinking in chess. Experiment 1 examined the immediate memory for briefly presented chess positions from master games in players from a wide range of abilities, following the imposition of various secondary tasks designed to block separate components of working memory. Suppression of the articulatory loop (by preventing subvocal rehearsal) had no effect on measures of recall, whereas blocking the visuospatial sketchpad (by manipulation of a keypad) and blocking the central executive (by random letter generation) had equivalent disruptive effects, in comparison with a control condition. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of similar secondary tasks on the solution (i.e., move selection) of tactical chess positions, and a similar pattern was found, except that blocking the central executive was much more disruptive than in Experiment 1. Experiment 3 compared performance on two types of primary task, one concerned with solving chess positions as in Experiment 2, and the other a sentence-rearrangement task. The secondary tasks in each case were both designed to block the central executive, but one was verbal (vocal generation of random numbers), while the other was spatial in nature (random generation of keypresses). Performance of the spatial secondary task was affected to a greater extent by the chess primary task than by the verbal primary task, whereas there were no differential effects on these secondary tasks by the verbal primary task. In none of the three experiments were there any differential effects between weak and strong players. These results are interpreted in the context of the working-memory model and previous theories of the nature of cognition in chess. PMID:8822160

Robbins, T W; Anderson, E J; Barker, D R; Bradley, A C; Fearnyhough, C; Henson, R; Hudson, S R

1996-01-01

409

Using cache memory to reduce processor-memory traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing processor-memory bandwidth is recognized in two distinct situations: single board computer systems and microprocessors of the future. Cache memory is investigated as a way to reduce the memory-processor traffic. We show that traditional caches which depend heavily on spatial locality (look-ahead) for their performance are inappropriate in these environments because they generate large bursts of bus

James R. Goodman; A Super CPU

1983-01-01

410

Memory-guided attention: control from multiple memory systems.  

PubMed

Attention is strongly influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this useful dichotomy does not readily capture the ubiquitous and often automatic contribution of past experience stored in memory. We review recent evidence about how multiple memory systems control attention, consider how such interactions are manifested in the brain, and highlight how this framework for 'memory-guided attention' might help systematize previous findings and guide future research. PMID:23141429

Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

2012-11-08

411

Bell System Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bell System Memorial is a non-commercial website created by David Massey, who openly admits to his love of telephones and interest in the Bell System. The website "was created to help keep the memories of the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest telecommunications system on earth." The author provides some technical and corporate historical information on Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies. The Bell System Memorial logo on the main page links to an introductory webpage, where visitors can sort through the information based on their needs. For example, teachers will find lessons ideas, and AT&T, Western Electric, Bell Labs, Bell Operating Company retirees and current employees of the companies divested from AT&T will find some interesting corporate history. A listing of books and resources on Bell Systems is available for anyone interested in further research and hobbyists will find links to resources and associations relating to electronics and telecommunications.

412

Ferroelectric random access memories.  

PubMed

Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

Ishiwara, Hiroshi

2012-10-01

413

The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

Richards, Regina G.

414

The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

Richards, Regina G.

415

Advanced failure analysis of memory devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the computer era, the need for faster and denser memory devices has put constant pressure on memory manufacturers. The push to maximize memory capabilities has resulted in ever-changing technology. As a result, the failure analysis on advanced memory devices becomes increasingly challenging. In this paper, the author will first provide an overview of semiconductor memory devices based on their

Susan X. Li

2011-01-01

416

Prospective Memory: A New Focus for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective memory is required for many aspects of everyday cognition, its breakdown may be as debilitating as impairments in retrospective memory, and yet, the former has received relatively little attention by memory researchers. This article outlines a strategy for changing the fortunes of prospective memory, for guiding new research to shore up the claim that prospective memory is a distinct

Peter Graf; Bob Uttl

2001-01-01

417

The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the neurobiology of learning and memory is in a most exciting phase. Behavioral studies in animals are characterizing the categories and properties of learning and memory; essential memory trace circuits in the brain are being defined and localized in mammalian models; work on human memory and the brain is identifying neuronal systems involved in memory; the neuronal, neurochemical,

Richard F. Thompson

1986-01-01

418

Global Memory and the Rhythm of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective memory has been central to the creation of community throughout history. Nevertheless, the structure and content of memory narratives have changed significantly from premodern, modern, and into the global era. This article builds on scholarship in cultural globalization and collective memory studies to describe global memory. Beginning with a review of theories of collective memory, especially as it develops

Jeffrey Stepnisky

2005-01-01

419

Computational Cognitive Neuroscience of Early Memory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Numerous brain areas work in concert to subserve memory, with distinct memory functions relying differentially on distinct brain areas. For example, semantic memory relies heavily on posterior cortical regions, episodic memory on hippocampal regions, and working memory on prefrontal cortical regions. This article reviews relevant findings from…

Munakata, Yuko

2004-01-01

420

Programming for Different Memory Consistency Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The memory consistency model, or memory model, supported by a shared-memory multiprocessor directly affects its performance. The most commonly assumed memory model is sequential consistency (SC). While SC provides a simple model for the programmer, it imposes rigid constraints on the ordering of memory accesses and restricts the use of common hardware and compiler optimizations. To remedy the shortcomings of

Kourosh Gharachorloo; Sarita V. Adve; Anoop Gupta; John L. Hennessy; Mark D. Hill

1992-01-01

421

F1.4 Associative memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This section considers how neural networks can be used as associative memory devices. It first describes what an associative memory is, and then moves on to describe associative memories based on feedforward neural networks and associative memories based on recurrent networks. The section also describes associative memory systems based on cognitive models. It also highlights the ability of neural-network-based systems

James Austin

1997-01-01

422

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective  

PubMed Central

Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective.

Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

2011-01-01

423

The Neuroanatomy of Remote Memory  

PubMed Central

Summary In humans and experimental animals, damage to the hippocampus or related medial temporal lobe structures severely impairs the formation of new memory but typically spares very remote memory. Questions remain about the importance of these structures for the storage and retrieval of remote autobiographical memory. We carried out a detailed volumetric analysis of structural brain images from eight memory-impaired patients. Five of the patients had damage limited mainly to the medial temporal lobe. These patients performed normally on tests of remote autobiographical memory. Three patients had medial temporal lobe damage plus significant additional damage to neocortex, and these patients were severely impaired. These findings account for previously reported differences in the recollective ability of memory-impaired patients and demonstrate that the ability to recollect remote autobiographical events depends not on the medial temporal lobe but on widely distributed neocortical areas, especially the frontal, lateral temporal, and occipital lobes.

Bayley, Peter J.; Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2006-01-01

424

Circadian rhythms and memory formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that contribute to memory formation and the generation of circadian rhythms. However, it is not well understood how these two processes interact to generate long-term memory. Recent studies in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have shown time-of-day effects on neurophysiology and memory formation, and have revealed a possible role for

Jason R. Gerstner; Jerry C. P. Yin

2010-01-01

425

Memory performance of Prolog architectures  

SciTech Connect

Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

Tick, E.

1988-01-01

426

The relationship between obesity and neurocognitive function in Chinese patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have reported that up to 60% of individuals with schizophrenia are overweight or obese. This study explored the relationship between obesity and cognitive performance in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Methods Outpatients with schizophrenia aged 18–50 years were recruited from 10 study sites across China. Demographic and clinical information was collected. A neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, processing speed, learning/memory, and executive functioning was used to assess cognitive function, and these 4 individual domains were transformed into a neurocognitive composite z score. In addition, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Patients were categorized into 4 groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) based on BMI cutoff values for Asian populations recommended by the World Health Organization. Results A total number of 896 patients were enrolled into the study. Fifty-four percent of participants were overweight or obese. A higher BMI was significantly associated with lower scores on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) Visual Reproduction subscale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Symbol subscale, and the composite z score (p’s???0.024). Obese patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower scores than normal weight patients on the Trail Making Test B, the WMS-R Visual Reproduction subscale, the WAIS Digit Symbol subscale, and the composite z score (p’s???0.004). Conclusions Our study suggests that, in addition to its well established risk for various cardiometabolic conditions, obesity is also associated with decreased cognitive function in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should explore if weight loss and management can improve cognitive function in obese patients who suffer from schizophrenia.

2013-01-01

427

Cashmere-VLM: Remote Memory Paging for Software Distributed Shared Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software distributed shared memory (DSM) systems have successfully provided the illusion of shared memory on dis- tributed memory machines. However, most software DSM systems use the main memory of each machine as a level in a cache hierarchy, replicating copies of shared data in local memory. Since computer memories tend to be much larger than caches, DSM systems have largely

Sandhya Dwarkadas; Robert Stets; Nikos Hardavellas; Leonidas I. Kontothanassis; Rishiyur S. Nikhil

1999-01-01

428

Random photonic crystal optical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, optical cross-connects working on wavelength division multiplexing systems are based on optical fiber delay lines buffering. We designed and analyzed a novel photonic crystal optical memory, which replaces the fiber delay lines of the current optical cross-connect buffer. Optical buffering systems based on random photonic crystal optical memory have similar behavior to the electronic buffering systems based on electronic RAM memory. In this paper, we show that OXCs working with optical buffering based on random photonic crystal optical memories provides better performance than the current optical cross-connects.

Wirth Lima, A., Jr.; Sombra, A. S. B.

2012-10-01

429

Remote memory during marijuana intoxication.  

PubMed

The effects of acute marijuana intoxication on remote memory and new learning were assessed. To test for the effects of marijuana on remote memory, titles of one-season television shows, aired up to 14 years previously, were used in three tests measuring recognition, temporal judgement and detailed recall of facts from the shows. Marijuana did not affect remote memory in comparison to placebo. The effects of marijuana on the learning of a word list were also tested. Marijuana significantly impaired new learning at the same time that remote memory was unaffected. PMID:6808550

Wetzel, C D; Janowsky, D S; Clopton, P L

1982-01-01

430

The Relationship Between IQ, Memory, Executive Function, and Processing Speed in Recent-Onset Psychosis: 1-Year Stability and Clinical Outcome  

PubMed Central

Studies commonly report poor performance in psychotic patients compared with controls on tasks testing a range of cognitive functions, but, because current IQ is often not matched between these groups, it is difficult to determine whether this represents a generalized deficit or specific abnormalities. Fifty-three first-episode psychosis patients and 53 healthy controls, one-to-one matched for sex, age, and full-scale current IQ, were compared on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests representing indices of perceptual organization, verbal comprehension, processing speed, and working memory as well as other tests of executive function and episodic memory. The groups showed an equivalent pattern of performance on all WAIS subtests except digit symbol processing speed, on which the patients were significantly worse. Patients were also worse on measures where performance correlated with digit symbol score, namely working and verbal memory tasks. Standardized residual scores for each subtest were calculated for each patient using the difference between their actual subtest score and a predicted subtest score based on their full-scale IQ and the performance of controls. Scaled scores and residual scores were examined for relationships with clinical measures. Digit symbol–scaled score was significantly correlated with concurrent negative syndrome score at baseline, and digit symbol residual score significantly predicted residual negative symptoms at 1-year follow-up. In summary, our comparison of patients and controls precisely matched for IQ revealed that processing speed was attenuated in recent-onset schizophrenia, contributed significantly to working and episodic memory deficits, and was a prognostic factor for poor outcome at 1 year.

Leeson, Verity C.; Barnes, Thomas R. E.; Harrison, Masuma; Matheson, Elizabeth; Harrison, Isobel; Mutsatsa, Stanley H.; Ron, Maria A.; Joyce, Eileen M.

2010-01-01

431

SafeMem: Exploiting ECC-Memory for Detecting Memory Leaks and Memory Corruption During Production Runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory leaks and memory corruption are two major forms of software bugs that severely threaten system availabil- ity and security. According to the US-CERT Vulnerability Notes Database, 68% of all reported vulnerabilities in 2003 were caused by memory leaks or memory corruption. Dynamic monitoring tools, such as the state-of-the-art Purify, are commonly used to detect memory leaks and memory corruption.

Feng Qin; Shan Lu; Yuanyuan Zhou

2005-01-01

432

Memory monitoring: How useful is self-knowledge about memory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports two experiments in which we investigated the value of memory monitoring. Although the act of monitoring may not in itself be a basis for improved memory, it is reasonable to expea that the act of monitoring will provide useful information to the subject. For example, if monitoring identifies items that are inadequately encoded, then the inadequacy can

Ian Maynard Begg; Lisa A. Martin; Douglas R. Needham

1992-01-01

433

Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

434

Search your memory ! - an associative memory based desktop search system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present XSearcher, an associative memory based desktop search system, which exploits associations by creating semantic links of personal desktop resources from explicit and implicit user activities. With these links, associations among memory fragments can be built or rebuilt in a user's brain during a search. The personalized ranking scheme uses these links together with a user's personal preferences to

Jidong Chen; Hang Guo; Wentao Wu; Chunxin Xie

2009-01-01

435

Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

436

Memory attributions for choices: How beliefs shape our memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When remembering past choices, people tend to attribute positive features to chosen options and negative features to rejected options. The present experiments reveal the important role beliefs play in memory reconstruction of choices. In Experiment 1, participants who misremembered which option they chose favored their believed choice in their memory attributions more than their actual choice. In Experiment 2, we

Linda A. Henkel; Mara Mather

2007-01-01

437

Adaptive bidirectional associative memories.  

PubMed

Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural networks to produce two-way associative search for stored stimulus-response associations (A(i),B(i)). Two fields of neurons, F(A) and F(B), are connected by an n x p synaptic marix M. Passing information through M gives one direction, passing information through its transpose M(T) gives the other. Every matrix is bidirectionally stable for bivalent and for continuous neurons. Paired data (A(i),B(i)) are encoded in M by summing bipolar correlation matrices. The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) behaves as a two-layer hierarchy of symmetrically connected neurons. When the neurons in F(A) and F(B) are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of twopattern reverberation, or pseudoadaptive resonance, for every connection topology M. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. An adaptive BAM allows M to rapidly learn associations without supervision. Stable short-term memory reverberations across F(A) and F(B) gradually seep pattern information into the long-term memory connections M, allowing input associations (A(i),B(i)) to dig their own energy wells in the network state space. The BAM correlation encoding scheme is extended to a general Hebbian learning law. Then every BAM adaptively resonates in the sense that all nodes and edges quickly equilibrate in a system energy local minimum. A sampling adaptive BAM results when many more training samples are presented than there are neurons in F(B) and F(B), but presented for brief pulses of learning, not allowing learning to fully or nearly converge. Learning tends to improve with sample size. Sampling adaptive BAMs can learn some simple continuous mappings and can rapidly abstract bivalent associations from several noisy gray-scale samples. PMID:20523473

Kosko, B

1987-12-01

438

Kisiel Memorial Lectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third Kiesiel Memorial Lecture was given on February 23, 1984, by John D. Bredehoeft of the U.S. Geological Survey. The title of his talk was “Water Management: Who are the Managers?”The text of the second Kisiel Memorial Lecture, which was delivered by Myron Fiering of Harvard University on March 10, 1983, is now available from the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. The cost of the 20 page booklet is $3.00 per copy, and checks should be payable to the University of Arizona. The title of Fiering's talk was “The Real Benefits from Synthetic Flows: Reflections on 25 Years With the Harvard Water Program.” According to the foreword by Nathan Buras of the University of Arizona, “The second Kisiel Memorial Lecture captures, in a sense, the kernel of the quantum jump which occurred in the late fifties and early sixties in our perception of the complexities of the hydrological phenomena and man's relation to them.” According to Buras, “In the sixties, young Ph.D.s sallied forth from their universities into the real world spreading the good news that, at last, complex water resource problems in which imperfectly understood natural phenomena affected by anthropogenic interventions can be neatly dissected by the application of systems analysis and the use of mathematical models. … The second Kisiel Lecture presents and discusses a philosophical basis which underlies the discipline called ‘water resources.’ The philosophical basis, together with the scientific foundation provided by hydrological sciences, are the conceptual framework within which the development and utilization of regional water resources take place.”

439

Milestoning with coarse memory.  

PubMed

Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics of molecular processes occurring on timescales inaccessible to traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the method, the phase space of the system is partitioned by milestones (hypersurfaces), trajectories are initialized on each milestone, and short MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between neighboring milestones. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process from the observed statistics of transition. The procedure is typically justified by the assumption that trajectories lose memory between crossing successive milestones. Here we present Milestoning with Coarse Memory (MCM), a generalization of Milestoning that relaxes the memory loss assumption of conventional Milestoning. In the method, milestones are defined and sample transitions are calculated in the standard Milestoning way. Then, after it is clear where trajectories sample milestones, the milestones are broken up into distinct neighborhoods (clusters), and each sample transition is associated with two clusters: the cluster containing the coordinates the trajectory was initialized in, and the cluster (on the terminal milestone) containing trajectory's final coordinates. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process in an extended state space built from milestone and cluster indices. To test the method, we apply it to a process that is particularly ill suited for Milestoning: the dynamics of a polymer confined to a narrow cylinder. We show that Milestoning calculations of both the mean first passage time and the mean transit time of reversal-which occurs when the end-to-end vector reverses direction-are significantly improved when MCM is applied. Finally, we note the overhead of performing MCM on top of conventional Milestoning is negligible. PMID:23614410

Hawk, Alexander T

2013-04-21

440

Future memory technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the concepts, status and technical challenges for high density working memory will be reviewed. The main technology covering this application space today is DRAM, based on a 1 transistor 1 capacitor cell (1T1C). 50-60nm DRAM technologies have been already introduced into mass production. Full process integration results for 40nm DRAM, and key technologies for the 30nm DRAM node have been presented previously. No technical roadblock is seen for further scaling down to the 30nm node, however some of the key technology concepts such as the capacitor dielectrics with capacitance equivalent (oxide) thickness (CET) of <0.5nm have still to be proven. The DRAM cell sizes currently in mass production are ranging between 8F2 and 6F2. The development of the further cell size reduction to 4F2 is under development. The status and scaling potential of the most probable DRAM successor candidate technologies: capacitor-less DRAM, phase-change RAM (PCRAM), and spin transfer torque MRAM (STT MRAM) will be discussed. Capacitor-less DRAM or floating body FB DRAM cells have been proposed, both for stand-alone memory and embedded memory applications. Different cell device schemes (transistor and capacitor-coupled thyristor) have been investigated. Recently a number of papers covering cell device data and integration schemes for 50nm feature sizes have been published. However so far no results based on a high density demonstrator chip or product have been shown. PCRAM is the most mature technology out of the candidates mentioned. Product demonstrators with 90nm design rules and densities up to 512Mb have been presented. The introduction of first products in 65-45nm technology for 2009 has been announced recently. Scalability of the phase change element to below 10nm has been demonstrated. Spin transfer torque (STT) MRAM has been proposed as a fast, nonvolatile, and scalable cell concept. The memory concept has been experimentally verified at structure sizes down to 50nm. Theoretical estimations indicate the scalability down to 20nm. A 2Mb product demonstrator has been published, utilizing a rather large cell size, however. Based on these data the comparison of the key parameters for the different technologies will be presented, and a mapping of the different technologies to the current DRAM application segments will be proposed.

Mueller, Wolfgang; Kund, Michael

2009-05-01

441

Porous Shape Memory Polymers.  

PubMed

Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

2013-02-01

442

Memory complaints and dementia.  

PubMed

With people having the luxury of living longer there is an increasing epidemic of dementia throughout the world. It is important to distinguish true dementia from the not-unexpected loss of mental acuity as people age. This latter process has been termed "benign forgetfulness of senescence." We are all probably susceptible to memory loss if we live long enough. Progressive cognitive impairment to a clinically significant degree, with no obvious identifiable factor, such as a metabolic disturbance, drug intoxication, or medication effect, probably indicates a dementing illness, however. PMID:19272515

Kelley, Roger E; Minagar, Alireza

2009-03-01

443

Hippocampus, time, and memory.  

PubMed

Five experiments were conducted to determine the effects of hippocampal damage on timing and the memory for temporal events. In Experiments 1-3, rats were trained to discriminate between auditory signals that differed in both duration (2 or 8 s) and rate (2 or 16 cycles/s). Half of the rats were trained to discriminate duration, and half were trained to discriminate rate. After rats acquired the relevant discrimination, signals with intermediate durations and rates were presented to obtain psychophysical functions that related signal duration and/or rate to response choice. Rats then received either lesions of the fimbria-fornix or control operations. Postoperatively, the accuracy of duration and rate discriminations as measured by the difference limen (DL) was unaffected by the lesion, but the point of subjective equality (PSE) was shifted to a shorter duration and a slower rate by the lesion in Experiment 1. Both rats with lesions and rats with control operations showed cross-modal transfer of duration and rate from the auditory signals used in training to visual signals used in testing in Experiment 2. A 5-s delay was imposed between the end of a signal and the opportunity to respond in Experiment 3. The delay served as a retention interval for the rats trained in the rate discrimination, and the rats with fimbria-fornix lesions were selectively impaired by the addition of the delay as measured by an increase in the DL. The delay did not serve as a retention interval for rats trained in the duration discrimination because they were able to continue timing through the delay. A peak procedure was employed in Experiment 4. The maximum response rate of control rats was approximately at the time of scheduled reinforcement (20 s), but the maximum response rate of rats with fimbria-fornix lesions was reliably earlier than the time of scheduled reinforcement. When a 5-s gap was imposed in the signal, control rats summed the signal durations before and after the gap, whereas rats with fimbria-fornix lesions showed no retention of the signal duration prior to the gap. Experiment 5 continued the testing of the rats used in Experiments 1-4 and showed that rats with lesions had an impairment in a test of spatial working memory in an eight-arm radial maze. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a fimbria-fornix lesion interferes with temporal and spatial working memory, reduces the remembered time of reinforcement stored in reference memory, and has no effect on the animal's sensitivity to stimulus duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24128355

Meck, Warren H; Church, Russell M; Olton, David S

2013-10-01

444

Magnetoelectric charge trap memory.  

PubMed

It is demonstrated that a charge-trapping layer placed in proximity to a ferromagnetic metal enables efficient electrical and optical control of the metal's magnetic properties. Retention of charge trapped inside the charge-trapping layer provides nonvolatility to the magnetoelectric effect and enhances its efficiency by an order of magnitude. As such, an engineered charge-trapping layer can be used to realize the magnetoelectric equivalent to today's pervasive charge trap flash memory technology. Moreover, by supplying trapped charges optically instead of electrically, a focused laser beam can be used to imprint the magnetic state into a continuous metal film. PMID:22300444

Bauer, Uwe; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen; Beach, Geoffrey S D

2012-02-08

445

Retinotopic memory is more precise than spatiotopic memory.  

PubMed

Successful visually guided behavior requires information about spatiotopic (i.e., world-centered) locations, but how accurately is this information actually derived from initial retinotopic (i.e., eye-centered) visual input? We conducted a spatial working memory task in which subjects remembered a cued location in spatiotopic or retinotopic coordinates while making guided eye movements during the memory delay. Surprisingly, after a saccade, subjects were significantly more accurate and precise at reporting retinotopic locations than spatiotopic locations. This difference grew with each eye movement, such that spatiotopic memory continued to deteriorate, whereas retinotopic memory did not accumulate error. The loss in spatiotopic fidelity is therefore not a generic consequence of eye movements, but a direct result of converting visual information from native retinotopic coordinates. Thus, despite our conscious experience of an effortlessly stable spatiotopic world and our lifetime of practice with spatiotopic tasks, memory is actually more reliable in raw retinotopic coordinates than in ecologically relevant spatiotopic coordinates. PMID:22307648

Golomb, Julie D; Kanwisher, Nancy

2012-01-17

446

Performance subtypes of everyday memory function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal 18? to 77?year?olds were administered a computerized battery of everyday memory tests. Cluster and discriminant function analyses yielded a variety of memory subtypes, including age?independent and age?dependent forgetfulness, and varying patterns of strengths and weaknesses on name?face memory, object location recall, and facial memory. Results are discussed in relation to “benign” forgetfulness, age?associated memory impairment, and material?specific memory subtypes.

Glenn J. Larrabee; Thomas H. Crook III

1989-01-01

447

Practical Memory Concerns of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine practical memory concerns in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants responded to open-ended questions that were designed to solicit information regarding memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. Results indicated that (a) important dates, such as birthdays and anniversaries, were easily remembered, but names were not; (b) external memory aids were

Celinda M. Reese; Katie E. Cherry; Lisa E. Norris

1999-01-01

448

Thyristor-Type Memory Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thyristor device can be used to implement a variety of semiconductor memory circuits, including high-density memory-cell arrays and single cell circuits. In one example embodiment, the thyristor device includes doped regions of opposite polarity, and a ...

F. Nemati J. D. Plummer

2005-01-01

449

Memory access buffering in multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In highly-pipelined machines, instructions and data are prefetched and buffered in both the processor and the cache. This is done to reduce the average memory access latency and to take advantage of memory interleaving. Lock-up free caches are designed to avoid processor blocking on a cache miss. Write buffers are often included in a pipelined machine to avoid processor waiting

Michel Dubois; Christoph Scheurich; Faye A. Briggs

1986-01-01

450

Memory Maintenance via Neuronal Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their conception half a century ago, Hebbian cell assemblies have become a basic term in the neurosciences, and the idea that learning takes place through synaptic modifications has been accepted as a fundamental paradigm. As synapses undergo continuous metabolic turnover, adopt- ing the stance that memories are engraved in the synaptic matrix raises a fundamental problem: How can memories

David Horn; Nir Levy; Eytan Ruppin

1998-01-01

451

Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

2012-01-01

452

Genetic approaches to memory storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to remember is perhaps the most significant and distinctive feature of our mental life. We are who we are largely because of what we have learned and what we remember. In turn, impairments in learning and memory can lead to disorders that range from the moderately inconvenient benign senescent forgetfulness associated with normal aging to the devastating memory

Mark Mayford; Eric R Kandel

1999-01-01

453

32-Kbyte Integrated Cache Memory,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new type ASMIC (application specific memory IC) has been developed offering 32 Kbytes of integrated cache memory with a typical address-to-hit delay of 18 ns and address-to-date delay of 23 ns. There are several advantages, both in flexibility and expan...

K. Sawada Y. Hayakashi K. Sato T. Shirotori

1988-01-01

454

Checking the Correctness of Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the notion of program checking to include programs which alter theirenvironment. In particular, we consider programs which store and retrieve data frommemory. The model we consider allows the checker a small amount of reliable memory.The checker is presented with a sequence of requests (on-line) to a data structure whichmust reside in a large but unreliable memory. We view

Manuel Blum; William S. Evans; Peter Gemmell; Sampath Kannan; Moni Naor

1994-01-01

455

Grover's algorithm and human memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we consider an experimental study showing the influence of emotion regulation strategies on human memory performance: part of such experimental results are difficult to explain within a classic cognitive allocation model. We provide a first attempt to build a model of human memory processes based on a quantum algorithm, the Grover's algorithm, which allows to search a

Riccardo Franco

2008-01-01

456

Attributes of Memory: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of research performed during the past five and one-half years and dealing with different attributes in memory functioning is organized around four attributes of memory: "Frequency Attribute: Verbal Discrimination" explores the development of the theory dealing with verbal discrimination tasks and lists several papers prepared during…

Underwood, Benton J.

457

Generalized Asymmetrical Bidirectional Associative Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classical bidirectional associative memory (BAM) suffers from low storage capacity and abundance of spurious memories though it has the properties of good generalization and noise immunity. In this paper, Ham- ming distance in recall procedure of usual asymmetrical BAM is replaced with modified Hamming distance by introducing weighting matrix into connection matrix. This generalization is validated to increase storage

Tae-Dok Eom; Changkyu Choi; Ju-Jang Lee

458

Can false memories spontaneously recover?  

PubMed

Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should spontaneously recover. We found that after DRM lists were well learned and false recognition to critical words was substantially reduced by multiple study-test trials, those false memories spontaneously recovered when participants were either rushed or delayed on a retest. We attributed the reduction in false recognition over trials to a memory-editing process that suppresses false recognition as participants gradually learn which words were in the lists and which words, though similar, were not. Rushing or delaying the participants on a retest made it more difficult for them to edit their memory, and false memories spontaneously returned. PMID:16766445

Seamon, John G; Berko, Jeffrey R; Sahlin, Brooke; Yu, Yi-Lo; Colker, Jennifer M; Gottfried, David H

2006-05-01

459

Distinctive Processing Underlies Skilled Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on skilled memory has focused on organizational processes to the exclusion of item-specific processes, although theories of skilled memory do ac- knowledge the importance of both kinds of processes. Using the isolation methodology, we presented lists of American football team names to participants who had either a high or a low level of knowledge about American football. An isolation

James P. Van Overschelde; Katherine A. Rawson; John Dunlosky; R. Reed Hunt

2005-01-01

460

Demystifying the Beginnings of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longstanding issue in psychology has been, When does human memory begin? More particularly, when do we begin to remember personal experiences in a way that makes them accessible to recollection later in life? Current popular and scientific thinking would have us believe that memories are possible not only at the time of our birth, but also in…

Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.

2004-01-01

461

Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

Burt, Christopher D. B.

2008-01-01

462

Interrogation techniques and memory distrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has shown that certain interrogation techniques may lead to false confessions. Gudjonsson and MacKeith (1982) argued that the ‘memory distrust syndrome’ could underlie some of these false confessions. The present study examined the relation between memory distrust, false confessions, and several interrogation techniques, by accusing innocent undergraduate students (n=50) of exam fraud. To this end, five interrogation techniques

Saskia van Bergen; Marko Jelicic; Harald Merckelbach

2008-01-01

463

The bankruptcy of everyday memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A new approach to the study of memory,has emerged recently, characterized by a preoccupation with natural settings and with the immediate applicability of research findings. In contrast, the laboratory study of memory,relies on experimental techniques for theory test- ing and is concerned with the discovery of generalizable principles. Although both approaches share the goal of generalizability, they differ sharply

Mahzarin R. Banaji; Robert G. Crowder

1989-01-01

464

Psychopathy and Memory for Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite theoretical speculation suggesting psychopaths have superior memory for their autobiographical experiences in comparison to nonpsychopaths, little published research has directly assessed this issue. This lack of research formed the impetus for the present investigation. As part of a larger study investigating variables associated with episodic memory in adult male offenders, 150 violent crime perpetrators were interviewed at two federal

Barry S. Cooper; Hugues Hervé; John C. Yuille

2007-01-01

465

The Reality of Repressed Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1993-01-01

466

Output Interference in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

2011-01-01

467

Literacy: Exploring working memory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research showed an important association between reading and writing skills (literacy) and the phonological loop. However, the effects of literacy on other working memory components remain unclear. In this study, we investigated performance of illiterate subjects and their matched literate controls on verbal and nonverbal working memory tasks. Results revealed that the phonological loop is significantly influenced by literacy,

Catarina Silva; Luís Faísca; Martin Ingvar; Karl Magnus Petersson; Alexandra Reis

2012-01-01

468

The quality of suggested memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarge number of studies have demonstrated that participants could be led to report suggested events that were never witnessed (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). The present study attempts to explore the quality of such suggested memories. Thirty?six participants were exposed to a live event of brief duration (20 s). They were then misled about certain aspects of the event. Memory was assessed

Vanita Sondhi; Ashum Gupta

2007-01-01

469

MEMORY PROCESSES IN MEDIA EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory mediates the effects of mass media on the individual. The nature of memory is such that encoding, storage, and retrieval of episodic (context-dependent) information from mass media messages is often inhibited whereas semantic (thematic, procedural, structural) information retention is often promoted. Therefore, mass media effects are better defined in terms of structural information transmission than in terms of specific

KATHY KELLERMANN

1985-01-01

470

Quantum memory in quantum cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Shortened abstract:] This thesis investigates the importance of quantum memory in quantum cryptography, concentrating on quantum key distribution schemes. In the hands of an eavesdropper -- a quantum memory is a powerful tool, putting in question the security of quantum cryptography; Classical privacy amplification techniques, used to prove security against less powerful eavesdroppers, might not be effective when the eavesdropper

Tal Mor

1999-01-01

471

The reality of repressed memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1993-01-01

472

A universal finite memory source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irreducible parameterization for a finite memory source is constructed in the form of a tree machine. A universal information source for the set of finite memory sources is constructed by a predictive modification of an earlier studied algorithm-Context. It is shown that this universal source incorporates any minimal data-generating tree machine in an asymptotically optimal manner in the following

Marcelo J. Weinberger; Jorma J. Rissanen; Meir Feder

1995-01-01

473

Unconstrained Retrieval from Semantic Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines developmental change in processes used to retrieve information from semantic memory. Twenty-nine 8-, 12-, and 21-year-olds were asked to name as many animals and pieces of furniture as they could in separate 7-minute intervals. Results suggested that information in semantic memory changes with age, but that retrieval processes do not.…

Kail, Robert; and Nippold, Marilyn A.

1984-01-01

474

Good Pitch Memory Is Widespread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we show that good pitch memory is widespread among adults with no musical training. We tested unselected college students on their memory for the pitch level of instrumental soundtracks from familiar television programs. Participants heard 5-s excerpts either at the original pitch level or shifted upward or downward by 1 or 2 semitones. They suc- cessfully identified the original

E. Glenn Schellenberg; Sandra E. Trehub

2003-01-01

475

The Purity of Auditory Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence from experiments on immediate memory indicates unambiguously that silent speech perception can produce typically `auditory' effects while there is either active or passive mouthing of the relevant articulatory gestures. This result falsifies previous theories of auditory sensory memory (pre-categorical acoustic store) that insisted on external auditory stimulation as indispensible for access to the system. A resolution is proposed

R. G. Crowder

1983-01-01

476

Applications of Shape Memory Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a series of new medical applications for specific behaviow of shape memory alloys is presented. Several properties are well known, like the superelasticity and the shape memory effect, but there are some other intere- sting features that are used very scarcely. Examples are given of the use of the extraordinary shapeability of the martensitic material, in some

P. A. Besselink; R. C. L. Sachdeva

1995-01-01

477

Stroke and episodic memory disorders.  

PubMed

Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory impairment after stroke: (1) Every node of the limbic system implicated in memory may be damaged by stroke but very rarely in isolation and the combination of amnesia with the associated deficits often illuminates additional aspects of memory functions. (2) Stroke produces amnesia by damage to critical convergence white matter connections of the limbic system, and stroke is the only etiology of amnesia that can delineate the entire pathway of memory and critical convergence points. (3) Stroke also impairs memory, without causing classical amnesia, by damaging brain regions responsible for cognitive processes, some modality specific and some more generally strategic, that are essential for normal learning and recall. PMID:19666037

Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P

2009-08-08

478

Poor Memory: A Case Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a case study of a person who had a cardiac arrest with some right-sided brain damage. Describes the effects of poor memory on cognition, personality, and interpersonal relationships based on personal observations during memory impairment. Highlights the course of rehabilitation over a two-year period. (PAS)|

Meltzer, Malcolm L.

1983-01-01

479

The genetics of episodic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Studies suggest that there is a considerable genetic contribution to individual episodic memory performance. Identifying genes which impact recollection may further elucidate an emerging biology and pave the way towards novel cognitive interventions. To date, several candidate genes have been explored and a few seem to have modest but measurable effects. Methods: Here we review the biology of memory

Jeremy Koppel; Terry Goldberg

2009-01-01

480

Memory-Bounded Bidirectional Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous approaches to bidirectional search require ex- ponential space, and they are either less efficient than unidirectional search for finding optimal solutions, or they cannot even find such solutions for difficult prob- lems. Based on a memory-bounded unidirectional algorithm for trees (SMA*), we developed a graph search extension, and we used it to construct a very ef- ficient memory-bounded bidirectional

Hermann Kaindl; Aliasghar Khorsand

1994-01-01

481

Making Connections with Memory Boxes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)|

Whatley, April

2000-01-01

482

Familiarity in source memory.  

PubMed

Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300-500ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500-800ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object's surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity's contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

Mollison, Matthew V; Curran, Tim

2012-07-10

483

The memory loophole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The memory loophole supposes that the measurement of an entangled pair is influenced by the measurements of earlier pairs in the same run of measurements. To assert the memory loophole is thus to deny that measurement is intrinsically random. It is argued that measurement might instead involve a process of recovery and equilibrium in the measuring apparatus akin to that described in thermodynamics by Le Chatelier's principle. The predictions of quantum mechanics would then arise from conservation of the measured property in the combined system of apparatus and measured ensemble. Measurement would be consistent with classical laws of conservation, not simply in the classical limit of large numbers, but whatever the size of the ensemble. However variances from quantum mechanical predictions would be self-correcting and centripetal, rather than Markovian and increasing as under the standard theory. Entanglement correlations would persist, not because the entangled particles act in concert (which would entail nonlocality), but because the measurements of the particles were influenced by the one fluctuating state of imbalance in the process of measurement.

Shanahan, Daniel

2008-05-01

484

Attentional limits in memory retrieval.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that episodic memory retrieval can occur in parallel with other cognitive processes was tested in 2 experiments. Participants memorized words and then performed speeded cued recall (Experiment 1) or speeded yes-no recognition (Experiment 2) in a dual-task situation. The psychological refractory period design was used: The participant was presented with a single test item at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50-1,200 ms) after a tone was presented in an auditory-manual 2-alternative choice reaction task. Reducing the SOA increased the memory task reaction times. This slowing was additive with the effect of variables slowing retrieval in the memory task. The results indicate that memory retrieval is delayed by central processes in the choice task, arguing that the central bottleneck responsible for dual-task interference encompasses memory retrieval as well as response selection. PMID:8744967

Carrier, L M; Pashler, H

1995-09-01

485

Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures.  

PubMed

In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

Liu, Xingqiang; Liu, Yueli; Chen, Wen; Li, Jinchai; Liao, Lei

2012-06-01

486

An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing  

PubMed Central

Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave generalization for some lists of notes—tonal, but not atonal, musical passages. In contrast with visual list memory, auditory primacy memory diminished with delay and auditory recency memory strengthened. Manipulations of interitem intervals, list length, and item presentation frequency revealed proactive and retroactive inhibition among items of individual auditory lists. Repeating visual items from prior lists produced interference (on nonmatching tests) revealing how far back memory extended. The possibility of using the interference function to separate familiarity vs. recollective memory processing is discussed.

Wright, Anthony A

2007-01-01

487

A study of intellectual abilities in high-functioning people with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research extends previous research regarding the intellectual functioning of autistic individuals on standardized measures of intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised). In Study I 33 individuals with autism who closely fit the DSM-III criteria were studied. Clear evidence was found that differentiates these individuals' verbal intellectual processes from their visual-motor intellectual abilities. Principal

A. J. Lincoln; E. Courchesne; B. A. Kilman; R. Elmasian; M. Allen

1988-01-01

488

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

489

Shape memory alloy cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional structural cables (or wire ropes) are composed of steel wires helically wound into strands, which, in turn, are wound around a core. Cables made from shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are a new structural element with promising properties for a broad range of new applications. Among the many potential advantages of this form are increased bending flexibility for spooling/packaging, better fatigue performance, energy absorption and damping, reduced thermal lag, redundancy, and signicant design flexibility. Currently there are no known studies of SMA cables in the literature, so exploratory thermo-mechanical experiments were performed on two commercially available cable designs as part of an ongoing research program to systematically characterize their thermomechanical behavior and demonstrate their potential utility as adaptive or resilient tension elements.

Reedlunn, Benjamin; Shaw, John A.

2008-05-01

490

Memory and Aging Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Memory and Aging Center at the University of California, San Francisco is dedicated to providing care for adults with cognitive problems and age-related diseases. The center conducts research on diseases, their treatment, and the brain. The âÂÂEducationâ section has a variety of resources for patients and their families, and health care professionals. Topics in this section cover some of the cognitive and movement disorders affecting older adults, and treatment information. In the âÂÂEducationâ section, special topics such as âÂÂEmotions,â âÂÂSpeech & Language,â and âÂÂSocial Behavior & Personalityâ are also covered. Links to outside information sources are also provided in the âÂÂResourcesâ section.

2007-07-14

491

Shape memory heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

Salzbrenner, R.

1984-06-01

492

Sam Houston Memorial Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Huntsville, Texas, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum pays homage to this celebrated American and first President of the Republic of Texas. Their homepage provides interested parties with information on his life in the "Sam's Life" area (including a timeline), along with a calendar of events and updates on their annual folk festival. It's worth nothing that the "Sam's Life" area also includes a FAQ area, quotes from the man himself, a family photo album, and a bibliography. Moving on, the "Virtual Tour" area is a bit of a treat as visitors can use the graphic to wander around the grounds. Finally, the "Fun Stuff" area includes information about the six flags of Texas, the Republic, and a few regional recipes, including one for molasses pie that sounds delicious.

493

Fluids with memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological "fluids" have some pretty interesting properties not the least of which is the fact that many of the most important ones are solid rocks in everyday experience. Other interesting properties include the fact that deforming geomaterials often remember the history of their deformation --- e.g. viscoelastic materials which carry their stress history, softening-plastic materials which carry a record of the total deformation or the damage caused by the deformation, and anisotropic materials which may gradually align their internal orientations with the local deformation field. This poster will explore some of these memory effects using analogy with everyday materials and common experience --- buckets of snot, pond slime and oozing sludge will all feature very prominently.

Moresi, L.

2006-12-01

494

Developments in declarative memory.  

PubMed

The second year of life is marked by changes in the robustness of recall memory. Both retrieval and storage processes have been implicated as the major source of age-related improvements in recall. Children 13 to 20 months of age were matched for levels of learning of laboratory events (thereby eliminating encoding as a source of developmental difference) and tested for recall after delays as long as 6 months. In Experiment 1, 16-month-olds evidenced less loss of information and more relearning than 13-month-olds. In Experiment 2, 20-month-olds evidenced less loss of information and more relearning than 16-month-olds. Patterns of performance across test trials and in relearning implicate a decline in susceptibility to storage failure as the primary source of the observed developmental trend. PMID:15660850

Bauer, Patricia J

2005-01-01

495

ELECTROSTATIC MEMORY SYSTEM  

DOEpatents

An improved electrostatic memory system is de scribed fer a digital computer wherein a plarality of storage tubes are adapted to operate in either of two possible modes. According to the present irvention, duplicate storage tubes are provided fur each denominational order of the several binary digits. A single discriminator system is provided between corresponding duplicate tubes to determine the character of the infurmation stored in each. If either tube produces the selected type signal, corresponding to binazy "1" in the preferred embodiment, a "1" is regenerated in both tubes. In one mode of operation each bit of information is stored in two corresponding tubes, while in the other mode of operation each bit is stored in only one tube in the conventional manner.

Chu, J.C.

1958-09-23

496

Plant memory: a tentative model.  

PubMed

All memory functions have molecular bases, namely in signal reception and transduction, and in storage and recall of information. Thus, at all levels of organisation living organisms have some kind of memory. In plants one may distinguish two types. There are linear pathways from reception of signals and propagation of effectors to a type of memory that may be described by terms such as learning, habituation or priming. There is a storage and recall memory based on a complex network of elements with a high degree of integration and feedback. The most important elements envisaged are calcium waves, epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones, and regulation of timing via a biological clock. Experiments are described that document the occurrence of the two sorts of memory and which show how they can be distinguished. A schematic model of plant memory is derived as emergent from integration of the various modules. Possessing the two forms of memory supports the fitness of plants in response to environmental stimuli and stress. PMID:23121044

Thellier, M; Lüttge, U

2012-11-02

497

Correlating digit span performance and event-related potentials to assess working memory.  

PubMed

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a computerized and modified version of the Digit Span Backwards (DB) task from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). The modified DB version (ERP-DB task) was divided into two sections of 2, 4, 6 and 8 digits in length (Group 1) and 3, 5 and 7 digits in length (Group 2). Each trial had a study phase and a test phase. For the study phase, a series of digits was presented sequentially and aurally to 20 participants (10 for each group). For the test phase, a second series of digits was also presented sequentially and aurally that either corresponded to the reverse order of the digits in the study phase (correct condition) or had one digit in the sequence replaced by an incorrect digit (incorrect condition). The traditional DB task of the WAIS-III was also administered for comparison purposes. A prolonged positive slow wave (PSW) peaking between 450 and 750 ms was elicited to incorrect condition trials. For each participant, a derived measure was calculated from the ERP differentiation between correct and incorrect conditions. The derived measure was defined as the mean of the t-values obtained from the correct and incorrect waveform comparison, within the temporal interval that encompassed this component. The strongest statistical correlations between the derived measure and the traditional DB test scores were found at the Pz site (Group 1: r=0.79; Group 2: r=0.59). This statistical approach shows that it is possible to adequately relate an individual's performance on a traditional measure of working memory and ERP patterns. Overall, we believe that this kind of ERP approach holds promise as a technique for assessing quantitatively non-communicative patients. PMID:16797756

Marchand, Yannick; Lefebvre, Celeste D; Connolly, John F

2006-06-22

498

Familiarity in Source Memory  

PubMed Central

Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered.

Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

2012-01-01

499

Surface shape memory in polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and applications for surface shape memory in polymers will round out the talk.

Mather, Patrick

2012-02-01

500

[Alzheimer's disease and human memory].  

PubMed

Memory disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease gave rise, from the eighties, to a detailed analysis into the framework of cognitive neuropsychology which aimed at describing the deficits of very specific processes. Beyond their clinical interest, these studies contributed to the modelisation of human memory thanks to the characterization of different memory systems and their relationships. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease and insists on particular cognitive phenomena. Hence, several examples are developed in the domains of semantic memory (such as hyperpriming and hypopriming effects) and autobiographical memory. Recent results highlight the existence of severe autobiographical amnesia observed in all neurodegenerative diseases, though with contrasting profiles: Ribot's gradient in Alzheimer's disease (showing that remote memories are better preserved than recent ones), reverse gradient in semantic dementia and no clear gradient in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. The second part of this article presents advances in cognitive neuroscience searching to disclose the cerebral substrates of these cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. The studies using functional imaging techniques are the most informative regarding this problematic. While showing the dysfunctions of an extended network, they emphasize the selectivity of cerebral damages that are at the root of very specific cognitive dysfunctions, coming close in that way to the conceptions of cognitive neuropsychology. These neuroimaging studies unravel the existence of compensatory mechanisms, which until recently were clearly missing in the literature on neurodegenerative diseases. These different researches lead to a wide conception of human memory, not just limited to simple instrumental processes (encoding, storage, retrieval), but necessarily covering models of identity and continuity of the subject, which interact in a dynamic way with eminently changing memory representations. PMID:17028560

Eustache, F; Giffard, B; Rauchs, G; Chételat, G; Piolino, P; Desgranges, B

2006-10-01