Sample records for wechsler memory scale-revised

  1. Validation of Kaufman, Ishikuma, and Kaufman-Packer's Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Short Forms on a Clinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCusker, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    Three short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), developed in 1991, were cross-validated on 207 male and 133 female adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. Results show psychometric properties for the short forms that are comparable to those of the WAIS-R standardization sample. (SLD)

  2. Memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia: preliminary data from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition support earlier findings.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, K A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether memory data presented for a schizophrenia sample in the Technical Manual of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition support trends identified in a previously published review of studies employing an earlier version of the instrument, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. DESIGN: Archival: reformulation of published data. PATIENTS: Patients with schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or traumatic brain injury (TBI) for whom intelligence and memory data were reported in the Technical Manual of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III WMS-III). OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance Intelligence Quotients of the WAIS-III and mean WMS-III Immediate and General Memory Indexes. Single-trial learning and learning slope data were also culled from the WAIS-III WMS-III Technical Manual. RESULTS: Memory indexes for patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome were substantially lower than those for patients with schizophrenia or TBI. In tests of learning processes, patients with schizophrenia had an inferior ability to repeat material presented just once, in comparison with the standardization sample. However, they did relatively better with repeated presentations than patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome. The learning slope for patients with schizophrenia demonstrated an ability to absorb and consolidate increasing amounts of material with repeated exposure that is inconsistent with pronounced memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit new learning deficiencies, their memory capabilities are not substantially weaker than their general intellectual abilities, and do not approach the memory impairment exhibited by patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome. PMID:10516802

  3. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  4. Clinical utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in predicting laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy among surgical candidates.

    PubMed

    Soble, Jason R; Eichstaedt, Katie E; Waseem, Hena; Mattingly, Michelle L; Benbadis, Selim R; Bozorg, Ali M; Vale, Fernando L; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in identifying functional cognitive deficits associated with seizure laterality in localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) relative to a previously established measure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Emerging WMS-IV studies have highlighted psychometric improvements that may enhance its ability to identify lateralized memory deficits. Data from 57 patients with video-EEG-confirmed unilateral TLE who were administered the WMS-IV and RAVLT as part of a comprehensive presurgical neuropsychological evaluation for temporal resection were retrospectively reviewed. We examined the predictive accuracy of the WMS-IV not only in terms of verbal versus visual composite scores but also using individual subtests. A series of hierarchal logistic regression models were developed, including the RAVLT, WMS-IV delayed subtests (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction), and a WMS-IV verbal-visual memory difference score. Analyses showed that the RAVLT significantly predicted laterality with overall classification rates of 69.6% to 70.2%, whereas neither the individual WMS-IV subtests nor the verbal-visual memory difference score accounted for additional significant variance. Similar to previous versions of the WMS, findings cast doubt as to whether the WMS-IV offers significant incremental validity in discriminating seizure laterality in TLE beyond what can be obtained from the RAVLT. PMID:25461222

  5. Factor analysis and scale revision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Reise; Niels G. Waller; Andrew L. Comrey

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews methodological issues that arise in the application of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to scale revision and refinement. The authors begin by discussing how the appropriate use of EFA in scale revision is influenced by both the hierarchical nature of psychological constructs and the motivations underlying the revision. Then they specifically address (a) important issues that arise prior

  6. Factor Analysis and Scale Revision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Reise; Niels G. Waller; Andrew L. Comrey

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews methodological issues that arise in the application of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to scale revision and refinement. The authors begin by discussing how the appropriate use of EFA in scale revision is influenced by both the hierarchical nature of psychological constructs and the motivations underlying the revision. Then they specifically address (a) important issues that arise prior

  7. The effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition cognitive abilities on math achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Parkin; A. Alexander Beaujean

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) subtests, on Quantitative Knowledge, as operationalized by the Wechsler

  8. Intelligence, Memory, and Handedness in Pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Cantor; Ray Blanchard; Bruce K. Christensen; Robert Dickey; Philip E. Klassen; A. Lee Beckstead; Thomas Blak; Michael E. Kuban

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 473 male patients with pedophilia (assessed by the patients' sexual history and penile response in the laboratory to standardized, erotic stimuli) or other problematic sexual interests or behaviors received brief neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychological measures included a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, D.

  9. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  10. The Effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Cognitive Abilities on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Jason R.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence…

  11. Nonverbal memory dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with checking compulsions.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Koo, Min-Seong; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, Jang Woo; Oh, Wook-Jin; Suh, Ho Suk; Lee, Hong Shick

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder; nonetheless, most of the previous neuropsychological studies for assessing the involvement of memory dysfunction grouped together patients with different symptoms, thereby potentially accounting for the inconsistencies of results. The goals of this study were to compare the memory dysfunction of two main subtypes of OCD and to identify the type of memory dysfunction that is associated with the checking symptoms in OCD patients. The sample population comprised the cleaning-type OCD group (N=23), checking-type OCD group (N=24), and a control group of healthy volunteers (N=20). All the OCD patients were selected from the outpatient clinic. All the subjects underwent the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (RCFT) for the assessment of nonverbal memory function, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) for verbal memory function, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The immediate and delayed memory scores of RCFT were significantly lower in the checking-type OCD group; there were no significant differences in HVLT scores amongst the three groups. Our results indicate that the checking-type compulsion of OCD patients is associated with nonverbal memory deficits and not with verbal memory deficits. PMID:17932960

  12. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

    2014-01-01

    The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

  13. Intelligent Testing with Wechsler’s Fourth Editions: Perspectives on the Weiss et al. Studies and the Eight Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The two featured articles and eight commentaries on the WISC-IV (Wechsler, 2003) and WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) in this special issue of "Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment" are of exceptional quality. As a collective, this special issue greatly advances the field of cognitive assessment by intelligently synthesizing the best of methodology…

  14. Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-21

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation. PMID:24704382

  15. WECHSLER AND NELSON 1 What We Have Learned From the Harvard School

    E-print Network

    Schrag, Daniel

    WECHSLER AND NELSON 1 What We Have Learned From the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol That Promote It* HENRY WECHSLER, PH.D., AND TOBEN F. NELSON, SC.D. Department of Society, Human Development Wechsler at the above address or via email at: hwechsle@hsph.harvard.edu. Toben F. Nelson is with the Divi

  16. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Iribarren, Jacqueline A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), a Spanish translation and adaptation of the WISC-IV. The test was developed to measure the intellectual ability of Spanish-speaking children in the United States ages 6 years, 0 months, through 16 years, 11 months. These…

  17. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special educational…

  18. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale" (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX--Psychological Corporation, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma A.; Rostad, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV), an individually administered measure of cognitive ability for individuals aged 16 years, 0 months to 90 years, 11 months. The WAIS-IV was designed with a number of specific goals including updated norms, increased user friendliness, improved…

  19. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), an individually administered measure of intelligence for Spanish-speaking children who are English language learners and relatively new to American culture. The WISC-IV Spanish, like its English counterpart, the WISC-IV, is…

  20. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  1. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  2. A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the…

  3. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  4. Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence…

  5. The Archimedes negative aftereffect as an indication of memory impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd S. Standlee

    1953-01-01

    On the basis of data obtained from 25 psychotics and 16 normals who had been given the Wechsler Memory scale and tested with the Archimedes spiral illusion, the author concludes that: (1) electric shock does not impair memory ability; (2) electric shock does not impair ability to experience the Archimedes negative aftereffect; (3) there is no relationship between memory ability

  6. Page 1 of 69 PSYCHOMETRIC TEST BATTERY CODE BOOK

    E-print Network

    (Animals, Vegetables) ANIMALS, VEG Trailmaking A and B TRAILA, TRAILB Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R Digit Symbol - UDS enlarged form WAIS Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Digit Span Forward DIGIF, DIGIFLEN Digit Span Backward DIGIB, DIGIBLEN Logical Memory Story A, Immediate LOGIMEM and Delayed MEMUNITS

  7. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  8. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  9. The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised as a Tool to Improve Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warash, Bobbie G.; Markstrom, Carol A.; Lucci, Brittani

    2005-01-01

    Of interest in this study were the factors that lead to quality child care centers. The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) was examined for its utility as an effective training device to enlighten directors and classroom teachers of what constitutes quality classrooms. An experimental design was employed for this study.…

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  11. Longitudinal Invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition in a Referral Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richerson, Lindsay P.; Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a group of 352 students eligible for psychoeducational evaluations tested, on average, 2.8 years apart. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance were found. However, the error variance of the Coding subtest was not constant…

  12. Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of the…

  13. The Wechsler ACS Social Perception Subtest: A Preliminary Comparison with Other Measures of Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to other cognitive areas, there are few clinical measures currently available to assess social perception. A new standardized measure, the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) Social Perception subtest, addresses some limitations of existing measures; however, little is known about this new test. The first goal of this investigation…

  14. Cognitive process development as measured by an adapted version of Wechsler's Similarities test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulette Rozencwajg

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the development of taxonomic processing as measured by an adapted version of the Wechsler Similarities subtest, which distinguishes between categorization of concrete and abstract words. Two factors — age and concreteness — are also tested by a recall task. The results show an age-related increase in taxonomic categorization, especially for abstract words; this change is more pronounced

  15. Cognitive Process Development as Measured by an Adapted Version of Wechsler's Similarities Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozencwajg, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the development of taxonomic processing as measured by an adapted version of the Wechsler Similarities subtest, which distinguishes between categorization of concrete and abstract words. Two factors--age and concreteness--are also tested by a recall task. The results show an age-related increase in taxonomic categorization,…

  16. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  17. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  18. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  19. Factorial and Construct Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised: An Examination of Minority and Nonminority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Tripp, Margaret M.; Harvey, Pejcharat

    2002-01-01

    In this two-part study, the psychometric properties of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, an extensively used body image attitudes measure, were tested. In Study 1-A, the two-factor structure of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BPSS-R)--Satisfaction With Body and Satisfaction With Face--was established through exploratory procedures with…

  20. Psychometric Validation of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Fujikawa, Mayu; Brooks, Jessica; Eastvold-Walton, Lissa; Maxwell, Kristin; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the measurement structure of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (B-ADS-R). Measure: A 12-item measure of disability acceptance based on the four value changes (enlarging the scope of values, containing the effects of the disability, subordinating the physique, and transforming comparative-status values to asset…

  1. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS–IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS–IV subtests were

  2. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16–19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from exploratory factor analyses were not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2008b) and

  3. The postpartum worry scale-Revised: Continuing validation with a sample of NICU mothers.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tracy E; Polanin, Joshua R; Segre, Lisa; Wenzel, Amy

    2015-04-01

    This study represents the second validation phase of the Postpartum Worry Scale-Revised (PWS-R). As the PWS-R includes items tapping infant health and development concerns, we compare its psychometric properties with a sample of NICU mothers and the online sample used in the initial validation. We conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to fit the latent factor structure previously validated with the online sample to the NICU sample. We also examine the reliability and construct validity of the PWS-R when used with a NICU sample. The PWS-R's reliability remains good and moderate concurrent correlations with theoretically similar constructs are shown with the newly created PWS-R factors. Model testing with the NICU sample reveals a different three factor structure than the four factor structure previously revealed with the online sample. The psychometric findings for the PWS-R provide continuing support for its use as a measure of postpartum worry; however, the differences in factor structure suggest that the PWS-R scores of high risk samples such as NICU parents should not be compared to those of community samples. Next steps in the iterative validation process and recommendations for use are considered, particularly with regard to high-risk samples. PMID:25129423

  4. Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides. PMID:22208539

  5. 290 Tse &Pu Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34,

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    290 Tse &Pu Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 495-513. Yap. Journal of Memory and Language, 61, 303-325. Zachary, R. A. (1992). Shipley Institute of Living Scale-Revised. California: Western Psychological Services. Zachary, R. A., Paulson, M. J., & Gorsuch, R. L. (1985

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  7. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

  8. Validation of the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate Method to Predict Premorbid Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ Among Children With Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike R. Schoenberg; Rael T. Lange; Donald H. Saklofske; Mariann Suarez; Tracey A. Brickell

    2008-01-01

    Determination of neuropsychological impairment involves contrasting obtained performances with a comparison standard, which is often an estimate of premorbid IQ. M. R. Schoenberg, R. T. Lange, T. A. Brickell, and D. H. Saklofske (2007) proposed the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (CPIE) to predict premorbid Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—4th Edition (WISC–IV; Wechsler, 2003). The

  9. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  10. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Konold, Timothy R.; Collins, Jason M.; Wilson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal-crystallized abilities and nonverbal-fluid-visual abilities. With a sample of 152…

  11. Technical and Practical Issues in the Structure and Clinical Invariance of the Wechsler Scales: A Rejoinder to Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

    2013-01-01

    This discussion article addresses issues related to expansion of the Wechsler model from four to five factors; multiple broad CHC abilities measured by the Arithmetic subtest; advantages and disadvantages of including complex tasks requiring integration of multiple broad abilities when measuring intelligence; limitations of factor analysis, which…

  12. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  13. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  14. Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Z. Keith; Jodene Goldenring Fine; Gordon E. Taub; Matthew R. Reynolds; John H. Kranzler

    2006-01-01

    The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new structure, but questions about consistency of measurement across ages and

  15. Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Taub, Gordon E.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2006-01-01

    The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new…

  16. Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

  17. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Canivez; Timothy R. Konold; Jason M. Collins; Greg Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal–crystallized abilities and nonverbal–fluid–visual abilities. With a sample of 152 children, adolescents, and adults, the present study reports meaningful convergent validity coefficients and a latent factor

  18. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

  19. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition in a High-Stakes Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisceglia, Rossana; Perlman, Michal; Schaack, Diana; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R) were examined using 153 classrooms from child-care centers where resources were tied to center performance. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the scale measures one global aspect of quality. To decrease redundancy, subsets of items were…

  20. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  1. Exploring the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scales-Revised (ECERS-R) Evaluation on Preschool Children's Pre-Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fundus, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical, social, cognitive, and language outcomes of targeted Title I preschool students participating in programs not meeting and programs meeting Nebraska Department of Education, Early Childhood Evaluation Rating Scales-Revised (ECERS-R) requirements. As more requirements are being required for…

  2. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances. PMID:25821443

  3. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances.

  4. The Impact of Event Scale – Revised: psychometric properties of the Italian version in a sample of flood victims

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Faraci, Palmira; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to verify the main psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R) in a sample of flood victims. Methods The sample was composed of 262 subjects involved in the natural disaster of 2009 in the city of Messina (Italy). All participants completed the IES-R and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. Results The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, used to verify the construct validity of the measure, showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. The goodness-of-fit indices (non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.99; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.04; and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02) indicated a good adaptation of the model to the data. The IES-R scales showed satisfactory values of internal consistency (intrusion, ? = 0.78; avoidance, ? = 0.72; hyper-arousal, ? = 0.83) and acceptable values of correlation with the DES-II. Conclusion These results suggest that this self-reported and easily administered instrument for assessing the dimensions of trauma has good psychometric properties and can be adopted usefully, both for research and for practice in Italy. PMID:24092980

  5. The Chinese Intelligence Scale for Young Children: Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance Using the Framework of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Boliang; Aveyard, Paul; Dai, Xiaoyang

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler intelligence test has four factors representing four components of intellectual function. In China, there are marked cultural, educational, and economic disparities between rural and urban dwellers, which could lead to cultural bias. The aim of this study was to apply the four-factor structure to responses to the Chinese Intelligence…

  6. Long-Term Stability of Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required…

  7. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  8. Estimating Premorbid General Cognitive Functioning for Children and Adolescents Using the American Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition: Demographic and Current Performance Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike R. Schoenberg; Rael T. Lange; Tracey A. Brickell; Donald H. Saklofske

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychologic evaluation requires current test performance be contrasted against a comparison standard to determine if change has occurred. An estimate of premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) is often used as a comparison standard. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is a commonly used intelligence test. However, there is no method to estimate premorbid IQ for the WISC-IV, limiting the

  9. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV): What Does the WAIS–IV Measure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Benson; David M. Hulac; John H. Kranzler

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition (WAIS–IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS–IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages.

  10. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    PubMed Central

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  11. Individual differences in memory and executive function abilities during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Mejia, S; Pineda, D; Alvarez, L M; Ardila, A

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of some individual variables on memory and executive function test performance in normal aging individuals. Sixty subjects (21 males and 39 females), with a mean age of 69.66 (SD = 7.09) were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were administered: Associative Learning and Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945), Associative Memory with Semantic Enhancement Test (AMSET) (Pineda, Galeano and Giraldo, 1991), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT) (Heaton, 1981), and Verbal Fluency (phonologic and semantic). The effects of demographic (age, education, and sex) and some individual variables (academic history, working history, physical activity, and leisure activities) were measured. Age and education effects on test scores were observed, but no sex effect was found. Working history and leisure activities established significant differences in some test scores. A multiple regression analysis was performed. Not only demographic variables, but also individual variables were associated with memory, and albeit at a lesser extend, with executive function test scores. It was emphasized that not only demographic factors, but also individual variables have a significant effect on cognitive changes observed during normal aging. PMID:9777444

  12. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  13. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  14. The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takashi; Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 (C/T) of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been reported to be associated with an altered response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we examined whether this SNP is associated with cognitive function in a non-clinical population. The full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were administered to 742 and 627 Japanese individuals, respectively, followed by genotyping of rs1360780 by the TaqMan 5?-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. For both cognitive tests, we found significantly poorer attention/concentration (working memory) in aged (>50 years old) individuals carrying the T allele compared with their counterparts. This finding accords with an altered HPA axis and vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25331639

  15. The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takashi; Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 (C/T) of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been reported to be associated with an altered response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we examined whether this SNP is associated with cognitive function in a non-clinical population. The full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were administered to 742 and 627 Japanese individuals, respectively, followed by genotyping of rs1360780 by the TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. For both cognitive tests, we found significantly poorer attention/concentration (working memory) in aged (>50 years old) individuals carrying the T allele compared with their counterparts. This finding accords with an altered HPA axis and vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25331639

  16. Validation of the College Alcohol Problem Scale-revised (CAPS-r) for use with non-adjudicated first-year students.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Laura L; Umstattd, M Renée; Usdan, Stuart L; Martin, Ryan J; Geiger, Brian F

    2009-05-01

    First-year students in transition to college are at increased risk for consuming greater amounts of alcohol and are subject to subsequent alcohol-related problems. The 8-item College Alcohol Problem Scale-revised (CAPS-r) has been used to measure alcohol-related problems in adjudicated undergraduates and psychology majors. However, structural validity of the CAPS-r has not been examined in a general first-year student population. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the structural validity of this two-factor model using LISREL 8.5. The original two-factor measurement model for the 8-item CAPS-r represented acceptable fit to the data (chi(2)=37.52, df=19, p=.007, CFI=.968, SRMR=.0449), supporting its use with first-year college students. Future studies need to examine invariance across ethnic, gender, and geographical groups. PMID:19167833

  17. Working memory mediates the relationship between intellectual enrichment and long-term memory in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory analysis of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Sandry, Joshua; Sumowski, James F

    2014-09-01

    Some individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) show decrements in long-term memory (LTM) while other individuals do not. The theory of cognitive reserve suggests that individuals with greater pre-morbid intellectual enrichment are protected from disease-related cognitive decline. How intellectual enrichment affords this benefit remains poorly understood. The present study tested an exploratory meditational hypothesis whereby working memory (WM) capacity may mediate the relationship between intellectual enrichment and verbal LTM decline in MS. Intellectual enrichment, verbal LTM, and WM capacity were estimated with the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, delayed recall of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Logical Memory of the Wechsler Memory Scale, and Digit Span Total, respectively. Intellectual enrichment predicted LTM (B=.54; p=.003) and predicted WM capacity (B=.91; p<.001). WM capacity predicted LTM, (B=.44; p<.001) and fully mediated the relationship between intellectual enrichment (B=.24; p=.27) and LTM (B=.33, p=.03), Sobel test, Z=3.31, p<.001. These findings implicate WM capacity as an underlying mechanism of cognitive reserve and are an initial first step in understanding the relationship between intellectual enrichment, WM, and LTM in MS. PMID:25017699

  18. Cache Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Jay Smith

    1982-01-01

    Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

  19. A pilot randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of MEmory Specificity Training in improving symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Moshirpanahi, Shiva; Parhon, Hadi; Mirzaei, Jafar; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Poor autobiographical memory specificity is a cognitive marker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an independent predictor of poor prognosis. This pilot randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) (an intervention aimed at ameliorating specificity problems) on autobiographical memory recall and PTSD symptoms. Iranian combat veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned into the MEST (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. At baseline, groups completed Farsi versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The intervention group then had four, weekly, group sessions of MEST. The control group had no additional contact. All measures were re-administered post-intervention and at three-month follow-up. The MEST group generated significantly more specific memories and had significantly fewer PTSD symptoms following training and at follow-up than the control group. Findings suggest MEST is a promising intervention for the treatment of PTSD. PMID:24705337

  20. Concurrent Validation of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI) with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jane; Faust, Douglas S.

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) has recently undergone a major revision and restandardization to update its 20-year-old norms, extend the age range down to age 3 and up to age 7 years, update and revise its test items, and increase its appeal to young children. This paper presents the results of a concurrent…

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism: no adverse effects of high dose thyroxine treatment on adult memory, attention, and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Oerbeck, B; Sundet, K; Kase, B; Heyerdahl, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: In congenital hypothyroidism (CH) it has been questioned whether high dose thyroxine replacement therapy has detrimental effects on memory, attention, and behaviour. Aims: To describe memory, attention, and behaviour problems in young adults with CH, and to study possible negative effects of high dose thyroxine replacement therapy. Methods: A cohort based follow up study of 49 young adults (mean age 20 years) with early treated CH, and sibling controls (n = 41). Results: Controlled for age and sex, the CH group attained significantly lower scores than sibling controls on some tests of memory (Wechsler Logical Memory part II: 12.9 versus 17.8; difference 5.2, 95% CI 3.6 to 6.8) and attention (Wechsler Freedom From Distractibility factor: 95.6 versus 104.8; difference 9.9, 95% CI 6.4 to 13.4). They rated themselves with more behaviour problems than did sibling controls (52.7 versus 44.7; difference –7.6, 95% CI –11.2 to –4.0) on the Achenbach Self Report. A high thyroxine starting dose, high serum thyroxine treatment levels during the first six childhood years, and high levels at assessment had no adverse effects on outcome measures at age 20. On the contrary, the results suggest better outcome with higher childhood treatment levels. Conclusions: Long term outcome revealed deficits in some aspects of memory, attention, and behaviour in young adults with CH relative to sibling controls. No adverse effects of high dose thyroxine therapy were found on measures of memory, attention, and behaviour problems. PMID:15665163

  2. Memory Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. Continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

  3. Virtual Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Denning

    1970-01-01

    \\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

  4. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  5. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  6. Working memory performance and exposure to pleasant and unpleasant ambient odor: is spatial span special?

    PubMed

    Martin, G N; Chaudry, A

    2014-11-01

    Sensory influences on working memory (WM) performance were investigated in 86 healthy adults. Participants were exposed to an ambient pleasant odor (lemon), unpleasant odor (machine oil) or no odor during completion of three WM tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III: the letter-number sequencing, spatial span and digit span tests. A significant main effect of odor was found for spatial span but no other task: scores were significantly lower in the unpleasant odor condition than the pleasant odor condition. Significant odor × sex interactions were found for the spatial span, digit span and letter-number sequencing tasks: men's spatial span scores were lower in the unpleasant odor condition than in the control condition, and women's scores were significantly better in the pleasant odor condition than in the unpleasant odor condition. The results suggest that ambient odor may impair or facilitate specific types of WM depending on the task, sex of the participant and affective characteristics of the odor. PMID:24693943

  7. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  8. A proposed method to estimate premorbid full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) for the Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) using demographic and combined estimation procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike R. Schoenberg; Rael T. Lange; Donald H. Saklofske

    2007-01-01

    Establishing a comparison standard in neuropsychological assessment is crucial to determining change in function. There is no available method to estimate premorbid intellectual functioning for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV provided normative data for both American and Canadian children aged 6 to 16 years old. This study developed regression algorithms as a proposed method to

  9. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  10. Pittsburgh Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Bay

    1986-01-01

    By studying the painting "Pittsburgh Memories" by the Black artist Romare Bearden, student in grades K-3 learn that artists use their visual memories of real places and people when they make art. The students also learn how various types of space are depicted in a semi-abstract style. (RM)

  11. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  12. Practical memory checking with Dr. Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Bruening; Qin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs to identify and fix due to the delay and non-determinism linking the error to an observable symptom. Dedicated memory checking tools are invaluable for finding these errors. However, such tools are difficult to build, and because they must monitor all memory

  13. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three indicators of motor coordination (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance), the WM Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV and the N-back paradigm provided two indicators of WM, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II provided three indicators of academic achievement (Word Reading, Spelling, and Numerical Operations). Structural equation modeling, controlling for verbal comprehension, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and socioeconomic status, suggested that the association between motor coordination and academic achievement may be best understood in terms of a mechanism whereby motor coordination (specifically, Aiming and Catching skills) has an indirect impact on academic outcomes via WM. These findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of motor coordination and learning difficulties as well as in increasing the understanding of the possible neural mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these areas. PMID:22777140

  14. Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Disk Memory 32KB -4MB 4 ns 2GB 60 ns 200 GB 8 ms SoC Board Computer memory Hierarchy USB Flash DriveMemory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies

  15. Specification state space memory

    E-print Network

    Hehner, Eric C.R.

    Specification state space memory 1/116 #12;Specification state space memory state memory contents 2/116 #12;Specification state space memory int; (0,..20); char; rat state memory contents 3/116 #12;Specification state space memory int; (0,..20); char; rat state memory contents ­2; 15; "A"; 3.14 4/116 #12

  16. POW Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-07-12

    Most people think eyewitness testimony is the best possible evidence against an alleged criminal -- especially when that testimony comes from the victim. But people who survive terrifying situations may actually have surprisingly unreliable memories of who or what caused them.

  17. Ferroelectric memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

    1989-01-01

    In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

  18. Memory Solitaire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2000-01-01

    In this online game, learners practice memory recall. They are shown a collage of pictures for two minutes, then have to write down everything they remember and check how they did. After, they learn a memory-improving method of "tell yourself a story" to help train their brain, and try again. Although this activity is designed to be done online and individually, it can easily be adapted to be done using a printout and in a group setting.

  19. Minimal effects on human memory following long-term living at moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Liu, Haichen; Yan, Xiaodan; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies describe memory deficits at extremely high altitudes. However, little is known about the effect of long-term living at moderate altitude (MA). The subjects for this study were 52 college students originally from sea level (SL), but studying at a MA of 2260?m over a 7-month period, with a return to SL for 30 days in the middle of the period. Fifty-two matched college students who stayed at SL all the time were the control group. The neuropsychological battery of assessments included the Chinese revised version of Wechsler Memory Scale tests (WMS-CR), verbal and spatial two-back working memory tests, long-term explicit memory (word recall and recognition of words, faces, and pictures) tests, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test, degraded picture naming test, and the Serial Reaction Time Test. We found that the MA subjects showed significantly poorer performances than SL controls only in short-term visual construction assessed in the visual reproduction test from WMS-CR and in the ROCF immediate test. There were no significant differences in all other tasks between the MA group and SL group. These findings suggest that long-term hypoxic exposure at moderate altitude has minimal effects on human memory. PMID:21452964

  20. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 revised form Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (MMPI-2-RF FBS-r; also known as Fake Bad Scale): psychometric characteristics in a nonlitigation neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    This study examined fundamental psychometric characteristics of the Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (FBS-r) in a nonforensic sample of 303 neuropsychological referrals. FBS-r had a reliability (internal consistency) of .747 and two higher order factoral dimensions (Somatic Complaints and Optimism/Virtue). FBS-r had a discordant factor structure: Optimism/Virtue (7 items) was negatively related to Somatic Complaints (21 items) and undercut FBS-r measurement consistency (reliability). FBS-r scores, which purportedly reflect symptom exaggeration, are affected by as much as 23 T-score points on test items that are negatively related to symptom reporting. These data suggest that the FBS-r produces ambiguous scores reflecting two underlying dimensions that warrant additional research. PMID:22384793

  2. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction. PMID:25586092

  3. Worthington Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Online Scrapbook of Worthington History is a collaborative project between the Worthington (Ohio) Libraries and the Worthington Historical Society to present local history materials. Visitors can search or browse the digitized collection, currently over 117 photographs and documents. Those unfamiliar with Worthington can use the browse feature to retrieve collection items organized into broad categories such as Arts, Architecture, Agriculture, Business and Commerce, or by decade from 1800 to 2002. Documentation, such as selection criteria, and a 36-page manual "Worthington Memory Digital Imaging Workflow" is provided, making Worthington Memory a handy resource for other public libraries wishing to begin a local history digitization project.

  4. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  5. Super Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    In this activity (pages 26-29 of the PDF), learners investigate how they can develop super memories by using mnemonic devices. In the first part of the activity, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a group of random objects. In the second part, learners use mnemonic devices to memorize a phone number.

  6. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  7. Memory Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. McDermott

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of the current storm over what constitutes truth – non-fiction – and what is “made up” – fictional – my fascination with the flexibility of memory is suddenly more than a little apropos. Current literary events notwithstanding, I grew up under a dark veil of depression, which seemingly “erased” my childhood. It wasn’t until I delved into

  8. Memory psychophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy L. Hubbard

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between perceptual and cognitive processes has been a topic of increasing interest. This review focuses on the use of techniques and theory drawn from classical psychophysics and applied to the study of mental representation. Several issues including examination of the functions that relate remembered and perceived magnitude to physical intensity, the relationship of memorial to perceptual functions, the

  9. How Memory Works

    MedlinePLUS

    Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

  10. Types of Memory

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory. Explicit memories are facts that you made ... as driving a car or riding a bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained ...

  11. Double dissociation of short-term and long-term memory for nonverbal material in Parkinson's disease and global amnesia. A further analysis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, E V; Sagar, H J

    1991-04-01

    The traditional concept of memory disorder is deficiency of the long-term (LTM) but not short-term (STM) component of memory. STM impairment with LTM sparing is seldom reported. The present study investigated STM and LTM for nonverbal material in three neurological conditions associated with memory impairment: bilateral medial temporal lobe lesions (patient H.M.), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects received 3 tests of nonverbal memory: forward block span, immediate and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale drawings, and immediate and delayed recognition of abstract designs. Compared with the normal control group, the patient groups displayed different patterns of sparing and loss of the two components of memory: in PD, only STM was impaired; in medial temporal lobe amnesia, only LTM was impaired; and in AD, STM and LTM were both impaired. The contrasting patterns of sparing and loss of STM and LTM in PD and global amnesia were present for both recognition and recall. These results provide evidence that STM and LTM are dissociable processes and are served by separate neurological systems: STM depends upon intact corticostriatal systems, whereas LTM depends upon intact medial temporal lobe systems. PMID:2043956

  12. Effect of Reminiscence on Cognitive Status and Memory of the Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondzadeh, Golbahar; Jalalmanesh, Shamsolmamalek; Hojjati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effect of reminiscence on cognitive status and memory of a sample of elderly people who lived in aged day centers in Golestan province, Iran. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. The subjects consisted of 45 elderly people who referred to the aged day centers of Golestan province. Each four groups of 45 aged subjects (4 groups of 10-12 subjects) took part in 8 reminiscence sessions which lasted one to one and half hour. Cognitive status and of the aged, before and after taking part, was assessed by Mini Mental State Examination and Wechsler Memory Scale. Results: Mean (±SD) cognitive status score at pre-test stage was 24 (±2) which increased to 25 (±2) at post-test stage (p < 0.01). Mean (±SD) intelligence quotient was 87 (±7) at pre-test stage which increased to 92 (±10) at post-test stage (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Reminiscence sessions held for the aged studied here had beneficial effects on cognition and memory of the subjects. PMID:25780378

  13. Visual Memory and Imagery Visual Memory

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    Procedural ­ general knowledge of general skills Episodic ­ information about experiences #12;22 Visual;35 Sleep Tarnow's theory ­ LTM is stored in dream format Doesn't matter how we learned information. How does sleep affect our memory? #12;36 Sleep = better memory? Sleep benefits memory retention

  14. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  15. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  16. Memory Systems Doug Burger

    E-print Network

    Burger, Doug

    --at a reasonable cost. The memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers generally contain registers) and virtual memory (on a magnetic or optical disk). Figure 1 shows a memory hierarchy typical of today's (1995 of the hierarchy. The memory hierarchy usually reduces bandwidth requirements by intercepting a fraction

  17. Memory Hierarchy Configuration Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry A. Welch

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of speed-cost tradeoffs in memory hierarchy design. It develops an optimization criterion by which average access time, i. e., memory system delay, is minimized under a cost constraint for a hierarchy with given memory sizes and access probabilities. Using a power function assumption relating speed and cost of memory units, it is shown that

  18. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  19. The Impact of Event Scale: Revised

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Weiss

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced into the world psychiatric nomenclature in 1978 (World Health Organization,\\u000a 1978) with the publication of the ICD-9, documenting the cross-cultural recognition of the typical symptomatic response to\\u000a exposure to traumatic life events (e.g., Horowitz, 1976). The characteristic core of the disorder includes the distressing\\u000a oscillation between intrusion and avoidance. Intrusion is characterized by nightmares,

  20. A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

  1. Virginia Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

  2. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  3. 74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING EAST AT LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  4. Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory

    E-print Network

    Schacter, Daniel

    Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA Center

  5. Storage Techniques in Flash Memories and Phase-change Memories

    E-print Network

    Li, Hao

    2010-10-12

    Non-volatile memories are an emerging storage technology with wide applica- tions in many important areas. This study focuses on new storage techniques for flash memories and phase-change memories. Flash memories are currently the most widely used...

  6. Memory abstractions for parallel programming

    E-print Network

    Lee, I-Ting Angelina

    2012-01-01

    A memory abstraction is an abstraction layer between the program execution and the memory that provides a different "view" of a memory location depending on the execution context in which the memory access is made. Properly ...

  7. Device Memories and Matrix Multiplication 1 Device Memories

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Device Memories and Matrix Multiplication 1 Device Memories global, constant, and shared memories Verschelde, 2 April 2014 Introduction to Supercomputing (MCS 572) Device Memories & Matrix Multiplication L-31 2 April 2014 1 / 28 #12;Device Memories and Matrix Multiplication 1 Device Memories global

  8. Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    Addis, Donna Rose

    , 1990). Personal incident memory MEMORY, 2004, 12 (1), 56±74 # 2004 Psychology Press Ltd httpMemory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity

  9. Silicon nanocrystal memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lombardo; B. De Salvo; C. Gerardi; T. Baron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of memory structures fabricated by our group by using silicon nanocrystals as storage nodes. These devices show promising characteristics as candidates for future deep-submicron non-volatile memories.

  10. Drifting absence :: drafting memory

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Marlene Eva

    2006-01-01

    The emotive power of a memorial derives from its ability to engage the viewer in active remembrance. The project considers the limitations of a monumentality which embraces a distinct division between viewer and memorial. ...

  11. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over ... that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for Older Adults? ...

  12. Memorial prize winner named.

    PubMed

    2014-11-25

    The Queen's Nursing Institute (QNI) has announced the first recipient of the Philip Goodeve-Docker Memorial Prize, named in memory of a young man who died while raising funds for the charity. PMID:25408015

  13. Uniform Memory Hierarchies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowen Alpern; Larry Carter; Ephraim Feig

    1990-01-01

    The authors introduce a model, called the uniform memory hierarchy (UMH) model, which reflects the hierarchical nature of computer memory more accurately than the RAM (random-access-machine) model, which assumes that any item in memory can be accessed with unit cost. In the model memory occurs as a sequence of increasingly large levels. Data are transferred between levels in fixed-size blocks

  14. T Cell Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tan; C. Surh

    T cell memory induced by prior infection or vaccination provides enhanced protection against subsequent microbial infections.\\u000a The processes involved in generating and maintaining T cell memory are becoming better understood due to recent technological\\u000a advances in identifying memory T cells and monitoring their behavior and function in vivo. Memory T cells develop in response\\u000a to a progressive set of cues—starting

  15. Exercise and Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

  16. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  17. SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors

    E-print Network

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors: Simon Ible, Director of Music, Peninsula Arts, Plymouth University Eduardo R. Miranda, Professor of Computer Music, Plymouth University Sensing Memory As well as creating a platform for music emerging from research, this year's festival will explore the theme of memory

  18. Memory Consolidation in Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Vertes

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several lines of evidence refuting the hypothesis that procedural or declarative memories are processed\\/consolidated in sleep. One of the strongest arguments against a role for sleep in declarative memory involves the demonstration that the marked suppression or elimination of REM sleep in subjects on antidepressant drugs or with brainstem lesions produces no detrimental effects on cognition. Procedural memory,

  19. Stephenson Memorial Concert Series

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Stephenson Memorial Concert Series 1997-1998 #12;Stephenson Memorial Concert Series Dorian Wind Stokes Auditorium The Stephenson Memorial Concert fund was established in 1987 by the late Louis B life. Following his death a few months after his retirement, the concerts also honored their son, John

  20. Numerical Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

  1. Numerical Memory Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

  2. Origins of Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Keryn; Reese, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Tested predictions of infantile amnesia theory compared with social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory. Found maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition when child was 19 months old uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out.…

  3. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  4. Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

  5. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  6. Origins of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Harley, K; Reese, E

    1999-09-01

    This study tested the predictions of M. L. Howe and M. L. Courage's (1993, 1997) theory of infantile amnesia compared with a social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory development (R. Fivush & E. Reese, 1992; K. Nelson, 1993b). Fifty-eight mother-child dyads were assessed for maternal styles of talking about the past and for children's self-recognition, language production, and nonverbal memory when the children were 19 months old. Children's shared and independent memory reports were then assessed from 19 to 32 months. Maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out. Self-recognition skills also predicted children's later independent memory. These results support a pluralistic account of the origins of autobiographical memory. PMID:10493658

  7. Schizophrenia comorbid with panic disorder: Evidence for distinct cognitive profiles

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Erica Kirsten; White-Ajmani, Mandi Lynn; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond Richard; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill Martine; Savitz, Adam Jonathan; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey Paul

    2012-01-01

    Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and panic symptoms share a distinct clinical presentation and biological characteristics, prompting some to propose panic psychosis as a separate subtype of schizophrenia. Less is known about these patients’ neuropsychological profiles, knowledge of which may facilitate target-specific treatments and research into the etiopathophysiology for such cases. A total of 255 schizophrenia patients with panic disorder (n=39), non-panic anxiety disorder (n=51), or no anxiety disorder (n=165) were assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Animal Naming subtest of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, and the Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Patients with panic disorder demonstrated a higher verbal IQ and better problem solving, set switching, delayed recall, attention, and verbal fluency as compared to schizophrenia patients without comorbid anxiety. The schizophrenia-panic group reported a higher level of dysthymia on stable medication. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia and comorbid panic disorder exhibit distinct cognitive functioning when compared to other schizophrenia patients. These data offer further support for a definable panic-psychosis subtype and suggest new etiological pathways for future research. PMID:22417926

  8. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  9. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  10. Cache Basics Cache Performance Memory Organization Virtual Memory Engineering 9859

    E-print Network

    Peters, Dennis

    -- Computer Architecture Memory Hierarchy Design Dennis Peters1 Fall 2007 1 Based on notes from Dr. R;Cache Basics Cache Performance Memory Organization Virtual Memory Memory hierarchy ­ Why and How slower (due to high decoding time and other reasons). · Therefore, hierarchy of memory: · locate small

  11. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  12. Cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Anu E; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A neuropsychological test battery, including subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Test, and Trail Making Test, which assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, processing speed, logical reasoning, verbal intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, was administered to 13- to 19-year-old patients with IBD (n = 34; active disease n = 20). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings were compared with peers with non-acute juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; n = 23). Patients with coexisting psychiatric disorders were excluded. RESULTS: The IBD group, especially patients in the acute phase, made more perseverative errors in the CVLT test that assessed verbal memory than the JIA group (6.0 ± 4.3 vs 3.3 ± 2.9, P < 0.01), but no other differences between the IBD and JIA groups were observed in the neuropsychological tests. The difference was close to statistical significance, even when glucocorticoid medication was controlled for (P < 0.052). The IBD group had more depressive symptoms than the JIA group (7.9 ± 7.6 vs 4.0 ± 4.0, P < 0.05). Approximately one third of the IBD group had at least mild depressive symptoms, and those with acute illness had the highest scores. However, depressive symptoms were not related to the difference in the verbal memory test (perseverative errors in the CVLT) between the IBD and JIA groups. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with acute IBD may have mild verbal memory problems but no major cognitive deficits compared to peers with JIA. PMID:23538788

  13. Optical mass memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and magnetic variants in the design of trillion-bit read/write memories are compared and tabulated. Components and materials suitable for a random access read/write nonmoving memory system are examined, with preference given to holography and photoplastic materials. Advantages and deficiencies of photoplastics are reviewed. Holographic page composer design, essential features of an optical memory with no moving parts, fiche-oriented random access memory design, and materials suitable for an efficient photoplastic fiche are considered. The optical variants offer advantages in lower volume and weight at data transfer rates near 1 Mbit/sec, but power drain is of the same order as for the magnetic variants (tape memory, disk memory). The mechanical properties of photoplastic film materials still leave much to be desired.

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EVERGREEN SCREEN BEHIND MEMORIAL (MEMORIAL NOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EVERGREEN SCREEN BEHIND MEMORIAL (MEMORIAL NOT VISIBLE) - Adams Memorial, Rock Creek Cemetery, Section E, entrance at Webster Street & Rock Creek Church Road Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Astronaut Memorial Space Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A view of the Astronaut Memorial Space Mirror at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The memorial is a national tribute to the 17 American astronauts who gave their lives in the quest to explore space. The memorial has received added attention since the loss of the Columbia crew on February 1, 2003, when they perished in an explosion as they were returning to Earth from mission STS-107. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  16. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  17. Building synthetic memory

    PubMed Central

    Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  18. New Gravitational Memories

    E-print Network

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

  19. New Gravitational Memories

    E-print Network

    Sabrina Pasterski; Andrew Strominger; Alexander Zhiboedov

    2015-02-21

    The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

  20. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  1. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  2. MEMORY TRAINING IN THE COMMUNITY AGED: EFFECTS ON DEPRESSION, MEMORY COMPLAINT, AND MEMORY PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Zarit; Dolores Gallagher; Nan Kramer

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two types of training programs on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Prior research has suggested that although there are some age differences in memory, the memory complaints of older persons are related to depression and not to actual memory performance. In the present project subjects were randomly assigned

  3. Slow Sleep Spindle Activity, Declarative Memory, and General Cognitive Abilities in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Roell, Judith; Peigneux, Philippe; Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Georg; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. Design: Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Measurements and Results: Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). Conclusions: Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8–11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency. Citation: Hoedlmoser K, Heib DPJ, Roell J, Peigneux P, Sadeh A, Gruber G, Schabus M. Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1501-1512. PMID:25142558

  4. Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

    2013-01-01

    Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

  5. RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory of J. Ronald Miner, an

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory from the Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship which resides with the OSU Foundation. The name & Ecological Engineering. DONOR Ron Miner Memorial Bioengineering Scholarship Fund ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

  6. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  7. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  8. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

  9. MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ENDEL TULVING

    1985-01-01

    Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

  10. Learning & Memory Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press has placed online the journal Learning & Memory, an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. Online full-text content begins with the May/June 1998 issue; abstracts begin with the September/October, 1995 issue. The journal is produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

  11. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  12. The Psychology of Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Baddeley

    1976-01-01

    In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed

  13. Shape Memory Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

    2007-01-01

    This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

  14. Direct Memory Access Translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideto Tomabechi

    1987-01-01

    Direct Memory Access Translation (DMTRANS) is a the­ ory of translation developed at CMT of CMU in which translation is viewd as an integrated part of cognitive pro­ cessing. In this paradigm, understanding in source lan­ guage is a recognition of input in terms of existing knowl­ edge in memory and integration of the input into the mem­ ory. Context

  15. Ontogeny of memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byron A. Campbell; Norman E. Spear

    1972-01-01

    Provides an overview of the studies which, during the past half century, have demonstrated that capacity for long-term memory increases during development in both animals and man. A variety of behavioral and neurological mechanisms are examined, which might account for the increase in memory during ontogenesis, in order to stimulate research on the relative contributions of these variables to the

  16. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  17. Working Memory and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  18. Major memory for microblogs.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2013-05-01

    Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

  19. Research Report Recognition memory

    E-print Network

    Curran, Tim

    Research Report Keywords: Oxytocin Recognition memory Remember/know Face Visual object Within-subject Oxytocin is important to social behavior and emotion regulation in humans. Oxytocin's role derives in part from its effect on memory performance. More specifically, previous research suggests that oxytocin

  20. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  1. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  2. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  3. Altering traumatic memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika Nourkova; Daniel Bernstein; Elizabeth Loftus

    2004-01-01

    Can you experimentally contaminate memory for truly traumatic events? We investigated this question in a study in which 80 Russian participants reported on their memories for one of two terrorist bombings. Half the participants recalled the 1999 attacks on Moscow apartment buildings while the others recalled the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. Participants recalled the

  4. Technology strategy for the semiconductor memory market

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2012-01-01

    Solid state memories are used in a variety of applications as data and code storages. A non-volatile memory is a memory that retains information when its power supply is off. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory ...

  5. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518

  6. Making Memories Matter

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

  7. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  8. Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

  9. Phenomenology of autobiographical memories: The Memory Experiences Questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelina R. Sutin; Richard W. Robins

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of autobiographical memories varies on a number of dimensions: some memories are vivid and others dim; some are emotionally intense and others lack emotional content. The present research sought to develop a psychometrically-sound scale to assess the entire range of dimensions on which autobiographical memories differ. We reviewed the literature on memory experiences and identified 10 relevant dimensions:

  10. 7 Memories and Processors 7.1 Memory Terminology

    E-print Network

    Frey, Raymond E.

    7 Memories and Processors 7.1 Memory Terminology We will not discuss the topic of data storage ectivelyorganized. The important common element of the memories we will study is that they are random access memories, or RAM. This means that each bit of information can be individually stored or retrieved

  11. Binding memory fragments together to form declarative memories depends

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    Chapter 21 Binding memory fragments together to form declarative memories depends on cross of such phenomena are founded on contemporary classification systems for memorial abilities. The category of declarative memory refers to the ability to remember prior autobiographical episodes and complex facts

  12. Memory Slips: Speculations in Australian Anti-Memorial Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue-Anne Ware

    If we begin to think of memory as not some platonic ideal that is pure or complete, but a periodic process of re-evaluation and reconstruction given present contexts, do our ideas about designing memorials evolve? Time and memory are intertwined. The design work presented and critiqued in this paper tries to negotiate with slippery qualities of memory as a way

  13. Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep

    E-print Network

    Paller, Ken

    Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

  14. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  15. Exploiting Memory Hierarchy: The Cache

    E-print Network

    Huang, Chun-Hsi

    Chapter 5 Exploiting Memory Hierarchy: The Cache #12;Chapter 5 -- Large and Fast: Exploiting Memory Hierarchy -- 2 Memory Technology Static RAM (SRAM) 0.5ns ­ 2.5ns, $2000 ­ $5000 per GB Dynamic RAM (DRAM Memory Hierarchy -- 3 Principle of Locality Programs access a small proportion of their address space

  16. Sequoia: Programming the Memory Hierarchy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayvon Fatahalian; Timothy J. Knight; Mike Houston; Mattan Erez; Daniel Reiter Horn; Larkhoon Leem; Ji Young Park; Manman Ren; Alex Aiken; William J. Dally; Pat Hanrahan

    2006-01-01

    We present Sequoia, a programming language designed to facilitate the development of memory hierarchy aware parallel programs that remain portable across modern machines featuring different memory hierarchy configurations. Sequoia abstractly exposes hierarchical memory in the programming model and provides language mechanisms to describe communication vertically through the machine and to localize computation to particular memory locations within it. We have

  17. Associative Memory Processes in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bonner-Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate cognitive deficits in a number of domains, including episodic memory (EM). Memory for both individual items and associations between items is impaired in schizophrenia, with some indication of a more severe deficit in associative memory. Furthermore, such memory impairments have been consistently linked with abnormalities in brain activation during both encoding and retrieval. However, certain experimental

  18. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  19. Hybrid Quantum Cellular Automata memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanjanawit Yanggratoke; Songphol Kanjanachuchai

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) memory architecture is proposed. The hybrid QCA memory combines the benefit of small area of serial-type memory with the fast access time of parallel-type memory. Its operation is described in detail.

  20. Encoding [quiet memories

    E-print Network

    Brebenel, Elena

    2011-04-20

    in an effort to make the image unclear. The knitted swatches resemble a fence and take the role of protecting the memories. Whether happy or sad, these are the memories and experiences that made me who I am. On the floor, a stack of knitted swatches serves... as the metaphors that are vital to my creative research. Encoding [quiet memories] emphasizes a meticulous transformative process, a meditation on the transient nature of reality, chance and control. Throughout this process, there is a metamorphosis of fabrics...

  1. Diagnostic Validity of Wechsler Substest Scatter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive subtest scatter has often been considered to be diagnostically significant. The current study tested the diagnostic validity of four separate operationalizations of WISC-III subtest scatter: (a) range of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (b) variance of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (c) number of subtests…

  2. The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Talley Shelton; Emily M. Elliott; Russell A. Matthews; B. D. Hill; Wm. Drew Gouvier

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski, 2008), whereas other research suggests retrieval from secondary memory

  3. Modelling Immunological Memory

    E-print Network

    Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

  4. Gender and Memory

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... effects of age, gender and genetics on memory, brain structure and brain plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers included ... were cognitively normal at the start. Participants underwent brain scans and took a series of verbal learning ...

  5. Making a Memory Book

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Narrator: Another project you and your loved one can do together is make a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years ... grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with University of Pittsburgh researcher, Michelle Bourgeois. Bourgeois: ...

  6. Are recovered memories accurate?

    E-print Network

    Gerkens, David

    2005-08-29

    . Additional research in our laboratory has shown two distinct types of memory errors; semantic based errors which occur due to pre-existing category knowledge, and episodic based errors in which the source of details (list members) are misattributed...

  7. Warship : memorial in antithesis

    E-print Network

    Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

  8. Mondriaan memory protection

    E-print Network

    Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

  9. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  10. Object Location Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

  11. Ramsay Memorial Fund

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Bell; Glenconner; J. N. Collie

    1917-01-01

    WE are asking the hospitality of your columns to enable us to report the progress of the Ramsay Memorial Fund, which was instituted just a year ago with the object of raising a sum of 100,000l. as a suitable memorial to the late Prof. Sir William Ramsay. The fund has now reached a sum of just above 30,000l. The latest

  12. Cultural Memories: An Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Meusburger; Michael Heffernan; Edgar Wunder

    \\u000a The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon\\u000a and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized\\u000a societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which ostensibly floats free of all historical\\u000a moorings, disconnected from earlier

  13. Pitch Memory Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

  14. Dynamical Quantum Memories

    E-print Network

    Q. Y. He; M. D. Reid; E. Giacobino; J. Cviklinski; P. D Drummond

    2008-08-14

    We propose a dynamical approach to quantum memories using an oscillator-cavity model. This overcomes the known difficulties of achieving high quantum input-output fidelity with storage times long compared to the input signal duration. We use a generic model of the memory response, which is applicable to any linear storage medium ranging from a superconducting device to an atomic medium. The temporal switching or gating of the device may either be through a control field changing the coupling, or through a variable detuning approach, as in more recent quantum memory experiments. An exact calculation of the temporal memory response to an external input is carried out. This shows that there is a mode-matching criterion which determines the optimum input and output mode shape. This optimum pulse shape can be modified by changing the gate characteristics. In addition, there is a critical coupling between the atoms and the cavity that allows high fidelity in the presence of long storage times. The quantum fidelity is calculated both for the coherent state protocol, and for a completely arbitrary input state with a bounded total photon number. We show how a dynamical quantum memory can surpass the relevant classical memory bound, while retaining a relatively long storage time.

  15. Alleviating memory impairment through distraction.

    PubMed

    Cashdollar, Nathan; Lavie, Nilli; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-11-27

    Distraction typically has a negative impact on memory for recent events and patients with existing memory impairment are particularly vulnerable to distractor interference. In contrast, here we establish a beneficial effect for distractor presentation in humans for both patients with memory impairment due to bilateral hippocampal lesions and healthy adults with low memory performance. Recognition memory for images of place scenes, which had to be memorized for short delay periods was significantly improved with the presentation of a distractor face during the delay. Magnetoencephalography recordings of neural oscillations in the theta frequency range obtained in healthy adults suggest that this memory improvement results from the interruption of rehearsal by the distractor. Our results highlight circumstances where active memory rehearsal may paradoxically increase memory impairments and distraction alleviates these memory deficits in patients with hippocampal injury and healthy adults. PMID:24285905

  16. Memory function and supportive technology.

    PubMed

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  17. Memory function and supportive technology

    PubMed Central

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  18. Australian War Memorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

  19. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (? 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (? 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (? 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (? 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:24992278

  20. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  1. Memory on the beach: an Australian memory (and hypnosis) laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Barnier; Richard A. Bryant; Leah Campbell; Rochelle Cox; Celia Harris; Lynette Hung; Fiona Maccallum; Stefanie J. Sharman

    2005-01-01

    The memory (and hypnosis) lab at the University of New South Wales investigates a broad range of memory topics. We try to\\u000a find innovative methods from cognitive and clinical psychology to address theoretical and empirical questions about memory.\\u000a We aso use hypnosis as one major methodological tool in our investigations of memory (as well as other cognitive processes).\\u000a In this

  2. Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

    2001-01-01

    Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

  3. Public memorializing in postmodernity: The Vietnam veterans memorial as prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Blair; Marsha S. Jeppeson; Enrico Pucci Jr

    1991-01-01

    This essay argues for a reading of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse. Beginning with a contrast of modernist and postmodern rhetorics of architecture, the authors suggest that the Memorial reflects the typical gestures of postmodern architecture. Moreover, they suggest that a consideration of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse accounts for differences among other critical

  4. Energy-Aware Flash Memory Management in Virtual Memory System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-lin Li; Chia-lin Yang; Hung-wei Tseng

    2008-01-01

    The traditional virtual memory system is designed for decades assuming a magnetic disk as the secondary storage. Recently, flash memory becomes a popular storage alternative for many portable devices with the continuing improvements on its capacity, reliability and much lower power consumption than mechanical hard drives. The characteristics of flash memory are quite different from a magnetic disk. Therefore, in

  5. Flexible memory networks.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;?)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

  6. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  7. Shape Memory Alloys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers Shape Memory Alloys or Smart Materials. A Smart Material or Shape Memory Alloys belongs to a class of materials which displays the shape memory effect (SME); they possess the ability to radically change crystal structure or phase at a distinct temperature. The lab will "explore how smart materials work and what applications these materials are used in." Additionally, students will be provided with a brief history lesson about the origins of smart material. The experiment is quite fun, students will observe how smart materials can "think and do amazing things." A student and teacher guide is provided with the lab. Overall, this is a great exercise for any science classroom interested in the workings of nanotechnology.

  8. Vietnam Veterans Memorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC can be an emotional experience, and it has garnered substantial acclaim since it was unveiled in 1982. The people behind the Footnote historical records site recently crafted this interactive version of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and it's well worth a look. The interactive image was assembled from 6301 images photographed by Peter Krogh and stitched together by Darren Higgins. Visitors can type in names to the search engine at the top of the homepage, browse names by category, and also look up names by military branch. Additionally, visitors can leave a tribute, a story, or a photograph about any of the 58,256 veterans listed on the Memorial.

  9. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  10. Negative Emotion Enhances Memory Accuracy

    E-print Network

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    Negative Emotion Enhances Memory Accuracy Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence Elizabeth A. Kensinger Boston College ABSTRACT--There have been extensive discussions about whether emotional memories that they have remembered emotional ex- periences more accurately. I review evidence that negative emotion

  11. Teen Pot Use and Memory

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... time they enrolled. The participants underwent high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI scans, as well as memory ... an abnormally shaped hippocampus, an area of the brain that’s important to long-term memory…. And the ...

  12. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. PMID:25655207

  13. Organic molecular floating gate memories

    E-print Network

    Paydavosi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Flash memory devices dominate the non-volatile memory market, with device structures that utilize charge storage in polysilicon floating gates imbedded in insulating silicon oxide films'. As demands for high storage density, ...

  14. Pitch Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

  15. Introduction to cache memories Prof. Cristina Silvano

    E-print Network

    Silvano, Cristina

    · Spatial and temporal locality · Levels of memory hierarchy · Cache memories: basic concepts · Architecture #12;Cristina Silvano, 15/01/2014 6 Solution: Memory Hierarchy · To use several levels of memory, each of access time from CPU Memory size at each level of the hierarchy Levels of memory hierarchy Level 2 Level

  16. Memory dynamics in the honeybee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Menzel

    1999-01-01

    Reward learning in honeybees initiates a sequence of events which leads to long-lasting memory passing through multiple phases\\u000a of transient memories. The study of memory dynamics is performed at the behavioral (both natural foraging behavior and appetitive\\u000a conditioning), neural circuit and molecular levels. The results of these combined efforts lead to a model which assumes five\\u000a kinds of sequential memories,

  17. Ionic memories: Status and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Chen

    2008-01-01

    Ionic memory is a type of resistive switching memories based on ionic transport and electrochemical reactions in solid-state electrolyte materials. In cation-migration-based ionic memories, cations transport through solid electrolyte under electric field and deposit as metal atoms to form connecting bridge between two electrodes. With repeatable resistance change over several orders of magnitude and long retention, ionic memory is a

  18. A Cutpoint Cellular Associative Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Yang; S. S. Yau

    1966-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing technological ability to batch fabricate a large number of components on one substrate, it is economical and reliable to implement an associative memory by cellular arrays. Such an associative memory is presented in this paper. The proposed memory is word-organized, and its basic building blocks are cutpoint cells with various indices. All the bit-memories, word-sequential-control

  19. Shape memory alloys — characterization techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayagopal Uchil

    2002-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are the generic class of alloys that show both thermal and mechanical memory. The basic physics involved\\u000a in the shape memory effect is the reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In general, there exists two phases\\u000a in shape memory alloys, viz., a high-temperature phase or austenitic phase (A) and a low-temperature phase or martensitic\\u000a phase (M). In addition, an

  20. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  1. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory…

  2. A theory of memory retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Ratcliff

    1978-01-01

    Develops a theory of memory retrieval and shows that it applies over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probe–memory item relatedness, just as a ringing tuning fork evokes sympathetic vibrations in other tuning forks. Evidence is accumulated in

  3. Sex Steroids Modify Working Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeri S. Janowsky; Bambi Chavez; Eric Orwoll

    2000-01-01

    In the last ten years, numerous mechanisms by which sex steroids modify cortical function have been described. For example, estrogen replacement improves verbal memory in women, and animal studies have shown effects of estrogen on hippocampal synaptogenesis and function. Little is known about sex steroid effects on other aspects of memory, such as frontal lobe-mediated working memory. We examined the

  4. Wilhelm Wundt's psychology of memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckart Scheerer; Universitiit Oldenburg

    1980-01-01

    The work of Wilhelm Wundt and his students in the psychology of memory is reviewed. Wundt rarely used the concept ‘memory’, but he dealt extensively with a number of problems that today are often discussed under the heading of ‘memory’. Four components of his theory are distinguished and traced through the successive stages of the evolution of the theory: the

  5. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  6. Autobiographical Memory in Suicide Attempters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mark G. Williams; Keith Broadbent

    1986-01-01

    Mood-memory phenomena have been studied using laboratory mood induction procedures with nondepressed subjects and with clinically depressed individuals. The present study examined both hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of autobiographical memory in people who had recently attempted suicide by overdose. Attempted suicide subjects, who were required to retrieve specific personal memories to positive or negative cue words, showed biased retrieval when

  7. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals

    PubMed Central

    Templer, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of “having been there” has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhumans. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhumans and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap. However, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing the most crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question “do nonhuman animals have episodic memory” to instead asking “what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans” are making progress. PMID:24028963

  8. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  9. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  10. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  11. Frontal Lobes and Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana V. Baldo; Arthur P. Shimamura

    2002-01-01

    Casual observations of patients with focal frontal lobe lesions often reveal little if any cognitive impairment (Fuster, 1989; Hebb, 1945). At the same time, such patients display an assortment of cognitive deficits upon neuropsychological assessment (Janowsky et al., 1989c; Luria, 1980; Stuss & Benson, 1984). With respect to memory, focal frontal injury does not produce a severe amnesic disorder, such

  12. Freebase cocaine and memory.

    PubMed

    Manschreck, T C; Schneyer, M L; Weisstein, C C; Laughery, J; Rosenthal, J; Celada, T; Berner, J

    1990-01-01

    Despite the seriousness of acute medical and psychological consequences of cocaine abuse, little knowledge exists about the chronic effects of the drug. Investigation of a sample of abstinent freebase (crack) abusers in the Bahamas provides the first research evidence that prolonged cocaine abuse may result in persistent short-term memory disturbances. PMID:2387150

  13. Overloading Temporal Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that memory is a major source of variance in temporal processing. Participants categorized intervals as short or long. The number of base durations and interval types mixed within blocks of trials varied from 1 session to another. Results revealed that mixing 2 base durations within blocks increased categorization…

  14. Software transactional memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir Shavit; Dan Touitou

    1995-01-01

    As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronizationoperations greatly simplifies the task of designinghighly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existinghardware is inflexible and is at best on the levelof a Load Linked\\/Store Conditional operation on a singleword. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronizationmethodology of Herlihy and Moss, we offersoftware transactional memory (STM), a novel softwaremethod for supporting flexible transactional...

  15. Quantum associative memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Ventura; Tony R. Martinez

    2000-01-01

    This paper combines quantum computation with classical neural network theory to produce a quantum computational learning algorithm. Quantum computation uses microscopic quantum level effects to perform computational tasks and has produced results that in some cases are exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. The unique characteristics of quantum theory may also be used to create a quantum associative memory with

  16. Money Is Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayana R. Kocherlakota

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the sets of feasible allocations in a large class of economic environments in which commitment is impossible (following Myerson [8], the standard definition of feasibility is adapted to take account of the lack of commitment). The environments feature eithermemoryormoney. Memory is defined as knowledge on the part of an agent of the full histories of all agents

  17. Working Memory and Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goo, Jaemyung

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and think-alouds, focusing on the issue of reactivity. Two WM span tasks (listening span and operation span) were administered to 42 English-speaking learners of Spanish. Learner performance on reading comprehension and written production was measured under two…

  18. Creating Media Center Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spann, Youlita

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the school library media specialist is to "Promote the library media program as an attractive, welcoming, and essential venue" (AASL 89). The media center should convey an atmosphere where students feel welcome. Creating media center memories can help library media specialists to achieve this goal. This article describes…

  19. Alfred Russel Wallace Memorials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Marchant

    1913-01-01

    MAY we appeal through these columns to men of science, both here and abroad, to contribute to a fund which we are raising for the purpose of placing a suitable memorial to the late Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace in Westminster Abbey? We should like also to be able to offer to the Royal Society a posthumous portrait of the late

  20. The Java memory model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Manson; William Pugh; Sarita V. Adve

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the new Java memory model, which has been revised as part of Java 5.0. The model specifies the legal behaviors for a multithreaded program; it defines the semantics of multithreaded Java programs and partially determines legal implementations of Java virtual machines and compilers.The new Java model provides a simple interface for correctly synchronized programs -- it guarantees

  1. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  2. Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    ­ Reading Assignments · Important Dates ­ Exams ­ Problem Set due dates ­ Lab Paper due dates · Links scientific writing skills · Applying Cognitive Science How to Study · Identify Text Organization · Preview your printout ­ Or, just keep a soft copy to jog your memory · Write keywords, key phrases that capture

  3. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  4. Antenatal memories and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Roger

    1981-01-01

    A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

  5. Shape memory heat engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Salzbrenner

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available per cycle in a Ni-45 at% Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a

  6. [Memory Checking Tests].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  7. Memorials: Art for Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…

  8. An upconverted photonic nonvolatile memory.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Chen, Xian; Wang, Feng; Tang, Yong-Bing; Roy, V A L

    2014-01-01

    Conventional flash memory devices are voltage driven and found to be unsafe for confidential data storage. To ensure the security of the stored data, there is a strong demand for developing novel nonvolatile memory technology for data encryption. Here we show a photonic flash memory device, based on upconversion nanocrystals, which is light driven with a particular narrow width of wavelength in addition to voltage bias. With the help of near-infrared light, we successfully manipulate the multilevel data storage of the flash memory device. These upconverted photonic flash memory devices exhibit high ON/OFF ratio, long retention time and excellent rewritable characteristics. PMID:25144762

  9. Longevity pathways and memory aging

    PubMed Central

    Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation. PMID:24926313

  10. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  11. Memory T Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Su, Charles A; Fairchild, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

  12. Prospective memory: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D; Wilson, A George

    2015-03-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here, we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall". PMID:25101562

  13. Global aspects of radiation memory

    E-print Network

    J. Winicour

    2014-10-11

    Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

  14. 76 FR 55417 - In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory and Nand Flash Memory Devices and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...Dynamic Random Access Memory and Nand Flash Memory Devices and Products Containing...dynamic random access memory and NAND flash memory devices and products containing...dynamic random access memory and NAND flash memory devices and products...

  15. Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Karina A; Suárez, Luis D; Lynch, Victoria M; Molina, Víctor A; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that certain reactivation conditions restrict the onset of both the destabilization phase and the restabilization process or reconsolidation. However, it is not yet clear how changes in memory expression during the retrieval experience can influence the emergence of the labilization/reconsolidation process. To address this issue, we used the context-signal memory model of Chasmagnathus. In this paradigm a short reminder that does not include reinforcement allows us to evaluate memory labilization and reconsolidation, whereas a short but reinforced reminder restricts the onset of such a process. The current study investigated the effects of the glutamate antagonists, APV (0.6 or 1.5 ?g/g) and CNQX (1 ?g/g), prior to the reminder session on both behavioral expression and the reconsolidation process. Under conditions where the reminder does not initiate the labilization/reconsolidation process, APV prevented memory expression without affecting long-term memory retention. In contrast, APV induced amnesic effects in the long-term when administered before a reminder session that triggers reconsolidation. Under the present parametric conditions, the administration of CNQX prior to the reminder that allows memory to enter reconsolidation impairs this process without disrupting memory expression. Overall, the present findings suggest that memory reactivation--but not memory expression--is necessary for labilization and reconsolidation. Retrieval and memory expression therefore appear not to be interchangeable concepts. PMID:24149057

  16. Memory Complaints in Chronic Stroke Patients Are Predicted by Memory Self-Efficacy rather than Memory Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurien Aben; Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds; Majanka H. Heijenbrok-Kal; Marieke M. Visser; Jan J. V. Busschbach; Gerard M. Ribbers

    2011-01-01

    Background: Memory self-efficacy (MSE) is the belief about one’s mastery of memory functioning. In healthy elderly, memory complaints are related to MSE rather than to objectively measured memory capacity. MSE has scarcely been studied in patients that suffered a stroke. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to examine whether memory capacity and MSE can predict the presence of

  17. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  18. Source memory in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

  19. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  20. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  1. A thermal memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinšek, J.; Feuerbacher, M.; Jagodi?, M.; Jagli?i?, Z.; Heggen, M.; Urban, K.

    2009-08-01

    We present a concept of a new kind of memory element, a thermal memory cell, where a byte of digital information can be stored into the storage medium by pure thermal manipulation. Thermal inscription of information employs a specific temperature-time profile that involves continuous cooling and isothermal waiting time periods in the absence of any external magnetic or electric field. Our storage media are magnetically frustrated solids. We succeeded to thermally write arbitrary American Standard Code for Information Interchange characters into the Taylor-phase T-Al3(Mn,Fe) complex intermetallic compound and the Cu-Mn canonical spin glass. Besides for data storage, the concept may be employed for secure data transfer and for retrieving cosmological information from extraterrestrial dust particles.

  2. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  3. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

  4. Optoelectronic associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

  5. The Sonic Memorial Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a way to cope during the difficult period after the attacks on the Word Trade Center on September 11, 2001, many people began to revisit their memories of the buildings themselves. With a keen eye towards preserving some of these materials, National Public Radio brought together artists, historians, and other interested parties in order to collect and preserve various audio traces of these impressive structures. Through an impressive browsing feature, visitors can aurally move through the audio clips contained within the archive, such as an interview with a Taiwanese tourist and a voice mail from a concerned fellow fire fighter based in Austin to his fellow firefighters. Visitors can also search all of the materials by theme, such as commute, elevators, witness, work, and concourse. The â??For Educatorsâ? section is a real gem, as it contains a number of lesson modules that will help teachers use the site to talk about the nature of historical events, memorials, and civic practices.

  6. Learning, Memory, and Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here we report on 11 color-grapheme synesthetes with startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These data are the first and only to show learned synesthesia of this kind in a group larger than a single case. While some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, these results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, where perceptual contents are brought to mind, akin to mental imagery or the perceptual reinstatement effects found in the memory literature. PMID:23307940

  7. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  8. Mozilla Digital Memory Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

  9. Color matching from memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen H. EPPS; Naz KAYA

    Short-term color memory of two groups of university students, 20 with prior color coursework, and 20 with no color-related training, was evaluated in four hue categories: yellow, yellow-red, green, and purple. Munsell dimensions of hue, value, and chroma were used to select four target colors and nine distractor colors for each of the targets. Four of the distractor colors differed

  10. Memories of Julian Schwinger

    E-print Network

    Edward Gerjuoy

    2014-12-02

    The career and accomplishments of Julian Schwinger, who shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1965, have been reviewed in numerous books and articles. For this reason these Memories, which seek to convey a sense of Schwinger's remarkable talents as a physicist, concentrate primariy (though not entirely) on heretofore unpublished pertinent recollections of the youthful Schwinger by this writer, who first encountered Schwinger in 1934 when they both were undergraduates at the City College of New York.

  11. Carter Memorial Lecture 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Robin

    2003-09-01

    The 2003 Carter Memorial Lecture was given in May by Dr Ben R Oppenheimer, Kalbfleisch Research Fellow in the Department of Astrophysics at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Public lectures entitled "Aliens: The Scientific Search for Life on Other Planets" were given in Nelson, Dunedin, Christchurch, Wellington, Wanganui, Napier, Hamilton and Auckland. University seminars entitled "The Lyot Project" were given in Christchurch, Wellington, Hamilton and Auckland.

  12. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  13. Nanomaterials: Memory Wire

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy R. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Imagine metal eyeglass frames that you can roll in a ball, only to watch it uncoil back to its original shape! How can an inanimate object, such as metal, do such a thing? There is a metal alloy that can do just that and it's one of the many discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology. Students will explore the properties of memory metal and consider the many applications it might have today and in the future.

  14. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  15. The memory glasses : wearable computing for just-in-time memory support

    E-print Network

    DeVaul, Richard W. (Richard Wayne), 1971-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis documents a body of wearable computing research surrounding the development of the Memory Glasses, a new type of proactive memory support technology. The Memory Glasses combines features of existing memory ...

  16. Using cache memory to reduce processor-memory traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Goodman; A Super CPU

    1983-01-01

    The importance of reducing processor-memory bandwidth is recognized in two distinct situations: single board computer systems and microprocessors of the future. Cache memory is investigated as a way to reduce the memory-processor traffic. We show that traditional caches which depend heavily on spatial locality (look-ahead) for their performance are inappropriate in these environments because they generate large bursts of bus

  17. Bell System Memorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bell System Memorial is a non-commercial website created by David Massey, who openly admits to his love of telephones and interest in the Bell System. The website "was created to help keep the memories of the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest telecommunications system on earth." The author provides some technical and corporate historical information on Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies. The Bell System Memorial logo on the main page links to an introductory webpage, where visitors can sort through the information based on their needs. For example, teachers will find lessons ideas, and AT&T, Western Electric, Bell Labs, Bell Operating Company retirees and current employees of the companies divested from AT&T will find some interesting corporate history. A listing of books and resources on Bell Systems is available for anyone interested in further research and hobbyists will find links to resources and associations relating to electronics and telecommunications.

  18. Does Green's Word Memory Test really measure memory?

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Strong, Carrie-Ann H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Multiple Choice, Paired Associates, Free Recall, and Long Delayed Free Recall subtests of Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) were sensitive to memory impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 107 persons who passed performance validity criteria on the same instrument. Whereas several of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition indices demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with coma duration, and also showed statistically significant mean differences between TBI severity groups, none of the four WMT memory subtests did so. It is concluded that, although the WMT is an excellent performance validity test, it is not sensitive to memory impairment after TBI. PMID:23957844

  19. Memory lane and morality: how childhood memories promote prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Desai, Sreedhari D

    2012-04-01

    Although research has established that autobiographical memory affects one's self-concept, little is known about how it affects moral behavior. We focus on a specific type of autobiographical memory: childhood memories. Drawing on research on memory and moral psychology, we propose that childhood memories elicit moral purity, which we define as a psychological state of feeling morally clean and innocent. In turn, heightened moral purity leads to greater prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants instructed to recall childhood memories were more likely to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants in a control condition, and this effect was mediated by moral purity. In Experiment 2, the same manipulation increased the amount of money participants donated to a good cause, and both implicit and explicit measures of moral purity mediated the effect. Experiment 3 provides further support for the process linking childhood memories and prosocial behavior through moderation. In Experiment 4, we found that childhood memories led to punishment of others' ethically questionable actions. Finally, in Experiment 5, both positively valenced and negatively valenced childhood memories increased helping compared to a control condition. PMID:22181000

  20. Introduction to cache memories Prof. Cristina Silvano

    E-print Network

    Silvano, Cristina

    hierarchy · Cache memories: basic concepts · Architecture of a cache memory: · Direct Mapped Cache · Fully: Memory Hierarchy · To use several levels of memory, each level with differerent size and speed at each level of the hierarchy Levels of memory hierarchy Level 2 Level 1 Level n #12;Cristina Silvano, 04

  1. Module 8: Virtual Memory Reading: Chapter 9

    E-print Network

    Stojmenovic, Ivan

    Virtual Memory and Memory Hierarchy § Mechanisms used with virtual memory are similar to those used1! 1 Module 8: Virtual Memory Reading: Chapter 9 Objectives: § To describe the benefits of a virtual memory system. § To explain the concepts of demand paging, page-replacement algorithms

  2. A MODEL FOR HIERARCHICAL MEMORY Alok Aggarwal

    E-print Network

    with multiple levels in the memory hierarchy. Access to memory location x is assumed to take time f logxl. Tight" of the memory hierarchy is shown to be optimal. 1. The Hierarchical Memory Model Modern computer systems typically have a great deal of complex- ity associated with their memory hierarchy. There is often a small

  3. Toward LargeScale Shared Memory Multiprocessing

    E-print Network

    Bennett, John K.

    ­level cache, I/O, synchronization, and memory hierarchy. Willow is distinguished from other shared memoryToward Large­Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessing John K. Bennett John B. Carter Willy Zwaenepoel approaches to scalable shared memory: Munin, a distributed shared memory (DSM) system implemented entirely

  4. Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith Department of Computer Science University of New Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA asp@t10.lanl.gov Abstract This paper argues that immunological memory population in the immune system). Keywords: Immunological Memory, Associative Memory, Cross-Reactive Memory

  5. Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination

    E-print Network

    Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo M. D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

    2008-04-02

    We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.

  6. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory

  7. Context Memory in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Kessels, Roy P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function. Summary Context recall, an element of episodic memory, refers to remembering the context in which an event has occurred, such as from whom or to whom information has been transmitted. Key Messages Our review raises crucial questions. For example, (1) which context element is more prone to being forgotten in the disease? (2) How do AD patients fail to bind context features together? (3) May distinctiveness heuristic or decisions based on metacognitive expectations improve context retrieval in these patients? (4) How does cueing at retrieval enhance reinstating of encoding context in AD? By addressing these questions, our work contributes to the understanding of the memory deficits in AD. PMID:24403906

  8. Roadside memorials in northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Erik

    In Thailand spirit houses are often established at places of fatal accidents, but these are generally anonymous. Personalized roadside memorials for accident victims are rare. This article analyses three roadside memorials, located on main roads in northeastern Thailand, in a comparative framework. Like in the contemporary West, such memorials commemorate a suddenly and violently killed person, but manifest a dynamics very different from that of Western roadside memorials: rather than private and temporary, these are permanent shrines, in which the spirit of the deceased is worshipped and supplicated by members of the public. The spirits and their shrines tend to become incorporated into the popular Thai magico-religious complex. While the literature offers a binary distinction between formal public monuments and informal, private and temporary (roadside) memorials, it is suggested that the informal, but public and permanent memorial shrines in Thailand exemplify a third type of edifices to commemorate the deceased in road accidents. PMID:23785985

  9. Memory Representations in Natural Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana H. Ballard; Mary M. Hayhoe; Jeff B. Pelz

    1995-01-01

    The very limited capacity of short-term or working memory is one of the most prominent features of human cognition. Most studies have stressed delimiting the upper bounds of this memory in memorization tasks rather than the performance of everyday tasks. We designed a series of experiments to test the use of short-term memory in the course of a natural hand-eye

  10. Nonfeedback nonlinear holographic associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.

    1998-08-01

    Several original versions of nonlinearly recorded hologram- based associative memories are summarized. All of them are realized using phase-conjugate properties of such holograms being associated just with nonlinear part of a holographic recoding. The photorefractive prototypes of some represented memories are pointed out. The introduced all-optical associative memories exhibit error-correcting properties, ability to edge enhancement into associative responses, and may be realized at arbitrary recording media (thin or volume, permanent or reversible).

  11. Statistical Description of Associative Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samengo, Inés

    2003-03-01

    The storage of memories, in the brain, induces some kind of modification in the structural and functional properties of a neural network. Here, a few neuropsychological and neurophysiological experiments are reviewed, suggesting that the plastic changes taking place during memory storage are governed, among other things, by the correlations in the activity of a set of neurons. The Hopfield model is briefly described, showing the way the methods of statistical physics can be useful to describe the storage and retrieval of memories.

  12. Memory Management with Explicit Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gay; Alexander Aiken

    1998-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to studies of and algorithms for memory management based on garbage collection or explicit allocation and deallocation. An alternative approach, region-based memory management, has been known for decades, but has not been well-studied. In a region-based system each allocation specifies a region, and memory is reclaimed by destroying a region, freeing all the storage allocated

  13. Entanglement fidelity of quantum memories

    SciTech Connect

    Surmacz, K.; Nunn, J.; Waldermann, F. C.; Wang, Z.; Walmsley, I. A.; Jaksch, D. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    We introduce a figure of merit for a quantum memory which measures the preservation of entanglement between a qubit stored in and retrieved from the memory and an auxiliary qubit. We consider a general quantum memory system consisting of a medium of two level absorbers, with the qubit to be stored encoded in a single photon. We derive an analytic expression for our figure of merit taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in the Hamiltonian parameters, which, for example, model inhomogeneous broadening and storage time dephasing. Finally we specialize to the case of an atomic quantum memory where fluctuations arise predominantly from Doppler broadening and motional dephasing.

  14. Entanglement fidelity of quantum memories

    E-print Network

    K. Surmacz; J. Nunn; F. C. Waldermann; Z. Wang; I. Walmsley; D. Jaksch

    2007-01-15

    We introduce a figure of merit for a quantum memory which measures the preservation of entanglement between a qubit stored in and retrieved from the memory and an auxiliary qubit. We consider a general quantum memory system consisting of a medium of two level absorbers, with the qubit to be stored encoded in a single photon. We derive an analytic expression for our figure of merit taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in the Hamiltonian parameters, which for example model inhomogeneous broadening and storage time dephasing. Finally we specialize to the case of an atomic quantum memory where fluctuations arise predominantly from Doppler broadening and motional dephasing.

  15. A study of analog memories

    E-print Network

    Ott, Joseph Michael

    1983-01-01

    . Summary of TI ? A&M Electrical Design Rules ENHANCEMENT DEPLETION L=0. 3-0. 4/L&0. 8 L=0. 3-0. 4/L&0. 8 Units Threshold VTO 0. 5 0. 5 -3. 5 -3. 4 V Conduction K' 16. 5 14 14 14 GA/V Factor Body Effect BE . 23 . 31 . 37 . 47 Parameter Poly I Res.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 6 8 CONSIDERATIONS FOR ANALOG MEMORY. . A. Analog Memory Architecture. . B. Digitization Considerations. A 256 x 4 BIT ANALOG MEMORY. . g 14 20 C. D. E ~ Design Considerations. . . . . . . . . . Floor Plan Memory Cell Address...

  16. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  17. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  18. SafeMem: Exploiting ECC-Memory for Detecting Memory Leaks and Memory Corruption During Production Runs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Qin; Shan Lu; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Memory leaks and memory corruption are two major forms of software bugs that severely threaten system availabil- ity and security. According to the US-CERT Vulnerability Notes Database, 68% of all reported vulnerabilities in 2003 were caused by memory leaks or memory corruption. Dynamic monitoring tools, such as the state-of-the-art Purify, are commonly used to detect memory leaks and memory corruption.

  19. Nitinol-reinforced shape-memory polymers

    E-print Network

    Di Leo, Claudio V

    2010-01-01

    Reinforced shape-memory polymers have been developed from an acrylate based thermoset shape-memory polymer and nitinol wires. A rectangular shape-memory polymer measuring approximately 1 by 2 by 0.1 inches has a ten fold ...

  20. 76 FR 24783 - Workers Memorial Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Proclamation 8658--Workers Memorial Day, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal...Proclamation 8658 of April 27, 2011 Workers Memorial Day, 2011 By the President of the United...and erode our economy. On Workers Memorial Day, we celebrate the improvements...

  1. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    E-print Network

    Sagar, Harvey J.

    1991-01-01

    Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is ...

  2. An analysis of MRAM based memory technologies

    E-print Network

    Vijayaraghavan, Rangarajan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    MRAM is a memory (RAM) technology that uses electron spin to store information. Often been called "the ideal memory", it can potentially combine the density of DRAM with the speed of SRAM and non-volatility of FLASH memory ...

  3. A structurally dynamic cellular automaton with memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Alonso-Sanz

    2007-01-01

    Major features of conventional cellular automata (CA) include the inalterability of topology and the absence of memory. The effect of simple memory (memory in cells and links) in a particular structurally dynamic CA is explored in this paper.

  4. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  5. Prospective Memory Development Through Childhood into Adolescence 

    E-print Network

    Bialek, Anna Katarzyna

    2009-07-03

    memory development in childhood and adolescence, and accentuated the importance of not using prospective memory as an umbrella term for event-based and time-based memory as well as the importance of controlling time delay and motivation....

  6. Animal cognition: bumble bees suffer 'false memories'.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Judith

    2015-03-16

    The existence of 'false memories', where individuals remember events that they have never actually experienced, is well established in humans. Now a new study reports that insects similarly form illusory memories through merging of memory traces. PMID:25784044

  7. Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

  8. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  9. Zombie Memory: Extending Memory Lifetime by Reviving Dead Blocks

    E-print Network

    Manasse, Mark S. - Microsoft Research

    and are based on magnetic or physical properties of materials. Phase- change memory (PCM) [12, 1, 3- nately, DRAM replacement solutions are emerging [29, 28, 33]. These solutions provide more stable storage, and achieves longer lifetimes than Flash. Using PCM as a DRAM replacement for main memory, however, poses

  10. Memory attributions for choices: How beliefs shape our memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Henkel; Mara Mather

    2007-01-01

    When remembering past choices, people tend to attribute positive features to chosen options and negative features to rejected options. The present experiments reveal the important role beliefs play in memory reconstruction of choices. In Experiment 1, participants who misremembered which option they chose favored their believed choice in their memory attributions more than their actual choice. In Experiment 2, we

  11. Milestoning with coarse memory.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Alexander T

    2013-04-21

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics of molecular processes occurring on timescales inaccessible to traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the method, the phase space of the system is partitioned by milestones (hypersurfaces), trajectories are initialized on each milestone, and short MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between neighboring milestones. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process from the observed statistics of transition. The procedure is typically justified by the assumption that trajectories lose memory between crossing successive milestones. Here we present Milestoning with Coarse Memory (MCM), a generalization of Milestoning that relaxes the memory loss assumption of conventional Milestoning. In the method, milestones are defined and sample transitions are calculated in the standard Milestoning way. Then, after it is clear where trajectories sample milestones, the milestones are broken up into distinct neighborhoods (clusters), and each sample transition is associated with two clusters: the cluster containing the coordinates the trajectory was initialized in, and the cluster (on the terminal milestone) containing trajectory's final coordinates. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process in an extended state space built from milestone and cluster indices. To test the method, we apply it to a process that is particularly ill suited for Milestoning: the dynamics of a polymer confined to a narrow cylinder. We show that Milestoning calculations of both the mean first passage time and the mean transit time of reversal-which occurs when the end-to-end vector reverses direction-are significantly improved when MCM is applied. Finally, we note the overhead of performing MCM on top of conventional Milestoning is negligible. PMID:23614410

  12. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  13. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  14. Nanoreinforced shape memory polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Tara Beth

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are functional materials, which find applications in a broad range of temperature sensing elements and biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These polymers are capable of fixing a transient shape and recovering to their original shape after a series of thermo-mechanical treatments. Generally, these materials are thermoplastic segmented polyurethanes composed of soft segments, usually formed by a polyether macroglycol, and hard segments formed from the reaction of a diisocyanate with a low molecular mass diol. The hard segment content is a key parameter to control the final properties of the polymer, such as rubbery plateau modulus, melting point, hardness, and tensile strength. The long flexible soft segment largely controls the low temperature properties, solvent resistance, and weather resistance properties. The morphology and properties of polyurethanes (PU) are greatly influenced by the ratio of hard and soft block components and the average block lengths. However, in some applications, SMPs may not generate enough recovery force to be useful. The reinforcement of SMPs using nanofillers represents a novel approach of enhancing the performance of these materials. The incorporation of these fillers into SMPs can produce performance enhancements (particularly elastic modulus) at small nanoparticle loadings (˜1-2 wt %). An optimal performance of nanofiller-polymer nanocomposites requires uniform dispersion of filler in polymers and good interfacial adhesion. The addition of nanofillers like cellulose nanofibers (CNF), conductive cellulose nanofibers (C-CNF), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows for the production of stiffer materials with deformation capacity comparable to that of the unfilled polymer. Additionally, the use of conductive nanoreinforcements such as C-CNF and CNTs leads to new pathways for actuation of the shape memory effect. During this work, thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes were synthesized with varying chemical composition and molecular weight. This was achieved by controlling the moles of reactants used, by using polyols with different molecular weights, and by using different diisocyanates. Using these controls, polymer matrices with different but controlled structures were synthesized and then reinforced with CNF, C-CNF, and CNTs in order to study the influence of chemical structure and polymer-nanoreinforcement interactions on polymer nanocomposite morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, and shape memory behavior.

  15. Porous Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

  16. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  17. Barbiturate anticonvulsants: a neuropsychological and quantitative electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Willis, J; Nelson, A; Black, F W; Borges, A; An, A; Rice, J

    1997-04-01

    We studied 11 epileptic children aged 7 to 14 years with quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuropsychological tests, both on and off the barbiturate anticonvulsants phenobarbital and mephobarbital, comparing them to 13 controls matched for age and IQ who received testing at similar intervals. Neuropsychological tests employed were the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Bender-Gestalt, controlled oral word association test (COWAT), selected subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Purdue Peg Board, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, and Achenbach Behavior Rating Scale. There was no difference between on- and off-drug quantitative EEG in percentage power of any frequency band between 0.6 and 32 Hz. Neuropsychological data from all 11 subjects were analyzed with a two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on the time factor. The only difference from controls was on the Stroop Test. Parents reported clear behavioral changes in 6 of 11 subjects, but in 4 of these children the behavioral changes were sufficiently mild that parents chose to continue the barbiturate anticonvulsants: irritability, oppositional attitude, and overactivity were described. Mephobarbital was reported by parents to cause less severe problems than phenobarbital in subjects who had taken both barbiturate anticonvulsants. Barbiturate anticonvulsants have no effect on quantitative EEG and limited effects on neuropsychological tests in school-aged children. PMID:9130089

  18. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND FACULTY ASSOCIATION February 26, 2010 - August 31, 2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Article 1 FRAMEWORK

  19. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  20. REVISITING VIRTUAL MEMORY Arkaprava Basu

    E-print Network

    Hill, Mark D.

    ;Dedicated to my parents Susmita and Paritosh Basu for their selfless and unconditional love and support. #12 memory management. I reexamine virtual memory subsystem considering the ever-growing latency overhead and reduce TLB miss rate by up to 45% through dynamic aggregation of TLB resources across page sizes. #12;iii

  1. Region-based Memory Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mads Tofte; Jean-pierre Talpin

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a memory management discipline for programs that perform dynamic memory allocation and de-allocation. At runtime, all values are put into regions. The store consists of a stack of regions. All points of region allocation and de-allocation are inferred automatically, using a type and effect based program analysis. The scheme does not assume the presence of a garbage

  2. Animal Models of Memory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michela Gallagher

    1997-01-01

    Memory impairment in the elderly resembles a mild temporal lobe dysfunction. Alterations in the hippocampal formation are also a probable basis for cognitive deficits in some animal models of ageing. For example, aged rats are impaired in hippocampal-dependent tests of spatial memory. Recent studies have revealed considerable structural integrity in the aged hippocampus, even in aged rats with the most

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Olton

    1985-01-01

    The study of memory in animals has become a productive enterprise. Although its methods share little with those used by Ebbinghaus, it has addressed many of the same issues and introduced some new ones of its own. The emphasis on representational processes in psychology and optimal foraging in ethology have both helped to develop effective procedures to test animal memory

  4. Demystifying the Beginnings of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    A longstanding issue in psychology has been, When does human memory begin? More particularly, when do we begin to remember personal experiences in a way that makes them accessible to recollection later in life? Current popular and scientific thinking would have us believe that memories are possible not only at the time of our birth, but also in…

  5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF HUMAN MEMORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. E. Gabrieli

    1998-01-01

    Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is re- viewed about the

  6. A universal finite memory source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo J. Weinberger; Jorma J. Rissanen; Meir Feder

    1995-01-01

    An irreducible parameterization for a finite memory source is constructed in the form of a tree machine. A universal information source for the set of finite memory sources is constructed by a predictive modification of an earlier studied algorithm-Context. It is shown that this universal source incorporates any minimal data-generating tree machine in an asymptotically optimal manner in the following

  7. Rich memory and distributed phonology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Port

    2010-01-01

    It is claimed here that experimental evidence about human speech processing and the richness of memory for linguistic material supports a distributed view of language where every speaker creates an idiosyncratic perspective on the linguistic conventions of the community. In such a system, words are not spelled in memory of speakers from uniform letter-like units (whether phones or phonemes), but

  8. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  9. Professional Memory and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarpey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns the way that research into Professional Memory (PM) in English teaching might re-connect the school subject with constituencies--the individuals, communities and social values--it once served. By PM I mean the collective memories of a generation of English teachers which, when brought into conjunction with existing histories,…

  10. Memory access buffering in multiprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Dubois; Christoph Scheurich; Faye A. Briggs

    1986-01-01

    In highly-pipelined machines, instructions and data are prefetched and buffered in both the processor and the cache. This is done to reduce the average memory access latency and to take advantage of memory interleaving. Lock-up free caches are designed to avoid processor blocking on a cache miss. Write buffers are often included in a pipelined machine to avoid processor waiting

  11. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  12. Information Processing in Memory Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William A.

    The intensity of information processing engendered in different phases of standard memory tasks was examined in six experiments. Processing intensity was conceptualized as system capacity consumed, and was measured via a divided-attention procedure in which subjects performed a memory task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task concurrently. The…

  13. Suppressor T-cell memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Loblay; H. Pritchard-Briscoe; A. Basten

    1978-01-01

    MEMORY is a fundamental characteristic of immunological phenomena; it is manifested by enhanced responsiveness upon re-exposure to antigen, and its specificity forms the basis of the clonal selection concept. In collaborative antibody responses the development of memory has been demonstrated in both the T helper (TH) cell and the B cell populations1, whereas in cell mediated reactions such as delayed

  14. Neuropsychological Evaluation of Everyday Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Perez Garcia; Juan F. Godoy Garcia; Nieves Vera Guerrero; Jose A. Laserna Triguero; Antonio E. Puente

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of everyday memory (EM) was reviewed and reconceptualized. EM has established new objectives of study and the development of new methods to reach these objectives . At the basic level, this approach has already produced important discoveries and the development of new principles about memory and functioning. At the clinical level, this new area of investigation has resulted

  15. Circadian Rhythms in Human Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkard, Simon; Monk, Timothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments are described that examined the influence of time-of-day of presentation on immediate and delayed retention and its potential effects on retrieval from long-term memory. Time of presentation was found to influence both immediate and delayed (28 day) retention, but not retrieval from long-term memory. (Author/SJL)

  16. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  17. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  18. [Memory and synaptic plasticity].

    PubMed

    Maitre, M

    1996-01-01

    Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces. PMID:8763628

  19. The Sonic Memorial Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Initiated by the Kitchen Sisters (Davia Nelson and Nikki Silva), producers of the NPR series Lost and Found Sound, with the work of a host of collaborators, the Sonic Memorial Project collects all types of audio, from voice mail messages to oral histories, that documents the World Trade Center (WTC) area as a neighborhood and workplace, before, during, and after the events of September 11, 2001. Sonic Memorial is hosted by the September 11 Digital Archive, (last mentioned in the March 1, 2002 Scout Report). Some of the sounds have been broadcast on NPR. At the Web site, visitors can use the Sonic Browser to explore the audio collection. The Sonic Browser interface includes a background sound collage and a blue screen with wavy lines representing audio clips. Click a line to play a clip, and click again for textual information. But, don't move the mouse off a line, or the clip will fade out. Examples include a wedding ceremony recorded in 1976 at Windows on the World, the restaurant on the 107th floor of the WTC; the voices of two men collecting ashes in the street and saving them in a bottle; and voice mail from a Minnesota woman, who works for a company that maintained servers on the 90th - 97th floors of the WTC, telling that the WTC server stopped responding at 8:47 AM on 9/11.

  20. Arizona Memory Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Arizona Memory Project serves as a vast repository of items related to the state of Arizona and its people. It's quite impressive as they have over 100,000 items kindly offered by a range of institutions from around the state. This wealth of information can be a bit overwhelming for first-time visitors who might do well to check out the "Spotlight On" section. Here, visitors can get started with a few select items, such as WPA posters, portraits, and architectural renderings. Folks with a geographical bent may wish to look over the "Where in Arizona?" interactive map where visitors can learn about the Arizona Memory Project's partners, such as the Mohave Museum of History and Arts, and the items they have contributed. Also, visitors can use the Browse function to find items arranged by collection, time period, or topic. Educators shouldn't miss the Teacher Resources and the project's Flickr feed is a great addition, housing a trove of Arizona-related images.

  1. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingqiang; Liu, Yueli; Chen, Wen; Li, Jinchai; Liao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  2. Unconditional Room Temperature Quantum Memory

    E-print Network

    M. Hosseini; G. Campbell; B. M. Sparkes; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler

    2015-02-10

    Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems. The potential that optical quantum information processing holds for revolutionising computation and communication is therefore driving significant research into developing optical quantum memory. A practical optical quantum memory must be able to store and recall quantum states on demand with high efficiency and low noise. Ideally, the platform for the memory would also be simple and inexpensive. Here, we present a complete tomographic reconstruction of quantum states that have been stored in the ground states of rubidium in a vapour cell operating at around 80$^o$C. Without conditional measurements, we show recall fidelity up to 98% for coherent pulses containing around one photon. In order to unambiguously verify that our memory beats the quantum no-cloning limit we employ state independent verification using conditional variance and signal transfer coefficients.

  3. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  4. Working memory and inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Bredemeier, Keith; Simons, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Individual differences in working memory predict many aspects of cognitive performance, especially for tasks that demand focused attention. One negative consequence of focused attention is inattentional blindness, the failure to notice unexpected objects when attention is engaged elsewhere. Yet, the relationship between individual differences in working memory and inattentional blindness is unclear; some studies have found that higher working memory capacity is associated with greater noticing, but others have found no direct association. Given the theoretical and practical significance of such individual differences, more definitive tests are needed. In two studies with large samples, we tested the relationship between multiple working memory measures and inattentional blindness. Individual differences in working memory predicted the ability to perform an attention-demanding tracking task, but did not predict the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object present during the task. We discuss the reasons why we might not expect such individual differences in noticing and why other studies may have found them. PMID:22222359

  5. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. PMID:25592676

  6. Optimal foraging in semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas T; Jones, Michael N; Todd, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared structure of the search problems-searching in patchy environments-and recent evidence supporting a domain-general cognitive search process. To investigate these questions directly, we asked participants to recover from memory as many animal names as they could in 3 min. Memory search was modeled over a representation of the semantic search space generated from the BEAGLE memory model of Jones and Mewhort (2007), via a search process similar to models of associative memory search (e.g., Raaijmakers & Shiffrin, 1981). We found evidence for local structure (i.e., patches) in memory search and patch depletion preceding dynamic local-to-global transitions between patches. Dynamic models also significantly outperformed nondynamic models. The timing of dynamic local-to-global transitions was consistent with optimal search policies in space, specifically the marginal value theorem (Charnov, 1976), and participants who were more consistent with this policy recalled more items. PMID:22329683

  7. The Maine Memory Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

  8. Shape memory alloy cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin; Shaw, John A.

    2008-03-01

    Conventional structural cables (or wire ropes) are composed of steel wires helically wound into strands, which, in turn, are wound around a core. Cables made from shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are a new structural element with promising properties for a broad range of new applications. Among the many potential advantages of this form are increased bending flexibility for spooling/packaging, better fatigue performance, energy absorption and damping, reduced thermal lag, redundancy, and signicant design flexibility. Currently there are no known studies of SMA cables in the literature, so exploratory thermo-mechanical experiments were performed on two commercially available cable designs as part of an ongoing research program to systematically characterize their thermomechanical behavior and demonstrate their potential utility as adaptive or resilient tension elements.

  9. Sam Houston Memorial Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Huntsville, Texas, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum pays homage to this celebrated American and first President of the Republic of Texas. Their homepage provides interested parties with information on his life in the "Sam's Life" area (including a timeline), along with a calendar of events and updates on their annual folk festival. It's worth nothing that the "Sam's Life" area also includes a FAQ area, quotes from the man himself, a family photo album, and a bibliography. Moving on, the "Virtual Tour" area is a bit of a treat as visitors can use the graphic to wander around the grounds. Finally, the "Fun Stuff" area includes information about the six flags of Texas, the Republic, and a few regional recipes, including one for molasses pie that sounds delicious.

  10. Armstrong remembered at memorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Neil Armstrong, who died on 25 August, was recognized during a 13 September memorial service as a courageous, humble, and reluctant hero who in 1969 became the first person to step onto the Moon. The service, held at the National Cathedral in Washington, D. C., included remembrances from astronauts and friends, an excerpt from President John Kennedy's 1962 “We choose to go to the Moon” speech, and a somber rendition of the jazz standard “Fly Me to the Moon.” NASA administrator Charles Bolden said that Armstrong, commander of NASA's Apollo 11 mission, “left a foundation for the future and paved the way for future American explorers to be first to step foot on Mars or another planet. Today, let us recommit ourselves to this grand challenge in honor of the man who first demonstrated it was possible to reach new worlds—and whose life demonstrated the quiet resolve and determination that makes every new, more difficult step into space possible.”

  11. A neurocognitive approach to brand memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilanthi Ratnayake; Amanda J Broderick; Rachel L C Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Consumer decisions are largely influenced by prior experiences via memory, and the episodic (autobiographical)\\/semantic dichotomy has particular relevance to the cognitive versus emotional decision-making models. Yet, consumer research is limited in its consideration of the separate memory systems conceptualisation dominant in psychology, and rather has primarily focused on semantic forms of memory. As Autobiographical Memory (AM) may equally affect one's

  12. Update Propagation in Distributed Memory Hierarchy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Bellew; Meichun Hsu; Va-on Tam

    1990-01-01

    A distributed memory hierarchy (DMH) is a memory system consisting of storage modules distributed over a high-bandwidth local area network. It provides for transaction applications an abstraction of single virtual memory space to which shared data are mapped. As in a conventional memory hierarchy (MH) in a single-machine system, a DMH is responsible for locating, migrating, and caching data pages;

  13. Aging and interference in verbal working memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trey Hedden; Denise Park

    2001-01-01

    According to inhibitory views of working memory, old adults should have particular problems deleting irrelevant information from working memory, leading to greater interference effects compared with young adults. The authors investigated this hypothesis by using variations of an A-B, C-D retroactive interference paradigm in working memory with young and old adults. They used a recognition measure of memory, assessing both

  14. Some pitfalls in measuring memory in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina M. Thorpe; Claudia Jacova; Donald M. Wilkie

    2004-01-01

    Because the presence or absence of memories in the brain cannot be directly observed, scientists must rely on indirect measures and use inferential reasoning to make statements about the status of memories. In humans, memories are often accessed through spoken or written language. In animals, memory is accessed through overt behaviours such as running down an arm in a maze,

  15. Interactive Visualization for Memory Reference Traces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. M. Imroz Choudhury; Kristin C. Potter; Steven G. Parker

    2008-01-01

    We present the Memory Trace Visualizer (MTV), a tool that provides inte ractive visualization and analysis of the sequence of memory operations performed by a program as it runs. A s improvements in processor performance continue to outpace improvements in memory performance, tools to unders tand memory access patterns are in- creasingly important for optimizing data intensive programs such as

  16. Emotional content of true and false memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    2008-01-01

    Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

  17. Data Prefetching In Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland L. Lee; Pen-chung Yew; Duncan H. Lawrie

    1987-01-01

    The trace driven simulation of 16 numerical subroutines is used to compare instruction lookahead and data prefetching with private caches in shared memory multiprocessors with hundreds or thousands of processors and memory modules interconnected with a pipelined network. These multiprocessors are characterized by long memory access delays that create a memory access bottleneck. Using the multiprocessor cache model for comparison,

  18. Implicit memory: History and current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Schacter

    1987-01-01

    Memory for a recent event can be expressed explicitly, as conscious recollection, or implicitly, as a facilitation of test performance without conscious recollection. A growing number of recent studies have been concerned with implicit memory and its relation to explicit memory. This article presents an historical survey of observations concerning implicit memory, reviews the findings of contempo- rary experimental research,

  19. Memorial University of Newfoundland Boating Safety Manual

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    Memorial University of Newfoundland Boating Safety Manual 1st Edition May 30, 2003 #12;Contents Page 1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 2 INTRODUCTION 2 1 Scope 2 1.1 Definition 3 2 Memorial University Diving Appendix B Memorial University Boating Safety Administration 24 Appendix C Memorial University Boating

  20. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  1. External memory algorithms and data structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Scott Vitter

    2001-01-01

    Data sets in large applications are often too massive to fit completely inside the computers internal memory. The resulting input\\/output communication (or I\\/O) between fast internal memory and slower external memory (such as disks) can be a major performance bottleneck. In this article we survey the state of the art in the design and analysis of external memory (or EM)

  2. Implementation techniques for main memory database systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

    1984-01-01

    With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

  3. Chance and memory Theodore J. Perkins

    E-print Network

    Swain, Peter

    . Cellular memory is beneficial for broadly the same reasons that memory is beneficial to humans. How well on. Different mechanisms for achieving cellular memory operate at different time scales. For example, all cellular systems display some degree of memory. We, however, will focus primarily on forms

  4. Memory skills elders want to improve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Von O. Leirer; Daniel G. Morrow; Javaid I. Sheikh; Grace M. Pariante

    1990-01-01

    While many research studies have investigated memory training for elders, none have asked which specific memory skills elders would like to improve. This study investigates two related questions. First, which memory skills elders would like to improve? Second, is there a common set of these memory skills? Elders completed a three-part questionnaire. First, it asked for subject demographics. Second, it

  5. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory…

  6. A Temporal Ratio Model of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Neath, Ian; Chater, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A model of memory retrieval is described. The model embodies four main claims: (a) temporal memory--traces of items are represented in memory partly in terms of their temporal distance from the present; (b) scale-similarity--similar mechanisms govern retrieval from memory over many different timescales; (c) local distinctiveness--performance on a…

  7. Roadside memorial policies in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George E. Dickinson; Heath C. Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Roadside memorials in memory of a fatality dot the landscape of the nation's highways. The appearance of memorials varies as much as the policies and practices states employ to manage them. The purpose of this research is to ascertain whether or not the states of the US have policies regarding roadside memorials and, if so, what the policies are. A

  8. Neural reactivation reveals mechanisms for updating memory

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Brice A.; Bainbridge, Wilma A.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to remember new information is often compromised by competition from prior learning, leading to many instances of forgetting. One of the challenges in studying why these lapses occur and how they can be prevented is that it is methodologically difficult to ‘see’ competition between memories as it occurs. Here, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of human fMRI data to measure the neural reactivation of both older (competing) and newer (target) memories during individual attempts to retrieve newer memories. Of central interest was (a) whether older memories were reactivated during retrieval of newer memories, (b) how reactivation of older memories related to retrieval performance, and (c) whether neural mechanisms engaged during the encoding of newer memories were predictive of neural competition experienced during retrieval. Our results indicate that older and newer visual memories were often simultaneously reactivated in ventral temporal cortex—even when target memories were successfully retrieved. Importantly, stronger reactivation of older memories was associated with less accurate retrieval of newer memories, slower mnemonic decisions, and increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, greater activity in the inferior frontal gyrus during the encoding of newer memories (memory updating) predicted lower competition in ventral temporal cortex during subsequent retrieval. Together, these results provide novel insight into how older memories compete with newer memories and specify neural mechanisms that allow competition to be overcome and memories to be updated. PMID:22399768

  9. Cache miss clustering for banked memory systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozcan Ozturk; G. Chen; Mahmut T. Kandemir; Mustafa Karaköy

    2006-01-01

    One of the previously-proposed techniques for reducing memory en- ergy consumption is memory banking. The idea is to divide the memory space into multiple banks and place currently unused (idle) banks into a low-power operating mode. The prior studies - both hardware and software domain - in memory energy optimization via low-power modes do not take the data cache behavior

  10. Nanotechnology enables a new memory growth model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-gyu Hwang

    2003-01-01

    As we enter the nanotechnology era, a big shift in paradigm comes to the memory industry. The traditional computer industry for dynamic RAM is expected to mature its memory-bit consumption with a relatively low growth rate. Meanwhile, the memory consumption and high-density memory usage in mobile handsets and digital consumer applications will grow very fast. For these new applications, NAND

  11. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  12. Next-Generation Personal Memory Aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Vemuri; W Bender

    2004-01-01

    Personal memory assistance is a natural application of ubiquitous computing. Portable computers are decreasing in size, increasing in capability, and the barriers constraining earlier computer-based memory aids are rapidly diminishing. With each engineering advance, a new generation of 'personal memory aids' is enabled. This paper presents iRemember, our prototype wearable 'memory prosthesis'. It allows the wearer to capture and accrue

  13. L5: Memory Bandwidth Optimization CS6235 L5: Memory Hierarchy, 3

    E-print Network

    Hall, Mary W.

    1/23/13 1 L5: Memory Bandwidth Optimization CS6235 L5: Memory Hierarchy, 3 Administrative · Next assignment available ­Next three slides ­Goals of assignment: ­simple memory hierarchy · "handin CS6235 lab2 " CS6235 L5: Memory Hierarchy, III 2 Assignment 2: Memory

  14. Memory consistency and event ordering in scalable shared-memory multiprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kourosh Gharachorloo; Daniel E. Lenoski; James P. Laudon; Phillip B. Gibbons; Anoop Gupta; John L. Hennessy

    1990-01-01

    Scalable shared-memory multiprocessors distribute memory among the processors and use scalable interconnection networks to provide high bandwidth and low latency communication. In addition, memory accesses are cached, buffered, and pipelined to bridge the gap between the slow shared memory and the fast processors. Unless carefully controlled, such architectural optimizations can cause memory accesses to be executed in an order different

  15. Memorial University de Terranova Bienvenido a Memorial University de Terranova, la universidad mxima en la regin

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    Memorial University de Terranova Bienvenido a Memorial University de Terranova, la universidad estudiante. Memorial University abrió sus puertas como "Memorial University College" el 15 de septiembre 1925, sumado a un número creciente de estudiantes internacionales, significa que estudiar en Memorial es

  16. Think Before You Speak: Pauses, Memory Search, and Trace Redintegration Processes in Verbal Memory Span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Hulme; Philip Newton; Nelson Cowan; George Stuart; Gordon Brown

    1999-01-01

    Immediate memory span and speed of memory search were assessed for words and nonwords of short and long spoken duration. Memory span was substantially greater for words than for nonwords and for short than for long items, though speed of memory search was unaffected by either length or lexicality. An analysis of the temporal pattern of responses in the memory

  17. Working Memory and Schizophrenia 1 Running head: working memory and schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Park, Sohee

    Working Memory and Schizophrenia 1 Running head: working memory and schizophrenia Working memory impairments in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis Junghee Lee and Sohee Park Department of Psychology Vanderbilt.Park@vanderbilt.edu or Junghee.Lee@vanderbilt.edu #12;Working Memory and Schizophrenia 2 Abstract Working memory (WM) deficit

  18. A durable and energy efficient main memory using phase change memory technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zhou; Bo Zhao; Jun Yang; Youtao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Using nonvolatile memories in memory hierarchy has been investigated to reduce its energy consumption because nonvolatile memories consume zero leakage power in memory cells. One of the difficulties is, however, that the endurance of most nonvolatile memory technologies is much shorter than the conventional SRAM and DRAM technology. This has limited its usage to only the low levels of a

  19. Cognitive neuroscience of false memory: the role of gist memory 

    E-print Network

    Bellamy, Katarina Jane

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of gist memory and gist representation in the formation of false recognition, specifically in the Deese, Roediger and McDermott Paradigm. We found that normal individuals displayed a range ...

  20. Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

  1. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  2. Ultralow-Voltage Memory Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoo Itoh

    The key design issues for ultralow-voltage (0.5–2 V) memory circuits are reviewed in terms of stable memory-cell operation,\\u000a subthreshold current reduction, suppression of or compensation for design-parameter variations, and a single power supply\\u000a and its standardization. The results obtained are as follows. (1) In DRAMs, coupled with high signal-to-noise-ratio memory-cell\\u000a designs, the gate-source offset driving schemes suppress the cell-transistor subthreshold

  3. Holographic memory with localized recording.

    PubMed

    Moser, C; Psaltis, D

    2001-08-10

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a memory module that features selective page erasure and readout persistence using the localized recording method in doubly doped LiNbO(3). Pages of information can be selectively erased without partially erasing the whole memory. Data pages can be written over erased pages multiple times. Information is read millions of times before refreshing is required. We quantify the optical quality of the holograms by measuring their signal-to-noise ratio for a memory size up to 100 holograms. A compact phase-conjugate readout architecture is also presented and experimentally demonstrated. PMID:18360425

  4. Holographic Memory With Localized Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri

    2001-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a memory module that features selective page erasure and readout persistence using the localized recording method in doubly doped LiNbO3 . Pages of information can be selectively erased without partially erasing the whole memory. Data pages can be written over erased pages multiple times. Information is read millions of times before refreshing is required. We quantify the optical quality of the holograms by measuring their signal-to-noise ratio for a memory size up to 100 holograms. A compact phase-conjugate readout architecture is also presented and experimentally demonstrated.

  5. Quantum memories and Landauer's principle

    E-print Network

    Robert Alicki

    2010-07-07

    Two types of arguments concerning (im)possibility of constructing a scalable, exponentially stable quantum memory equipped with Hamiltonian controls are discussed. The first type concerns ergodic properties of open Kitaev models which are considered as promising candidates for such memories. It is shown that, although the 4D Kitaev model provides stable qubit observables, the Hamiltonian control is not possible. The thermodynamical approach leads to the new proposal of the revised version of Landauer's principle and suggests that the existence of quantum memory implies the existence of the perpetuum mobile of the second kind. Finally, a discussion of the stability property of information and its implications is presented.

  6. Shape memory metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dworak, T.D.

    1993-09-01

    The ability to define a manufacturing process to form, heat-treat, and join parts made of nickel-titanium and/or copper-zinc-aluminum shape memory alloys was investigated. The specific emphasis was to define a process that would produce shape memory alloy parts in the configuration of helical coils emulating the appearance of compression springs. In addition, the mechanical strength of the finished parts along with the development of a electrical lead attachment method using shape memory alloy wire was investigated.

  7. Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical-Bloch-line memory is developmental very-large-scale integrated-circuit block-access magnetic memory. Stores data in form of localized pairs of twists (VBL pairs) in magnetic field at edge of ferromagnetic domain in each stripe. Presence or absence of VBL pair at bit position denotes one or zero, respectively. Offers advantages of resistance to ionizing radiation, potential areal storage density approximately less than 1 Gb/cm squared, data rates approximately less than 1 Gb/s, and average access times of order of milliseconds. Furthermore, mass, volume, and demand for power less than other magnetic and electronic memories.

  8. Characteristics of Near-Death Experiences Memories as Compared to Real and Imagined Events Memories

    PubMed Central

    Brédart, Serge; Dehon, Hedwige; Ledoux, Didier; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of time, Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) have intrigued and, nowadays, are still not fully explained. Since reports of NDEs are proposed to be imagined events, and since memories of imagined events have, on average, fewer phenomenological characteristics than real events memories, we here compared phenomenological characteristics of NDEs reports with memories of imagined and real events. We included three groups of coma survivors (8 patients with NDE as defined by the Greyson NDE scale, 6 patients without NDE but with memories of their coma, 7 patients without memories of their coma) and a group of 18 age-matched healthy volunteers. Five types of memories were assessed using Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ – Johnson et al., 1988): target memories (NDE for NDE memory group, coma memory for coma memory group, and first childhood memory for no memory and control groups), old and recent real event memories and old and recent imagined event memories. Since NDEs are known to have high emotional content, participants were requested to choose the most emotionally salient memories for both real and imagined recent and old event memories. Results showed that, in NDE memories group, NDE memories have more characteristics than memories of imagined and real events (p<0.02). NDE memories contain more self-referential and emotional information and have better clarity than memories of coma (all ps<0.02). The present study showed that NDE memories contained more characteristics than real event memories and coma memories. Thus, this suggests that they cannot be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiological origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the reality. Further work is needed to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:23544039

  9. Primacy effects in animal memory and human nonverbal memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Wright

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for primacy effects in animals’ list memory is accumulating, despite assertions that these primacy effects may be\\u000a list-initiation-response artifacts (D. Gaffan, 1983; E. Gaffan, 1992). This evidence comes from list-memory experiments with\\u000a pigeons and monkeys in which primacy changed with retention interval, experiments with monkeys in which primacy correlated\\u000a with list length, and experiments with monkeys in which there

  10. A Case of Mistaken Memory? The Psychology of Eyewitness Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karen Chambers

    2001-01-01

    This case explores the fundamental principles of memory, eyewitness accuracy, and police questioning techniques in witness identification in a criminal case. By studying the details of an actual series of attacks and the subsequent police investigation, students learn that memory is a reconstructive process rather than an accurate recording of events. The case has been used in an undergraduate introductory psychology course and in a course on psychology and the law. It could also be used in a cognitive psychology course.

  11. Resistive Memory Switching of Films for a Nonvolatile Memory Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Lv; M. Yin; X. F. Fu; Y. L. Song; L. Tang; P. Zhou; C. H. Zhao; T. A. Tang; B. A. Chen; Y. Y. Lin

    2008-01-01

    Poly crystalline CuxO films produced by plasma oxidation are investigated for nonvolatile memory applications. Reversible bistable resistive switching from a high-resistance state to a low-resistance state, and vice versa, is observed in an integrated Al\\/CuxO\\/Cu structure under voltage sweeping. More than 3000 repetitive cycles are observed in 180-mum memory devices with an on\\/off ratio of ten times. Data testing shows

  12. Spatial memory: are lizards really deficient?

    PubMed Central

    LaDage, L. D.; Roth, T. C.; Cerjanic, A. M.; Sinervo, B.; Pravosudov, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    In many animals, behaviours such as territoriality, mate guarding, navigation and food acquisition rely heavily on spatial memory abilities; this has been demonstrated in diverse taxa, from invertebrates to mammals. However, spatial memory ability in squamate reptiles has been seen as possible, at best, or non-existent, at worst. Of the few previous studies testing for spatial memory in squamates, some have found no evidence of spatial memory while two studies have found evidence of spatial memory in snakes, but have been criticized based on methodological issues. We used the Barnes maze, a common paradigm to test spatial memory abilities in mammals, to test for spatial memory abilities in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). We found the existence of spatial memory in this species using this spatial task. Thus, our study supports the existence of spatial memory in this squamate reptile species and seeks to parsimoniously align this species with the diverse taxa that demonstrate spatial memory ability. PMID:22933038

  13. CS252/Culler Review of Memory Hierarchy

    E-print Network

    Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

    CS252/Culler Lec 1.1 1/22/02 Review of Memory Hierarchy CS252/Culler Lec 1.2 1/22/02 The Memory CS252/Culler Lec 1.3 1/22/02 Recap: Who Cares About the Memory Hierarchy? µProc 60%/yr. (2X/1.5yr of the Memory Hierarchy CPU Registers 100s Bytes Memory M

  14. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY A. WRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural\\/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus

  15. Improved Ferroelectric Memories With Nondestructive Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1994-01-01

    Ferroelectric memories with enhanced photoresponse leading to improved nondestructive optoelectronic readout and lower power demand proposed. Memories improved versions of devices described in "Rapid, Nondestructive Readout From Ferroelectric Memory" (NPO-18551). In proposed application, array of nonvolatile ferroelectric memory cells fabricated by standard very-large-scale integrated-circuit techniques and flip-bonded onto similarly fabricated array of semiconductor lasers, {see "Optically Addressable, Ferroelectric Memory With NDRO" (NPO-18573)}.

  16. An Analysis of Memory-Based Theories of Automaticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Strayer; Arthur F. Kramer

    1990-01-01

    Memory-based theories of automaticity predict that performance in a memory search task which is automatic will not require a representation of the memory set in working memory. The information contained in working memory was manipulated by inserting an interference task between the presentation of a memory set and a probe stimulus in a memory search task. The interference task prevented

  17. Robert Hooke's model of memory.

    PubMed

    Hintzman, Douglas L

    2003-03-01

    In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

  18. Neuroscience: Rewinding the memory record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Colgin; Edvard I. Moser

    2006-01-01

    How does the brain store sequences of experience? Clues come from brain recordings of rats running along a track. The animals' memories seem to be consolidated in an unexpected way as they rest between runs.

  19. The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union Student Leadership and Involvement Student Media Something New @ OSU #12;Access Diversity "Leadership/Citizenship" Community Connection Health & Wellness Housing & Dining Administrative Leadership #12;Student Leadership & Involvement SLI-Activities Program Club

  20. Multiple memory systems and extinction

    E-print Network

    Gabriele, Amanda

    2005-08-29

    and format of Behavioral Neuroscience. 2 Animal brain lesion studies were utilized to further explore this apparent dichotomy. Evidence for multiple memory systems is provided by studies using dissociation methodology. A double dissociation shows...

  1. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  2. Thermodynamic Model of Spatial Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Miron; Allen, P.

    1998-03-01

    We develop and test a thermodynamic model of spatial memory. Our model is an application of statistical thermodynamics to cognitive science. It is related to applications of the statistical mechanics framework in parallel distributed processes research. Our macroscopic model allows us to evaluate an entropy associated with spatial memory tasks. We find that older adults exhibit higher levels of entropy than younger adults. Thurstone's Law of Categorical Judgment, according to which the discriminal processes along the psychological continuum produced by presentations of a single stimulus are normally distributed, is explained by using a Hooke spring model of spatial memory. We have also analyzed a nonlinear modification of the ideal spring model of spatial memory. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

  3. [Memory disorders in senile dementia].

    PubMed

    Bukatina, E E

    1991-01-01

    Being induced by a certain external cause, coherent ideas of the events gone by may occur in the consciousness of senile dementia patients. These observations suggest that memory stores in senile dementia remain outside the destructive action of the senile atrophic process, in any case until the expressive speech is preserved. Storage of the information acquired before the appearance of the symptoms of dementia is unlikely to depend on the degree of its personality importance. Before it becomes strongly manifest, senile dementia does not prevent the stamping on the person's memory, at least of part of new information (possibly, of only emotionally significant). Such material may also be stored in the patients' memory even in case of pronounced dementia. Difficulties in active reproduction of the ideas available in memory stores can already be seen at the early stages, becoming more remarkable as the disease progresses. PMID:1664614

  4. Nicotine inhibits memory CTL programming.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Garcia, Karla; Mattson, Elliot; Li, Lei; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine is the main tobacco component responsible for tobacco addiction and is used extensively in smoking and smoking cessation therapies. However, little is known about its effects on the immune system. We confirmed that multiple nicotinic receptors are expressed on mouse and human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and demonstrated that nicotinic receptors on mouse CTLs are regulated during activation. Acute nicotine presence during activation increases primary CTL expansion in vitro, but impairs in vivo expansion after transfer and subsequent memory CTL differentiation, which reduces protection against subsequent pathogen challenges. Furthermore, nicotine abolishes the regulatory effect of rapamycin on memory CTL programming, which can be attributed to the fact that rapamycin enhances expression of nicotinic receptors. Interestingly, naïve CTLs from chronic nicotine-treated mice have normal memory programming, which is impaired by nicotine during activation in vitro. In conclusion, simultaneous exposure to nicotine and antigen during CTL activation negatively affects memory development. PMID:23844169

  5. Retrospective Memories of Racialized Experiences

    E-print Network

    Price, Hannah M.

    2010-07-14

    identity and memories of racialized experiences, the results are examined using theoretical concepts including the white racial frame, critical race theory, and ?colorblind? racism. The results indicate that racial identity and categorization is formed...

  6. Patricia Scola Memorial Scholarship APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Patricia Scola Memorial Scholarship APPLICATION STUDENT INFORMATION: The College of Nursing offers demonstrated an ongoing commitment to the field of nursing while maintaining a strong academic record: List the types (scholarships, grants, loans, parental assistance, spousal assistance) and amount

  7. A Memorial to a President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Nash

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the plan for a living memorial to commemorate Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States: a 15-acre grove with hike and bike paths, white pine trees, rhododendrons, and other flowering shrubs. (JA)

  8. Caffeine, extraversion and working memory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that extraverts performing a working memory task benefit more from caffeine than do introverts. The present study aimed to replicate this and extend our knowledge by using a lower dose of caffeine (65 mg) and a range of tasks related to different components of working memory. In addition, tasks assessing psychomotor speed and the encoding of new information were included to determine whether caffeine-extraversion interactions were restricted to working memory tasks. A double-blind design was used, with 128 participants being randomly assigned to caffeinated or de-caffeinated coffee conditions. The results showed that caffeine interacted with extraversion in the predicted direction for serial recall and running memory tasks. Caffeine improved simple reaction time and the speed of encoding of new information, effects which were not modified by extraversion. These results suggest possible biological mechanisms underlying effects of caffeine on cognitive performance. PMID:23015541

  9. Distinct processes shape flashbulb and event memories.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Carla; Schmidt, Susanna; Testa, Silvia; Levine, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, we examined the relation between memory for a consequential and emotional event and memory for the circumstances in which people learned about that event, known as flashbulb memory. We hypothesized that these two types of memory have different determinants and that event memory is not necessarily a direct causal determinant of flashbulb memory. Italian citizens (N = 352) described their memories of Italy's victory in the 2006 Football World Cup Championship after a delay of 18 months. Structural equation modeling showed that flashbulb memory and event memory could be clearly differentiated and were determined by two separate pathways. In the first pathway, importance predicted emotional intensity, which, in turn, predicted the frequency of overt and covert rehearsal. Rehearsal was the only direct determinant of vivid and detailed flashbulb memories. In the second pathway, importance predicted rehearsal by media exposure, which enhanced the accuracy and certainty of event memory. Event memory was also enhanced by prior knowledge. These results have important implications for the debate concerning whether the formation of flashbulb memory and event memory involve different processes and for understanding how flashbulb memory can be simultaneously so vivid and so error-prone. PMID:24217894

  10. MAY: My Memories Are Yours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joana Campos; Ana Paiva

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In human relations engagement and continuous communication is promoted by the process of sharing experiences. This type of social behaviour plays an important role in the maintenance of relationships with our peers and it is grounded\\u000a by cognitive features of memory. Aiming at creating agents that sustain long-term interactions, we developed MAY, a conversational\\u000a virtual companion that gathers memories shared

  11. Transactional Memory Coherence and Consistency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance Hammond; Vicky Wong; Michael K. Chen; Brian D. Carlstrom; John D. Davis; Ben Hertzberg; Manohar K. Prabhu; Honggo Wijaya; Christos Kozyrakis; Kunle Olukotun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propos a new shared memory model: Transactionalmemory Coherence and Consistency (TCC).TCC providesa model in which atomic transactions are always the basicunit of parallel work, communication, memory coherence, andmemory reference consistency.TCC greatly simplifies parallelsoftware by eliminating the need for synchronization using conventionallocks and semaphores, along with their complexities.TCC hardware must combine all writes from each transaction regionin

  12. External-memory graph algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Jen Chiang; Michael T. Goodrich; Edward F. Grove; Roberto Tamassia; Darren Erik Vengroff; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

    1995-01-01

    We present a collection of new techniques for designing and analyzing efficient external-memory algorithms for graph problems and illustrate how these techniques can be applied to a wide variety of specific problems. Our results include: ffl Proximate-neighboring. We present a simple method for deriving external-memory lower bounds via reductions from a problem we call the "proximate neighbors" problem. We use

  13. Atomic snapshots of shared memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda Afek; Hagit Attiya; Danny Dolev; Eli Gafni; Michael Merritt; Nir Shavit

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces a general formulation ofatomic snapshot memory, a sharedmemory partitioned into words written(updated) by individual processes, orinstantaneously read (scanned) in itsentirety. This paper presents three wait-free implementations of atomicsnapshot memory. The first implementation in this paper uses unbounded(integer) fields in these registers, and is particularly easy tounderstand. The second implementation uses bounded registers. Itscorrectness proof follows the ideas

  14. Working Memory and the Brain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2012-02-01

    Press release - Scientists have found evidence that visual working memory follows a more general pattern of brain activity than what researchers have shown with initial visual activity, instead activating a more diffuse area in the front of the brain for all categories of visual stimuli. The study is entitled "Mapping Brain Activation and Information During Category-Specific Visual Working Memory." It appears in the Articles in PresS section of the Journal of Neurophysiology, published by the American Physiological Society.

  15. Efficient Partitioning of Memory Systems and Its Importance for Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Roxin, Alex; Fusi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Long-term memories are likely stored in the synaptic weights of neuronal networks in the brain. The storage capacity of such networks depends on the degree of plasticity of their synapses. Highly plastic synapses allow for strong memories, but these are quickly overwritten. On the other hand, less labile synapses result in long-lasting but weak memories. Here we show that the trade-off between memory strength and memory lifetime can be overcome by partitioning the memory system into multiple regions characterized by different levels of synaptic plasticity and transferring memory information from the more to less plastic region. The improvement in memory lifetime is proportional to the number of memory regions, and the initial memory strength can be orders of magnitude larger than in a non-partitioned memory system. This model provides a fundamental computational reason for memory consolidation processes at the systems level. PMID:23935470

  16. Obtaining Efficacy and Aptitude Measures from the ACID Profiles of Post-Secondary Students with and without Severe Scholastic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slemon, Jill C.; Shafrir, Uri

    This study investigated how obtaining predicted and actual scores on aptitude tests can provide crucial information regarding personal beliefs about ability. The ACID profile of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (WAIS-R) was used to collect the subjective and objective scores of 92 college students with severe scholastic deficits…

  17. Comparative Test-Retest Stability of Four WAIS-R Selected Subtest Short Forms in Persons 75 to 87 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The retest stability of four Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) short forms (Kaufman, Ishikuma, and Kaufman-Packer; Reynolds, Wilson and Clark; Silverstein; Ward) was investigated with 61 subjects aged 75 to 87 years. Short form stability in each instance was comparable to that of the standard WAIS-R. (SLD)

  18. Role of Assessment Tests in the Stability of Intelligence Scoring of Pre-School Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  19. Assessment of English- and Spanish-Speaking Students with the WISC-III and Leiter-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathers-Schiffman, Teresa A.; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2007-01-01

    The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) scores of 47 English- and 47 Spanish-speaking students were analyzed, and the effects of English language ability on these scores were examined. Leiter-R validity was supported for both language groups. WISC-III…

  20. The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Jan; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2002-01-01

    Factor analysis of the Swedish version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised on 88 adults with dyslexia showed a three-factor structure: a verbal comprehension (VC) factor, a perceptual organization (PO) factor, and a freedom from distractibility (FD) factor. The PO factor had the highest scores and the FD the lowest. (Contains…

  1. INTELLIGENCE 23, 175-190 (1996) The Relationship Between WAIS-R

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    INTELLIGENCE 23, 175-190 (1996) The Relationship Between WAIS-R Abilities and Speed of Processing status) 123 participants were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a test that there is a relationship between intelligence and mental speed is an accepted part of our everyday language (Kline, 1991

  2. Learning Disabilities and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Intelligent Well Educated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Kenneth E.; Guyer, Barbara P.; Banks, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study examined scores for 111 adult participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Wide Range Achievement Test-III and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. All participants were referred to a university clinic for learning problems. The participants were diagnosed with a learning disability, an…

  3. Estimated Full Scale IQ in an Adult Heroin Addict Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; And Others

    The research concerning intellectual functioning in addict populations has not addressed basic questions concerning why and how intelligence quotients (IQ) might be related to drug addiction. A study was undertaken to estimate intellectual functioning based upon a demographic profile for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full…

  4. Multidimensional Relationships in the WAIS-R Subscales and Demographic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; Joe, George W.

    This study attempts to integrate and extend previous research by multivariate investigation to determine multidimensional relationships among both the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) subscales and the demographic variables for the 1981 WAIS-R standardization sample. Canonical correlation with orthogonal rotation of composite…

  5. An `instantaneous' estimate of a lifetime's cognitive change Ian J. Dearya,*, Lawrence J. Whalleyb

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    ) and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Test (Raven) as an estimate of cognitive change. We followed up in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1932 (SMS 1932). At age 77 and again at 78 years, they took the NART, Raven, and two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) subtests. The difference between NART and Raven

  6. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  7. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. PMID:23953128

  8. 20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  11. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  12. Memories of AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.

    2013-06-01

    I had the good fortune to be a student of A. B. Migdal - AB, as we called him in person or in his absence - and to work in the sector he headed at the Kurchatov Institute, along with his other students and my friends, including Vitya Galitsky, Spartak Belyayev and Tolya Larkin. I was especially close with AB in the second half of the 1950s, the years most important for my formation, and AB's contribution to this formation was very great. To this day, I've often quoted AB on various occasions, as it's hard to put things better or more precisely than he did; I tell friends stories heard from AB, because these stories enhance life as AB himself enhanced it; my daughter is named Tanya after AB's wife Tatyana Lvovna, and so on. In what follows, I'll recount a few episodes in my life in which AB played an important or decisive role, and then will share some other memories of AB...

  13. Guatemala: Memory of Silence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Established in 1994 as part of the Peace Process in Guatemala, the Guatemalan Historical Clarification Commission (CEH) recently completed its work and forwarded its report to the parties to the Peace Accords and to the Secretary General of the UN. Titled, "Guatemala: Memory of Silence," the report makes disturbing reading, accusing the US-backed military of a host of human rights violations and systematic state terrorism against the Mayan Indian population. While the report concludes that the responsibility for the majority of these violations "reaches the highest levels of the army and successive governments," it still reflects the army's continued power in that it does not name the guilty or call for any trials. However, like the Final Report of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (described in the October 30, 1998 Scout Report), this report is seen by some as both an essential acknowledgement of the truth and as an important step in the political healing process in Guatemala. Provided by the Science and Human Rights Data Center, the first three chapters of the report, an annex (Chronology of the period of armed confrontation), and several maps and charts are currently available at the site in both English and Spanish. The remainder of the report is promised shortly.

  14. Central Florida Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Florida Memory project was started in 2002 by The University of Central Florida Library, The Orange County Regional History Center, and The Orange County Library System. The intent of the project is "to provide an online platform and focal point for gathering, preserving, and disseminating the documents, artifacts, and stories of the history of Central Florida." Over the past few years, the project has been awarded with additional funding grants from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Currently, the project site contains over 80,000 images, along with maps, plans, and other documents. Visitors to the homepage will find three primary sections of note: "Collection", "Share", and "Learn". In the "Collection" area, visitors can make their way through postcards, maps, and the "most recent" additions to the site. For people looking for a more organized experience, there's the "Learn" area. Here they can find thematic collections like "Dreams and Schemes", "Roads, Rivers and Rails", and "Critters, Crackers and Cottages". For those looking for a sample search, words like "Deland", "Stetson University", "Orlando", and "pineapple" will return a host of compelling items.

  15. Montana Memory Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Montana Memory Project is a digitized collection of materials related to the cultural heritage and government of Montana. The website represents an intensive collaboration between libraries, museums, archives, and institutions, many of which are still adding materials to the site. The purpose of the site is to "serve as a resource for education, business, pleasure and lifelong learning." On the homepage, visitors will find a brief description of each of the features of the site, including the "Browse", "Advanced Search", "Preferences", and "My Favorites" features of the site. As the amount of information available on the site can be daunting, visitors would be wise to take a look at the easy-to-read "Help" link, to find assistance for such tasks as "Viewing Results", "Changing Preferences", and "Viewing Compound Objects". There are over 50 collections to browse, or search through individually. The collections range from the "Livingston High School Annuals", to the "Montana Indian Law Portal" to the "Parmly Billings Library Historic Collection".

  16. Decreases in Short Term Memory, IQ, and Altered Brain Metabolic Ratios in Urban Apolipoprotein ?4 Children Exposed to Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Zhu, Hongtu; Lu, Zhaohua; Solorio, Edelmira; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Children's urban air pollution exposures result in systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD. We assessed whether APOE in healthy children modulates cognition, olfaction, and metabolic brain indices. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were administered to 50 Mexico City Metropolitan Area children (13.4 ± 4.8 years, 28 APOE ?3 and 22 APOE ?4). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, myo-inositol (mI)/Cr, and NAA/mI were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes, hippocampus, and pons. APOE ?4 versus ?3 children had a reduced NAA/Cr ratio in the right frontal white matter and decrements on attention, short-term memory, and below-average scores in Verbal and Full Scale IQ (>10 points). APOE modulated the group effects between WISC-R and left frontal and parietal white matter, and hippocampus metabolites. Soap was the predominantly failed odor in urban children and, in APOE ?4 versus ?3 carriers, strongly correlated with left hippocampus mI/Cr ratio. APOE modulates responses to air pollution in the developing brain. APOE ?4 carriers could have a higher risk of developing early AD if they reside in a polluted environment. APOE, cognition, and olfaction testing and targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy may contribute to the assessment of urban children and their results could provide new paths toward the unprecedented opportunity for early neuroprotection and AD prevention. PMID:25633678

  17. The Effects of Perceptual Interference at Encoding on Implicit Memory, Explicit Memory, and Memory for Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil W. Mulligan

    1996-01-01

    Interfering with stimulus identification can enhance later explicit memory performance. This counterintuitive (and theoretically unexpected) phenomenon was investigated in 5 experiments. Perceptual interference enhanced category-cued recall (a conceptually driven explicit test) but had no effect on a comparable implicit memory test, category-exemplar production. This dissociation was obtained across higher levels of priming and with high-frequency as well as low-frequency exemplars.

  18. Directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Barnier, Amanda J; Conway, Martin A; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B

    2007-05-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative, positive, and neutral memories equally, although overall, participants recalled fewer unemotional memories than emotional memories. The preexisting organization of memories enhanced the directed forgetting effect, and a release from forgetting occurred only when the forgotten memories were directly cued. The authors discuss the roles of emotion, retrieval dynamics, and organization in these effects and suggest that the directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories may reflect the inhibition of recently formed memories of remembering, that is, episodic inhibition. The authors consider the implications of these findings for the control of autobiographical remembering in everyday life. PMID:17500653

  19. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies.

    PubMed

    Meena, Jagan Singh; Sze, Simon Min; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new class of memory technologies and scaling of scientific procedures based on an investigation of recent progress in advanced Flash memory devices. PMID:25278820

  20. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new class of memory technologies and scaling of scientific procedures based on an investigation of recent progress in advanced Flash memory devices. PMID:25278820

  1. Thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior for epoxy-shape memory polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianguo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-05-01

    There are various applications for shape memory polymer (SMP) in the smart materials and structures field due to its large recoverable strain and controllable driving method. The mechanical shape memory deformation mechanism is so obscure that many samples and test schemes have to be tried in order to verify a final design proposal for a smart structure system. This paper proposes a simple and very useful method to unambiguously analyze the thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior of SMP smart structures. First, experiments under different temperature and loading conditions are performed to characterize the large deformation and thermoviscoelastic behavior of epoxy-SMP. Then, a rheological constitutive model, which is composed of a revised standard linear solid (SLS) element and a thermal expansion element, is proposed for epoxy-SMP. The thermomechanical coupling effect and nonlinear viscous flowing rules are considered in the model. Then, the model is used to predict the measured rubbery and time-dependent response of the material, and different thermomechanical loading histories are adopted to verify the shape memory behavior of the model. The results of the calculation agree with experiments satisfactorily. The proposed shape memory model is practical for the design of SMP smart structures.

  2. Implementing a bubble memory hierarchy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segura, R.; Nichols, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on implementation of a magnetic bubble memory in a two-level hierarchial system. The hierarchy used a major-minor loop device and RAM under microprocessor control. Dynamic memory addressing, dual bus primary memory, and hardware data modification detection are incorporated in the system to minimize access time. It is the objective of the system to incorporate the advantages of bipolar memory with that of bubble domain memory to provide a smart, optimal memory system which is easy to interface and independent of user's system.

  3. Mediationism and the obfuscation of memory

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Memory theorizing is going nowhere. The reason is that it is rooted in mediationism, the doctrine that memory is mediated by some sort of memory trace. Mediationism is the basic tenet of those who seek the substrate of memory; for students of memory per se it is merely a metaphor, and moreover an unfruitful one, for it cannot be penetrated by the methods of psychology. The rejection of mediationism would serve both to replace mechanistic theories with laws or other modes of explanation and to focus research on the actual experience of memory and on the context in which it occurs. The ensuing advantages are discussed and illustrated. PMID:22478247

  4. Face-name memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects face-name memory, the ability to recognize faces and recall names. Remembering face and name requires a sophisticated cognitive process because of the complexity and similarity among faces and also because of their arbitrary association with names. Assessments of face-name memory can measure episodic and semantic memory performance and are useful for early detection of AD. Improving face-name memory is possible through cognitive interventions targeted to promote procedural memory, which is often preserved until the late stage of AD. This article describes a conceptual model, assessment tools, and strategies for improving face-name memory in persons with AD. PMID:24746673

  5. The OpenMP Memory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeflinger, J P; de Supinski, B R

    2005-06-01

    The memory model of OpenMP has been widely misunderstood since the first OpenMP specification was published in 1997 (Fortran 1.0). The proposed OpenMP specification (version 2.5) includes a memory model section to address this issue. This section unifies and clarifies the text about the use of memory in all previous specifications, and relates the model to well-known memory consistency semantics. In this paper, we discuss the memory model and show its implications for future distributed shared memory implementations of OpenMP.

  6. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael A.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing. PMID:19307569

  7. Optical memory development. Volume 1: prototype memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Mezrich, R. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.; Wendt, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and implementation of a prototype, partially populated, million bit read-write holographic memory system using state-of-the-art components are described. The system employs an argon ion laser, acoustooptic beam deflectors, a holographic beam splitter (hololens), a nematic liquid crystal page composer, a photoconductor-thermoplastic erasable storage medium, a silicon P-I-N photodiode array, with lenses and electronics of both conventional and custom design. Operation of the prototype memory system was successfully demonstrated. Careful attention is given to the analysis from which the design criteria were developed. Specifications for the major components are listed, along with the details of their construction and performance. The primary conclusion resulting from this program is that the basic principles of read-write holographic memory system are well understood and are reducible to practice.

  8. Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout

    E-print Network

    Roy, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...

  9. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory. PMID:25112394

  10. Memory malingering: evaluating WMT criteria.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mauricio; Martins, Isabel P

    2010-07-01

    The Word Memory Test (WMT) has been considered one of the best assessment tools for assessing memory malingering in spite of some reported false-positive results. Our goal was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of Green's 2003 criteria for memory malingering using a Portuguese adaptation of the WMT. We applied the WMT to three groups of participants, including 20 healthy subjects asked to simulate memory impairment, 29 healthy adults asked to produce their best performance, and 21 patients with the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using Green's 2003 criteria, based on scores below cutoffs on the easy subtests, 67% of the MCI patients were classified as "poor effort." However, the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis could be raised to 95% using an alternative set of criteria, relying on comparisons between easy and hard subtest scores. We conclude that Green's original criteria based on easy subtest scores alone seem to be of low specificity for the diagnosis of memory impairment simulation, but the WMT is a good instrument for identifying simulation if the alternative criteria are applied. PMID:20799108

  11. The molecular basis of memory.

    PubMed

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2012-08-15

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (N(A) = 6 × 10(23)). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson's disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of "synaptic plasticity" affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  12. All-printed paper memory.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kao, Zhen-Kai; Huang, Teng-Han; Liao, Ying-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-08-26

    We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal–insulator–metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. PMID:25019420

  13. The history of memory arts.

    PubMed

    Patten, B M

    1990-02-01

    Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist. PMID:2405298

  14. The Molecular Basis of Memory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (NA = 6 × 1023). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson’s disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of “synaptic plasticity” affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting. PMID:23050060

  15. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Emotional Autobiographical Memories in Amnesic Patients

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Emotional Autobiographical Memories in Amnesic Patients with Medial of emotional autobiographical memories has received little attention in patients with memory disorders. Here produced a lower proportion of unpleasant memories compared with the other participants. Specifically

  16. Energy Management Schemes for Memory-Resident Database Systems

    E-print Network

    Energy Management Schemes for Memory-Resident Database Systems Jayaprakash Pisharath, Alok Choudhary Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Northwestern University Evanston, IL 60208 {jay memories, memory- resident databases are increasingly becoming important in various domains. Newer memories

  17. Memory and Self–Neuroscientific Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between memory and the self are framed from a number of perspectives—developmental aspects, forms of memory, interrelations between memory and the brain, and interactions between the environment and memory. The self is seen as dividable into more rudimentary and more advanced aspects. Special emphasis is laid on memory systems and within them on episodic autobiographical memory which is seen as a pure human form of memory that is dependent on a proper ontogenetic development and shaped by the social environment, including culture. Self and episodic autobiographical memory are seen as interlocked in their development and later manifestation. Aside from content-based aspects of memory, time-based aspects are seen along two lines—the division between short-term and long-term memory and anterograde—future-oriented—and retrograde—past-oriented memory. The state dependency of episodic autobiographical is stressed and implications of it—for example, with respect to the occurrence of false memories and forensic aspects—are outlined. For the brain level, structural networks for encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval are discussed both by referring to patient data and to data obtained in normal participants with functional brain imaging methods. It is elaborated why descriptions from patients with functional or dissociative amnesia are particularly apt to demonstrate the facets in which memory, self, and personal temporality are interwoven. PMID:24967303

  18. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM. PMID:23445114

  19. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    PubMed Central

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear conditioning training in rats. Fear conditioning had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory but specifically impaired its extinction. Extinguished fear memory, after fear extinction training, had no effect on future CTA memory extinction. Fear conditioning had no effect on CTA memory extinction if CTA memory was formed before fear conditioning. Conditioned taste aversion had no effect on fear conditioning memory extinction. We conclude that active cued fear conditioning memory can affect specifically the extinction, but not the formation, of future different memory. PMID:25324744

  20. Nonvolatile graphene nanoflake shuttle memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Kang, Jeong Won

    2014-02-01

    We present the possible schematics of nanoscale graphene-flake shuttle-memory, discuss its basic principles, and investigate the energetic and the dynamic properties via classical molecular dynamics simulations. Graphite flake surface, where the nanoscale graphene-flake’s stage of activity takes place, has a dumbbell shape, and a nanoscale graphene-flake is placed on its surface. The van der Waals interactions between the graphene-flake and the patterned graphite make the bistable potential energy wells in the larger surface area regions of the patterned graphite, and then the graphene-flake keeps its seat on one of the bistable positions, which is the place where the binary data is archived. Since the movable graphene-flake can be also shuttled between the bistable states through the narrow passageway, this proposed nano-graphene-flake shuttle-memory can be utilized from nanoscale switchable nonvolatile memory.

  1. Program Transformations in Weak Memory Models 

    E-print Network

    Sevcik, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the validity of common optimisations on multi-threaded programs in two memory models—the DRF guarantee and the Java Memory Model. Unlike in the single-threaded world, even simple program transformations, such ...

  2. Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.

    PubMed

    Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

  3. Memory leads the way to better computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.-S. Philip; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-03-01

    New non-volatile memory devices store information using different physical mechanisms from those employed in today's memories and could achieve substantial improvements in computing performance and energy efficiency.

  4. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  5. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and LECTURERS' UNION OF MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND February 5, 2009 ­ August 31, 2012 #12;Table of Contents ARTICLE 1 ­ Preamble

  6. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and NEWFOUNDLAND ASSOCIATION mean the Newfoundland Association of Public Employees. (b) "Bargaining Unit" shall mean the bargaining. (f) "Employer" shall mean the Memorial University of Newfoundland. #12;2 (g) "Gender" shall mean

  7. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and NEWFOUNDLAND ASSOCIATION) "Employer" shall mean the Memorial University of Newfoundland. (b) AAssociation or Union@ shall mean the Newfoundland and Labrador Association of Public and Private Employees. (c) "Bargaining Unit" shall mean

  8. COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT between MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND and NEWFOUNDLAND ASSOCIATION" or "Union" shall mean the Newfoundland Association of Public and Private Employees. (b) "Bargaining Unit the Memorial University of Newfoundland. (h) "Layoff" shall mean a temporary cessation of employment because

  9. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Prediction Software

    Cancer.gov

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Prediction Software Michael W. Kattan, Paul A. Fearn, David Ladanyi, Pat Turi, John Davey, Jacob Rockowitz, Peter B. Bach, Peter T. Scardino Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Background. Over the past several years,

  10. Electrically Variable Resistive Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex; Charlson, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile electronic memory devices that store data in the form of electrical- resistance values, and memory circuits based on such devices, have been invented. These devices and circuits exploit an electrically-variable-resistance phenomenon that occurs in thin films of certain oxides that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. It is worth emphasizing that, as stated in the immediately preceding article, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. A device of this type is basically a thin film resistor: it consists of a thin film of a CMR material located between, and in contact with, two electrical conductors. The application of a short-duration, low-voltage current pulse via the terminals changes the electrical resistance of the film. The amount of the change in resistance depends on the size of the pulse. The direction of change (increase or decrease of resistance) depends on the polarity of the pulse. Hence, a datum can be written (or a prior datum overwritten) in the memory device by applying a pulse of size and polarity tailored to set the resistance at a value that represents a specific numerical value. To read the datum, one applies a smaller pulse - one that is large enough to enable accurate measurement of resistance, but small enough so as not to change the resistance. In writing, the resistance can be set to any value within the dynamic range of the CMR film. Typically, the value would be one of several discrete resistance values that represent logic levels or digits. Because the number of levels can exceed 2, a memory device of this type is not limited to binary data. Like other memory devices, devices of this type can be incorporated into a memory integrated circuit by laying them out on a substrate in rows and columns, along with row and column conductors for electrically addressing them individually or collectively.

  11. Energy/Performance Design of Memory Hierarchies for Processor-in-Memory Chips

    E-print Network

    Torrellas, Josep

    Energy/Performance Design of Memory Hierarchies for Processor-in-Memory Chips Michael Huang, Jose, the design of the memory hierarchy in a multi-banked PIM chip with many sim- ple, fast processors. Our results suggest the use of per-processor memory hierarchies that include modest-sized caches, simple DRAM

  12. L5: Memory Hierarchy Optimization III, Data Placement, cont. and Memory

    E-print Network

    Hall, Mary W.

    1/31/11 1 L5: Memory Hierarchy Optimization III, Data Placement, cont. and Memory Bandwidth Optimizations CS6963 1L5:MemoryHierarchy,III Administrative · Next assignment available ­ Next four slides ­ Goals of assignment: ­ simple memory hierarchy management ­ block-thread decomposition tradeoff ­ Due

  13. L5: Memory Hierarchy Optimization III, Data Placement, cont. and Memory

    E-print Network

    Hall, Mary W.

    1/25/12 1 L5: Memory Hierarchy Optimization III, Data Placement, cont. and Memory Bandwidth Optimizations CS6235 1 L5: Memory Hierarchy, III Administrative · Next assignment available ­Next three slides ­Goals of assignment: ­simple memory hierarchy management ­block-thread decomposition

  14. Event memory and autobiographical memory for the events of September 11, 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Pezdek

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY This research compares event memory and autobiographical memory for an event that was experienced to be more distressing, with more significant and widespread consequences than was any other event for which memory has been studied in a large sample. Memory for the events of September 11 was assessed seven weeks later in three samples: (a) 275 college students from

  15. Memory, action and the corpus striatum: current developments in the memory-habit distinction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gaffan

    1996-01-01

    The distinction between memory and habit has been of great historical importance in theories of animal learning. The reality of animal memory is now firmly established, but it is only recently becoming clear how memory systems can influence action. In explaining the interactions between memory systems and action systems it is no longer necessary to invoke the concept of habit,

  16. Manufactured Memory, Altered Belief and Self Report Mirage: The Alleged False Memory of Jean Piaget Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Frank

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that a Jean Piaget anecdote about an alleged memory implanted in a young child leading to both a visual and semantic memory that persists despite disconfirming evidence is entirely different than the recovered memory debate, which is about the alleged introduction of memories to grown adults. (CR)

  17. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  18. Munin: Distributed Shared Memory Based on Type-Specific Memory Coherence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Bennett; John B. Carter; Willy Zwaenepoel

    1990-01-01

    We are developing Munin, a system that allows pro- grams written for shared memory multiprocessors to be executed efficiently on distributed memory ma- chines. Munin attempts to overcome the architec- tural limitations of shared memory machines, while maintaining their advantages in terms of ease of pro- gramming. Our system is unique in its use of loosely coherent memory, based on

  19. Practicing What Is Preached: Self-Reflections on Memory in a Memory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    To apply several principles of memory covered in a first-year university memory course, I developed a series of one-page self-reflection papers on memory that require students to engage with the material in a meaningful way. These short papers cover topics related to memory, and the assignment itself applies these same principles, reinforcing…

  20. 1 Memory Storage What kinds of things are in your memory?

    E-print Network

    O'Reilly, Randall C.

    1 Memory Storage What kinds of things are in your memory? Perceptual memories. Motor memories organized? What is encoded & what is not? 2 Is Your Brain a Library? How are things organized orthography phonology action oriented tactile visual auditory kinesthetic form color 3-D tele phonefoot brake