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1

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised and Wechsler Memory Scale由evised Scores in a Healthy Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the joint factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (D. Wechsler, 1981) and Wechsler Memory Scale由evised (D. Wechsler, 1987) in a sample of 399 healthy young adults (206 women and 193 men) recruited for a normative study in Sydney, Australia: the Macquarie University Neuropsychological Normative Study. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors contrasted alternative models of

Stephen C. Bowden; Jane R. Carstairs; E. Arthur Shores

1999-01-01

2

Effects of Practice in Repeated Administrations of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised in Normal Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature and magnitude of practice effects on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (D. Wechsler, 1987) were studied with 64 adult college students. The clinically meaningful increase observed across the four test sessions highlights the importance of controlling for practice effects on repeated administration of neuropsychological measures. (SLD)

Theisen, Mary E.; Rapport, Lisa J.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Brines, D. Brooke

1998-01-01

3

Comparative relationships of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (WAIS-R) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) demonstrate similar patterns of relationship with the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Sixty VA patients were administered the WAIS-R and WMS and 60 completed the WAIS and WMS. The groups were comparable in terms of demographic variables. Pearson correlations were computed between the

Joseph J. Ryan; Samuel J. Rosenberg; Robert L. Heilbronner

1984-01-01

4

Differentiation of amnesic and demented patients with the wechsler memory scale -revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered to 16 amnesic patients, 20 patients with Alzheimer's Disease, 24 patients with Huntington's Disease and 28 normal control subjects. The findings for the five memory indices demonstrated that the amnesics' General and Delayed Memory Indices (69 and 56, respectively) were more accurate estimates of their severe anterograde memory problems than was the single

Nelson Butters; David P. Salmon; C. Munro Cullum; Patricia Cairns; Alexander I. Trster; Diane Jacobs; Mark Moss; Laird S. Cermak

1988-01-01

5

Cross-validation of Predicted Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equations for prorating the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised General Memory (GM) and Delayed Recall (DR) index scores were confirmed in a clinical sample of 258 patients. These prediction equations for the GM and DR summary scores have validity for patient samples similar to those of the present study. (SLD)

Axelrod, Bradley N.; And Others

1996-01-01

6

Intrusion errors on the visual reproduction test of the wechsler memory scale and the wechsler memory scale - revised: An analysis of demented and amnesic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of prior-figure intrusion errors produced by patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), Huntington's disease (HD), alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AK), bilateral hippocampal damage (HI-AMN) and elderly normal control subjects (NC) was assessed using the Visual Reproduction Test (VRT) of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R). Patients with DAT made significantly

Diane Jacobs; Alexander I. Trster; Nelson Butters; David P. Salmon; Laird S. Cermak

1990-01-01

7

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised Subtest Scatter as a Function of Maximum Subtest Scaled Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (Wechsler, 1981) standardization data were analyzed to determine the frequency of relative intersubtest scatter. The relative scatter range was defined as the difference between the highest and lowest subtest scores based on the value of the highest subtest. This approach provides the greatest precision in scatter analysis to determine whether the amount of scatter obtained

John A. Schinka; Rodney D. Vanderploeg; Glenn Curtiss

1994-01-01

8

Computation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised Factor Scores: Equal and Differential Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard procedures for estimating factor scores for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (WAIS乏; D. Wechsler, 1981) involve equally weighted sums of the subtests that load most highly on the factor being estimated. We argue that factor scores derived in this manner lack discriminant validity; they are strongly biased toward g (the first unrotated factor) and away from the other 2

Kevin C. H. Parker; Leslie Atkinson

1995-01-01

9

Cautions in Interpretation of Comparisons between the WAIS-R and the Wechsler Memory Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wechsler Memory Scale Memory Quotient (WMS MQ) 12 points below Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Full-Scale IQ (WAIS FSIQ) may indicate memory impairment. Investigated the relation of FSIQ to MQ when the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised rather than the WAIS is used. Discrepancy between FSIQ and MQ occurred less often with WAIS-R than with

Prifitera, Aurelio; Barley, William D.

1985-01-01

10

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Subtest Scatter as a Function of Maximum Subtest Scaled Score.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) standardization data (for 1,880 adults) were analyzed to determine the frequency of relative intersubtest scatter. Relative scatter range was defined as the difference between highest and lowest subtest scores based on the value of the highest subtest. (SLD)

Schinka, John A.; And Others

1994-01-01

11

Hierarchical Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtained a hierarchical factor solution on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) subtest intercorrelations for the nine age groups included in the standardization sample. Findings support the validity of the WAIS-R as a measure of general intelligence and the validity of maintaining separate Verbal and Performance IQs. (Author)

Blaha, John; Wallbrown, Fred H.

1982-01-01

12

Identification of Malingered Head Injury on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlitigating head injured patients (N = 67) were compared with 67 age-, IQ-, and occupation-matched participants who were instructed to malinger head trauma symptoms on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (WAIS乏). Discriminant function analysis based on the WAIS乏 subtests and a Vocabulary縫igit Span difference score were able to accurately classify 79% and 71% of the cases, respectively. Decision rules cross-validated

Wiley Mittenberg; Sharon Theroux-Fichera; Rene E. Zielinski; Robert L. Heilbronner

1995-01-01

13

A Structural Equation Analysis of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis was performed by applying LISREL VII to the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 1990) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (WAIS乏; D. Wechsler, 1981). Analyses were designed to determine which of six hypothesized oblique factor solutions would best explain the pattern of relationships among different combinations of K-BIT

D. Bradley Burton; Richard I. Naugle; Joneen M. Schuster

1995-01-01

14

Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R): An Examination of the Standardization Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performed orthogonal and oblique factor analysis using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) standardization sample (N=1,880). Analysis of the variance components for each subtest at every age level revealed a substantial proportion of subtests at a wide range of age levels evidenced high or intermediate levels of specific

Gutkin, Terry B.; And Others

1984-01-01

15

Validity of quick short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised with brain-damaged patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validities of 41 short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised that require 20 minutes or less to give were compared in a sample of 174 brain-damaged patients. Mean errors in predicting Full Scale IQs were computed for each subtest combination, and a short form efficiency index was calculated by correcting mean error for administration time. The three quick

Joseph J. Ryan

1997-01-01

16

Test乏etest Stability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale乏evised in the Assessment of Head-Injured Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale乏evised protocols from 48 male and 12 female head-injured patients (mean age = 27.02) with a mean test睦etest interval of 8.48 months were analyzed to determine test睦etest stability. Stability coefficients were .91, .84, and .92 for Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ), and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), respectively. On retest, mean improvement was 4.08, 8.02,

Allan D. Moore; Michael Stambrook; Garry A. Hawryluk; Lois C. Peters; Daryl D. Gill; Malinda M. Hymans

1990-01-01

17

Investigation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Short Forms in a Sample of Vocational Rehabilitation Applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the validity of two- and four-subtest combinations as estimates of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) among vocational rehabilitation clients (N= 93). Pearson product-moment correlations between FSIQ and two- and four-subtest short forms were .90 and .91, respectively. Both short forms classified approximately 72% of the subjects correctly by intelligence category. When

Joseph A. Banken; Cheryl Hall Banken

1987-01-01

18

Teaching Adminstration and Scoring of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale乏evised: An Empirical Evaluation of Practice Administrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed 150 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (WAIS乏) protocols completed by 20 graduate students to examine the effect of practice administrations in teaching the WAIS乏. Failure to record both responses and times decreased over 10 administrations, but no other improvement occurred across either 5 or 10 administrations. Rather than becoming proficient in test administration and scoring, Ss often practiced

John R. Slate; Craig H. Jones; Richard A. Murray

1991-01-01

19

A Comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale乏evised With the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (4th Edition) For Mentally Retarded Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made between scores on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: 4th Edition (Binet IV) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale乏evised (WAIS乏) for 2 groups of mentally retarded adults. There were no significant differences in Wechsler IQs or Binet Standard Age Scores (SASs) between the young adults (under age 24 years, n = 32) or older adults (age 24 years or

Jean Spruill

1991-01-01

20

Factor analysis of the WAIS and wechsler memory scale: An analysis of the construct validity of the wechsler memory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WAIS and Wechsler Memory Scale subtest scores of 256 neurologic and nonneurologic subjects were factor analyzed. The results supported the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale as a measure of verbal learning and memory, attention and concentration, and orientation. Construct validity was not demonstrated for the Visual Reproduction subtest as a measure of visual memory. Suggestions are offered

Glenn J. Larrabee; Robert L. Kane; John R. Schuck

1983-01-01

21

Relationship between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised in a Sample of Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) were administered as part of a psychological assessment battery. Data were collected from 121 adults and correlations calculated between WRAT-R subtests and WAIS-R Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs; and WAIS-R scaled scores. A Multiple Regression Analysis was carried out using the WRAT-R subtests as independent variables

Douglas Cooper; Maryann Fraboni

1988-01-01

22

Administration duration for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The administration times for each of the subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) were recorded for a clinical sample of 81 patients. The findings revealed that the time needed to administer the WAIS-III subtests to generate the summary scores, index scores, and both scores were 58, 51, and 65 min, respectively. The time

Bradley N Axelrod

2001-01-01

23

Memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia: preliminary data from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition support earlier findings.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether memory data presented for a schizophrenia sample in the Technical Manual of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition support trends identified in a previously published review of studies employing an earlier version of the instrument, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. DESIGN: Archival: reformulation of published data. PATIENTS: Patients with schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or traumatic brain injury (TBI) for whom intelligence and memory data were reported in the Technical Manual of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III WMS-III). OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance Intelligence Quotients of the WAIS-III and mean WMS-III Immediate and General Memory Indexes. Single-trial learning and learning slope data were also culled from the WAIS-III WMS-III Technical Manual. RESULTS: Memory indexes for patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome were substantially lower than those for patients with schizophrenia or TBI. In tests of learning processes, patients with schizophrenia had an inferior ability to repeat material presented just once, in comparison with the standardization sample. However, they did relatively better with repeated presentations than patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome. The learning slope for patients with schizophrenia demonstrated an ability to absorb and consolidate increasing amounts of material with repeated exposure that is inconsistent with pronounced memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit new learning deficiencies, their memory capabilities are not substantially weaker than their general intellectual abilities, and do not approach the memory impairment exhibited by patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome. PMID:10516802

Hawkins, K A

1999-01-01

24

Administration duration for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III.  

PubMed

The administration times for each of the subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) were recorded for a clinical sample of 81 patients. The findings revealed that the time needed to administer the WAIS-III subtests to generate the summary scores, index scores, and both scores were 58, 51, and 65 min, respectively. The time required to complete the primary subtests on the WMS-III was 21, 15, and 6 min for Immediate Memory, General Memory, and Working Memory, respectively, resulting in a total administration time of 42 min. The time necessary to administer most of the subtests was unrelated to age, education, or performance level. These data demonstrate a shorter than expected administration time for the WAIS-III and a longer than anticipated administration for the WMS-III. Results for other clinical settings will be impacted by examiner familiarity and patient composition. PMID:14590179

Axelrod, B N

2001-04-01

25

A comparison study of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in a college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered the WAIS and the WAIS-R to 70 1829 yr old college students in a counterbalanced order. A highly significant test?ラ?order interaction was found such that the WAIS-R resulted in significantly higher estimates of ability when administered following the WAIS than did the WAIS when following the WAIS-R. However, a comparison of scores for Ss taking their 1st Wechsler scale

R. Spencer Smith

1983-01-01

26

Wechsler Memory Scale, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, and Everyday Memory Questionnaire in Healthy Adults and Alzheimer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) is a laboratory-based memory test that has been criticized for its lack of ecological validity and for not testing long-term memory. A more recent memory test, which aims at testing everyday memory, is the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT); it tests prospective memory and other forms of memory not tapped by WMS. However, even this

Anastasia Efklides; Efterpi Yiultsi; Theopisti Kangellidou; Fotini Kounti; Fotini Dina; Magda Tsolaki

2002-01-01

27

Factor Analysis of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale Tests in a Neuropsychological Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Revised Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and Halstead-Reitan battery were factor analyzed. Five types of memory were isolated: immediate verbal, recent verbal, recent figural, figural learning, and verbal learning storage. Loadings of memory and nonmemory tests indicate a closer relationship between some of

Russell, Elbert W.

1982-01-01

28

Education-Stratified Base-Rate Information on Discrepancy Scores Within and Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article

Dori, Galit A.; Chelune, Gordon J.

2004-01-01

29

Parsimonious prediction of Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition scores: Immediate and delayed memory indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on previous versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) found that index scores could be predicted using a parsimonious selection of subtests (e.g., Axelrod & Woodard, 2000). The release of the Fourth Edition (WMS蜂V) requires a reassessment of these predictive formulas as well as the use of indices from the California Verbal Learning Test蜂I (CVLT蜂I). Complete WMS蜂V and CVLT蜂I

Justin B. Miller; Bradley N. Axelrod; Lisa J. Rapport; Scott R. Millis; Sarah VanDyke; Christian Schutte; Robin A. Hanks

2012-01-01

30

Education-Stratified Base-Rate Information on Discrepancy Scores Within and Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale裕hird Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale裕hird Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article provides information on education-stratified, directional prevalence rates (i.e., base rates) of discrepancy scores

Galit A. Dori; Gordon J. Chelune

2004-01-01

31

Lateralized Anterior and Posterior Lesions and Performance on Digit Span and Russell痴 Revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance on the Russell (1975) revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale by subjects with lateralized anterior and posterior lesions was investigated. Ss were right-handed men whose brain lesions were identified on the basis of neurodiagnostic tests as being lateralized to either the left or right hemisphere and restricted to

Bruce E. Chlopan; Richard L. Hagen; Elbert W. Russell

1990-01-01

32

Assessing memory deterioration with the wechsler memory scale, the national adult Reading Test, and the Schonell Graded Word Reading Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Schonell Graded Word Reading Test (SGWRT), and the Wechsler Memory Scale, Form I (WMS) were administered to 65 healthy subjects aged 65 to 89 years. Regression equations were derived which allowed total raw score on the WMS to be predicted from the subject's age and from the number of errors on the NART

Dieter Schlosser; David Ivison

1989-01-01

33

Wechsler Memory Scale蜂II Faces test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the sensitivity of the Wechsler Memory Scale傍hird Edition (WMS-III) Faces subtest to memory impairment associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, Faces performance was examined in 24 MCI patients, 46 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and 98 elderly controls. We hypothesized that participants with diagnoses of MCI or AD would be impaired relative to

Adriana M. Seelye; Diane B. Howieson; Katherine V. Wild; Mindy Milar Moore; Jeffrey A. Kaye

2009-01-01

34

Lateralized anterior and posterior lesions and performance on Digit Span and Russell's revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale.  

PubMed

Performance on the Russell (1975) revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale by subjects with lateralized anterior and posterior lesions was investigated. Ss were right-handed men whose brain lesions were identified on the basis of neurodiagnostic tests as being lateralized to either the left or right hemisphere and restricted to either the anterior or posterior side of the central sulcus. A normal comparison group was formed of Ss suspected of having neurological damage and referred for neuropsychological testing but who had normal neurodiagnostic examinations. It was predicted that both the laterality and caudality of lesions would affect memory task performance. This prediction was fully supported for the logical memory task and partially supported for the figural memory and digit span tasks. PMID:2292636

Chlopan, B E; Hagen, R L; Russell, E W

1990-12-01

35

Cognitive complaints in closed-head injury: Relationship to memory test performance and emotional disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-appraisal of cognitive difficulties by a sample of 63 male patients with closed-head injury (CHI) was examined in relation to their performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R; Wechsler, 1987), WA1S-R Digit Span (Wechsler, 1981), and to their scores on MMP12 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) measures of anxiety and depression. In an initial step, the Cognitive Difficulties

Carlton S. Gass; Christine Apple

1997-01-01

36

Parsimonious estimation of the Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition demographically adjusted index scores: immediate and delayed memory.  

PubMed

The recent release of the Wechsler Memory Scale Fourth Edition contains many improvements from a theoretical and administration perspective, including demographic corrections using the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Although the administration time has been reduced from previous versions, a shortened version may be desirable in certain situations given practical time limitations in clinical practice. The current study evaluated two- and three-subtest estimations of demographically corrected Immediate and Delayed Memory index scores using both simple arithmetic prorating and regression models. All estimated values were significantly associated with observed index scores. Use of Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient as a measure of agreement showed a high degree of precision and virtually zero bias in the models, although the regression models showed a stronger association than prorated models. Regression-based models proved to be more accurate than prorated estimates with less dispersion around observed values, particularly when using three subtest regression models. Overall, the present research shows strong support for estimating demographically corrected index scores on the WMS-IV in clinical practice with an adequate performance using arithmetically prorated models and a stronger performance using regression models to predict index scores. PMID:22376069

Miller, Justin B; Axelrod, Bradley N; Schutte, Christian

2012-01-01

37

Comparison of nondominant and dominant hand performances on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition Visual Reproduction subtest copy and memory components.  

PubMed

Using both clinical and nonclinical samples, we investigated the effects of nondominant hand completion of copy and memory components on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) Visual Reproduction (VR) subtest. Part I of the study revealed statistically significant intermanual differences on the copy component, though discrepancies were not clinically meaningful. Part II showed similar memory scores between the group who used their nondominant hand and the group who used their dominant hand. Findings suggest that when a standard administration is precluded, it is reasonable to use the nondominant hand to complete the VR subtest and to make use of the WMS-IV norms for interpretation. PMID:23639100

Glass Umfleet, Laura; Ryan, Joseph J; Morris, Jeri; Pliskin, Neil

2013-01-01

38

Traumatic Brain Injury and Memory: The Role of Hippocampal Atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traumatically brain-injured (TBI) patients (N = 83), memory performance was examined on the Warrington Recognition Memory Test, Rey飽sterrieth Complex Figure, and the Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale由evised in relationship to time postinjury and structural changes based on MRI volumetry, including hippocampus volume. Significant trauma-induced changes were observed, including hippocampal atrophy. Structure貿unction relationships generally

Erin D. Bigler; Sterling C. Johnson; Carol V. Anderson; Duane D. Blatter; Shawn D. Gale; Antonietta A. Russo; David K. Ryser; Susan E. Macnamara; Becky J. Bailey; Ramona O. Hopkins; Tracy J. Abildskov

1996-01-01

39

ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

2009-01-01

40

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct.  

PubMed

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Working Memory Index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percentage of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle's (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms. PMID:19657913

Hill, B D; Elliott, Emily M; Shelton, Jill T; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, W Drew

2010-03-01

41

ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant DisorderDifferences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility\\/Working Memory Index (FDI\\/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587 children with ADHD combined type (alone, with oppositional-defiant disorder, and with anxiety or depression) and ADHD inattentive type (alone

Susan Dickerson Mayes; Susan L. Calhoun; Gary A. Chase; Danielle M. Mink; Ryan E. Stagg

2009-01-01

42

MMPI2 Variables in Attention and Memory Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention span (Digit Span), verbal list learning, and memory test performance (Wechsler Memory Scale由evised; WMS乏) were examined in relation to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2 (MMPI2) measures of depression, anxiety, and psychotic thinking in male patients with closed-head injury (n = 48) and with psychiatric disorder (n = 80). In both samples, MMPI2 scores were significantly related to Attention Span but

Carlton S. Gass

1996-01-01

43

Diagnostic efficiency of demographically corrected Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III indices in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and lower education levels.  

PubMed

Despite the sensitivity of neuropsychological tests to educational level, improved diagnostic accuracy for demographically corrected scores has yet to be established. Diagnostic efficiency statistics of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) indices that were corrected for education, sex, and age (demographically corrected) were compared with age corrected indices in individuals aged 16 to 75 years with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 12 years or less education. TBI participants (n = 100) were consecutive referrals to an outpatient rehabilitation service and met careful selection criteria. Controls (n = 100) were obtained from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. Demographically corrected indices did not provide higher diagnostic efficiency than age corrected indices and this result was supported by reanalysis of the TBI group against a larger and unmatched control group. Processing Speed Index provided comparable diagnostic accuracy to that of combined indices. Demographically corrected indices were associated with higher cut-scores to maximize overall classification, reflecting the upward adjustment of those scores in a lower education sample. This suggests that, in clinical practice, the test results of individuals with limited education may be more accurately interpreted with the application of demographic corrections. Diagnostic efficiency statistics are presented, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:19709458

Walker, Alexandra J; Batchelor, Jennifer; Shores, E Arthur; Jones, Mike

2009-11-01

44

Sex differences among non-brain-damaged adults on the wechsler adult intelligence scales: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed studies of the performance of non-brain-damaged men and women on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (i.e., the Wechsler-Bellevue, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) to determine if there were sex differences on specific test items, on specific subtests, or on Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, or the Verbal-Performance Discrepancy score. There were sex differences on some

William G. Snow; Joseph Weinstock

1990-01-01

45

Comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

30 male veterans (mean age 51.63 yrs) referred for neuropsychological evaluation were administered the WAIS and the WAIS-R by a procedure that avoided the repetition of identical items. The IQ scores and all subtest scores were compared and found to be significantly different, with the WAIS scores being higher than the WAIS-R scores. Computed IQs and subtest scores were correlated

Stephen Lippold; James M. Claiborn

1983-01-01

46

David Wechsler (1896-1981)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memorializes David Wechsler, who helped to provide clinical psychology with a tool (his scales) and with a humanistic philosophy toward the use of such tools (i.e., that assessment is not synonymous with testing). As a result, clinical psychologists working on a one-on-one basis in a variety of settings have provided a professional service which has been voluntarily sought out and

Joseph D. Matarazzo

1981-01-01

47

Age Effects on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Subtests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation extended work on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scaled-Revised (WAIS-R) to the WAIS-III by determining how allotments of scaled-score points change with age, and to evaluate WAIS-III performance in terms of the Horn-Cattell constructs of crystallized and fluid intelligence. The age norms for the 14 individual WAIS-III subtests indicate that additional scaled-score points are awarded primarily to the Letter-Number

Joseph J Ryan; Jerome M Sattler; Shane J Lopez

2000-01-01

48

Using Wechsler Data to Predict Success for Learning Disabled College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), grade point average (GPA) after 2 semesters of full-time enrollment, and selected student characteristics were compared for 49 learning-disabled college students. WAIS-R results were not generally predictive of academic success, although Comprehension and Similarities subtests

Leonard, Faith C.

1991-01-01

49

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale傍hird Edition using a working memory criterion construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental

B. D. Hill; Emily M. Elliott; Jill T. Shelton; Russell D. Pella; Judith R. OJile; W. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

50

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Memory Functions in Recreational Pistol Sport Shooters: Does Lead Matter?  

E-print Network

Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the memory functions of pistol sport shooters using powder charges when exposure to lead is expected to be considerably lower than in occupational circumstances. Methods: A neuropsychological battery of memory and intelligence tests was administered to 20 sport shooters and 20 controls whose mean ages (SDs) were 55 (9.6) and 54 (9.3) years respectively. Memory functions were evaluated with three subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale- Revised (WMS-R) and an incidental memory test. Intelligence was assessed with four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Revised (WAIS-R). The level of alcohol consumption and depression were examined in both groups. Blood lead level was determined among the shooters. Results: The shooters performed worse than the controls in the tests of incidental and logical memory. The groups did not differ in intelligence, mood or alcohol consumption. The mean (SD) blood lead level of the sport shooters was 0.52 ?mol/L (0.40), responding 10.76 ?g/dl (8.28). Conclusions: Low lead exposure in recreational shooting conditions may impair verbal memory. Therefore it is important to ensure that lead exposure is prevented among those shooting for sport.

Sanna Asa-m臾itaipale; Mervi Jehkonen; Jukka Uitti; Juhani Vilkki

51

Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised in the Italian Normal Standardisation Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six multifactor correlated traits models and a single-factor model of the WAIS-R's factor pattern were examined by confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analyses of a data matrix from the WAIS-R's Italian normative sample raw scores (N=2284). The main aim was to identify what model(s) best fit(s) the data for the different age groups considered. Analyses were designed to determine which of

Lina Pezzuti; Claudio Barbaranelli; Arturo Orsini

2012-01-01

52

Age effects on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III subtests.  

PubMed

This investigation extended work on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scaled-Revised (WAIS-R) to the WAIS-III by determining how allotments of scaled-score points change with age, and to evaluate WAIS-III performance in terms of the Horn-Cattell constructs of crystallized and fluid intelligence. The age norms for the 14 individual WAIS-III subtests indicate that additional scaled-score points are awarded primarily to the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest of the Verbal Scale and to the seven Performance Scale subtests at ages 45 to 89 years for the same performance as individuals in the 20- to 34-year-old reference group. Subtests that measure speed of information processing showed more of a decline than subtests that measure verbal processing. Results are consistent with the view that measures of fluid intelligence show more of a decline with advancing age than do measures of crystallized intelligence. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd PMID:14590227

Ryan, J J; Sattler, J M; Lopez, S J

2000-05-01

53

Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) developed for the most recent Wechsler intelligence scales comprises the working memory and processing speed subtests. It reflects the proficiency and efficiency of cognitive processing and provides another lens for analyzing children's abilities assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth

Saklofske, Donald H.; Zhu, Jianjun; Coalson, Diane L.; Raiford, Susan E.; Weiss, Lawrence G.

2010-01-01

54

Wechsler-Bellevue pattern analysis in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

69 subjects with IQs over 80 were included in this study. The test scores of these clinically diagnosed schizophrenic patients were compared with Wechsler's schizophrenia pattern analysis. Schizophrenic patients do not present a consistent symptomatology on the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test. Obtained test scatter exceeds the variability limits established by Wechsler. The Information, Picture Arrangement, and Block Design subtests are the

Lennart C. Johnson

1949-01-01

55

The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible effects of Ginkgo biloba, a widely used herbal extract, on memory. This study incorporated a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, which used 30 healthy male subjects in each of two groups. The treatment group received two 60-mg tablets of BioGinkgo (27/7) [corrected] daily for 5 days, while the placebo group received a placebo. On the fifth day, after a 2-h waiting period, all subjects were given the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test [Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 27 (1975) 1.], a reaction time control test, the vocabulary and digit span subtests of the WAIS-R [Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler adult intelligence scale - revised. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981.], a reading span test [J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 19 (1980) 450.] and a prose recall test [Discourse Proc. 13 (1990) 387.]. Blood pressure, heart rate and side effects were also monitored throughout the study. Nonsignificant results were found on all interactions involving treatment group on all tests except the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test. The extract appeared to be safe but largely ineffective in enhancing memory. PMID:11495672

Moulton, P L; Boyko, L N; Fitzpatrick, J L; Petros, T V

2001-07-01

56

Page 1 of 69 PSYCHOMETRIC TEST BATTERY CODE BOOK  

E-print Network

-R Digit Symbol - UDS enlarged form WAIS Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Digit Span Forward DIGIF, DIGIFLEN in the SAS data set. For example, the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale ツュ Revised is

57

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (wais-iii) comes from a tradition of mental ability testing that began in 1939 with the publication of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence\\u000a Scale, Form I (W-B I). The W-B I, which was named after David Wechsler and the Bellevue Hospital where he was employed as\\u000a chief psychologist, was considered a unique clinical instrument because it possessed good

Joseph J. Ryan; Shane J. Lopez

58

Examiner Errors on the Wechsler Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have indicated that graduate students and professionals alike make errors on Wechsler intelligence test protocols, which decreases the reliability and, thus, the validity of obtained test scores. This paper analyzed literature on Wechsler protocol scoring errors and proposed several hypotheses for consistent findings of examiner errors. Poor instructional preparation of students and ambiguity of scoring criteria in test

John R. Slate; Larry C. Hunnicutt

1988-01-01

59

Neural Effects of Beta Amyloid in Normal Aging  

E-print Network

Test (CVLT) (Delis et al. , 2000) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-ュ?R) visual reproduction (Test (CVLT) (Delis et al. , 2000) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-ュ?R) visual reproduction (reproductions I and II from the Wechsler Memory Scale-ュ?Revised (WMS-ュ?R) (Wechsler, 1987b), digits forward/backward and digit symbol tests

Mormino, Elizabeth Charlotte

2011-01-01

60

The Effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Cognitive Abilities on Math Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence

Parkin, Jason R.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

2012-01-01

61

Lecture 5: Galaxy Formation Risa H. Wechsler  

E-print Network

Lecture 5: Galaxy Formation Risa H. Wechsler Arthur H Compton Lectures, Enrico Fermi Institute to one part in 100 billion at the centers of galaxies today). ツキ These fluctuations grow under the force ツキ Gas particles can cool when they collide. Dark matter particles do not interact with each other

Wechsler, Risa H.

62

Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation. PMID:24704382

Szab, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; K駻i, Szabolcs

2014-05-21

63

Association between auditory P300, psychopathology, and memory function in drug-nave schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore memory deficits and psychopathology and their relationships with P300 in drug-nave patients with schizophrenia. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were administered. Auditory event-related potentials elicited by an oddball paradigm were obtained. After controlling for age, sex, the results showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the total PANSS score and P300 amplitude at the parietal position (r = -0.66, p < 0.05). Moreover, visual memory was significantly positively correlated with P300 amplitude at the parietal position (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). After controlling for the duration of illness, the above correlations remained statistically significant. The correlation between P300 and the severity of psychopathology was reconfirmed in drug-nave patients with schizophrenia. A possible contribution of memory decompensation in P300 among drug-nave patients with schizophrenia may be considered, and the compensatory or Default Model Network might be a possible explanation of this association. PMID:24581213

Chang, Wei-Hung; Chen, Kao-Chin; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Chen, Po-See; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Tzung-Lieh; Wang, Carol Sheei-Meei; Lee, I-Hui

2014-03-01

64

The Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale芳ourth Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present article is to provide the normative data needed to compute the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale芳ourth Canadian Edition, using the Canadian WAIS-IV standardization sample. The CPI comprises working memory and processing speed subtests which are used to measure the proficiency at which an individual processes cognitive information. The CPI was

Donald H. Saklofske; Jianjun Zhu; Jessie L. Miller; Lawrence G. Weiss; Sarah E. Babcock; Tommie G. Cayton; Susan E. Raiford; Diane L. Coalson

2012-01-01

65

Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by

Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

2014-01-01

66

Development of brief versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for schizophrenia: considerations of the structure and predictability of intelligence.  

PubMed

Short forms (SF) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale have been developed to enhance its practicality. However, only a few studies have addressed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R) SFs based on data from patients with schizophrenia. The current study was conducted to develop the WAIS-R SFs for these patients based on the intelligence structure and predictability of the Full IQ (FIQ). Relations to demographic and clinical variables were also examined on selecting plausible subtests. The WAIS-R was administered to 90 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multiple regression analysis were conducted to find potential subtests. EFA extracted two dominant factors corresponding to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ measures. Subtests with higher factor loadings on those factors were initially nominated. Regression analysis was carried out to reach the model containing all the nominated subtests. The optimality of the potential subtests included in that model was evaluated from the perspectives of the representativeness of intelligence structure, FIQ predictability, and the relation with demographic and clinical variables. Taken together, the dyad of Vocabulary and Block Design was considered to be the most optimal WAIS-R SF for patients with schizophrenia, reflecting both intelligence structure and FIQ predictability. PMID:24054061

Sumiyoshi, Chika; Uetsuki, Miki; Suga, Motomu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

2013-12-30

67

Measurement Invariance of Core Cognitive Abilities in Heterogeneous Neurological and Community Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of

Bowden, Stephen C.; Cook, Mark J.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Shores, E. Arthur; Carstairs, Jane R.

2004-01-01

68

Intelligent Testing with Wechsler痴 Fourth Editions: Perspectives on the Weiss et al. Studies and the Eight Commentaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two featured articles and eight commentaries on the WISC-IV (Wechsler, 2003) and WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) in this special issue of "Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment" are of exceptional quality. As a collective, this special issue greatly advances the field of cognitive assessment by intelligently synthesizing the best of methodology

Kaufman, Alan S.

2013-01-01

69

Effects of Practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Across 3- and 6Month Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 54 participants (age M?=?20.9; education M?=?14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M?=?111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6

Eduardo Estevis; Michael R. Basso; Dennis Combs

2012-01-01

70

Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales傍hird Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales裕hird Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an estimated Perceptual Organization Index (POI), and an estimated Working Memory Index (WMI) were generated by prorating relevant

Rael T. Lange; Grant L. Iverson

2008-01-01

71

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

72

Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised for African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of perfectionism using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; R. B. Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996) with 251 African American college students. A LISREL confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the 3 subscales of the APS-R: High

Mobley, Michael; Slaney, Robert B.; Rice, Kenneth G.

2005-01-01

73

Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than

Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

2006-01-01

74

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2011-01-01

75

Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were

Hadeed, Julie

2014-01-01

76

Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,

Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

2012-01-01

77

The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale乏evised: An Assessment of Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the validity of the Child輸dult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale- Revised (CAMPIS-R) using multiple concurrent objective and subjective measures of child distress, approach-avoidance behavior, fear, pain, child cooperation, and parents' perceived ability to help their preschool children during routine immuni- zations. Parents', staffs', and children's behaviors in the treatment room were videotaped and coded. Results indicate that the validity of

Ronald L. Blount; Lindsey L. Cohen; Natalie C. Frank; Pamela J. Bachanas; Adina J. Smith; M. Reena Manimala; Joseph T. Pate

1997-01-01

78

Subtemporal Amygdalohippocampectomy Prevents Verbal Memory Impairment in the Language-Dominant Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In this report, we show the operative and neuropsychological results for 20 patients with medically intractable nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy treated surgically by subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy whose mean postoperative follow-up period was more than 6 years. Methods: Pre- and postoperative Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS\\/-R) scores, including verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ) and full-scale IQ (FIQ) scores, were

Tomokatsu Hori; Fumitaka Yamane; Taku Ochiai; Motohiro Hayashi; Takaomi Taira

2003-01-01

79

Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition.  

PubMed

Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003) was investigated with a sample of 344 students from 2 school districts twice evaluated for special education eligibility at an average interval of 2.84 years. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) were .72, .76, .66, .65, and .82, respectively. As predicted, the test-retest reliability coefficients for the subtests (Mdn = .56) were generally lower than the index scores (Mdn = .69) and the FSIQ (.82). On average, subtest scores did not differ by more than 1 point, and index scores did not differ by more than 2 points across the test-retest interval. However, 25% of the students earned FSIQ scores that differed by 10 or more points, and 29%, 39%, 37%, and 44% of the students earned VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI scores, respectively, that varied by 10 or more points. Given this variability, it cannot be assumed that WISC-IV scores will be consistent across long test-retest intervals for individual students. PMID:23397927

Watkins, Marley W; Smith, Lourdes G

2013-06-01

80

Age-related invariance of abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--III.  

PubMed

Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of test scores is directly comparable across groups. The observation of measurement invariance provides fundamental evidence for the inference that scores on a test afford equivalent measurement of the same psychological traits among diverse groups. Groups may be derived from different psychosocial backgrounds or different clinical presentations. In the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III)/Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) Technical Manual (Psychological Corporation, 2002), there appears to be a breakdown in factor structure among the standardization cases in older adults. In this study, the authors evaluated the invariance of the measurement model of the WAIS-III across 5 age bands. All components of the measurement model were examined. Overall, the evidence pointed to invariance across age of a modified 4-factor model that included cross-loadings for the Similarities and Arithmetic subtests. These results support the utility of the WAIS-III as a measure of stable intelligence traits across a wide age range. PMID:16953736

Bowden, Stephen C; Weiss, Lawrence G; Holdnack, James A; Lloyd, Delyth

2006-09-01

81

The Archimedes negative aftereffect as an indication of memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of data obtained from 25 psychotics and 16 normals who had been given the Wechsler Memory scale and tested with the Archimedes spiral illusion, the author concludes that: (1) electric shock does not impair memory ability; (2) electric shock does not impair ability to experience the Archimedes negative aftereffect; (3) there is no relationship between memory ability

Lloyd S. Standlee

1953-01-01

82

EEG correlates of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.  

PubMed

It was recently shown that cognitive functions requiring more widespread brain integration relate to slower EEG activity, whereas cognitive performance supported by local brain integration is associated with faster EEG components (Von Stein & Sarnthein, 2000). Associations were studied between performance on WAIS and resting EEG spectral parameters in heroin abusers and normal young males. The most prominent associations between WAIS and EEG variables were consistently registered in polar and lateral frontal/temporal derivations. WAIS subtests predominantly loading on retrieval from long-term memory stores were significantly associated with delta bands mean frequencies. Subtests with strong working memory component related to theta2 mean frequency at temporal leads. Subtests requiring problem-solving operations correlated with alpha bands parameters, whereas psychomotor speed was associated with beta power. The data are in agreement with the hypothesis of Von Stein & Sarnthein (2000). PMID:16923691

Polunina, Anna G; Davydov, Dmitry M

2006-10-01

83

Factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This report examines and compares the factor structure of the new edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients (n = 120) and an age-matched sample of individuals drawn from the WAIS-III standardization sample (n = 200). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses similar to those reported by the developers of the scale suggested that a model of WAIS-III performance with correlated factors for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed fit the data from the schizophrenia sample as well as it fit the nonclinical comparison sample and fit the data from both samples better than alternative models. PMID:12066832

Dickinson, Dwight; Iannone, Virginia N; Gold, James M

2002-06-01

84

Research with the Wechsler Digit Span Subtest: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major research findings relevant to use of the Wechsler Digit Span subtest in psychoeducational assessment are summarized. The cognitive processes and behavioral characteristics which determine performance on Digit Span are related to complex abilities. Recommendations and implications for research and assessment practice are presented.

Mishra, Shitala P.; And Others

1985-01-01

85

Examiner Sex Bias and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (excluding Mazes and Digit Span) was administered to 64 third-grade children, randomly selected for IQ. Female examiners elicited higher Full Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Comprehension, Similarities, and Vocabulary scores from all children. (Author)

Back, Richard; Dana, Richard H.

1977-01-01

86

Detecting malingered performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the effectiveness of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) performance validity markers devised by Mittenberg et al. [Prof. Psychol.: Res. Pract. 26 (1995) 491] in the detection of malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Subjects were 65 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Twenty-eight met the Slick et al. [Clin. Neuropsychol. 13 (1999) 545] criteria for

Kevin W Greve; Kevin J Bianchini; Charles W Mathias; Rebecca J Houston; John A Crouch

2003-01-01

87

Trauma-Induced Weight Loss and Cognitive Deficits among Former Prisoners of War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared former prisoners of war (POWs) reporting confinement weight losses greater than 35 percent (N=60), less than 35 percent (N=113), and non-POW combat veterans (N=50) on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale Logical Memory indices. Findings suggest that severe POW confinement stress reflected by trauma-induced

Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

1990-01-01

88

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale" (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX--Psychological Corporation, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV), an individually administered measure of cognitive ability for individuals aged 16 years, 0 months to 90 years, 11 months. The WAIS-IV was designed with a number of specific goals including updated norms, increased user friendliness, improved

Climie, Emma A.; Rostad, Kristin

2011-01-01

89

Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reviews the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), an individually administered measure of intelligence for Spanish-speaking children who are English language learners and relatively new to American culture. The WISC-IV Spanish, like its English counterpart, the WISC-IV, is

Clinton, Amanda

2007-01-01

90

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III

McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

2011-01-01

91

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

92

Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2003). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)." San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the field of psychological assessment, the Wechsler scales continue to be the most widely used intelligence batteries. The concepts, methods, and procedures inherent in the design of the Wechsler scales have been so influential that they have guided most of the test development and research in the field for more than a half century. This

Kaufman, Alan S.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Mascolo, Jennifer T.

2006-01-01

93

Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor

Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

2009-01-01

94

Factorial and Construct Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised: An Examination of Minority and Nonminority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this two-part study, the psychometric properties of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, an extensively used body image attitudes measure, were tested. In Study 1-A, the two-factor structure of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BPSS-R)--Satisfaction With Body and Satisfaction With Face--was established through exploratory procedures with

Petrie, Trent A.; Tripp, Margaret M.; Harvey, Pejcharat

2002-01-01

95

The development and validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R).  

PubMed

The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) was revised to assess appearance comparisons relevant to women and men in a wide variety of contexts. The revised scale (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised, PACS-R) was administered to 1176 college females. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis using one half of the sample suggested a single factor structure for the PACS-R. Study 2 utilized the remaining half of the sample to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, item analysis, and to examine the convergent validity of the scale. These analyses resulted in an 11-item measure that demonstrated excellent internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of body satisfaction, eating pathology, sociocultural influences on appearance, and self-esteem. Regression analyses demonstrated the utility of the PACS-R in predicting body satisfaction and eating pathology. Overall, results indicate that the PACS-R is a reliable and valid tool for assessing appearance comparison tendencies in women. PMID:24854806

Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

2014-04-01

96

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised.  

PubMed

The Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised (NPVS-R) is an instrument derived from the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses designed to measure nurses' professional values. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the NPVS-R in a random sample of baccalaureate and master's students and practicing nurses. The NPVS-R, a 26-item Likert-scale format instrument, was tested on 782 subjects. Responses to the NPVS-R were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization resulted in a five-factor solution explaining 56.7% of the common variance. Findings supported internal consistency reliability of five factors with alpha coefficients from .70 to .85 and a total scale alpha coefficient of .92. Construct validity was supported with an overall factor loading range of .46 to .79 across the five factors labeled Caring, Activism, Trust, Professionalism, and Justice. The NPVS-R is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring professional nurses' values and enhancing professional socialization. PMID:20069950

Weis, Darlene; Schank, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

97

Memory failures in progressive idiopathic dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

14 patients with progressive idiopathic dementia (PID) were compared with 14 normal controls (average age 61.2 yrs) on psychometric and laboratory measures of cognitive processes. Patients had significantly lower scores than controls on the Wechsler Memory Scale and the WAIS Performance IQ, but not on WAIS Verbal or Full Scale IQ or Digit Span tests. Patients performed more poorly on

Herber Weingartner

1981-01-01

98

Alcohol use disorders and cognitive abilities in young adulthood: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on cognitive and neuropsychological abilities was investigated in a prospective study of 68 freshmen who met past-year criteria for AUD on 2 or more occasions during their college years and 66 matched controls. At baseline, participants were administered a total of 14 subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised, Wechsler Memory Scale, and

Phillip K. Wood; Kenneth J. Sher; Bruce D. Bartholow

2002-01-01

99

Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately

McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

2013-01-01

100

Longitudinal Comparisons of Wechsler Scales in Educable Mentally Handicapped Children and Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the change in IQ scores over time of subjects in classes for the Educable Mentally Handicapped. Analysis indicated a significant difference existed between Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children scores administered at initial placement and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores administered later (mean age, 17 years-6 months).

Carvajal, Tony L.; And Others

1984-01-01

101

A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the

Schwartz, David M.

2013-01-01

102

Development of a General Ability Index for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition (WAIS蜂II; D. Wechsler, 1997) permits the calculation of both traditional IQ and index scores. However, if only the subtests constituting the index scores are administered, especially those yielding the Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization Indexes, there is no equivalent measure of Full Scale IQ. Following the procedure for calculating a General Ability Index (GAI;

David S. Tulsky; Donald H. Saklofske; Charles Wilkins; Lawrence G. Weiss

2001-01-01

103

Factor Space of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children裕hird Edition: Critical Thoughts and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children裕hird Edition (WISC蜂II; Wechsler, 1991) manual incorporates a detailed and careful series of factor analyses. It recommends using approximations of the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Freedom From Distractibility, and Processing Speed factor scores. These approximations are simple sums of the scores of the subtests that load most highly on a factor. These simple sum factor

Kevin C. H. Parker; Leslie Atkinson

1994-01-01

104

Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are

Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

2013-01-01

105

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

2006-01-01

106

Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence

Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

107

Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: cognitive factors.  

PubMed

This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with measures of intelligence (measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), perception (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Change Blindness, and Tone Discrimination), memory (Wechsler Memory Scales and 2-back Working Memory tasks), and face judgement (Face Recognition and Facial Expression Recognition). These findings suggest that people with relatively low intelligence and poor perceptual abilities might be more susceptible to the misinformation effect. PMID:20623420

Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Li, He; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi

2010-07-01

108

Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.  

PubMed

Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline. PMID:22512934

Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

2012-06-01

109

An exploratory study of the use of the Wechsler Digit-Symbol Incidental Learning procedure with the WAIS-IV.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include the optional Incidental Learning procedure for the Digit-Symbol subtest (now simply called Coding) that had been available in the WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III). However, the procedure itself has been shown to have some utility in assessment of incidental memory processes. The current study of a mixed clinical outpatient sample (n = 75) sought to identify salient characteristics of the Incidental Learning tasks as applied to WAIS-IV Coding. Findings showed that the Pairing procedure, when applied to the WAIS-IV, has different characteristics than it did with the WAIS-III; it is more difficult overall, and different items tend to be more prominently recalled than others. The Free Recall procedure for the WAIS-IV is comparable to the WAIS-III version in overall difficulty. Implications and implementation of the current findings are discussed. PMID:23373639

Ashendorf, Lee

2012-01-01

110

Estimation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III index scores with the 7-subtest short form in a clinical sample.  

PubMed

A 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) previously demonstrated good comparability in estimating Full Scale and Verbal IQ summary scores, with adequate comparability in estimating Performance IQ. In a mixed clinical sample of 295 patients, the current study assessed the equivalence of the index scores generated from the full and prorated WAIS-III. The results revealed correlations corrected for redundancy of .90, .86, .87, and .75 for the Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Organization (POI), Working Memory (WMI), and Processing Speed (PSI) indexes, respectively. Although the 7-subtest short form of the WAIS-III was not designed to estimate index scores, adequate estimates are viable for VCI, POI, and WMI when the goal is to obtain group, rather than individual, data points. PMID:10868253

Axelrod, B N; Dingell, J D; Ryan, J J; Ward, L C

2000-06-01

111

Heroin addiction and the Wechsler Digit Span test.  

PubMed

There is some evidence that a Wechsler Digit Span scaled score well above the means of an individual's other WAIS subtest scores is diagnostically significant. Such positive Digit Span scatter seems to be a correlate of an interpersonal detachment syndrome characterized by superficial relationships and anhedonia. Negative scatter of Digit Span scaled scores considerably below the mean of other WAIS subtest scores have been viewed by some investigators as indicating depressive symptoms. Forty-two heroin addicts were compared with 41 neurotic depressive patients. The former group attained significantly higher average positive Digit Span scatter. Since heroin addicts appear more interpersonally distant and anhedonic for non-drug-related experiences, this finding was according to expectation. Digit Span scaled scores alone did not differentiate the groups. Digit Span scatter scores are clearly more desirable than scaled scores in the search for cognitive correlates of personality variables. PMID:7391253

Keiser, T W; Lowy, D

1980-01-01

112

Attention and Memory Functioning Among Pediatric Patients with Medulloblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the hypotheses that memory and attention deficits are prevalent in survivors of childhood medulloblastoma (MB) and that these deficits are associated with problems with academic achievement. Methods The medical charts of 38 child survivors of MB, who were administered the California Verbal Learning Test, Child Version (CVLT-C), Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and the Wechsler Individual Achievement

Cara B. Reeves; Shawna L. Palmer; Wilburn E. Reddick; Thomas E. Merchant; Gray M. Buchanan; Amar Gajjar; Raymond K. Mulhern

2006-01-01

113

Prorating Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III summary scores.  

PubMed

The application of the nine-subtest prorated version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) in estimating Verbal, Performance, and Full-Scale IQ scores was evaluated in a sample of 278 mixed clinical patients from two Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. The composite reliabilities of the three prorated summary scores, which excluded Comprehension and Picture Arrangement, did not differ from reliabilities from the full WAIS-III. All three prorated IQ summary scores demonstrated good alternate forms reliability with the standard WAIS-III summary scores. Verbal Performance discrepancy scores were accurate for 86% of the cases. The results of this study appear to support the regular use of prorated WAIS-III summary scores in estimating full WAIS-III summary scores. The benefit of this system is that by giving all of the subtests required for the index scores, not only are the index scores derived, but a very close estimation of the summary scores are generated. PMID:10877468

Axelrod, B N; Ryan, J J

2000-06-01

114

Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children友ourth Edition Among a National Sample of Referred Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children友ourth Edition (WISC蜂V; D. Wechsler, 2003a) was analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis among a national sample of 355 students referred for psychoeducational evaluation by 93 school psychologists from 35 states. The structure of the WISC蜂V core battery was best represented by four first-order factors as per D. Wechsler (2003b), plus a general

Marley W. Watkins

2010-01-01

115

[Memory processes in endogenous depression].  

PubMed

The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning. PMID:9640987

Radziwi??owicz, W; Radziwi??owicz, P

1998-01-01

116

Accuracy of MMPI-Based Inferences Regarding Memory and Concentration in Closed-Head-Trauma Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the validity of MMPI scores and MMPI-based cognitive complaints as indicators of memory and concentrational disturbances in 70 closed-head-trauma patients. The relation of scores on the MMPI Depression (D), Schizophrenia (Sc), Mental Dullness (D4), Lack of Ego Mastery, Cognitive (Sc2A), and Organic Symptoms (Org) scales to actual memory performance on the WAIS乏 Digit Span and Wechsler Memory

Carlton S. Gass; Elbert W. Russell; Richard A. Hamilton

1990-01-01

117

Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

1992-01-01

118

Increasing the Reliability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children裕hird Edition Difference Scores With Reliable Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children裕hird Edition index score differences are generally interpreted cautiously, if at all, primarily because of their poor reliability. On the basis of prior analyses with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition (J. C. Caruso & N. Cliff, 1999), it was hypothesized that differences between scores defined by reliable component analysis would have higher reliability than those

John C. Caruso; Norman Cliff

2000-01-01

119

Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive

Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

2013-01-01

120

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults--An International Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ

Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J.; Hufnagel, Demetra H.; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

2011-01-01

121

The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale-Revised (BFRS-R): Factor Analysis, Internal Consistency, Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability, and Convergent Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the psychometric properties of the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R), a new scale intended for assessing behavioral flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Seventy-six direct care staff members and 56 parents completed the BFRS-R for 70 children with developmental disabilities. Factor analysis

Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Korzilius, Hubert; Pituch, Keenan; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio

2008-01-01

122

Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.  

PubMed

A total of 54 participants (age M?=?20.9; education M?=?14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M?=?111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment. PMID:22353021

Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

2012-01-01

123

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and malingering in traumatic brain injury: classification accuracy in known groups.  

PubMed

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c) moderate/severe (M/S) TBI not-MND (n = 26). A sample of 80 general clinical patients was used for comparison. Verbal IQ, Verbal Comprehension Index, and Working Memory Index detected approximately 25% of malingerers with a false positive (FP) error rate of approximately 5% in the mild TBI group. Comparable FP rates were obtained in M/S TBI. FP rates for Performance IQ, Perceptual Organization Index, and Processing Speed Index were acceptable in mild TBI but too high in M/S TBI. Previously studied specialized indicators (Vocabulary minus Digit Span and the Mittenberg formula) failed to differentiate malingerers from nonmalingerers. The clinical application of these findings is discussed. PMID:19797328

Curtis, Kelly L; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J

2009-12-01

124

Diagnostic Utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised in Two Samples of Survivors of War  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at examining the diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a screening tool for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of war. The IES-R was completed by two independent samples that had survived the war in the Balkans: a sample of randomly selected people who had stayed in the area of former conflict (n?=?3,313) and a sample of refugees to Western European countries (n?=?854). PTSD was diagnosed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Prevalence of PTSD was 20.1% in the Balkan sample and 33.1% in the refugee sample. Results revealed that when considering a minimum value of specificity of 0.80, the optimally sensitive cut-off score for screening for PTSD in the Balkan sample was 34. In both the Balkan sample and the refugee sample, this cut-off score provided good values on sensitivity (0.86 and 0.89, respectively) and overall efficiency (0.81 and 0.79, respectively). Further, the kappa coefficients for sensitivity for the cut-off of 34 were 0.80 in both samples. Findings of this study support the clinical utility of the IES-R as a screening tool for PTSD in large-scale research studies and intervention studies if structured diagnostic interviews are regarded as too labor-intensive and too costly. PMID:24391844

Morina, Nexhmedin; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Stefan

2013-01-01

125

The Impact of Event Scale - Revised: psychometric properties of the Italian version in a sample of flood victims  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to verify the main psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) in a sample of flood victims. Methods The sample was composed of 262 subjects involved in the natural disaster of 2009 in the city of Messina (Italy). All participants completed the IES-R and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. Results The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, used to verify the construct validity of the measure, showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. The goodness-of-fit indices (non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.99; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.04; and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02) indicated a good adaptation of the model to the data. The IES-R scales showed satisfactory values of internal consistency (intrusion, ? = 0.78; avoidance, ? = 0.72; hyper-arousal, ? = 0.83) and acceptable values of correlation with the DES-II. Conclusion These results suggest that this self-reported and easily administered instrument for assessing the dimensions of trauma has good psychometric properties and can be adopted usefully, both for research and for practice in Italy. PMID:24092980

Craparo, Giuseppe; Faraci, Palmira; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio

2013-01-01

126

The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R): adaptation and construct validity in the Brazilian context.  

PubMed

This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R). The sample was made up of 627 subjects (69.8% women) aged between 18 and 88 years (mean = 38.3; SD = 13.26) from 17 Brazilian states. Exploratory factor analysis of part of the sample (n1 = 200) yielded a three-factor solution which showed adequate levels of reliability. Two confirmatory factor analyses of the other part of the sample (n2 = 427) tested both the exploratory and the original model. The analysis of convergent validity using the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2) demonstrated adequate levels of validity. A significant correlation was found between levels of self-care agency and age, level of education and income. The analysis of sample members with chronic disease (n = 134) showed that higher levels of self-care agency indicated lower levels of negative impact of the chronic illness in the individual's everyday life. PMID:24127101

Dam疽io, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

2013-10-01

127

Epilepsy & IQ: the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) indices in the neuropsychological assessment of people with epilepsy.  

PubMed

We examined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) discrepancies in 100 epilepsy patients; 44% had a significant GAI > FSIQ discrepancy. GAI-FSIQ discrepancies were correlated with the number of antiepileptic drugs taken and duration of epilepsy. Individual antiepileptic drugs differentially interfere with the expression of underlying intellectual ability in this group. FSIQ may significantly underestimate levels of general intellectual ability in people with epilepsy. Inaccurate representations of FSIQ due to selective impairments in working memory and reduced processing speed obscure the contextual interpretation of performance on other neuropsychological tests, and subtle localizing and lateralizing signs may be missed as a result. PMID:24499141

Baxendale, Sallie; McGrath, Katherine; Thompson, Pamela J

2014-01-01

128

Cognitive Process Development as Measured by an Adapted Version of Wechsler's Similarities Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the development of taxonomic processing as measured by an adapted version of the Wechsler Similarities subtest, which distinguishes between categorization of concrete and abstract words. Two factors--age and concreteness--are also tested by a recall task. The results show an age-related increase in taxonomic categorization,

Rozencwajg, Paulette

2007-01-01

129

Common Space Analysis of Several Versions of The Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint analysis was made of three versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children using an individual differences multidimensional scaling ap proach. The versions of the test considered were the original version, an Australian partial revision, and the current revised version. Common Space Analy sis of the correlation data from the manuals showed a common three-dimensional structure. There was

Richard C. Bell

1981-01-01

130

Peeking inside the "Black Box" of the Flynn Effect: Evidence from Three Wechsler Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the Wechsler Performance IQ (PIQ) or Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)/ Perceptual Organization Index (POI) change over time and its relation to ability levels. PIQ or PRI/ POI was analyzed because of the known sensitivity of nonverbal scales to the Flynn effect. Scores were analyzed using two methods. First, analysis of

Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jianjun; Weiss, Lawrence G.

2010-01-01

131

The Wechsler in Personality Assessment: Object Assembly Subtest as Predictive of Bodily Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is contradictory concerning ability of the Wechsler Object Assembly (OA) subtest to predict bodily preoccupations. This study presents data from an objective personality test that do not support the hypothesis that bodily concerns are indicated by impaired performance on the WAIS OA subtest. (Author)

Stewart, Denton J.; And Others

1973-01-01

132

Factor Structure of the French Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Validity Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standardization of the French version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) was conducted after carefully adapting the French version from the U.S. version and extensive field testing. The standardization sample was composed of 1,104 participants from 16 to 89 years. To assess the construct validity of the French version,

Gregoire, Jacques

2004-01-01

133

Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale蜂II in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines and compares the factor structure of the new edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients (n = 120) and an age-matched sample of individuals drawn from the WAIS-III standardization sample (n = 200). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses similar to those reported by the developers of

Dwight Dickinson; Virginia N. Iannone; James M. Gold

2002-01-01

134

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition: A Canadian Standardization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is presently undergoing revision in the United States. As Caruzdian children perfornwd differently than American children on the recent reuision of the WISC-III, a Canadian standardization study is currently being undertaken to determine whether Carsadian adults perform differently than American adults. Canadian norms will be developed for the WAIS-III if differenres are found.

Denise Hildebrand; Donald H. Saklofske

1996-01-01

135

Estimating the full scale score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale from scores on four subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abbreviated form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was determined by selecting the two best predictors of the total Verbal Score and the two best predictors of the total Performance Score. The four tests were Arithmetic, Vocabulary, Block Design, and Picture Arrangement The correlation coefficients between the sum of scaled scores on the four tests and the Full Scale

Jerome E. Doppelt

1956-01-01

136

Rapidly-administered short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale3rd edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Wechsler Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) is a common component of most neuropsychological evaluations, there are many clinical situations where the complete administration of this battery is precluded by various constraints, including limitations of time and patient compliance. These constraints are particularly true for dementia evaluations involving elderly patients. The present study reports data on two short forms particularly

Alison J. Donnell; Neil Pliskin; James Holdnack; Bradley Axelrod; Christopher Randolph

2007-01-01

137

An Examination of Some Diagnostic Strategies Involving the Wechsler Intelligence Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines a number of Rapaport, Gill, and Schafer's (1968) diagnostic hypotheses, including differences between specific Wechsler subtests and clinical presentation, the magnitude of such a difference necessary for clinical significance, and overall indices of performance variability. Ss included 422 psychiatric patients comprising 3 diagnostic groups (affectives, psychotics, and schizophrenics) plus 19 normal controls. All Ss had either a

Ralph L. Piedmont; Robert L. Sokolove; Michael Z. Fleming

1989-01-01

138

Scoring Reliability on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen psychologists and 19 graduate students scored two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition patient protocols. Mean IQs and indexes were similar across groups, but the ranges for Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) on one protocol were 25, 22, and 11 points, respectively. For both protocols taken together, percentages of agreement with the 殿ctual IQs

Joseph J. Ryan; Summer D. Schnakenberg-Ott

2003-01-01

139

Sex Differences in Variability on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both sides of a long standing and apparently still heated argument are reviewed and presented. Are males more variable in intelligence than females? In an attempt to answer the question the author employed data from a longitudinal growth study. Results indicated that sex differences in variability on individual subtests of the Wechsler

Rapp, Mitchel

140

Some Additional Lessons from the Wechsler Scales: A Rejoinder to Kaufman and Keith.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reacts to previous arguments regarding verbal and performance constructs of Wechsler Scales. Contends that general factor model is more plausible representation of data for these scales. Suggests issue is moot when considered in regards to practical applications. Supports analysis of needed skills and instructional environments in educational

Macmann, Gregg M.; Barnett, David W.

1994-01-01

141

Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of the

Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

142

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults: An International Validation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of\\u000a adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons).\\u000a All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI\\/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of\\u000a the questions and total mean

Riva Ariella Ritvo; Edward R. Ritvo; Donald Guthrie; Max J. Ritvo; Demetra H. Hufnagel; William McMahon; Bruce Tonge; David Mataix-Cols; Amita Jassi; Tony Attwood; Johann Eloff

143

Replication of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition With a Canadian Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition (WAIS蜂II; D. Wechsler, 1997b) were conducted on a stratified sample of Canadian adults (n = 718). As was previously demonstrated for the children痴 version of this scale, the factor model of the American standardization sample was replicated across this Canadian national sample. Results of the

Donald H. Saklofske; Denise K. Hildebrand; Richard L. Gorsuch

2000-01-01

144

Intrauterine substance exposures and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II scores at 11 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to cocaine, alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana was associated with unique variance in children's academic achievement test scores after controlling for other substance exposures and contextual variables. Academic achievement scores (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II)) were collected from 119, low-income, urban 11-year-olds enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study of

Ruth Rose-Jacobs; Marilyn Augustyn; Marjorie Beeghly; Brett Martin; Howard J. Cabral; Timothy C. Heeren; Mark A. Richardson; Deborah A. Frank

2012-01-01

145

Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. 2. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale during post-traumatic amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered to two matched groups of severely head-injured patients. The first administration was early in the recovery period, when group I was still in post-traumatic amnesia. The WaiS results for this group were significantly lower than those of group II, who were fully conscious. A follow-up at a later stage of recovery found

I A Mandleberg

1975-01-01

146

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale芳ourth Edition performance in relapsing睦emitting multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with relapsing睦emitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale芳ourth Edition (WAIS蜂V) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD?=?9.94) and 14.33 years (SD?=?2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke,

Joseph J. Ryan; Samuel T. Gontkovsky; David S. Kreiner; Heather A. Tree

2012-01-01

147

Factor Structure of the French Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale蜂II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standardization of the French version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) was conducted after carefully adapting the French version fromthe U.S. version and extensive field testing. The standardization sample was composed of 1,104 participants from 16 to 89 years. To assess the construct validity of the French version, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Two-factor, three-factor, and

Jacques Grノgoire

2004-01-01

148

Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence\\u000a has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for\\u000a estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29 AS patients. Only the Information\\u000a and Block Design dyad meets the study criteria.

Jessica Merchan-NaranjoMar; Mara Mayoral; Marta Rapado-Castro; Cloe Llorente; Leticia Boada; Celso Arango; Mara Parellada

149

Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. 1. Serial testing on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered serially to 40 severely head-injured adults, and the results compared with a matched group of 40 non-injured men. The scores on the verbal subtests showed less initial impairment and were faster to recover to the level of the comparison group than were the non-verbal subtest scores. Verbal IQ of the head-injury group approached

I A Mandleberg; D N Brooks

1975-01-01

150

Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale蜂II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)\\/WAIS-R have been developed to obtain estimates of overall intellectual level, although little research of WAIS-III short forms has been published to date. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) estimates from four WAIS-III dyadic short forms were obtained by entering selected subtest scores from a mixed neurologic\\/psychiatric sample (n = 196) into regression

Wendy K. Ringe; Kathleen C. Saine; Laura H. Lacritz; Linda S. Hynan; C. Munro Cullum

2002-01-01

151

Normative Changes on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence由evised Animal Pegs Subtest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The published norms on the Animal Pegs subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence由evised (WPPSI乏) were compared with those on the WPPSI. On the WPPSI, published 22 years before the revision, the subtest was known as Animal House. On the WPPSI乏, children usually must earn more raw score points than on the WPPSI to obtain the same

Jerome M. Sattler

1991-01-01

152

Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed. PMID:18175510

Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

2007-10-01

153

JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE 31,429&O (1992) Toward a Network Model of the Articulatory Loop  

E-print Network

in many tests of general intelligence (see, e.g., Terman & Merrill, 1961; Wechsler, 1955). It is explicit with human performance with respect to memory span, phonemic similarity, word length, and patterns of error such as words, letters, or digits is inaccurate if the sequences are more than only a few items long (Miller

Burgess, Neil

154

Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale芳ourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 1619 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from exploratory factor analyses were not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2008b) and

Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

2010-01-01

155

Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale友ourth Edition (WAIS蜂V): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale友ourth Edition (WAIS蜂V; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS蜂V Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS蜂V subtests were

Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

2010-01-01

156

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version: relation to factor indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition.  

PubMed

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbal memory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the relationship of this test to various domains of cognitive function has not been broadly studied empirically. To examine this issue, we evaluated the amount of unique variance in CVLT-C scores that could be predicted by the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Freedom from Distractibility, and Processing Speed indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) beyond that accounted for by age and gender in a sample of 62 children referred to an outpatient psychiatry clinic for neuropsychological evaluation. While the Processing Speed Index predicted a significant amount of variance for both short and long delay free and cued recall, the Verbal Comprehension Index was a poor predictor of CVLT-C performance on all outcome variables, accounting for only 1.5 to 4.5% additional variance above age and gender. These findings indicate that while the CVLT-C may be relatively independent of influences of verbal intelligence and abstract verbal reasoning, general speed and efficiency of processing play an important role in successful encoding for later retrieval on the CVLT-C. PMID:16183615

O'Jile, Judith R; Schrimsher, Gregory W; O'Bryant, Sid E

2005-10-01

157

A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable

Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

158

Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and

Brooks, Brian L.

2010-01-01

159

A Confirmatory Analysis of the Factor Structure and Cross-Age Invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), the manual reports several confirmatory factor analyses in support of the instrument's latent factor structure. In practice, examiners frequently compare an examinee's score from a current administration of the WAIS-III with the results from a previous test

Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Witta, E. Lea

2004-01-01

160

Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from

Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

2010-01-01

161

A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index

Umphress, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

162

Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and

Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

2010-01-01

163

Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.

Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

1979-01-01

164

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

2007-01-01

165

Construct Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, and Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports data supporting the construct validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), and the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) through convergent and

Canivez, Gary L.; Neitzel, Ryan; Martin, Blake E.

2005-01-01

166

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism is associated with age-related change in reasoning skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymorphism (Val66Met) in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has previously been associated with impaired hippocampal function and scores on the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Despite its widespread expression in the brain, there have been few studies examining the role of BDNF on cognitive domains, other than memory. We examined the association between

S E Harris; H Fox; A F Wright; C Hayward; J M Starr; L J Whalley; I J Deary

2006-01-01

167

Exploration of malingering indices in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span subtest.  

PubMed

Prior research shows that Digit Span is a useful embedded measure of malingering. However, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (Wechsler, 2008) altered Digit Span in meaningful ways, necessitating another look at Digit Span as an embedded measure of malingering. Using a simulated malingerer design, we examined the predictive accuracy of existing Digit Span validity indices and explored whether patterns of performance utilizing the new version would provide additional evidence for malingering. Undergraduates with a history of mild head injury performed with best effort or simulated impaired cognition and were also compared with a large sample of non-head-injured controls. Previously established cutoffs for the age-corrected scaled score and Reliable Digit Span (RDS) performed similarly in the present samples. Patterns of RDS length using all three subscales of the new scale were different in malingerers when compared with both head-injured and non-head-injured controls. Two potential alternative RDS scores were introduced, which showed better sensitivity than the traditional RDS, while retaining specificity to malingering. PMID:22277127

Reese, Caitlin S; Suhr, Julie A; Riddle, Tara L

2012-03-01

168

Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences?  

PubMed Central

Background Working memory performance is important for maintaining functioning in cognitive, academic and social activities. Previous research suggests there are prevalent working memory deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is now a growing body of literature characterizing working memory functioning according to ADHD subtypes in children. The expression of working memory deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, however, remains to be more fully documented. Methods This study assessed differences in working memory functioning between Normal Control (NC) adults (N = 18); patients with ADHD, Combined (ADHD-CT) Type ADHD (N = 17); and ADHD, Inattentive (ADHD-IA) Type (N = 16) using subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Results The ADHD groups displayed significant weaknesses in contrast to the NC group on working memory tests requiring rapid processing and active stimulus manipulation. This included the Letter-Number-Sequencing test of the Wechsler scales, PASAT omission errors and the longest sequence of consecutive correct answers on the PASAT. No overall ADHD group subtype differences emerged; however differences between the ADHD groups and the NC group varied depending on the measure and the gender of the participants. Gender differences in performance were evident on some measures of working memory, regardless of group, with males performing better than females. Conclusion In general, the data support a dimensional interpretation of working memory deficits experienced by the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA subtypes, rather than an absolute difference between subtypes. Future studies should test the effects of processing speed and load on subtype performance and how those variables interact with gender in adults with ADHD. PMID:17173676

Schweitzer, Julie B; Hanford, Russell B; Medoff, Deborah R

2006-01-01

169

Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): what does the WAIS-IV measure?  

PubMed

Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages. Results suggest that a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-inspired structure provides a better description of test performance than the published scoring structure does. Broad CHC abilities measured by the WAIS-IV include crystallized ability (Gc), fluid reasoning (Gf), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs), although some of these abilities are measured more comprehensively than are others. Additionally, the WAIS-IV provides a measure of quantitative reasoning (QR). Results also suggest a lack of cross-age invariance resulting from age-related differences in factor loadings. Formulas for calculating CHC indexes and suggestions for interpretation are provided. PMID:20230158

Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Kranzler, John H

2010-03-01

170

Replication of factor structure of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Chinese version in Chinese mainland non-clinical and schizophrenia samples.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the construct validity of the special four-factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-III Chinese version in a clinical sample of inpatients with schizophrenia as well as a sample of healthy adults. A sample of 114 inpatients with schizophrenia and a sample of 114 close-matched non-clinical adults on the Chinese mainland were studied with the measures of the WAIS-III Chinese version. Four competing hypothetical models of factors were tested for model fit and parsimony in both research samples, using maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a four-factor model of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, and Processing Speed best fit the data from both the schizophrenia sample and the healthy adult sample, and also fitted the data from both samples better than alternative models, which is similar to that reported by the developers and revisers of this scale. These empiric analyses and results support the construct validity of the WAIS-III Chinese version in patients with schizophrenia and healthy adults on the Chinese mainland. PMID:17610662

Yao, Shuqiao; Chen, Huan; Jiang, Li; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

2007-08-01

171

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

172

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

173

Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,

Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

2013-01-01

174

Sensitivity of the Halstead and Wechsler Test Batteries to Brain Damage: Evidence from Reitan's Original Validation Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Halstead-Reitan Battery has been instrumental in the development of neuropsychological practice in the United States. Although Reitan administered both the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and Halstead's test battery when evaluating Halstead's theory of biologic intelligence, the relative sensitivity of each test battery to brain damage continues to be an area of controversy. Because Reitan did not perform direct parametric analysis

David W. Loring; Glenn J. Larrabee

2006-01-01

175

Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports

Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

2004-01-01

176

Four Short-Form Linear Equation Estimates of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III IQs in an Elderly Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III) was released in 1997. Short forms developed for previous versions have not yet been investigated for the WAIS-III in special populations. A 4-subtest short form by A. B. Silverstein emerged as the most promising short form in an elderly sample. (Contains 49 references, 4 tables, and 2

Clara, Ian P.; Huynh, Cam-Loi

2003-01-01

177

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric

Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

2007-01-01

178

College Student Performance on the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). A comparison of the sample's mean scores indicates similar GAMA and WAIS-III Performance IQ scores. In contrast, the sample's mean GAMA IQ score was significantly lower than the sample's mean Full

Lassiter, Kerry S.; Bell, Nancy L.; Hutchinson, Melody B.; Matthews, T. Darin

2001-01-01

179

Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a

Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

2011-01-01

180

A Confirmatory Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition: Is the Verbal/Performance Discrepancy Justified?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the construct validity of the implied and theoretical structures of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III). Results using the standardization sample of 2,450 adults and adolescents indicate that the WAIS-III provides an excellent measure of the four-factor model and a general factor, but they do not support the construct

Taub, Gordon E.

2001-01-01

181

Technical and Practical Issues in the Structure and Clinical Invariance of the Wechsler Scales: A Rejoinder to Commentaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion article addresses issues related to expansion of the Wechsler model from four to five factors; multiple broad CHC abilities measured by the Arithmetic subtest; advantages and disadvantages of including complex tasks requiring integration of multiple broad abilities when measuring intelligence; limitations of factor analysis, which

Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

2013-01-01

182

Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four

Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

2004-01-01

183

Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an

Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

2008-01-01

184

Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariation between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests: A study of twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Adult Interlligence Scale (WAIS) subtest scores of 40 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and 40 pairs of like-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twins were analyzed. Estimates were obtained with respect to the relative influence of genetic and environmental sources of variance common for the subtests of WAIS and sources specific for each subtest. A model was also specified to detect variance

Kristian Tambs; Jon M. Sundet; Per Magnus

1986-01-01

185

Comparison of WAIS and Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos scores in an institutionalized Latin American psychiatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the WAIS and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), were compared in a chronic population of 42 hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. A matched sample of 12 English and Spanish speakers was administered the WAIS and the EIWA subtests, respectively. A sample of bilingual Latins was administered the

Todd M. Davis; Vene L. Rodriguez

1979-01-01

186

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)

Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

187

A Longitudinal Study of the Performance of Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was followed over two 5- to 6-year intervals for essential hypertensive Ss (EH; n = 22) free from medical complications and for normotensive Ss (N; n = 20). EH were treated with adrenergic beta-blocking drugs, diuretics, or both. Mean age was 46 years (SD = 12.6 years), initially (Time 1). Results were unaltered

Norman R. Schultz; Merrill F. Elias; Michael A. Robbins; David H. P. Streeten; Nancy Blakeman

1989-01-01

188

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd Edition (WAIS-III): Usefulness in the Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using a Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd Edition (JWAIS-III) to clarify i) the significance of expansion of the indicated age range, ii) the characteristics of cognitive impairment in AD patients and iii) the efficacy of th neuropsychological assessment for the early detection of AD using the Digit Symbol subtest, which

Yukihiro Izawa; Katsuya Urakami; Tomoyuki Kojima; Eisaku Ohama

2009-01-01

189

Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancies on the Mainland Chinese Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal IQ (VIQ) minus Performance IQ (PIQ) discrepancies were examined for the mainland Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC), using the urban standardization sample as the data source. At the .05 level of significance, a 14-point discrepancy was required; 18 points were needed at the .01 level. The occurrence of reliable discrepancies, regardless of direction, was not

Joseph J. Ryan; Xiaoyang Dai; Anthony M. Paolo

1995-01-01

190

Assessment of the accuracy of regression equations proposed for estimating premorbid intellectual functioning on the wechsler adult intelligence scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the accuracy of regression equations proposed by Wilson et al. (1978) for estimating premorbid intellectual quotients (IQs) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Actual Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs in a sample of 69 neurologically normal adults were compared against their estimated premorbid levels. While the equations provided an adequate overall fit to the data,

Felicia C. Goldstein; Howard E. Gary Jr; Harvey S. Levin

1986-01-01

191

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Animal House as a measure of learning and motor abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the scores of 36 5-7 yr old boys and girls on a motor skill and a learning task with their scores on the Animal House subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Results indicate clearly that motor abilities as well as learning abilities are important in Animal House performance.

Mark Sherman; Jack M. Chinsky

1974-01-01

192

Wechsler Subtest Patterns of Mentally Retarded Groups: Relationship to g and to Estimates of Heritability  

E-print Network

From a survey of published data on the Wechsler subtest performance of primarily mild and borderline mentally retarded persons, 4304 protocols from 4004 individuals were collated and their subtest patterns on the WAIS, WAIS-R, WISC, and WISC-R were compared. Rank order correlations of subtest scores on the different scales were statistically reliable for all but the WAIS/WAIS-R comparison. On all but the WAIS, reliable inverse relationships were found between subtest performance and the subtests ' g-loadings, indicating that mildly retarded groups tend to score relatively lower on subtests that are better measures of general intelligence. Likewise, reliable and marginally reliable inverse relationships were found between subtest patterns of retarded groups and the subtests ' estimated indexes of heritability, raising the possibility that inherited capacities differentially influence the pattern of performance of these groups.

Herman H. Spitz

193

Comparing canadian and american normative scores on the wechsler adult intelligence scale-fourth edition.  

PubMed

Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. PMID:25313225

Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

2014-12-01

194

A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were divided into three

Wilson, Patti

2004-01-01

195

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

196

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children傍hird and 芳ourth Edition Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 616 years of age, IQ ? 80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children傍hird Edition (WISC蜂II; n = 586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children芳ourth Edition (WISC蜂V, n = 92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples were identified with a learning disability (LD). LD in written

Susan Dickerson Mayes; Susan L. Calhoun

2007-01-01

197

A Confirmatory Analysis of the Factor Structure and Cross-Age Invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), the manual reports several confirmatory factor analyses in support of the instrument's latent factor structure. In practice, examiners frequently compare an examinee's score from a current administration of the WAIS-III with the results from a previous test administration. Implicit in test-retest score comparisons is evidence that scores retain similar

Gordon E. Taub; Kevin S. McGrew; E. Lea Witta

2004-01-01

198

Validity, Reliability, and Standard Errors of Measurement for Two Seven-Subtest Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale蜂II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validity and reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement for 2 7-subtest short forms (SF) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale蜂II (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) are provided. Data for the study were obtained from the WAIS-III邑MS-III Technical Manual and were based on the 2,450 adolescents and adults in the WAIS-III standardization sample. SF1 consists of Information, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Similarities,

Joseph J. Ryan; L. Charles Ward

1999-01-01

199

MEMORY MODULATION  

PubMed Central

Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

2011-01-01

200

Predictors of Memory and Processing Speed Dysfunctions after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors. PMID:24877054

Winardi, William; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Wang, Tse-Lun; Su, Yu-Feng; Yen, Chun-Po; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Sheehan, Jason; Su, Chwen-Yng

2014-01-01

201

Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with a clinical sample.  

PubMed

Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) was examined with a sample of 300 individuals referred for evaluation at a university-based clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WAIS-IV structure was best represented by 4 first-order factors as well as a general intelligence factor in a direct hierarchical model. The general intelligence factor accounted for the most common and total variance among the subtests. Incremental validity analyses indicated that the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) generally accounted for medium to large portions of academic achievement variance. For all measures of academic achievement, the first-order factors combined accounted for significant achievement variance beyond that accounted for by the FSIQ, but individual factor index scores contributed trivial amounts of achievement variance. Implications for interpreting WAIS-IV results are discussed. PMID:23544395

Nelson, Jason M; Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

2013-06-01

202

Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal膨rystallized abilities and nonverbal貿luid没isual abilities. With a sample of 152 children, adolescents, and adults, the present study reports meaningful convergent validity coefficients and a latent factor

Gary L. Canivez; Timothy R. Konold; Jason M. Collins; Greg Wilson

2009-01-01

203

Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on Stanford-Binet IV and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine children enrolled in the gifted curriculum in the public schools in a midwest community of 27,000 were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition. Correlations were then calculated between the scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children由evised, obtained from the students' files, and the scores of the Stanford-Binet. Only the correlation between the Stanford-Binet Verbal Reasoning standard

Howard Carvajal; Kenneth A. Weaver

1989-01-01

204

Use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span subtest for malingering detection: A meta-analytic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four studies utilizing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span subtest容ither the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) or Age-Corrected Scaled Score (DS-ACSS) variant庸or malingering detection were meta-analytically reviewed to evaluate their effectiveness in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction. RDS and DS-ACSS effectively discriminated between honest responders and dissimulators, with average weighted effect sizes of 1.34 and 1.08, respectively. No significant differences

Lindsey J. Jasinski; David T. R. Berry; Anni L. Shandera; Jessica A. Clark

2011-01-01

205

Long-term Stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children裕hird Edition among Students with Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) was investigated for children with specific learning disability (SLD), serious emotional disability (SED), and mental retardation (MR). Partici- pants were 522 students from 33 states twice evaluated for special education eligi- bility over a mean test-retest interval of 2.87 years. There were no differential effects of disability groups on

Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins

2001-01-01

206

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale悠II and Malingering in Traumatic Brain InjuryClassification Accuracy in Known Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale悠II (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c) moderate\\/severe (M\\/S) TBI not-MND (n = 26). A

Kelly L. Curtis; Kevin W. Greve; Kevin J. Bianchini

2009-01-01

207

Estimation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Ill Index Scores with the 7-Subtest Short form in a Clinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) previously demonstrated good comparability in estimating Full Scale and Verbal IQ summary scores, with adequate comparability in estimating Performance IQ. In a mixed clinical sample of 295 patients, the current study assessed the equivalence of the index scores generated from the full and prorated WAIS-III. The results revealed correlations

Bradley N. Axelrod; John D. Dingell; Joseph J. Ryan; L. Charles Ward

2000-01-01

208

Evaluation of seven-subtest short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in a referred sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of seven-subtest short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-3) was evaluated in a sample of 281 mixed clinical patients from three Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Short-form summary scores were derived from deviation quotient tables and from prorating. They included either Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Short-form summary scores for Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ)

Bradley N Axelrod; Joseph J Ryan; L. Charles Ward

2001-01-01

209

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale裕hird Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient\\/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric analyses revealed an optimal SF8 comprising Vocabulary, Similarities, Arithmetic, Digit Span, Picture Completion, Matrix

Bruce K. Christensen; Todd A. Girard; R. Michael Bagby

2007-01-01

210

Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs痴 formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four selected WAIS-III short-form combinations into full-scale IQ estimates.

Sharon L. E. Jeyakumar; Erin M. Warriner; Vaishali V. Raval; Saadia A. Ahmad

2004-01-01

211

Two Abbreviated Versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale悠II: Validation Among Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To examine the clinical value of two 7-subtest versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale悠II (WAIS蜂II): one using Block Design (WAIS蜂II\\/BD7) and another using Matrix Reasoning (WAIS蜂II\\/MR7) among persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Study Design: Actual obtained scores from the full WAIS蜂II were compared with scores that would have been obtained using each of the two abbreviated

Laura H. Schopp; Todd D. Herrman; Brick Johnstone; Charles D. Callahan; Inga S. Roudebush

2001-01-01

212

Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS蜂II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the most widely accepted Cattell蓬orn砲arroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS蜂II) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a Schmid豊eiman orthogonalization transformation (SLT) to the standardization data

Philippe Golay; Thierry Lecerf

2011-01-01

213

Comparison between ?-thalassemia minor and normal individuals using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at investigating and comparing patients suffering from ?-thalassemia (?-thal) minor with normal individuals in regard to their performances in the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Patients with ?-thal minor are carriers of ?-thal genes. They have mild microcytic and hypochromic anemia and are usually asymptomatic. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 60 individuals were divided into two equal groups of ?-thal minor and normal subjects; they were then studied by the WAIS subscales. The mean performance scores of the normal group in the subtests of arithmetic and vocabulary (p <0.01) and picture completion (p <0.05) were higher than those of the thalassemia group. The mean performance score and ability of the normal group on the verbal scale was higher in comparison to the thalassemia group (p <0.05), while on the non verbal scale, there was no significant difference between the two groups. It can be concluded that ?-thal minor negatively influences verbal fluency, reasoning and conceptualization, and sequencing tasks, perceptual skill, prediction of social situations and abstract thinking. PMID:23806085

Zangiabadi, Nasser; Yarahmadi, Fahimeh; Darekordi, Ali; Shabani, Mohammad; Dadgar, Mehrak Memaran

2013-01-01

214

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates. PMID:22394018

Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

2012-01-01

215

Dyadic short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III.  

PubMed

Various short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)/WAIS-R have been developed to obtain estimates of overall intellectual level, although little research of WAIS-III short forms has been published to date. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) estimatesfromfour WAIS-III dyadic short forms were obtained by entering selected subtest scores from a mixed neurologic/ psychiatric sample (n = 196) into regression equations. Results were cross validated on a second sample (n = 57). Within both samples, WAIS-III FSIQ scores were highly correlated (r = .90-.92, p < .001) with estimated FSIQ scores. Estimated FSIQ fell within 5 points of actual FSIQ in 49% to 74% of cross-validation cases and within 10 points of actual FSIQ in 81% to 93% of the sample. Comparable to findings from previous short-form investigations, actual and estimated FSIQ classification levels agreed in 46% to 67% of cases in the cross-validation sample. These dyadic WAIS-III forms appear appropriate for obtaining gross estimates of FSIQ in similar populations, although caution is recommended in interpreting estimated IQ scores. PMID:12216782

Ringe, Wendy K; Saine, Kathleen C; Lacritz, Laura H; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro

2002-09-01

216

Efficacy of Guanfacine Extended Release Assessed During the Morning, Afternoon, and Evening Using a Modified Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of once-daily guanfacine extended release (GXR) monotherapy administered either in the morning or evening, using a modified Conners' Parent Rating Scale乏evised: Short Form (CPRS乏:S) assessed three times/day in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized children 612 years of age with ADHD into three groups: GXR a.m. (GXR in the morning and placebo in the evening), GXR p.m. (placebo in the morning and GXR in the evening), or twice-daily placebo. The CPRS乏:S, administered in the morning, afternoon, and evening prior to each study visit, was a secondary measure of efficacy. Results: A total of 333 subjects were included in the analysis population (GXR a.m., n=107; GXR p.m., n=114; placebo, n=112). At visit 10, last observation carried forward (LOCF), subjects receiving GXR demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in the daily mean CPRS乏:S total score, as well as in each of the morning, afternoon, and evening CPRS乏:S assessments, compared with placebo, regardless of the time of GXR administration (p<0.001 vs. placebo for GXR a.m. and GXR p.m.). In addition, subjects receiving GXR showed significantly greater improvements from baseline in each subscale score (oppositional, cognitive problems/inattention, hyperactivity, and ADHD index) compared with those receiving placebo, regardless of time of administration (p<0.003 vs. placebo across all subscales for GXR a.m. and GXR p.m.). Conclusions: These results provide further support for the demonstrated efficacy of once-daily GXR in reducing ADHD symptoms, and demonstrate that response is consistent throughout the day regardless of the time of administration, with improvement seen in ratings of oppositional as well as of ADHD symptoms. PMID:25286026

Rugino, Thomas; Dammerman, Ryan; Lyne, Andrew; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

2014-01-01

217

Learning and memory impairment in PTSD: relationship to depression.  

PubMed

Memory function was studied in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), combat veterans without PTSD, and noncombat veterans. The Vocabulary and Digit Span subtests of the WAIS and Logical Memory (LMS) and Verbal Paired Associates (VPAS) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale III were administered. Combat veterans with PTSD showed impaired memory on the LMS and VPAS compared to combat veterans without PTSD or noncombat veterans. Veterans with PTSD also showed lower WAIS Vocabulary subtest scores--but not digit span subtest scores--than combat veterans without PTSD or noncombat veterans. Medication status, co-morbid diagnosis, and age all failed to account for these memory differences, but when self-assessed depression--as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale--or anxiety--as measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale--was statistically removed, group differences on these memory measures were no longer significant. However, using a stepwise regression procedure, in which both anxiety and depression were employed to predict the LMS and VPAS scores, only the Zung scale reliably predicated performance. The present results, showing that PTSD is associated with general learning and memory impairments, is an important finding, but the specific effects of depression as a mediator of these deficits should be further studied. PMID:17352380

Burriss, Louisa; Ayers, Edwin; Ginsberg, Jay; Powell, D A

2008-01-01

218

Working memory mediates the relationship between intellectual enrichment and long-term memory in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory analysis of cognitive reserve.  

PubMed

Some individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) show decrements in long-term memory (LTM) while other individuals do not. The theory of cognitive reserve suggests that individuals with greater pre-morbid intellectual enrichment are protected from disease-related cognitive decline. How intellectual enrichment affords this benefit remains poorly understood. The present study tested an exploratory meditational hypothesis whereby working memory (WM) capacity may mediate the relationship between intellectual enrichment and verbal LTM decline in MS. Intellectual enrichment, verbal LTM, and WM capacity were estimated with the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, delayed recall of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Logical Memory of the Wechsler Memory Scale, and Digit Span Total, respectively. Intellectual enrichment predicted LTM (B=.54; p=.003) and predicted WM capacity (B=.91; p<.001). WM capacity predicted LTM, (B=.44; p<.001) and fully mediated the relationship between intellectual enrichment (B=.24; p=.27) and LTM (B=.33, p=.03), Sobel test, Z=3.31, p<.001. These findings implicate WM capacity as an underlying mechanism of cognitive reserve and are an initial first step in understanding the relationship between intellectual enrichment, WM, and LTM in MS. PMID:25017699

Sandry, Joshua; Sumowski, James F

2014-09-01

219

The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals  

PubMed Central

The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 (C/T) of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been reported to be associated with an altered response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we examined whether this SNP is associated with cognitive function in a non-clinical population. The full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were administered to 742 and 627 Japanese individuals, respectively, followed by genotyping of rs1360780 by the TaqMan 5?-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. For both cognitive tests, we found significantly poorer attention/concentration (working memory) in aged (>50 years old) individuals carrying the T allele compared with their counterparts. This finding accords with an altered HPA axis and vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25331639

Fujii, Takashi; Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

220

Cognitive memory.  

PubMed

Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA. Neural networks are an important component of the human memory system, and their purpose is for information retrieval, not for information storage. The brain's neural networks are analog devices, subject to drift and unplanned change. Only with constant training is reliable action possible. Good training time is during sleep and while awake and making use of one's memory. A cognitive memory is a learning system. Learning involves storage of patterns or data in a cognitive memory. The learning process for cognitive memory is unsupervised, i.e. autonomous. PMID:23453302

Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

2013-05-01

221

Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.  

PubMed

The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level. PMID:20822259

Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

2010-12-01

222

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

223

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

224

Studies of brain damage and dysfunction in sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedophiles, sexual aggressives and incest offenders were examined for brain damage and dysfunction using computer tomography (CT) scans, the Halstead-Reitan (HR) Neuropsychological Test Battery, including the Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), and the Space Relations Test (SRT) of the Differential Aptitude Test. Results suggest that the groups of sex offenders examined did not suffer from

R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; P. Wright; L. Handy

1989-01-01

225

Cognitive functioning of ADHD and non-ADHD boys on the WISC-III and WRAML: An analysis within a memory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined differences in patterns of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Revision (WISC-III) and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), in 20 boys with ADHD and 20 boys referred for other psychological problems. The two groups were comparable in age (6 to 13 years) and WISC-III Full-Scale IQ. The ADHD group

C. Mealer; S. Morgan; R. Luscomb

1996-01-01

226

Emerging memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

2014-12-01

227

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

228

Latent Mean and Covariance Differences With Measurement Equivalence in College Students With Developmental Difficulties Versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale蜂II\\/Wechsler Memory Scale蜂II Normative Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence provides a direct test of the hypothesis that the same set of latent variables

Stephen C. Bowden; Noel Gregg; Deborah Bandalos; Mark Davis; Chris Coleman; James A. Holdnack; Larry G. Weiss

2008-01-01

229

Latent Mean and Covariance Differences with Measurement Equivalence in College Students with Developmental Difficulties versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-III Normative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence

Bowden, Stephen C.; Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah; Davis, Mark; Coleman, Chris; Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Larry G.

2008-01-01

230

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

231

The Role of Sex Differences in the Referral Process as Measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored sex differences on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in a sample of 432 Arkansas school children, ages 6 to 16, referred for special education assessment. Analysis of variance indicated significant sex differences among WISC-R Full Scale, Verbal, and

Smith, Teresa C.; And Others

1989-01-01

232

A Teacher's Guide to Understanding the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised. Understanding the WICS-R: A Guide for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this work is to provide information for teachers about intelligence testing; more specifically, how the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) can be used practically. The purpose is not to make teachers into testers, but rather to make them more sophisticiated users of the information that they obtain from

Kissel, Stanley; Kissel, Pearl

233

Item Analyses of Amerindian and Chicano Responses on the Vocabulary Scales of the Stanford-Binet LM and Wechsler Batteries. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chicano and Amerindian vocabulary scale responses from the Stanford-Binet (LM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were item-analyzed for 1,009 subjects. The response patterns differed both by ethnic group and test, as well as by age. The most common, and recurring, pattern found was "level-of-difficulty" gradient inconsistencies. The

Guilliams, Clark I.

234

Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs

Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

2010-01-01

235

Long-Term Stability of Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition in Children with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required

Lander, Jenny

2010-01-01

236

The Usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the childhood behavioral disorders, yet is widely misunderstood and often difficult to correctly diagnose. Using a neuropsychological framework, this study explored the usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and Wisconsin Card

Hooper, Elleen

237

Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected

Ott, Lauren M.

2010-01-01

238

Comparability of intelligence quotients of mental defectives on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the 1960 revision of the Stanford-Binet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the effect of age and level of retardation on the comparability of IQs from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the 1960 revision of the Stanford-Binet. In addition, a measure of social competency was related to the IQs from the two scales. The sample consisted of 180 mentally retarded subjects in three California state hospitals

Gary M. Fisher; Beverly A. Kilman; Anna M. Shotwell

1961-01-01

239

Metric and structural equivalence of core cognitive abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in the United States and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equivalence of the psychological model underlying Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale傍hird Edition (WAIS-III) scores obtained in the United States and Australia was examined in this study. Examination of metric invariance involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the measurement model relating observed scores to latent variables are numerically equal in different samples. The assumption of metric invariance is necessary for

Stephen C. Bowden; Dianne Lissner; Kerri A. L. McCarthy; Lawrence G. Weiss; James A. Holdnack

2007-01-01

240

Behavioral inhibition, self-regulation of motivation, and working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

We examined 3 aspects of Barkley's (1997) recent model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--behavioral inhibition, self-regulation of motivation, and working memory utilizing 152 elementary school children ages 7 to 12. Seventy-six children with ADHD and 76 children without a psychiatric diagnosis completed the stop-signal task, a computerized Digit Span Task requiring concurrent storage and processing, and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test during a 1-hr testing session. Parent and teacher ratings were also obtained on the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (Conners, 1997), and the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (Conners, 1997), respectively. Results indicated that children with ADHD had deficits in inhibitory control, working memory, and short-term memory relative to children without the disorder. Contrary to our prediction, the groups did not differ in their responsiveness to external reinforcement. In addition, children with and without ADHD had similar self-perceptions of their performances during the experimental session. Future directions for specifying childhood difficulties in inhibitory control and memory processes are discussed. PMID:12139195

Stevens, Jack; Quittner, Alexandra L; Zuckerman, John B; Moore, Scot

2002-01-01

241

Evaluation of seven-subtest short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in a referred sample.  

PubMed

The application of seven-subtest short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-3) was evaluated in a sample of 281 mixed clinical patients from three Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Short-form summary scores were derived from deviation quotient tables and from prorating. They included either Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Short-form summary scores for Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) demonstrated good alternate-forms reliability with the full WAIS-3 scores, whereas Performance IQ (PIQ) summary scores were less accurate. Short forms derived from deviation quotients and prorating did not differ from each other. However, the inclusion of Matrix Reasoning resulted in somewhat better accuracy with WAIS-3 PIQ than did Block Design. The results of this study support the use of the seven-subtest short form of the WAIS-3 in estimating full WAIS-3 summary scores, especially for FSIQ and VIQ. PMID:14590188

Axelrod, B N; Ryan, J J; Ward, L C

2001-01-01

242

Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States  

PubMed Central

This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were generally consistent, with a male advantage on a subtest of spatial abilities (Mazes). Males in the Chinese sample obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQ scores than females and had lower variability in their test scores. These observations were not present in the Japan and United States samples. Mean Full Scale IQ score in the Chinese sample was 104.1, representing a 4-point increase from 1988 to 2004. PMID:21686316

Liu, Jianghong; Lynn, Richard

2011-01-01

243

Distributed Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short term memory are discussed.

L. N. Cooper

1985-01-01

244

Episodic Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a

Conway, Martin A.

2009-01-01

245

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

246

Architecture of fluid intelligence and working memory revealed by lesion mapping.  

PubMed

Although cognitive neuroscience has made valuable progress in understanding the role of the prefrontal cortex in human intelligence, the functional networks that support adaptive behavior and novel problem solving remain to be well characterized. Here, we studied 158 human brain lesion patients to investigate the cognitive and neural foundations of key competencies for fluid intelligence and working memory. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the N-Back task. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free scores of fluid intelligence and working memory, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. The observed latent variable modeling and lesion results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of fluid intelligence and working memory and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the WAIS and N-Back task to the study of fluid intelligence in health and disease. PMID:23392844

Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Grafman, Jordan

2014-03-01

247

Are recovered memories accurate?  

E-print Network

Research in our laboratory has demonstrated blocked and recovered memories within the context of a controlled experiment. The comparative memory paradigm allows for comparisons of recovered memories, continuous memories, and false memories...

Gerkens, David

2005-08-29

248

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

249

Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor  

E-print Network

1 COGS 101B: Learning, Memory, & Attention ツキ Welcome! ツキ Instructor ツュ Dr. Coulson ツュ Email: coulson Attention ツュ Divided Attention ツュ Automaticity ツュ Attentional Capture ツキ Immediate Memory ツュ Sensory Memory ツュ Short-Term Memory ツュ Working Memory ツキ Long-Term Memory ツュ Levels of Processing ツュ Memory Systems

Coulson, Seana

250

Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: an examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR).  

PubMed

Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p < .001). Mean improvement across assessments was negligible (t = -0.086, p = .47; Cohen's d = -.005), and minimal individual participant change was observed (modal scaled score change = 0). WTAR scores were also highly similar to scores on a demographic estimate of premorbid IQ. Thus, converging evidence--high stability during recovery from TBI and similar IQ estimates to those of a demographic equation suggests that the WTAR is a valid measure of premorbid IQ for TBI. Where word pronunciation tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently), these results endorse the use of the WTAR for patients with TBI. PMID:18213530

Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl

2008-02-01

251

Age Related Changes to Correlations Between Scores Obtained on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has yielded conflicting answers to questions about the relationships between scores obtained on tests of executive function and IQ tests. This study correlated scores on the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-III for 197 participants between 8 and 64-years-old. All of the participants had been referred for neuropsychological assessment. When all age groups were included

Mandy Davies

2005-01-01

252

Three-subtest Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III for Patients with Psychotic Disorders: a Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a 3-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelli- gence Scale-III for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient scores by comparing it with an established 4-subtest short form. Patients and Methods: Full-scale intelligence quotient scores were evaluated using the 4-subtest short form, which includes information, arithmetic, digit symbols, and block design, in a group of 49

ELS Chan; EYH Chen; RCK Chan

253

Comparative study of visual and verbal short-term memory in English and Spanish speakers: testing a linguistic hypothesis.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that differences in digit span performance between English and Spanish speakers are due to the greater number of syllables per digit in the Spanish language. To test this hypothesis, we studied the performance of 30 English- and 30 Spanish-speaking elders on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Span Subtest, a modified digit span test that was linguistically comparable for both languages, and the Corsi Block Test. Consistent with previous reports, we found that English speakers scored significantly higher than Spanish speakers on WAIS-R Digit Span Forward. Group differences were reduced on the modified Digit Span Forward, but remained significant. English and Spanish speakers scored comparably on Digit Span Backward (WAIS-R and modified) and Visual Span. We suggest that although differences in the number of syllables per digit string are in part responsible for the lower performance of Spanish speakers on Digit Span Forward, cultural and educational issues also contribute to the observed differences between English and Spanish speakers. PMID:9375195

Olazaran, J; Jacobs, D M; Stern, Y

1996-03-01

254

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III inter-subtest scatter: a comparison of brain-damaged patients and normal controls.  

PubMed

This study assessed the validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) inter-subtest scatter (as measured by the scaled score range) as an indication of cognitive impairment due to brain dysfunction. Participants were 174 individuals with documented brain damage. Means for age, education, and WAIS-III full-scale IQ were 49.19 years (SD = 15.33), 12.57 years, (SD = 2.78), and 88.45 (SD = 17.78). The scatter ranges for brain-damaged participants were compared with those of the WAIS-III standardization sample. Results indicated that the full-scale IQ is significantly correlated with amount of scatter, r(172) = .42, p < .0001, so that a definitive answer to the question requires control of full-scale IQ. In the present analyses, inter-subtest scatter among the individuals for the sample as a whole was no greater than that for persons in the standardization sample, but subtest scatter was significantly greater for participants with IQs > or = 90. This finding suggests that there may be small differences in scatter between brain-damaged persons and normal controls, but that scatter is relatively insensitive to the presence of brain damage or dysfunction. Therefore, interpretation of marked inter-subtest variability as a sign of brain damage appears unwarranted. PMID:16897733

Ryan, Joseph J; Tree, Heather A; Morris, Jeri; Gontkovsky, Samuel T

2006-10-01

255

Working memory performance and exposure to pleasant and unpleasant ambient odor: Is spatial span special?  

PubMed

Sensory influences on working memory (WM) performance were investigated in 86 healthy adults. Participants were exposed to an ambient pleasant odor (lemon), unpleasant odor (machine oil) or no odor during completion of three WM tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III: the letter-number sequencing, spatial span and digit span tests. A significant main effect of odor was found for spatial span but no other task: scores were significantly lower in the unpleasant odor condition than the pleasant odor condition. Significant odor ラ sex interactions were found for the spatial span, digit span and letter-number sequencing tasks: men's spatial span scores were lower in the unpleasant odor condition than in the control condition, and women's scores were significantly better in the pleasant odor condition than in the unpleasant odor condition. The results suggest that ambient odor may impair or facilitate specific types of WM depending on the task, sex of the participant and affective characteristics of the odor. PMID:24693943

Martin, G N; Chaudry, A

2014-11-01

256

Painting memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the Victorian fascination with the ways in which one visualizes, in the mind's eye, what is in fact invisible. In particular, it explores what happens when one exercises the faculty of memory. It argues that developments in painting during the period especially the shift from an emphasis on realism to styles which invoke a spectator's subjective

Kate Flint

2003-01-01

257

Memory disorders in probable Alzheimer's disease: the role of hippocampal atrophy as shown with MRI.  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance based volumetric measures of hippocampal formation, amygdala (A), caudate nucleus (CN), normalised for total intracranial volume (TIV), were analysed in relation to measures of cognitive deterioration and specific features of memory functions in 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychological examination included the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the Mattis dementia rating scale (DRS), tests of executive functions, assessment of language abilities and praxis, the Wechsler memory scale (WMS), the California verbal learning test (CVLT) and the Grober and Buschke test. The volume of the hippocampal formation (HF/TIV) was correlated with specific memory variables: memory quotient and paired associates of the WMS; intrusions and discriminability at recognition for the Grober and Buschke test. By contrast, except for intrusions, no correlations were found between memory variables and the volume of amygdala (A/TIV). No correlations were found between the volume of caudate nuclei (CN/TIV) and any neuropsychological score. The volume of the hippocampal formation was therefore selectively related to quantitative and qualitative aspects of memory performance in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Images PMID:7745409

Deweer, B; Lehericy, S; Pillon, B; Baulac, M; Chiras, J; Marsault, C; Agid, Y; Dubois, B

1995-01-01

258

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory  

E-print Network

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum; Reactivating personal memory 2 Abstract Memory can be modified when reactivated

Schacter, Daniel

259

Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

2007-12-01

260

Memory systems (cont.) Interactions among memory systems  

E-print Network

of evidence would help resolve this? Implanting memories ツキ Researchers have asked whether memories can be implanted? ツュ If a false memory can be implanted, that would make us more skeptical about reports forgotten in the intirim ツキ It is easy to implant false memories ツュ Some therapists have been sued

Pillow, Jonathan

261

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus  

E-print Network

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus Nicola J. Broadbent*, Larry R. Squire. Squire, August 27, 2004 There is wide agreement that spatial memory is dependent on the integrity recognition memory is not as clear. We examined the relationship between hippocampal lesion size and both

Squire, Larry R.

262

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana  

E-print Network

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies ツキ SRAM ツキ DRAM ツキ Flash Upcoming Memory technologies ツキ MRAM ツキ PCRAM ツキ FeRAM ツキ ... #12;13-Mar-13 4 What is a Memory Memory cell: Binary data storage element

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

263

Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory  

PubMed Central

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schutze, Hartmut; Wustenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Duzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Bjorn H.

2014-01-01

264

Neuropsychological assessment of children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological assessments of adults with SLE have shown cognitive impairment, sequential processing deficits, memory loss, increased incidence of left handedness, learning disabilities and emotional distress compared with healthy individuals or subjects with other medical conditions. Neuropsychological testing regarding these variables in children and adolescents with SLE has been infrequently reported. For this study, eight children with SLE (age 9-17 years at diagnosis) were assessed with neuropsychological testing at a median of 10.5 months (range 1 week to 30 months) after diagnosis. Tests included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Standard Binet Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition Memory Subtests or Wechsler Memory Scale (all mean = 100 +/- 15) and Gates MacInitie Reading Comprehension Test, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Achenbach Youth Self Report. Mean intellectual scores were in the low average range (Wechsler Full Scale mean = 85.0 +/- 11.9, Verbal Scale mean 85.2 +/- 13.9, Performance Scale mean = 88.0 +/- 13.9). Academic achievement was globally depressed (reading recognition mean = 79.5 +/- 22.0, spelling mean = 78.9 +/- 23.5), especially in arithmetic (mean = 70.5 +/- 14.9). Children with SLE averaged 5 years behind grade placement in reading comprehension. Visual memory was also depressed in patients with SLE. Behavior ratings failed to demonstrate any significant aberrations in the test subjects. PMID:7655493

Wyckoff, P M; Miller, L C; Tucker, L B; Schaller, J G

1995-06-01

265

What is memory for? Short term memory (STM)  

E-print Network

1 Memory ツキ What is memory for? ツキ Short term memory (STM) ツキ Characteristics of STM Who has a better with an examination of visual memory. STM and LTM ツキ And now for some jargon ツュ Short term memory (STM) ツュ Long term memory (LTM) ツキ Today, we focus on short term memory. Short-term memory ツキ You know many things ツュ Facts

Pillow, Jonathan

266

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory  

E-print Network

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

Verschelde, Jan

267

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory. Explicit memories are facts that you made ... as driving a car or riding a bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained ...

268

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

269

Memory Slips and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Memory Slips and Dementia HealthDay September 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Memory Seniors' Health Transcript Little memory slips as you ...

270

The JFK coma recovery scale羊evised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS) was developed to help characterise and monitor patients functioning at Rancho Levels I蜂V and has been used widely in both clinical and research settings within the US and Europe. The CRS was recently revised to address a number of concerns emanating from our own clinical experience with the scale, feedback from users and researchers

Kathleen Kalmar; Joseph T. Giacino

2005-01-01

271

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ECERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). Designed for use in preschool, kindergarten, and child care classrooms serving children 2-and-a-half through 5 years of age, the ECERS-R can be used by program directors for supervision and program

Harms, Thelma; Clifford, Richard M.; Cryer, Debby

272

Investigating the structure and invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Fourth Edition in a sample of adults with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Recent research has questioned whether the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) measure the same constructs for adults with intellectual disabilities as they do for the general population (MacLean et al., 2011). Using the special validity sample of the WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008b), the structure of the WAIS-IV was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis and tested for measurement invariance across a sample with intellectual disabilities and a control group matched in demographic characteristics. The instrument demonstrated strong factorial invariance when the standard subtests were used. When the standard and supplemental subtests were included in the model, the WAIS-IV four-factor structure provided a model of measurement for the Subtest Scores in the intellectual disability group, but the Perceptual Reasoning factor demonstrated differentiation into Fluid Reasoning and Visual-Spatial factors in the matched control group. In general, the research findings suggest that the four-factor structure of the WAIS-IV is invariant across the intellectual disability and matched control groups. PMID:23891724

Reynolds, Matthew R; Ingram, Paul B; Seeley, Jennifer S; Newby, Kaylee D

2013-10-01

273

Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during

Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

2006-01-01

274

The validity of d prime as a working memory index: results from the "Bergen n-back task".  

PubMed

The n-back task is frequently used as an experimental paradigm in imaging studies of working memory. This study aimed to investigate whether the Bergen 2-back task is suitable for use in desktop assessment of patients with schizophrenia. Looking at the psychometric properties of the task, including the newly added measure of discriminability, d prime (d '), our analyses confirmed that the 2-back d ' is the preferred measure of working memory dysfunction in desktop assessment compared to the Digit Span Backward and the Letter-Number Sequencing subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). d ' has the advantage of capturing executive skills needed to perform mental operations in patients with schizophrenia, without being influenced by demographic variables or IQ. PMID:20383801

Haatveit, Beathe C; Sundet, Kjetil; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Ueland, Torill; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

2010-10-01

275

Enhanced working and verbal memory after lamotrigine treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the treatment impact of lamotrigine on the neurocognitive profile of patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method Healthy controls (HC) (n = 24; mean age = 12.4 ア 3.3 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic, mixed or hypomanic episodes (n = 34; mean age = 13 ア 3.1 years) were matched for IQ, age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and again after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated with lamotrigine. Results Clinical symptoms improved with treatment in the patient group with significant change from baseline to follow-up on the Young Mania Rating Scale (p < 0.001) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale乏evised (p < 0.001). Global neurocognitive function improved with lamotrigine in PBD patients over time relative to that in HC, although overall performance remained impaired. Working memory and verbal memory significantly improved with treatment in patients, and deficits in these domains were no longer significantly impaired relative to HC at follow-up. Executive function significantly improved with treatment in the patient group, but still lagged behind HC at follow-up. Performance on attention tests did not improve with treatment. Conclusions There appears to be significant improvement in cognitive abilities in PBD patients treated with lamotrigine that is most prominent in the areas of working memory and verbal memory and that occurs along with mood stabilization. PMID:20402714

Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Mohammed, Tahseen; Carbray, Julie A; Sweeney, John A

2010-01-01

276

Dissociating Memory Networks in Early Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration - A Combined Study of Hypometabolism and Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed at dissociating the neural correlates of memory disorders in Alzheimer痴 disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Methods We included patients with AD (n?=?19, 11 female, mean age 61 years) and FTLD (n?=?11, 5 female, mean age 61 years) in early stages of their diseases. Memory performance was assessed by means of verbal and visual memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R), including forgetting rates. Brain glucose utilization was measured by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and brain atrophy by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Using a whole brain approach, correlations between test performance and imaging data were computed separately in each dementia group, including a group of control subjects (n?=?13, 6 female, mean age 54 years) in both analyses. The three groups did not differ with respect to education and gender. Results Patients in both dementia groups generally performed worse than controls, but AD and FTLD patients did not differ from each other in any of the test parameters. However, memory performance was associated with different brain regions in the patient groups, with respect to both hypometabolism and atrophy: Whereas in AD patients test performance was mainly correlated with changes in the parieto-mesial cortex, performance in FTLD patients was correlated with changes in frontal cortical as well as subcortical regions. There were practically no overlapping regions associated with memory disorders in AD and FTLD as revealed by a conjunction analysis. Conclusion Memory test performance may not distinguish between both dementia syndromes. In clinical practice, this may lead to misdiagnosis of FTLD patients with poor memory performance. Nevertheless, memory problems are associated with almost completely different neural correlates in both dementia syndromes. Obviously, memory functions are carried out by distributed networks which break down in brain degeneration. PMID:23457466

Frisch, Stefan; Dukart, Juergen; Vogt, Barbara; Horstmann, Annette; Becker, Georg; Villringer, Arno; Barthel, Henryk; Sabri, Osama; Muller, Karsten; Schroeter, Matthias L.

2013-01-01

277

Female Memory in Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author searches past ages to trace the development of a specific women痴 memory. She attempts to show how this memory is made up, describing the female memory in the Bible, in Greek and Roman history and mythology, and its hidden trajectory behind the scenes of conventional (male) history. She suggests that social exile made female memory a matrix from

N駘ida Pion

2004-01-01

278

Errors in autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is always constructive. People create the past based on the information that remains in memory, their general knowledge, and the social demands of the retrieval situation. Thus, memories will often contain some small errors and occasionally some large errors. In this article, we describe several different types of memory errors and consider how these errors may influence therapy.

Ira E. Hyman; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1998-01-01

279

Memories of Things Unseen  

Microsoft Academic Search

New findings reveal more about the malleability of memory. Not only is it possible to change details of memories for previously experienced events, but one can sometimes also plant entirely false memories into the minds of unsuspecting individuals, even if the events would be highly implausible or even impossible. False memories might differ statistically from true ones, in terms of

Elizabeth F. Loftus

2004-01-01

280

Memory Hard Drive Peripherals  

E-print Network

1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 ツァ To provide a detailed

Stojmenovic, Ivan

281

Working memory deficits in multiple sclerosis: a controlled study with auditory P600 correlates  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, the P600 component of event related potentials, a waveform that is conceived to be generated and/or modulated by basal ganglia and cingulate area has been considered an index of the completion of any synchronised operation after target detection, having much in common with working memory operation. Moreover, dysfunction of these brain structures as well as working memory deficits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of P600 elicited during a working memory test in multiple sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls. Methods: Twenty two definite, chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients, with recent exacerbation of their illness, and 20 normal subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level, were studied with a computerised version of the digit span test of Wechsler batteries. Auditory P600 were measured during the anticipatory period of this test. Results: The patient group, as compared with healthy controls, showed significantly reduced latencies of P600 at left frontal areas and reduced P600 amplitudes at left temporoparietal region. Moreover, memory performance of patients was significantly more impaired when compared with healthy controls. Conclusions: These findings may indicate that multiple sclerosis is associated with abnormal features of the completion of synchronised operation after target detection, as they are reflected by P600 amplitudes and latencies. Dysfunction of this mechanism may contribute to the identification of basic cognitive processes that could account for the cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis. PMID:12933924

Sfagos, C; Papageorgiou, C; Kosma, K; Kodopadelis, E; Uzunoglu, N; Vassilopoulos, D; Rabavilas, A

2003-01-01

282

Memory Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

1995-01-01

283

A revalidation of the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness as a brief measure of intelligence through comparison with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III.  

PubMed

In earlier research, Rossini, Wygonik, Barrett, and Friedman (1994) demonstrated that the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness (TMA) is a valid, brief measure of intelligence by comparing it to the Wechsler Scale of Adult Intelligence-Revised, which was at that time the "gold standard" of IQ assessment. Since that study, the WAIS has again been revised and reissued in a third edition, the WAIS-III. We assessed the relationship between scores on the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness and this latest WAIS test to see if there is still a predictive relationship between the two tests. Correlations between the two tests and the accuracy of TMA point estimates of IQ indicate that the Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness remains a viable brief measure of adult intelligence. PMID:11351908

Kvaal, S A; Wygonik, E; Spanos, A; Landsberger, S

2001-04-01

284

Schizotypal traits and cognitive function in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Growing evidence has shown that psychometrically identified schizotypes among student populations have subtle cognitive impairments in several domains such as attention, working memory and executive function, but the possible association between psychometric schizotypy in adult populations and cognitive function has not been well documented. Here we examined the association between schizotypal traits as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and cognitive function including memory, attention, executive function, and general intelligence in 124 healthy adults. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SPQ scores showed a significant inverse correlation with verbal IQ and the information, comprehension and similarities subtests. No correlation was found between SPQ scores and memory, attention, performance IQ, or executive functioning. These results indicate that schizotypal traits in healthy adults are associated with verbal IQ decrements, suggesting that schizotypal traits themselves, even at a non-clinical level, may play unfavorable roles in cognitive functioning, which is in line with the viewpoint that schizotypy is on a continuum with normality, with its extreme form being clinically expressed as schizophrenia. PMID:18849081

Noguchi, Hiroko; Hori, Hiroaki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2008-11-30

285

Neuropsychological deficit profiles in senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type.  

PubMed

Recent studies using Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) Reading scores as estimates of premorbid abilities have demonstrated that distinct neuropsychological deficit profiles may be associated with specific cognitive disorders such as traumatic brain injury [Brain Inj. 9 (1995) 377] and lupus [Appl. Neuropsychol. 7 (2000) 96], and that these deficit scores predict both functional and financial outcomes [J. Head Trauma Rehab. 14 (1999) 220]. Although the main cognitive deficits associated with senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) are well known, the relative degree of impairment in each has yet to be adequately determined. The present study calculated indices of relative decline (zDiff) for 32 patients with probable SDAT by comparing estimates of premorbid functioning to concurrent neuropsychological test scores. The results suggest that intelligence is least declined in SDAT [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) FIQ, zDiff=-0.72], followed by attention [Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) Attention Index, zDiff=-1.14], memory (WMS-R General Memory, zDiff=-2.12; WMS-R Delay Memory, zDiff=-2.33), speed of processing (Trails A, zDiff=-2.85), and cognitive flexibility (Trails B, zDiff=-5.33). Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:14589727

Johnstone, Brick; Hogg, John R; Schopp, Laura H; Kapila, Cindy; Edwards, Staci

2002-04-01

286

WAIS-III processing speed index scores after TBI: the influence of working memory, psychomotor speed and perceptual processing.  

PubMed

This study investigates the extent to which working memory, motor speed and perceptual processing speed influence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores. Sixty-eight adult outpatients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of varying severity and complete data on all outcome measures were identified. Two cases with outlying values on one outcome measure were omitted from the final sample. Working memory was measured by the Working Memory Index score from the WAIS-III. Motor speed was measured as score on the Halstead-Reitan Finger Oscillation Test (finger tapping) and perceptual processing as score on the Trail Making Test--Part B. In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, working memory accounted for 10% of the variance in PSI scores, whereas motor speed only accounted for 3%. An independent measure of perceptual processing, Trail Making Test--B, accounted for 26% of the variance in WAIS-III PSI scores. The total variance accounted for by the three factors was 56%. Findings confirm that the WAIS-III PSI scores of individuals who have received a TBI reflect perceptual processing speed, with an additional component attributable to working memory. Motor speed made only a small contribution to WAIS-III PSI scores in the present sample. PMID:14704894

Kennedy, Jan E; Clement, Pamelia F; Curtiss, Glenn

2003-08-01

287

Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory  

E-print Network

Midway: Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory memory multiprocessing offers a costツュeffective and scalable solution for a large class of scientific and numeric applications. Unfortunately, the performance of current distributed memory programming

288

Memory abstractions for parallel programming  

E-print Network

A memory abstraction is an abstraction layer between the program execution and the memory that provides a different "view" of a memory location depending on the execution context in which the memory access is made. Properly ...

Lee, I-Ting Angelina

2012-01-01

289

CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: HISTORY, MEMORY, PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

a witness to history being made, a notion present in the concept of memory and the processes of remembering ツキ (Post)memory and (post)trauma ツキ Memory theatre and resonant spaces ツキ Theatre as / and memorial

Sankoff, David

290

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening  

E-print Network

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening Google bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology qin zhao@csail.mit.edu Abstract--Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs

Tomkins, Andrew

291

Memory and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... that require medical and psychological attention. Memory and Aging What Brain Changes Are Normal for Older Adults? Although new ... Your Memory Here is good news about our aging brains. Scientists have identified ways to minimize age-related ...

292

Understanding Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When You Have Trouble ... home may be signs of a more serious memory problem. This booklet will help you learn about: ...

293

Cocoa Flavanols and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... brain imaging and took a 20-minute memory test to start. The study relied on a process, ... After three-months, new brain imaging and memory tests were done. The researchers compared the scans looking ...

294

Coping with Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss? Anything that affects cognition葉he process of thinking, learning, and remembering幼an affect memory. Doctors use ... increasing impairment of memory and other aspects of thinking that are sufficiently severe to impair day-to- ...

295

[Memory and cognitivism].  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to explore the notion of cognitive memory. For that reason we would study the implicit and explicit memory. We would also study the notion of childhood amnesia and trauma. PMID:11780154

Spinetto, M

2001-12-01

296

Memory Correspondence to Author:  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION: Nootropics also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that are purported to improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation,

Preksha Dwivedi; Richa Singh; Mohd. Tabish Malik; Talha Jawaid; Talha Jawaid

297

Medications for Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Medications for Memory Loss Tweet Although current medications cannot cure Alzheimer痴 or stop it from progressing, they may help lessen symptoms, such as memory loss and confusion, for a limited time. Types ...

298

Drifting absence :: drafting memory  

E-print Network

The emotive power of a memorial derives from its ability to engage the viewer in active remembrance. The project considers the limitations of a monumentality which embraces a distinct division between viewer and memorial. ...

Kuhn, Marlene Eva

2006-01-01

299

Memory Technology Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola,...

1981-01-01

300

Recoverable distributed shared memory  

E-print Network

Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

2012-06-07

301

Memory-mapped transactions  

E-print Network

Memory-mapped transactions combine the advantages of both memory mapping and transactions to provide a programming interface for concurrently accessing data on disk without explicit I/O or locking operations. This interface ...

Sukha, Jim

2005-01-01

302

Frequency of WISC蜂II and WAIS乏 Pairwise Subtest Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their psychometric shortcomings, pairwise Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children裕hird Edition (WISC蜂II; D. Wechsler, 1991) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale由evised (WAIS乏; D. Wechsler, 1981) subtest scaled score comparisons can be important in neuropsychological evaluations (M. D. Lezak, 1995), an endeavor in which hypotheses from pairwise comparisons can be tested with independent neuropsychological instruments. The authors used WISC蜂II and WAIS乏 standardization

John A. Schinka; Rodney D. Vanderploeg; Paul Greblo

1998-01-01

303

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

304

Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Learning and Memory Raja Parasuraman WorkingWorking MemoryMemory SelectiveSelective AttentionAttention Slide 2 Overview Short term, working, and long-term memory The medial temporal lobe/prefrontal cortex memory system Amnesia Implicit memory Slide 3

Parasuraman, Raja

305

Evaluation of Memory Impairment in Aging Adult Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated With Cranial Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Cranial radiotherapy (CRT) is a known risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood cancer and may increase risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in adulthood. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with 18 Gy (n = 127) or 24 Gy (n = 138) CRT. Impairment (age-adjusted score >1 standard deviation below expected mean, two-sided exact binomial test) on the Wechsler Memory Scale IV (WMS-IV) was measured. A subset of survivors (n = 85) completed structural and functional neuroimaging. Results Survivors who received 24 Gy, but not 18 Gy, CRT had impairment in immediate (impairment rate = 33.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.9% to 42.4%; P < .001) and delayed memory (impairment rate = 30.2%, 95% CI = 22.6% to 38.6%; P < .001). The mean score for long-term narrative memory among survivors who received 24 Gy CRT was equivalent to that for individuals older than 69 years. Impaired immediate memory was associated with smaller right (P = .02) and left (P = .008) temporal lobe volumes, and impaired delayed memory was associated with thinner parietal and frontal cortices. Lower hippocampal volumes and increased functional magnetic resonance imaging activation were observed with memory impairment. Reduced cognitive status (Brief Cognitive Status Exam from the WMS-IV) was identified after 24 Gy (18.5%, 95% CI = 12.4% to 26.1%; P < .001), but not 18 Gy (8.7%, 95% CI = 4.4% to 15.0%; P = .11), CRT, suggesting a dose睦esponse effect. Employment rates were equivalent (63.8% for 24 Gy CRT and 63.0% for 18 Gy CRT). Conclusions Adult survivors who received 24 Gy CRT had reduced cognitive status and memory, with reduced integrity in neuroanatomical regions essential in memory formation, consistent with early onset mild cognitive impairment. PMID:23584394

2013-01-01

306

Memory distortion in hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data from a programmatic series of studies that varied the range of conditions affecting potential increase of recall, memory distortions, and distortions of confidence during and following hypnosis. All the studies used a paradigm that exposed Ss to misleading information some time before memory was tested and applied procedures in the hypnotic setting to analyze memory performance

Peter W. Sheehan

1988-01-01

307

Carbon Based Resistive Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose carbon as new resistive memory material for non-volatile memories and compare three allotropes of carbon, namely carbon nanotubes, graphene-like conductive carbon and insulating carbon for their possible application as resistance-change material in high density non-volatile memories. Repetitive high-speed switching and the potential for multi-level programming have been successfully demonstrated.

Franz Kreupl; Rainer Bruchhaus; Petra Majewski; Jan B. Philipp; Ralf Symanczyk; Thomas Happ; Christian Arndt; Mirko Vogt; Roy Zimmermann; Axel Buerke; Andrew P. Graham; Michael Kund

2009-01-01

308

Music, memory and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either\\u000a about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Lutz J舅cke

2008-01-01

309

SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors  

E-print Network

SENSING MEMORY Festival Directors: Simon Ible, Director of Music, Peninsula Arts, Plymouth University Eduardo R. Miranda, Professor of Computer Music, Plymouth University Sensing Memory As well as creating a platform for music emerging from research, this year's festival will explore the theme of memory

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

310

Memory Loss Chapter 6  

E-print Network

Part II Memory Loss 129 #12;#12;Chapter 6 Generalized Conditionalization Up to this point we have to help CLF model two types of certainty-loss stories: stories in- volving memory loss and stories-sensitivity, (PEP) does almost no work in modeling stories involving memory loss. So we will proceed in stages: We

Fitelson, Branden

311

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

312

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

313

The Relationship Between IQ, Memory, Executive Function, and Processing Speed in Recent-Onset Psychosis: 1-Year Stability and Clinical Outcome  

E-print Network

Studies commonly report poor performance in psychotic patients compared with controls on tasks testing a range of cognitive functions, but, because current IQ is often not matched between these groups, it is difficult to determine whether this represents a generalized deficit or specific abnormalities. Fifty-three first-episode psychosis patients and 53 healthy controls, one-to-one matched for sex, age, and full-scale current IQ, were compared on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests representing indices of perceptual organization, verbal comprehension, processing speed, and working memory as well as other tests of executive function and episodic memory. The groups showed an equivalent pattern of performance on all WAIS subtests except digit symbol processing speed, on which the patients were significantly worse. Patients

Verity C. Leeson; Thomas R. E. Barnes; Isobel Harrison; Stanley H. Mutsatsa; Maria A. Ron; Eileen M. Joyce

314

Quantum random access memory  

E-print Network

A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially less gates, and leads to an exponential decrease in the power needed for addressing. A quantum optical implementation is presented.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2007-08-14

315

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

316

Flexible Kernel Memory  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

2010-01-01

317

Flexible kernel memory.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

2010-01-01

318

A proposed method to estimate premorbid full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) for the Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children芳ourth Edition (WISC-IV) using demographic and combined estimation procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a comparison standard in neuropsychological assessment is crucial to determining change in function. There is no available method to estimate premorbid intellectual functioning for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children芳ourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV provided normative data for both American and Canadian children aged 6 to 16 years old. This study developed regression algorithms as a proposed method to

Mike R. Schoenberg; Rael T. Lange; Donald H. Saklofske

2007-01-01

319

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition findings in relation to severity of brain injury in litigants.  

PubMed

WAIS-III findings were reported for 150 litigants, classified into three groups according to severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and a general population control group. There was a significant "dose response" relationship between TBI severity and all Index/IQ scores. Effect size was greatest for the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Between group differences were significant on all subtests except Information and Digit Span. Effect sizes were greatest for Digit Symbol, Symbol Search, Similarities, and Picture Arrangement. Relative to the control group, there was a significant difference for the Severe and Extremely Severe TBI groups on all IQ/Index scores and most subtests. The Moderate TBI group differed significantly on one Index (the PSI) and none of the subtests. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the utility of the WAIS-III in assessing the cognitive sequelae of TBI, the use of current WAIS-III IQ scores to assess intelligence-memory discrepancies, WAIS-III short forms, and estimation of premorbid intelligence. PMID:13680435

Langeluddecke, Pauline M; Lucas, Sara K

2003-05-01

320

Reconsolidation of drug memories.  

PubMed

Persistent, unwanted memories are believed to be key contributors to drug addiction and the chronic relapse problem over the lifetime of the addict. Contrary to the long-held idea that memories are static and fixed, new studies in the last decade have shown that memories are dynamic and changeable. However, they are changeable only under specific conditions. When a memory is retrieved (reactivated), it becomes labile for a period of minutes to hours and then is reconsolidated to maintain long-term memory. Recent findings indicate that even well-established long-term memories may be susceptible to disruption by interfering with reconsolidation through delivery of certain amnestic agents during memory retrieval. Here I review the growing literature on memory reconsolidation in animal models of addiction, including sensitization, conditioned place preference and self-administration. I also discuss (a) several issues that need to be considered in interpreting the findings from reconsolidation studies and (b) future challenges and directions for memory reconsolidation studies in the field of addiction. The findings indicate promise for using this approach as a therapy for disrupting the long-lasting memories that can trigger relapse. PMID:22342780

Sorg, Barbara A

2012-05-01

321

CAN EXPERIMENTAL MEMORY RESEARCH ADEQUATELY EXPLAIN MEMORY FOR TRAUMA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the debate on memories of traumatic events (especially childhood abuse), traumatic memories and dissociative amnesia are central topics. These phenomena are frequently described as dissociative memory problems. The aim of the present article is to assess to what extent memory mechanisms as identified in experimental research (such as encoding, storage, and retrieval factors) are adequate in explaining memories of

Philip Spinhoven; Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis; Richard Van Dyck

1999-01-01

322

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah

323

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests

Addis, Donna Rose

324

A generalized memory test algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

Milner, E. J.

1982-01-01

325

Augmenting the core battery with supplementary subtests: Wechsler adult intelligence scale--IV measurement invariance across the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including core and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) were compared across the U.S. and Canadian standardization samples. Populations were compared on the 15 subtest version of the test in people aged 70 and younger and on the 12 subtest version in people aged 70 or older. Results indicated that a slightly modified version of the four-factor model reported in the WAIS-IV technical manual provided the best fit in both populations and in both age groups. The null hypothesis of measurement invariance across populations was not rejected, and the results provide direct evidence for the generalizability of convergent and discriminant validity studies with the WAIS-IV across populations. Small to medium differences in latent means favoring Canadians highlight the value of local norms. PMID:20826685

Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

2011-06-01

326

Metric and structural equivalence of core cognitive abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in the United States and Australia.  

PubMed

Equivalence of the psychological model underlying Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) scores obtained in the United States and Australia was examined in this study. Examination of metric invariance involves testing the hypothesis that all components of the measurement model relating observed scores to latent variables are numerically equal in different samples. The assumption of metric invariance is necessary for interpretation of scores derived from research studies that seek to generalize patterns of convergent and divergent validity and patterns of deficit or disability. An Australian community volunteer sample was compared to the US standardization data. A pattern of strict metric invariance was observed across samples. In addition, when the effects of different demographic characteristics of the US and Australian samples were included, structural parameters reflecting values of the latent cognitive variables were found not to differ. These results provide important evidence for the equivalence of measurement of core cognitive abilities with the WAIS-III and suggest that latent cognitive abilities in the US and Australia do not differ. PMID:17896201

Bowden, Stephen C; Lissner, Dianne; McCarthy, Kerri A L; Weiss, Lawrence G; Holdnack, James A

2007-10-01

327

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

Kanerva, Pentti

1988-01-01

328

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

329

Memory Golf Clubs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

1997-01-01

330

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

331

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique for eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memory allocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on a sequence of training inputs to ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

332

Building synthetic memory  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cellular memory conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

2013-01-01

333

The future of memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

Marinella, M.

334

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

335

Memory-to-memory connection structures in FPGAs with embedded memory arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the speed of FPGAs with large embedded memory arrays can be improved by adding direct programmable connections between the memories. Nets that connect to multiple memory arrays are often difficult to route, and are often part of the critical path of circuit implementations. The memory-to-memory connection structure proposed in this paper allows for the efficient implementation

Steven J. E. Wilton; Jonathan Rose; Zvonko G. Vranesic

1997-01-01

336

MEMORY TRAINING IN THE COMMUNITY AGED: EFFECTS ON DEPRESSION, MEMORY COMPLAINT, AND MEMORY PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of two types of training programs on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Prior research has suggested that although there are some age differences in memory, the memory complaints of older persons are related to depression and not to actual memory performance. In the present project subjects were randomly assigned

Steven H. Zarit; Dolores Gallagher; Nan Kramer

1981-01-01

337

Mark A. Wyatt Memorial Scholarship  

E-print Network

and a passion for research The Wyatt Scholarship is a memorial to Mark Wyatt, a pre- med Biological SciencesMark A. Wyatt Memorial Scholarship Application Due: March 30, 2012 The Mark A. Wyatt Memorial

Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

338

INTELLIGENCE 23, 175-190 (1996) The Relationship Between WAIS-R  

E-print Network

INTELLIGENCE 23, 175-190 (1996) The Relationship Between WAIS-R Abilities and Speed of Processing status) 123 participants were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a test

Crawford, John R.

339

Intelligence in Williams Syndrome Is Related to STX1A, Which Encodes a Component of the Presynaptic SNARE  

E-print Network

by principal component analysis (PCA) of standardized WAIS-R subtests, r = 0.40 (Pearson correlation by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), which is determined by 11 subtests grouped into two

340

Regret as Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in

Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

2008-01-01

341

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

342

Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

1991-01-01

343

Research Report Mismaking Memories  

E-print Network

, car, turn, tire, axle, round, circle, roll) are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, a critical; Schacter et al., 1996). Like the snapshot of a photo-finish horse race, neurophysiological recordings made as memory illusions occur provide objective measurements of an elusive event but do not reveal how the race

Kutas, Marta

344

Trading Memory for Randomness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strategies in repeated games can be classified as to whether or not they use memory and/or randomization. We consider Markov decision processes and 2-player graph games, both of the deterministic and probabilistic varieties. We characterize when memory an...

K. Chatterjee, L. de Alfaro, T. A. Henzinger

2004-01-01

345

Introduction to flash memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly focuses on the development of the NOR flash memory technology, with the aim of describing both the basic functionality of the memory cell used so far and the main cell architecture consolidated today. The NOR cell is basically a floating-gate MOS transistor, programmed by channel hot electron and erased by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The main reliability issues, such

ROBERTO BEZ; EMILIO CAMERLENGHI; ALBERTO MODELLI; ANGELO VISCONTI

2003-01-01

346

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

347

The Psychology of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed

Alan D. Baddeley

1976-01-01

348

Memory's Role in Catechesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present times. Selected

Williams, Robert Bryan

349

Working memory and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding leads to more positive

Eun Sook Jung; Norman Reid

2009-01-01

350

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

351

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

352

Programmable memory BIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern SoCs embedded memories include the large majority of defects. In addition defect types are becoming more complex and diverse and may escape detection during fabrication test. As a matter of fact memories have to be tested by test algorithms achieving very high fault coverage. Fixing the test algorithm during the design phase may not be compatible with this

Slimane Boutobza; Michael Nicolaidis; Kheiredine M. Lamara; Andrea Costa

2005-01-01

353

Shape Memory Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on shape memory alloys (SMA) is an encore to a special issue on the same topic edited by us six years ago (Smart Mater. Struct.9 (5) October 2000). A total of 19 papers is offered in this issue, organized into the three broad categories of modeling, characterization and applications. In addition to thermally activated shape memory alloys,

Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Dimitris C Lagoudas

2007-01-01

354

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

E-print Network

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that the best strategy is actually to adopt the simple intercept/resend strategy.

H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci

2005-04-01

355

Major memory for microblogs.  

PubMed

Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

2013-05-01

356

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

357

Memory: Pandora's hippocampus?  

PubMed

Greater knowledge of the human brain has enabled us to begin devising therapies to rescue or modify memory for the afflicted, such as Alzheimer's patients or post-traumatic stress disorder victims. This same knowledge could also allow us to alter how normal, healthy memory operates; we may become able to enhance memory and learning through biological intervention. But the brain consists of complex, interactive networks, and unintended consequences could easily occur. Moreover, memory is woven into our individuality. Altering our memory processes therefore risks altering us fundamentally. We may not be able to resist opening this neuroscientific Pandora's Box, John Gabrieli writes, but we must proceed with all the wisdom we can muster. PMID:15986534

Gabrieli, John D E

2004-01-01

358

Computer memory management system  

DOEpatents

A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

Kirk, III, Whitson John (Greenwood, MO)

2002-01-01

359

Making Memories Matter  

PubMed Central

This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

2012-01-01

360

Optical quantum memory  

E-print Network

Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied: optical delay lines, cavities, electromagnetically-induced transparency, photon-echo, and off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here we report on the state-of-the-art in the field of optical quantum memory, including criteria for successful quantum memory and current performance levels.

A. I. Lvovsky; B. C. Sanders; W. Tittel

2010-02-24

361

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version: Relation to Factor Indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbal memory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the

Judith R. OJile; Gregory W. Schrimsher; Sid E. OBryant

2005-01-01

362

Memory Processing Memory Processing includes tests of  

E-print Network

biologic parents having lived to age 70 or beyond without having developed dementia Thanks to our wonderful the Study Coordinator at: 314-286-2683 Adult Children Study Memory and Aging Project Alzheimer's Disease Adult Children Study Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Department of Neurology Washington University

363

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep  

E-print Network

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

Paller, Ken

364

Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a

Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

2012-01-01

365

Effects of aging and working memory demands on prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging, increasing the working memory demands of the ongoing activity, and a prospective memory load on the neural correlates of prospective remembering and target recognition. The behavioral data revealed that the success of prospective memory was sensitive to working memory load in younger, but not older, adults

Robert West; Ritvij Bowry

2005-01-01

366

Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleNoradrenaline (NA) is implicated in arousal. Working memory is dependent upon prefrontal cortex, and moderate levels of NA are thought to facilitate working memory whereas higher levels during extreme stress may impair working memory and engage more posterior cortical and sub-cortical circuitry. The NA system also influences emotional memory via modulation of the amygdalae and related mediotemporal structures. NA dysfunction

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Ulrich Mller; Andrew D. Blackwell; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

367

Source Memory in Individuals with Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms  

E-print Network

Learning Task (CVLT), and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV vocabulary subtest. The order of individual tests was counterbalanced. The RCFT is a measure of nonverbal recall and can also be used to examine organizational strategies. Participants were... and following 20 min delay. After delayed recall, a recognition test was given of the target words. Finally, participants were given the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV vocabulary subtest, which served as an estimate of cognitive ability...

Olson, Christy Ann

2009-03-30

368

Encoding [quiet memories  

E-print Network

visual archetypes of memories. Feelings and emotions are preserved and travel with me through time, affecting and enriching my life. Reminiscences make up a complex network that includes very specific memories and more general and abstract moments from..., and together tell the story of who I am. When we encode, we transform what we feel, think or see at a particular point in our life, into memories. I use a variety of materials and processes to transform these personal feelings and sensations into reminiscences...

Brebenel, Elena

2011-04-20

369

Memory clinics in context  

PubMed Central

The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

2009-01-01

370

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

371

Recovered Memories of Child Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we exemplify the ongoing and inconclusive nature of empirical research examining the validity of adults' recovered memories of childhood abuse. In view of increasing evidence that the processes underlying traumatic memories differ in fundamental ways from those underlying memories for nontraumatic events, experimental studies of everyday memory processes are likely to have little relevance for our understanding

Connie M. Kristiansen; Kathleen A. Felton; Wendy E. Hovdestad

1996-01-01

372

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective  

E-print Network

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective Daniel L. Schacter, Scott A. Guerin* and Peggy L. St. Jacques* Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Memory is prone that several types of memory distortions ツュ imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors

Schacter, Daniel

373

Sleep-dependent memory consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of `sleeping on a problem' is familiar to most of us. But with myriad stages of sleep, forms of memory and processes of memory encoding and consolidation, sorting out how sleep contributes to memory has been anything but straightforward. Nevertheless, converging evidence, from the molecular to the phenomenological, leaves little doubt that offline memory reprocessing during sleep is

Robert Stickgold

2005-01-01

374

The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N=75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ? 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall>Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional. PMID:24236941

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

2014-01-01

375

Emotional Memory Mara Mather  

E-print Network

enhance memory a week later for what happened right beforehand (Knight & Mather, 2009). How does arousal background, they were able to remember more of the salient dark grey letters and fewer of the light grey

Mather, Mara

376

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-print Network

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01

377

Warship : memorial in antithesis  

E-print Network

This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

1992-01-01

378

Modelling Immunological Memory  

E-print Network

Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

379

Hardware Transactional Memory  

E-print Network

This work shows how hardware transactional memory (HTM) can be implemented to support transactions of arbitrarily large size, while ensuring that small transactions run efficiently. Our implementation handles small ...

Lie, Sean

380

Object Location Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

381

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski, 2008), whereas other research suggests retrieval from secondary memory

Jill Talley Shelton; Emily M. Elliott; Russell A. Matthews; B. D. Hill; Wm. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

382

Phase change memory technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the current state of phase change memory (PCM), a non-volatile solid-state memory technology built around the large electrical contrast between the highly-resistive amorphous and highly-conductive crystalline states in so-called phase change materials. PCM technology has made rapid progress in a short time, having passed older technologies in terms of both sophisticated demonstrations of scaling to small device dimensions,

Geoffrey W. Burr; Matthew J. Breitwisch; Michele Franceschini; Davide Garetto; Kailash Gopalakrishnan; Bryan Jackson; Bulent Kurdi; Chung Lam; Luis A. Lastras; Alvaro Padilla; Bipin Rajendran; Simone Raoux; Rohit S. Shenoy

2010-01-01

383

Iwo Jima Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

384

Photonic crystal optical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

2011-06-01

385

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

386

False memories and confabulation.  

PubMed

Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories. PMID:21227110

Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

1998-04-01

387

Mechanisms of memory enhancement.  

PubMed

The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g., via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol, or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g., via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By utilizing this information and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

Stern, Sarah A; Alberini, Cristina M

2013-01-01

388

Quantum Channels with Memory  

E-print Network

We present a general model for quantum channels with memory, and show that it is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: any quantum process in which outputs up to some time t do not depend on inputs at times t' > t can be decomposed into a concatenated memory channel. We then examine and present different physical setups in which channels with memory may be operated for the transfer of (private) classical and quantum information. These include setups in which either the receiver or a malicious third party have control of the initializing memory. We introduce classical and quantum channel capacities for these settings, and give several examples to show that they may or may not coincide. Entropic upper bounds on the various channel capacities are given. For forgetful quantum channels, in which the effect of the initializing memory dies out as time increases, coding theorems are presented to show that these bounds may be saturated. Forgetful quantum channels are shown to be open and dense in the set of quantum memory channels.

Dennis Kretschmann; Reinhard F. Werner

2005-02-17

389

Verification of Embedded Memory Systems using Efficient Memory Modeling  

E-print Network

We describe verification techniques for embedded memory systems using efficient memory modeling (EMM), without explicitly modeling each memory bit. We extend our previously proposed approach of EMM in Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for a single read/write port single memory system, to more commonly occurring systems with multiple memories, having multiple read and write ports. More importantly, we augment such EMM to providing correctness proofs, in addition to finding real bugs as before. The novelties of our verification approach are in a) combining EMM with proof-based abstraction that preserves the correctness of a property up to a certain analysis depth of SAT-based BMC, and b) modeling arbitrary initial memory state precisely and thereby, providing inductive proofs using SAT-based BMC for embedded memory systems. Similar to the previous approach, we construct a verification model by eliminating memory arrays, but retaining the memory interface signals with their control logic and adding constraints on tho...

Ganai, Malay K; Ashar, Pranav

2011-01-01

390

Comparability of WISC-R and WAIS-R IQ Scores with Educable Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised were administered in a conterbalanced design to 14 educable mentally handicapped 16-year-olds. Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores were compared. Correlations and matched t-tests were computed and the results indicated that Verbal and

Egolf, Franklin D.

391

PASAT and Components of WAIS-R Performance: Convergent and Discriminant Validity  

E-print Network

PASAT and Components of WAIS-R Performance: Convergent and Discriminant Validity J. R. Crawford Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) (Wechsler, 1981), and the National Adult Reading Test that of many WAIS-R subtests. Following rotation, PASAT loaded highly (.75) on the WAIS

Crawford, John R.

392

A Longitudinal Study of WISC-R and WAIS-R Scores with Students Who Are Educable Mentally Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Verbal, Performance, and Full Scales were compared for 26 adolescents with educable mental handicaps. The WAIS-R, while strongly correlated with the WISC-R, provided higher scores on all three scales. Several WISC-R

Avery, Richard O.; And Others

1989-01-01

393

Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

2005-01-01

394

Memory Distortion in Alzheimer's Disease: Deficient Monitoring of Short-and Long-Term Memory  

E-print Network

Memory Distortion in Alzheimer's Disease: Deficient Monitoring of Short- and Long-Term Memory Objective: This study measured distortions of memory during short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory: Alzheimer's disease, false memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, semantic mem- ory Distortion

395

Memory function and supportive technology  

PubMed Central

Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

2013-01-01

396

Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

2013-01-01

397

Schizophrenia comorbid with panic disorder: evidence for distinct cognitive profiles.  

PubMed

Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and panic symptoms share a distinct clinical presentation and biological characteristics, prompting some to propose panic psychosis as a separate subtype of schizophrenia. Less is known about these patients' neuropsychological profiles, knowledge of which may facilitate target-specific treatments and research into the etiopathophysiology for such cases. A total of 255 schizophrenia patients with panic disorder (n=39), non-panic anxiety disorder (n=51), or no anxiety disorder (n=165) were assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Animal Naming subtest of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Patients with panic disorder demonstrated a higher verbal IQ and better problem solving, set switching, delayed recall, attention, and verbal fluency as compared to schizophrenia patients without comorbid anxiety. The schizophrenia-panic group reported a higher level of dysthymia on stable medication. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia and comorbid panic disorder exhibit distinct cognitive functioning when compared to other schizophrenia patients. These data offer further support for a definable panic-psychosis subtype and suggest new etiological pathways for future research. PMID:22417926

Rapp, Erica Kirsten; White-Ajmani, Mandi Lynn; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond Richard; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill Martine; Savitz, Adam Jonathan; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey Paul

2012-05-30

398

Schizophrenia comorbid with panic disorder: Evidence for distinct cognitive profiles  

PubMed Central

Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and panic symptoms share a distinct clinical presentation and biological characteristics, prompting some to propose panic psychosis as a separate subtype of schizophrenia. Less is known about these patients neuropsychological profiles, knowledge of which may facilitate target-specific treatments and research into the etiopathophysiology for such cases. A total of 255 schizophrenia patients with panic disorder (n=39), non-panic anxiety disorder (n=51), or no anxiety disorder (n=165) were assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Animal Naming subtest of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Patients with panic disorder demonstrated a higher verbal IQ and better problem solving, set switching, delayed recall, attention, and verbal fluency as compared to schizophrenia patients without comorbid anxiety. The schizophrenia-panic group reported a higher level of dysthymia on stable medication. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia and comorbid panic disorder exhibit distinct cognitive functioning when compared to other schizophrenia patients. These data offer further support for a definable panic-psychosis subtype and suggest new etiological pathways for future research. PMID:22417926

Rapp, Erica Kirsten; White-Ajmani, Mandi Lynn; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond Richard; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill Martine; Savitz, Adam Jonathan; Malaspina, Dolores; Kahn, Jeffrey Paul

2012-01-01

399

Sex differences in mental arithmetic, digit span, and g defined as working memory capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of .11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean male advantage of .47d; (3) the digit

Richard Lynn; Paul Irwing

2008-01-01

400

Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean

Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

2008-01-01

401

Tapestry of memory.  

PubMed

In this essay, I have elaborated on the ideas and experiments that have guided my research career. First, I present my early research history and my involvement in determining the neurobiological basis of the consolidation process based primarily on the consolidation paradigm. Based on a series of experiments and a new interest in cognitive psychology, I then developed a cognitive and neurobiologically based model of memory. This model represents a comprehensive view of memory organization based on multiple processes and multiple forms of memory representation and is based on the neurobiology of a multiple attribute, multiple process, tripartite system model of memory. I present some detailed evidence in terms of the neural foundations, specific attributes, and processes of operation for the event-based, knowledge-based, and rule-based memory systems. In addition, I present a set of experiments to demonstrate that there might be parallel processing of mnemonic information in rats and humans. Finally, I recognize that ideas can be generated by reading the extant literature, interaction with colleagues at meetings, and exchange of ideas with students to design and execute hopefully meaningful experiments. PMID:19170425

Kesner, Raymond P

2009-02-01

402

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

403

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique foreliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memoryallocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on asequence of training inputsto find ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

2005-10-26

404

Memory on the beach: an Australian memory (and hypnosis) laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The memory (and hypnosis) lab at the University of New South Wales investigates a broad range of memory topics. We try to\\u000a find innovative methods from cognitive and clinical psychology to address theoretical and empirical questions about memory.\\u000a We aso use hypnosis as one major methodological tool in our investigations of memory (as well as other cognitive processes).\\u000a In this

Amanda J. Barnier; Richard A. Bryant; Leah Campbell; Rochelle Cox; Celia Harris; Lynette Hung; Fiona Maccallum; Stefanie J. Sharman

2005-01-01

405

Cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A neuropsychological test battery, including subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and III, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Test, and Trail Making Test, which assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, processing speed, logical reasoning, verbal intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, was administered to 13- to 19-year-old patients with IBD (n = 34; active disease n = 20). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings were compared with peers with non-acute juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA; n = 23). Patients with coexisting psychiatric disorders were excluded. RESULTS: The IBD group, especially patients in the acute phase, made more perseverative errors in the CVLT test that assessed verbal memory than the JIA group (6.0 ア 4.3 vs 3.3 ア 2.9, P < 0.01), but no other differences between the IBD and JIA groups were observed in the neuropsychological tests. The difference was close to statistical significance, even when glucocorticoid medication was controlled for (P < 0.052). The IBD group had more depressive symptoms than the JIA group (7.9 ア 7.6 vs 4.0 ア 4.0, P < 0.05). Approximately one third of the IBD group had at least mild depressive symptoms, and those with acute illness had the highest scores. However, depressive symptoms were not related to the difference in the verbal memory test (perseverative errors in the CVLT) between the IBD and JIA groups. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with acute IBD may have mild verbal memory problems but no major cognitive deficits compared to peers with JIA. PMID:23538788

Castaneda, Anu E; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

2013-01-01

406

Emotion and autobiographical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-03-01

407

Memory in viral quasispecies.  

PubMed

Biological adaptive systems share some common features: variation among their constituent elements and continuity of core information. Some of them, such as the immune system, are endowed with memory of past events. In this study we provide direct evidence that evolving viral quasispecies possess a molecular memory in the form of minority components that populate their mutant spectra. The experiments have involved foot-and-mouth disease virus populations with known evolutionary histories. The composition and behavior of the viral population in response to a selective constraint were influenced by past evolutionary history in a way that could not be predicted from examination of consensus nucleotide sequences of the viral populations. The molecular memory of the viral quasispecies influenced both the nature and the intensity of the response of the virus to a selective constraint. PMID:10729128

Ruiz-Jarabo, C M; Arias, A; Baranowski, E; Escarms, C; Domingo, E

2000-04-01

408

Vietnam Veterans Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC can be an emotional experience, and it has garnered substantial acclaim since it was unveiled in 1982. The people behind the Footnote historical records site recently crafted this interactive version of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and it's well worth a look. The interactive image was assembled from 6301 images photographed by Peter Krogh and stitched together by Darren Higgins. Visitors can type in names to the search engine at the top of the homepage, browse names by category, and also look up names by military branch. Additionally, visitors can leave a tribute, a story, or a photograph about any of the 58,256 veterans listed on the Memorial.

409

Flexible Memory Networks  

E-print Network

Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H_1(X;Z)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context.

Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir

2010-01-01

410

Public memorializing in postmodernity: The Vietnam veterans memorial as prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues for a reading of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse. Beginning with a contrast of modernist and postmodern rhetorics of architecture, the authors suggest that the Memorial reflects the typical gestures of postmodern architecture. Moreover, they suggest that a consideration of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a postmodern discourse accounts for differences among other critical

Carole Blair; Marsha S. Jeppeson; Enrico Pucci Jr

1991-01-01

411

Lifelogging memory appliance for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelogging technologies have the potential to prov ide memory cues for people who struggle with episodic memory impairment (EMI). These memory cues enable the recollection of significant experiences, which is i mportant for people with EMI to regain a sense of normalcy i n their lives. However, lifelogging technologies often coll ect an overwhelmingly large amount of data to review.

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

412

Dynamic Memory Disambiguation Using the Memory Conflict Buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To exploit instruction level parallelism, compilers forVLIW and superscalar processors often employ staticcode scheduling. However, the available code reorderingmay be severely restricted due to ambiguous dependencesbetween memory instructions. This paperintroduces a simple hardware mechanism, referred to asthe memory conflict buffer, which facilitates static codescheduling in the presence of memory store\\/load dependences.Correct program execution is ensured by thememory conflict...

David M. Gallagher; William Y. Chen; Scott A. Mahlke; John C. Gyllenhaal; Wen-mei W. Hwu

1994-01-01

413

War Memorials and Memories: Comparing the Philippines and South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws from international relations, comparative politics, and Asian Studies in an effort to compare war memorials and memories in the Philippines and South Korea. The analysis begins with a description of how memorials in both countries pursue a conventional narrative of glorious victories, heroic defeats, and sacred ground. The focus then shifts to counter?narratives that have challenged the

John L. Linantud

2008-01-01

414

Providing good memory cues for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease impairs episodic memory and subtly and progressively robs people of their ability to remember their recent experiences. In this paper, we describe two studies that lead to a better understanding of how caregivers use cues to support episodic memory impairment and what types of cues are best for supporting recollection. We also show how good memory cues differ

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2007-01-01

415

Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine

Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

2014-01-01

416

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive膨ompulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive膨ompulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

417

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

418

Organic molecular floating gate memories  

E-print Network

Flash memory devices dominate the non-volatile memory market, with device structures that utilize charge storage in polysilicon floating gates imbedded in insulating silicon oxide films'. As demands for high storage density, ...

Paydavosi, Sarah

2011-01-01

419

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems  

MedlinePLUS

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem In our busy lives, all of us forget things at one time ... people have little or no change in their memory, but, in others, forgetfulness can begin to interfere ...

420

Anemone: adaptive network memory engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a constant battle to break-even between continuing improvements in DRAM capacities and the demands for even more memory by modern memory-intensive high-performance applications. Such applications do not take long to hit the physical memory limit and start paging to disk, which in turn considerably slows down their performance. We tackle this problem in the Adaptive Network Memory Engine

Michael R. Hines; Mark Lewandowski; Kartik Gopalan

2005-01-01

421

About Sleep's Role in Memory  

PubMed Central

Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of 都leep and memory research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

2013-01-01

422

Explaining the development of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review six explanatory dimensions of false memory in children that are relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures that induce false memories. We conclude that, despite greater fidelity to real-world false memory contexts, recent studies fail to use known techniques that separate mere acquiescence from memory

Valerie F. Reyna; Robyn Holliday; Tammy Marche

2002-01-01

423

What people believe about memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings,

Svein Magnussen; Jan Andersson; Cesare Cornoldi; Rossana De Beni; Tor Endestad; Gail S. Goodman; Tore Helstrup; Asher Koriat; Maria Larsson; Annika Melinder; Lars-Gran Nilsson; Jerker Rnnberg; Hubert Zimmer

2006-01-01

424

A theory of memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Develops a theory of memory retrieval and shows that it applies over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probememory item relatedness, just as a ringing tuning fork evokes sympathetic vibrations in other tuning forks. Evidence is accumulated in

Roger Ratcliff

1978-01-01

425

Dual redundant core memory systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

Hull, F. E.

1972-01-01

426

First Words and First Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was

Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

2010-01-01

427

Arlington: Marine Corps War Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also called the Iwo Jima memorial, the Marine Corps War Memorial was designed by Felix de Weldon. He was inspired by the photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima taken by Joe Rosenthal during the Battle of iwo Jima. The memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have perished in battle since 1775, but features specifically Marines and a sailor

Chet Smolski

1995-01-01

428

Carbon-based resistive memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose carbon as new resistive memory material for non-volatile memories and compare three allotropes of carbon, namely carbon nanotubes, graphene-like conductive carbon and insulating carbon for their possible application as resistance-change material in high density non-volatile memories. Repetitive high-speed switching and the potential for multi-level programming have been successfully demonstrated.

Franz Kreupl; Rainer Bruchhaus; Petra Majewski; Jan B. Philipp; Ralf Symanczyk; Thomas Happ; Christian Arndt; Mirko Vogt; Roy Zimmermann; Axel Buerke; Andrew P. Graham; Michael Kund

2008-01-01

429

Episodic memory in nonhuman animals  

PubMed Central

Summary Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 塗aving been there has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhumans. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhumans and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap. However, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing the most crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the nave question 電o nonhuman animals have episodic memory to instead asking 努hat aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans are making progress. PMID:24028963

Templer, Victoria L.

2013-01-01

430

Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest

Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

2010-01-01

431

Transactive memory and gender stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explores the impact of stereotypes on the development and use of transactive memory systems. Transactive memory systems are those systems that develop within and between individuals in groups in order to most efficiently distribute information within a group. Using a series of word recall and general knowledge tasks dyads and groups are shown to develop implicit transactive memory

Traci Yvon Craig

2002-01-01

432

Autobiographical Memory in Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood-memory phenomena have been studied using laboratory mood induction procedures with nondepressed subjects and with clinically depressed individuals. The present study examined both hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of autobiographical memory in people who had recently attempted suicide by overdose. Attempted suicide subjects, who were required to retrieve specific personal memories to positive or negative cue words, showed biased retrieval when

J. Mark G. Williams; Keith Broadbent

1986-01-01

433

Memory Processes in Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

Kellermann, Kathy

1985-01-01

434

Cold pressor-induced pain does not impair WAIS-IV processing speed index or working memory index performance.  

PubMed

Chronic pain frequently involves cognitive complaints such as concentration and memory deficits, but studies of the effects of pain on cognition have not consistently demonstrated deficits and have not typically utilized standard neuropsychological instruments. Effects of cold pressor-induced pain on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Processing Speed Index (PSI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) performance was examined in nonclinical volunteers (n = 40). All took one PSI subtest and one WMI subtest normally, and then took different PSI and WMI subtests during cold pressor-induced pain or painless warm-water immersion. Scaled scores for normal administration versus pain or painless water immersion did not differ and there was no interaction between group (control vs. pain) and manner of administration, despite moderately severe mean pain ratings (M = 6.8 on a 0-10 pain-rating scale). Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers does not impair PSI or WMI performance, and they suggest that chronic pain per se should not be expected to substantially affect these cognitive functions. However, patients with chronic pain may differ from nonclinical volunteers in their experience of pain, potentially limiting generalizability. PMID:24826491

Etherton, Joseph

2014-01-01

435

It's all about memory!  

PubMed

This short overview introduces the fundamental scientific concepts of immunological memory, vaccination, and the effects of ageing on these parameters, which were the focus of the second Merial European Comparative Vaccinology Symposium (MECVS) held in Prague from 13th-15th May, 2009. Significant differences in the way that ageing impacts on different domestic animal species are reviewed. PMID:19892362

Pastoret, P-P

2010-01-01

436

Software transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronizationoperations greatly simplifies the task of designinghighly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existinghardware is inflexible and is at best on the levelof a Load Linked\\/Store Conditional operation on a singleword. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronizationmethodology of Herlihy and Moss, we offersoftware transactional memory (STM), a novel softwaremethod for supporting flexible transactional...

Nir Shavit; Dan Touitou

1995-01-01

437

Stimulus encoding and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the performance of 57 undergraduates on the Stroop Color-Word Test in 4 experiments. The degree of interference with color naming produced by a word used as the base item was greater when the word was concurrently being held in memory for later recall than when unrelated words were being remembered. Increased interference was also found when the base word

Robert E. Warren

1972-01-01

438

Memorials: Art for Remembering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a

Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

1995-01-01

439

A MEMORY SCHEDULE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR PROBLEMS OF MEMORY IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IS THE "GRADUATED INTERVAL RECALL," A PROCEDURE FOR AIDING STUDENTS TO REMEMBER THE VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURES THEY HAVE LEARNED. WHEN A NEW WORD IS LEARNED, THE PROCESS OF FORGETTING BEGINS AT ONCE AND PROCEEDS VERY RAPIDLY. IF THE STUDENT IS REMINDED OF THE WORD BEFORE HE HAS

PIMSLEUR, PAUL

440

Shared Memory in Multiprocessors  

E-print Network

Shared Memory in Multiprocessors Axel Jantsch Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden #12;Axel Jantsch 1992: Ph.D. from Vienna University of Technology on Hardware Synthesis July 2011 Consistency Relaxed Consistency Models 6 #12;The Many Cores Era Source: International Roadmap

Jantsch, Axel

441

Hypnosis, Memory and Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and\\/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while

John F. Kihlstrom

1997-01-01

442

Memorial Union Territorial Hall  

E-print Network

Coffman Memorial Union Comstock Hall Territorial Hall Frontier Hall Pioneer Hall Johnston Hall to the Freshman Admissions Welcome Center Walk west from the ramp on 4th Street S.E. to 15th Ave. S.E. Take a left the front entrance and proceed to the top floor. Stairs are near the west entrance (directly in front

Amin, S. Massoud

443

Thanks for the memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the trial of a memory prosthesis, SenseCam, as a resource for digital narratives. Over a period of one week, six participants were asked to use SenseCams to capture digital traces of their experiences, and to use the same to create 'story telling' materials for presentation. The study found that all users delighted in the devices, though the

Richard H. R. Harper; Dave W. Randall; N. Smythe; C. Evans; L. Heledd; R. Moore

2007-01-01

444

Money Is Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the sets of feasible allocations in a large class of economic environments in which commitment is impossible (following Myerson [8], the standard definition of feasibility is adapted to take account of the lack of commitment). The environments feature eithermemoryormoney. Memory is defined as knowledge on the part of an agent of the full histories of all agents

Narayana R. Kocherlakota

1998-01-01

445

Memory Mechanisms in Grasping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for

Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

2009-01-01

446

Creating Media Center Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the goals of the school library media specialist is to "Promote the library media program as an attractive, welcoming, and essential venue" (AASL 89). The media center should convey an atmosphere where students feel welcome. Creating media center memories can help library media specialists to achieve this goal. This article describes

Spann, Youlita

2008-01-01

447

Judgments of Associative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and

Maki, William S.

2007-01-01

448

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals  

PubMed Central

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants and age- and sex-matched controls susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

449

Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail Making Test (TMT) direct and derived scores. A comprehensive review of the literature on the topic was carried out to clarify which cognitive factors had been related to TMT performance. Following the review, we explored the relative contribution from working memory, inhibition/interference control, task-switching ability, and visuomotor speed to TMT performance. Forty-one healthy old subjects participated in the study and performed a battery of neuropsychological tests including the TMT, the Digit Symbol subtest [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Third Version) (WAIS-III)], a Finger Tapping Test, the Digits Forward and Backward subtests (WAIS-III), Stroop Test, and a task-switching paradigm inspired in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Correlation and regression analyses were used in order to clarify the joint and unique contributions from different cognitive factors to the prediction of TMT scores. The results suggest that TMT-A requires mainly visuoperceptual abilities, TMT-B reflects primarily working memory and secondarily task-switching ability, while B-A minimizes visuoperceptual and working memory demands, providing a relatively pure indicator of executive control abilities. PMID:19402930

S疣chez-Cubillo, I; Peri碵ez, J A; Adrover-Roig, D; Rodrguez-S疣chez, J M; Ros-Lago, M; Tirapu, J; Barcel, F

2009-05-01

450

The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski,

Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

2010-01-01

451

An upconverted photonic nonvolatile memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional flash memory devices are voltage driven and found to be unsafe for confidential data storage. To ensure the security of the stored data, there is a strong demand for developing novel nonvolatile memory technology for data encryption. Here we show a photonic flash memory device, based on upconversion nanocrystals, which is light driven with a particular narrow width of wavelength in addition to voltage bias. With the help of near-infrared light, we successfully manipulate the multilevel data storage of the flash memory device. These upconverted photonic flash memory devices exhibit high ON/OFF ratio, long retention time and excellent rewritable characteristics.

Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Chen, Xian; Wang, Feng; Tang, Yong-Bing; Roy, V. A. L.

2014-08-01

452

Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity  

PubMed Central

The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Bunge, Silvia A.

2014-01-01

453

Longevity pathways and memory aging  

PubMed Central

The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation. PMID:24926313

Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

2014-01-01

454

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis. PMID:24459411

Jahn, Holger

2013-01-01

455

Memory T Cells in Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their nave T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection.

Su, Charles A.; Fairchild, Robert L.

2014-01-01

456

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-print Network

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

Winicour, J

2014-01-01

457

Global aspects of radiation memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the 粗lectric type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although 僧agnetic type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged test particles obtain a net 遡ick. Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B-mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E-mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

Winicour, J.

2014-10-01

458

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-print Network

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

J. Winicour

2014-07-01

459

Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the

Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

2012-01-01

460

Memory demands and the development of young children's memory.  

PubMed

The primary purposes of this study were to determine the nature of and changes in early memory demands and to assess the relationship between memory demands and memory performance. 10 children at each of 2 ages--30 and 42 months--were observed in their homes for 4 2-hour sessions. Conversations between mothers and children were recorded and mother's memory-demand questions were coded for form and content from these conversations. Question form referred to whether recall or recognition was required and question content to the type of information requested--event or knowledge. Children also participated in 2 long-term memory tasks--production and verification. They were shown a dollhouse and asked to produce the names of objects that would belong in 2 rooms of the house and to verify whether particular miniature replicas of household objects belonged in the rooms. Although memory demands were frequently made, there were few changes between age 2 and 3 in the incidence or types of questions children were asked. At age 3, positive correlations were found between children's production and verification performance and content rather than form of mothers' memory-demand questions. At age 2 no overall relationships were found. Children were retested a year later on memory tasks, and for both age groups memory demands and performance were positively correlated even when initial memory-performance level was controlled. These results, along with other patterns in the data, suggested that mothers' memory demands have an impact on children's memory performance that provides at least partial support for Vygotsky's sociohistorical model of memory development. PMID:6525890

Ratner, H H

1984-12-01

461

TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.  

SciTech Connect

On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

2000-05-19

462

Mechanisms of epigenetic memory.  

PubMed

Although genetics has an essential role in defining the development, morphology, and physiology of an organism, epigenetic mechanisms have an essential role in modulating these properties by regulating gene expression. During development, epigenetic mechanisms establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure proper differentiation. Such mechanisms also allow organisms to adapt to environmental changes and previous experiences can impact the future responsiveness of an organism to a stimulus over long timescales and even over generations. Here, we discuss the concept of epigenetic memory, defined as the stable propagation of a change in gene expression or potential induced by developmental or environmental stimuli. We highlight three distinct paradigms of epigenetic memory that operate on different timescales. PMID:24780085

D'Urso, Agustina; Brickner, Jason H

2014-06-01

463

Learning, memory, and synesthesia.  

PubMed

People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies. PMID:23307940

Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

2013-03-01

464

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

Denning, Peter J.

1989-01-01

465

Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,

Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

2008-01-01

466

Memory metal actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

Ruoff, C. F. (inventor)

1985-01-01

467

Episodic Memory in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory impairments in individuals with schizophrenia have been well documented in the literature. However, despite\\u000a the abundance of findings, constituent cognitive, neural, behavioral, and genetic components of the deficits continue to elude\\u000a full characterization. This review provides a characterization of these deficits by organizing findings within three frameworks\\u000a of interest: 1) neuroanatomical; 2) genetic; and 3) behavioral. Within each

Victoria M. Leavitt; Terry E. Goldberg

2009-01-01

468

Shape memory alloy actuator  

DOEpatents

An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

469

Hierarchical Bayesian reservoir memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a quest for modeling human brain, we are going to introduce a brain model based on a general framework for brain called Memory-Prediction Framework. The model is a hierarchical Bayesian structure that uses Reservoir Computing methods as the state-of-the-art and the most biological plausible Temporal Sequence Processing method for online and unsupervised learning. So, the model is called Hierarchical

Ali Nouri; Hooman Nikmehr

2009-01-01

470

A Christmas Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will read the autobiographical story "A Christmas Memory" by Truman Capote and watch a film version, determining what was emphasized in each account. Students will then write an extended paragraph comparing how the content is addressed through the different mediums of print and film. This activity will develop students' analytical reading and viewing skills, including evaluating the author's / director's craft and purpose.

2013-01-04

471

Flash memory electromagnetic compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the radiated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) behavior of AMD\\/Spansion Flash memory integrated circuits. Using The Engineering Society For Advanced Mobility Land Sea Air and Space (SAE) J1752\\/3 method, the peak RF noise (EMC with respect to radiated emissions) was measured for various technologies and product features, determining statistically valid sensitivity factors for several independent variables. The findings show

Adam D. Fogle; Don Darling; Richard C. Blish; Gene Daszko

2006-01-01

472

Source memory in the rat.  

PubMed

Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another. Here, we asked whether rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D; Alford, Wesley T; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G

2013-03-01

473

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2014-01-01

474

The evolution of episodic memory  

PubMed Central

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a (neo)Darwinian evolution [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:125]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

2013-01-01

475

Source memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

Summary Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

2013-01-01

476

Bell System Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bell System Memorial is a non-commercial website created by David Massey, who openly admits to his love of telephones and interest in the Bell System. The website "was created to help keep the memories of the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest telecommunications system on earth." The author provides some technical and corporate historical information on Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies. The Bell System Memorial logo on the main page links to an introductory webpage, where visitors can sort through the information based on their needs. For example, teachers will find lessons ideas, and AT&T, Western Electric, Bell Labs, Bell Operating Company retirees and current employees of the companies divested from AT&T will find some interesting corporate history. A listing of books and resources on Bell Systems is available for anyone interested in further research and hobbyists will find links to resources and associations relating to electronics and telecommunications.

477

The Nature of Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity: Active Maintenance in Primary Memory and Controlled Search from Secondary Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies examining individual differences in working memory capacity have suggested that individuals with low working memory capacities demonstrate impaired performance on a variety of attention and memory tasks compared with individuals with high working memory capacities. This working memory limitation can be conceived of as arising from 2

Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

2007-01-01

478

Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads,  

E-print Network

Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers ABSTRACT Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads, such as databases, in-memory caches, and graph analytics, pay a high cost for page-based virtual memory. They consume as much as 10% of execution cycles on TLB misses, even using large pag- es

Hill, Mark D.

479

Using cache memory to reduce processor-memory traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing processor-memory bandwidth is recognized in two distinct situations: single board computer systems and microprocessors of the future. Cache memory is investigated as a way to reduce the memory-processor traffic. We show that traditional caches which depend heavily on spatial locality (look-ahead) for their performance are inappropriate in these environments because they generate large bursts of bus

James R. Goodman; A Super CPU

1983-01-01

480

Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.  

PubMed

Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. PMID:20035789

Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2010-04-01

481

Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function  

E-print Network

during learning is related, not to working memory or otherWorking memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function in Learning &GJ. 1974. Working memory. In: The psychology of learning and

Jeneson, Annette

2012-01-01

482

The memory glasses : wearable computing for just-in-time memory support  

E-print Network

This thesis documents a body of wearable computing research surrounding the development of the Memory Glasses, a new type of proactive memory support technology. The Memory Glasses combines features of existing memory ...

DeVaul, Richard W. (Richard Wayne), 1971-

2004-01-01

483

Revisiting the Academic Hardiness Scale: Revision and Revalidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used two studies to evaluate, modify, and provide initial validation for a revised Academic Hardiness scale. First, 16 experts rated scale items for content validity and identified two problematic questions. Second, confirmatory factor analyses with 300 Grade 10 students (46% boys, age range 14-17) identified a 17-item version to be the best

Creed, Peter A.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dhaliwal, Kamal

2013-01-01

484

Towards Terabit Memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cmイ, the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cmイ. Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 ラ 10 nmイ/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cmイ in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cmイ, a very small read energy of 0.1 ?W/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

485

Augmenting human memory using personal lifelogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is a key human facility to support life activities, including social interactions, life management and problem solving. Unfortunately, our memory is not perfect. Normal individuals will have occasional memory problems which can be frustrating, while those with memory impairments can often experience a greatly reduced quality of life. Augmenting memory has the potential to make normal individuals more effective,

Yi Chen; Gareth J. F. Jones

2010-01-01

486

Working and Strategic Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed

Maria Stone; John D. E. Gabrieli; Glenn T. Stebbins; Edith V. Sullivan

1998-01-01

487

The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,

Richards, Regina G.

488

Computational Cognitive Neuroscience of Early Memory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous brain areas work in concert to subserve memory, with distinct memory functions relying differentially on distinct brain areas. For example, semantic memory relies heavily on posterior cortical regions, episodic memory on hippocampal regions, and working memory on prefrontal cortical regions. This article reviews relevant findings from

Munakata, Yuko

2004-01-01

489

Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith  

E-print Network

Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith Department of Computer Science University of New Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA asp@t10.lanl.gov Abstract This paper argues that immunological memory population in the immune system). Keywords: Immunological Memory, Associative Memory, Cross-Reactive Memory

Somayaji, Anil

490

How Minds Work Working & Episodic Memory  

E-print Network

1 How Minds Work Working & Episodic Memory Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 2 Memory Systems #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 3 #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 4 Percept ツキ Result of filtering

Memphis, University of

491

Is memory purely preservative?* Jrme Dokic  

E-print Network

1 Is memory purely preservative?* Jソスrソスme Dokic (University of Rouen and CREA, Paris) In C. Hoerl & T. McCormack (eds), Time and Memory, Oxford: OUP. ソス1 Two forms of memory and Goethe's Problem Let us start with a familiar distinction between two forms of memory: episodic memory (remembering a thing

Paris-Sud XI, Universitテゥ de

492

Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination  

E-print Network

We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.

Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo M. D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

2008-03-21

493

3-dimensional memory module assembly technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the demand for higher density and greater capacity, a three dimensional memory module has been developed. NEC has developed a new type of 3D memory module which uses single memory module stacking technology. It satisfies the demands for higher packaging density using a simple structure. The reliability of the single memory modules and 3D memory module

Yoshitaka KYOUOGKU; Yukio YAMAGUTI; Kazuhiko OHKUBO

1998-01-01

494

Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In describing memory phenomena in natural language, a spatial metaphor is typically employed. Memories are considered to be\\u000a objects that are stored in a mind space, and the process of retrieval is conceived as a search for these objects. It is argued\\u000a that this metaphor has been carried over into many of the popular theories of memory in cognitive psychology

Henry L. Roediger

1980-01-01

495

How generation affects source memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation effects (better memory for self-produced items than for provided items) typically occur in item memory. Jurica\\u000a and Shimamura (1999) reported anegative generation effect in source memory, but their procedure did not test participants on the items they had generated. In Experiment\\u000a 1, participants answered questions and read statements made by a face on a computer screen. The target word

Kindiya D. Geghman; Kristi S. Multhaup

2004-01-01

496

The natural input memory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new recognition memory model is proposed which differs from the existing memory models in that it operates on natural input. Therefore it is called the natural input memory (N IM) model. A biologically-informed perceptual pre-processing method takes local samples from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. The feature-vector representations reside in a similarity space in

Joyca P. W. Lacroix; Jaap M. J. Murre; Eric Postma; Jaap van den Herik

2005-01-01

497

Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation  

PubMed Central

There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

2014-01-01

498

Adaptive Memory and Social Influences.  

E-print Network

??Recently, cognitive psychologists have focused their research on the survival aspects of human memory, showing advantages for remembering information encoded for adaptive qualities. When participants (more)

Leedy, Aaron D.

2011-01-01

499

Sleep-dependent memory processing.  

PubMed

While the functions of sleep remain largely unknown, one exciting hypothesis is that sleep contributes importantly to processes of memory and brain plasticity. Over the last decade, a large body of work has provided substantive evidence supporting this role of sleep in what is becoming known as sleep-dependent memory processing. This review offers a summary of these data, focusing specifically on the role of sleep in (1) memory encoding, (2) memory consolidation (along with the brain basis of this process), and (3) neural plasticity. The clinical ramifications of such findings are also explored. PMID:18803104

Walker, Matthew P

2008-01-01

500

Cashmere-VLM: Remote Memory Paging for Software Distributed Shared Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software distributed shared memory (DSM) systems have successfully provided the illusion of shared memory on dis- tributed memory machines. However, most software DSM systems use the main memory of each machine as a level in a cache hierarchy, replicating copies of shared data in local memory. Since computer memories tend to be much larger than caches, DSM systems have largely

Sandhya Dwarkadas; Robert Stets; Nikos Hardavellas; Leonidas I. Kontothanassis; Rishiyur S. Nikhil

1999-01-01