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1

Cross-validation of Predicted Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equations for prorating the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised General Memory (GM) and Delayed Recall (DR) index scores were confirmed in a clinical sample of 258 patients. These prediction equations for the GM and DR summary scores have validity for patient samples similar to those of the present study. (SLD)

Axelrod, Bradley N.; And Others

1996-01-01

2

Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Scores in Epilepsy Surgery Candidates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores were analyzed for 82 epilepsy surgery candidates and used in combination with receiver operating characteristic curves to classify patients with left (LTL) and right (RTL) temporal lobe seizure onset. Results indicate that WMS-R scores used alone or in combination provide relatively poor discrimination…

Barr, William B.

1997-01-01

3

Partial cross-validation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory-Attention/Concentration Malingering Index in a nonlitigating sample.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) malingering indices proposed by Mittenberg, Azrin, Millsaps, and Heilbronner [Psychol Assess 5 (1993) 34.] were partially cross-validated in a sample of 200 nonlitigants. Nine diagnostic categories were examined, including participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, stroke/vascular, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), epilepsy, depression/anxiety, medical problems, and no diagnosis. Results showed that the discriminant function using WMS-R subtests misclassified only 6.5% of the sample as malingering, with significantly higher misclassification rates of SDAT and stroke/vascular groups. The General Memory Index-Attention/Concentration Index (GMI-ACI) difference score misclassified only 8.5% of the sample as malingering when a difference score of greater than 25 points was used as the cutoff criterion. No diagnostic group was significantly more likely to be misclassified. Results support the utility of the GMI-ACI difference score, as well as the WMS-R subtest discriminant function score, in detecting malingering. PMID:14591479

Hilsabeck, Robin C; Thompson, Matthew D; Irby, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2003-01-01

4

Cautions in Interpretation of Comparisons between the WAIS-R and the Wechsler Memory Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wechsler Memory Scale Memory Quotient (WMS MQ) 12 points below Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Full-Scale IQ (WAIS FSIQ) may indicate memory impairment. Investigated the relation of FSIQ to MQ when the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised rather than the WAIS is used. Discrepancy between FSIQ and MQ occurred less often with WAIS-R than with…

Prifitera, Aurelio; Barley, William D.

1985-01-01

5

Examiner Disability and Other Bias Sources in Administration of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine participant and examiner bias, graduate students posing as disabled examiners in a wheelchair administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised to 101 nondisabled college students. In terms of bias operating to influence subtest scores, only participant gender had a significant effect. Men scored higher than women on both the…

Voskuil, Susan; Tucker, Inez A.

1987-01-01

6

Assessing the Significance of Differences between Subtests on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered methods of evaluating the pattern of subtest scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. The rationale and method for calculating the size of the significant difference between a subtest and the mean of the subtests scores for an individual are described. (JAC)

Knight, Robert G.; Godfrey, Hamish P. D.

1984-01-01

7

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Subtest Scatter as a Function of Maximum Subtest Scaled Score.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) standardization data (for 1,880 adults) were analyzed to determine the frequency of relative intersubtest scatter. Relative scatter range was defined as the difference between highest and lowest subtest scores based on the value of the highest subtest. (SLD)

Schinka, John A.; And Others

1994-01-01

8

Computation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Factor Scores: Equal and Differential Weights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statistical ramifications of using equal weights, as compared to regression-based differential weights, in the estimation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) factor scores were explored using WAIS standardization data, based on 1,880 adults. Differences resulting from the two approaches were substantial, as is discussed.…

Parker, Kevin C. H.; Atkinson, Leslie

1995-01-01

9

Detection of incomplete effort on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised: a cross-validation.  

PubMed

This study determined whether the Vocabulary-Digit Span difference score and discriminant function based on subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) developed by Mittenberg et al. (1995) could differentiate patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries (n = 50) from persons with financially compensable mild head injuries who were giving incomplete effort (n = 50). Employing modified cutoff scores, the discriminant function and Vocabulary-Digit Span difference score accurately classified 90% and 79% of the cases, respectively. Persons with traumatic brain injuries may produce WAIS-R subtest patterns that can be differentiated from individuals showing incomplete effort. These WAIS-R algorithms appear useful in making that distinction. PMID:9777470

Millis, S R; Ross, S R; Ricker, J H

1998-04-01

10

Clinical Utility of Considering Digits Forward and Digits Backward as Separate Components of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the utility of considering Digits Forward (DF) and Digits Backward (DB) as separate components of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) through correlations with other intelligence tests. The findings of significant correlations indicate that although DF and DB tasks are related, the combination of these tasks into a…

Banken, Joseph A.

1985-01-01

11

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Block Design broken configuration errors in nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Final broken configuration errors on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R; Wechsler, 1981) Block Design subtest were examined in 50 moderate and severe nonpenetrating traumatically brain injured adults. Patients were divided into left (n = 15) and right hemisphere (n = 19) groups based on a history of unilateral craniotomy for treatment of an intracranial lesion and were compared to a group with diffuse or negative brain CT scan findings and no history of neurosurgery (n = 16). The percentage of final broken configuration errors was related to injury severity, Benton Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFD; Benton, Hamsher, Varney, & Spreen, 1983) total score and the number of VFD rotation and peripheral errors. The percentage of final broken configuration errors was higher in the patients with right craniotomies than in the left or no craniotomy groups, which did not differ. Broken configuration errors did not occur more frequently on designs without an embedded grid pattern. Right craniotomy patients did not show a greater percentage of broken configuration errors on nongrid designs as compared to grid designs. PMID:11296683

Wilde, M C; Boake, C; Sherer, M

2000-01-01

12

Developmental Analysis of the Wechsler Memory Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined which memory dimensions deteriorate with increasing age and examines the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (N=1,264 males and 1,141 females at six age intervals). Visual-spatial memory tasks, remembering stories, and learning pairs of associated words proved more difficult with advanced age. (JAC)

Zagar, Robert; And Others

1984-01-01

13

Factor analysis of the WAIS and wechsler memory scale: An analysis of the construct validity of the wechsler memory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WAIS and Wechsler Memory Scale subtest scores of 256 neurologic and nonneurologic subjects were factor analyzed. The results supported the construct validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale as a measure of verbal learning and memory, attention and concentration, and orientation. Construct validity was not demonstrated for the Visual Reproduction subtest as a measure of visual memory. Suggestions are offered

Glenn J. Larrabee; Robert L. Kane; John R. Schuck

1983-01-01

14

Wechsler memory scale indices of brain pathology.  

PubMed

The present study reported on preliminary findings of two experimental forms of Wechsler Memory Scale subtest analyses that show promise as screening procedures for neurologically impaired Ss. Both methods discriminated the organic Ss for controls with 70% accuracy. Both methods compare "hold" subtest scores to "don't hold" subtest scores by the use of a regression equation, a procedure that attempts to compensate for the lack of standard scores. The reasons why the regression equation that uses digits score as a hold criterion is regarded as potentially the more useful were discussed. PMID:1194429

Kljaji?

1975-10-01

15

Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant differences were found between college freshmen science (N=50) and nonscience (N=50) majors who were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement. (Author/CB)

Salvia, Shawn Amig; Salvia, John

1986-01-01

16

Composite Reliability and Standard Errors of Measurement for a Seven-Subtest Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composite reliability and standard errors of measurement were computed for prorated Verbal, Performance, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Results with 1,880 adults (standardization sample) indicate that this form is as reliable as the complete test.…

Schretlen, David; And Others

1994-01-01

17

A Comparison Study of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in a College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the WAIS-Revised (WAIS-R) in a sample of college students (N=70). A highly significant test order interaction was found. The WAIS-R will result in significantly higher ability estimates when administered following the WAIS than the WAIS will when following the WAIS-R. (JAC)

Smith, R. Spencer

1983-01-01

18

Wechsler Memory Scale is a poor screening test for brain dysfunction.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of the Wechsler Memory Scale as a screening test for brain dysfunction when used with "new" scoring procedures was assessed in this cross-validation study. The scoring procedures studied were those reported by Bachrach and Mintz (1974) and Kljajic (1975). In general, these procedures were found to be unreliable methods to separate brain dysfunctional patients from psychiatric patients. While the Wechsler Memory Scale may be a good test of short-term verbal memory, it samples too narrow a band of behaviors to be a reliable screening instrument of brain dysfunction in a large range of patients. PMID:893712

Prigatano, G P

1977-07-01

19

Apparently abnormal wechsler memory scale index score patterns in the normal population.  

PubMed

Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates. PMID:25529585

Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

2015-01-01

20

Differential Impact of Brain Damage and Depression on Memory Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of depression and brain damage on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span subscale and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory subtest. Performance on both tests was substantially affected by brain damage, but not by depression. Implications regarding neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation are…

Gass, Carlton S.; Russell, Elbert W.

1986-01-01

21

ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

2009-01-01

22

Improvement in memory and static balance with abstinence in alcoholic men and women: Selective relations with change in brain structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether changes in memory or static balance in chronic alcoholics, occurring with abstinence or relapse, are associated with changes in lateral and fourth ventricular volume. Alcoholics meeting DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence (n=15) and non-alcoholic controls (n=26) were examined twice at a mean interval of 2 years with standard Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised (WMS-R)

Margaret J. Rosenbloom; Torsten Rohlfing; Anne W. O'Reilly; Stephanie A. Sassoon; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Edith V. Sullivan

2007-01-01

23

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct.  

PubMed

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Working Memory Index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percentage of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle's (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms. PMID:19657913

Hill, B D; Elliott, Emily M; Shelton, Jill T; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, W Drew

2010-03-01

24

WAIS-R Factors and Performance on the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales: A Canonical Model of Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pattern and level of performance on the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised) and the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales were examined for 93 neurologically impaired adults. Each set of procedures evidently is indexing the same theoretical constructs. (Author/ABB)

Fowler, Patrick C.; Macciocchi, Stephen N.

1986-01-01

25

Measuring Social Competence with the Wechsler Picture Arrangement and Comprehension Subtests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the traditional assumption that the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests are measures of social competence using scores from 136 children and adolescents. Cautions against interpreting either subtest as an indicator of social…

Campbell, Jonathan M.; McCord, David M.

1999-01-01

26

Clinical utility of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in predicting laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy among surgical candidates.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the accuracy of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in identifying functional cognitive deficits associated with seizure laterality in localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) relative to a previously established measure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Emerging WMS-IV studies have highlighted psychometric improvements that may enhance its ability to identify lateralized memory deficits. Data from 57 patients with video-EEG-confirmed unilateral TLE who were administered the WMS-IV and RAVLT as part of a comprehensive presurgical neuropsychological evaluation for temporal resection were retrospectively reviewed. We examined the predictive accuracy of the WMS-IV not only in terms of verbal versus visual composite scores but also using individual subtests. A series of hierarchal logistic regression models were developed, including the RAVLT, WMS-IV delayed subtests (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction), and a WMS-IV verbal-visual memory difference score. Analyses showed that the RAVLT significantly predicted laterality with overall classification rates of 69.6% to 70.2%, whereas neither the individual WMS-IV subtests nor the verbal-visual memory difference score accounted for additional significant variance. Similar to previous versions of the WMS, findings cast doubt as to whether the WMS-IV offers significant incremental validity in discriminating seizure laterality in TLE beyond what can be obtained from the RAVLT. PMID:25461222

Soble, Jason R; Eichstaedt, Katie E; Waseem, Hena; Mattingly, Michelle L; Benbadis, Selim R; Bozorg, Ali M; Vale, Fernando L; Schoenberg, Mike R

2014-12-01

27

Can we improve the clinical assessment of working memory? An evaluation of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition using a working memory criterion construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental

B. D. Hill; Emily M. Elliott; Jill T. Shelton; Russell D. Pella; Judith R. OJile; W. Drew Gouvier

2010-01-01

28

Nature of personal semantic memory: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Personal semantic memory is factual knowledge about a person's own past. Although personal semantic memory is assumed to have features of both semantic memory and episodic memory, the relationship to episodic memory and to semantic memory have not been well documented. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, episodic memory, semantic memory, and personal semantic memory are all defective. In this study, the hypothesis that defective personal semantic memory is related to both semantic and episodic memory dysfunction was tested in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Functions of episodic, semantic, and personal semantic memory were examined by using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), subtests of the WAIS-R (Information, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Similarities), and the Family Line Test (FLT) in 62 patients who met the NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. Specific effects of episodic and semantic memory on personal semantic memory were examined by using multiple linear regression analysis with the total score of the FLT as the dependent variable and the WMS-R Delayed Recall weighted sum score and the WAIS-R Semantic Memory score (a composite of standardized scores of the four subtests) as the independent variables. Personal semantic memory function was significantly correlated with both the episodic and semantic memory functions, after controlling age, sex, educational attainment, and severity of dementia. This result supports the hypotheses that personal semantic memory has features of both episodic and semantic memory, and that semantic memory is transformed from episodic memory. PMID:12667533

Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Hirono, Nobutsugu; Mori, Etsuro

2003-01-01

29

Memory, executive cognitive function, and readiness to change drinking behavior.  

PubMed

The transtheoretical model of Prochaska and DiClemente [Psychother. Theory Res. Prac. 19 (1982) 276] postulates that cognitive skills are critical for drinking behavior change. Memory and executive cognitive function likely influence the execution of skills that are implicated for both motivating and sustaining drinking behavior change. Participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (N=117) were administered a battery of standardized memory and executive cognitive function tests that included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), and Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). Lower verbal and higher delayed recall memory score at baseline significantly predicted precontemplation, higher verbal memory scores predicted contemplation, and better attention-concentration at baseline significantly predicted reduced drinking at 3-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline alcohol consumption. The study findings indicate that explicit memory processes may have utility for predicting readiness to change drinking behavior. PMID:15621401

Blume, Arthur W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

2005-02-01

30

Cognitive estimation in traumatic brain injury: relationships with measures of intelligence, memory, and affect.  

PubMed

Brain injury is associated with a reduced capcity to engage in effective cognitive estimation. The current study utilized two measures of this construct, the Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) and Luria Memory Test (Luria), to investigate the relationships between cognitive estimation and intelligence, memory, and affect in a sample of 30 traumatically brain-injured individuals. Results demonstrated significant correlations between cognitive estimation and tests of intelligence and memory. However, measures of depression and state anxiety were not meaningfully associated with cognitive estimation. The ability to recall stories accounted for the greatest portion of the variance for both the CET and Luria. Specifically, the 30-minute Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised accounted for 38% of the variance in the CET, while the Logical Memory 30-minute savings score accounted for 47% of the variance in the Luria. Intellectual and affective variables explained only negligible amounts of variance on cognitive estimation tasks. PMID:8869432

Freeman, M R; Ryan, J J; Lopez, S J; Mittenberg, W

1995-12-01

31

Intelligence, Memory, and Handedness in Pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 473 male patients with pedophilia (assessed by the patients' sexual history and penile response in the laboratory to standardized, erotic stimuli) or other problematic sexual interests or behaviors received brief neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychological measures included a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, D.

James M. Cantor; Ray Blanchard; Bruce K. Christensen; Robert Dickey; Philip E. Klassen; A. Lee Beckstead; Thomas Blak; Michael E. Kuban

2004-01-01

32

Age effects on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III subtests.  

PubMed

This investigation extended work on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scaled-Revised (WAIS-R) to the WAIS-III by determining how allotments of scaled-score points change with age, and to evaluate WAIS-III performance in terms of the Horn-Cattell constructs of crystallized and fluid intelligence. The age norms for the 14 individual WAIS-III subtests indicate that additional scaled-score points are awarded primarily to the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest of the Verbal Scale and to the seven Performance Scale subtests at ages 45 to 89 years for the same performance as individuals in the 20- to 34-year-old reference group. Subtests that measure speed of information processing showed more of a decline than subtests that measure verbal processing. Results are consistent with the view that measures of fluid intelligence show more of a decline with advancing age than do measures of crystallized intelligence. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd PMID:14590227

Ryan, J J; Sattler, J M; Lopez, S J

2000-05-01

33

Improvement in memory and static balance with abstinence in alcoholic men and women: selective relations with change in brain structure.  

PubMed

We investigated whether changes in memory or static balance in chronic alcoholics, occurring with abstinence or relapse, are associated with changes in lateral and fourth ventricular volume. Alcoholics meeting DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence (n=15) and non-alcoholic controls (n=26) were examined twice at a mean interval of 2 years with standard Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) tests, an ataxia battery, and structural MRI. At study entry, alcoholics had been abstinent on average for over 4 months and achieved lower scores than controls on WASI General IQ Index, WMS-R General Memory Index, and the ataxia battery. The 10 alcoholics who maintained sobriety at retest did not differ at study entry in socio-demographic measures, alcohol use, or WASI and WMS-R summary scores from the five relapsers. At follow-up, abstainers improved more than controls on the WMS-R General Memory Index. Ataxia tended to improve in abstainers relative to controls. Associations were observed between memory and lateral ventricular volume change and between ataxia and fourth ventricular volume change in alcoholics but not in the controls. Both memory and ataxia can improve with sustained sobriety, and brain-behavior associations suggest selective brain structural substrates for the changes observed. PMID:17407808

Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Rohlfing, Torsten; O'Reilly, Anne W; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

2007-07-15

34

Deficits in short-term memory in adult survivors of childhood abuse.  

PubMed

Exposure to stress has been associated with alterations in memory function, and we have previously shown deficits in short-term verbal memory in patients with a history of exposure to the stress of combat and the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies of any kind have focused on adult survivors of childhood physical and sexual abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term memory function in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Adult survivors of severe childhood physical and sexual abuse (n = 21), as defined by specific criteria derived from the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), who were presenting for psychiatric treatment were compared with healthy subjects (n = 20) matched for several variables including age, alcohol abuse, and years of education. All subjects were assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical (verbal memory) and Figural (visual memory) components, the Verbal and Visual Selective Reminding Tests (SRT), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Adult survivors of childhood abuse had significantly lower scores on the WMS Logical component for immediate and delayed recall in comparison to normal subjects, with no difference in visual memory, as measured by the WMS or the SRT, or IQ, as measured by the WAIS-R. Deficits in verbal memory, as measured by the WMS, were associated with the severity of abuse, as measured by a composite score on the ETI. Our findings suggest that childhood physical and sexual abuse is associated with long-term deficits in verbal short-term memory. These findings of specific deficits in verbal (and not visual) memory, with no change in IQ, are similar to the pattern of deficits that we have previously found in patients with combat-related PTSD. PMID:8771224

Bremner, J D; Randall, P; Scott, T M; Capelli, S; Delaney, R; McCarthy, G; Charney, D S

1995-11-29

35

Comparison of Age-Extended Norms for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores of 216 elderly Alzheimer's Disease patients based on 3 sets of recent age-extended norms were compared. Results demonstrate the importance of reporting the normative sample on which IQ scores for older adults are based and provide guidelines for selecting a set of age-related norms. (SLD)

McCurry, Susan M.; And Others

1994-01-01

36

Psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) in two samples of male Vietnam veterans: a treatment-seeking sample with a confirmed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis (N=120) and a community sample with varying levels of traumatic stress symptomatology (N=154). The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha=0.96). Confirmatory factor analysis did not provide support for a

Mark Creamer; Richard Bell; Salvina Failla

2003-01-01

37

Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

2014-01-01

38

Assessment of long-term verbal memory in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the use of a Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT) and a Story Recall test with children aged from 8 to 12 years. 46 normal control children and 19 children of low ability were given the PALT from the Wechsler Memory Scale, and a story recall task, based on Wechsler's Logical Memory subtest, but using

Elizabeth Beardsworth; Dorothy Bishop

1994-01-01

39

Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation. PMID:24704382

Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

2014-05-21

40

Sex differences in brain-behavior relationships between verbal episodic memory and resting regional cerebral blood flow  

PubMed Central

Women have better verbal memory, and higher rates of resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). This study examined whether there are also sex differences in the relationship between verbal episodic memory and resting rCBF. Twenty eight healthy right-handed volunteers (14 male, 14 female) underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 15O-water study. Immediate and delayed recall was measured on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory ScaleRevised (WMS-R), and on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Resting rCBF (ml/100 g/min) was calculated for four frontal, four temporal, and four limbic regions of interest (ROIs). Women had better immediate recall on both WMS-R and CVLT tasks. Sex differences in rCBF were found for temporal lobe regions. Women had greater bilateral blood flow in a mid-temporal brain region. There were also sex differences in rCBF correlations with performance. Women produced positive correlations with rCBF laterality in the temporal pole. Greater relative CBF in the left temporal pole was associated with better WMS-R immediate and delayed recall in women only. These results suggest that trait differences in temporal pole brain-behavior relationships may relate to sex differences in verbal episodic memory. PMID:10683395

Ragland, J. Daniel; Coleman, A. Rand; Gur, Ruben C.; Glahn, David C.; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

41

Memory and intellectual deficits do not decline with age in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are reported to be more consistent with a static encephalopathy than a dementing disorder. This study investigates memory and intellectual decline in 62 chronic schizophrenic subjects using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and the National Adult Reading Test (NART) in a cross-sectional study using five age cohorts (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years of age) and then by two cohorts (young: 18-39; older: 40-69). A second method of investigating intellectual decline was implemented by estimating the discrepancy score between WAIS-R (current IQ) and NART (premorbid IQ) for each subject. No significant differences were found in WAIS-R Full Scale. Verbal and Performance IQ and memory functioning across the five age cohorts (and when using two age groups). A significant difference in test scores was found using the Picture Completion and Digit Symbol subtests of the WAIS-R. The differences were not related to age or duration of illness. No significant difference in scores were evident in the remaining WAIS-R subtests. These results support previous findings that schizophrenia is more consistent with a static encephalopathy than a dementing disorder and that intellectual and memory function does not markedly decline with age. PMID:9376333

Mockler, D; Riordan, J; Sharma, T

1997-07-25

42

Detecting malingered performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Validation of Mittenberg's approach in traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effectiveness of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) performance validity markers devised by Mittenberg et al. [Prof. Psychol.: Res. Pract. 26 (1995) 491] in the detection of malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Subjects were 65 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Twenty-eight met the Slick et al. [Clin. Neuropsychol. 13 (1999) 545] criteria for at least probable MND. The control group was comprised of 37 patients without external incentive and who thus did not meet the Slick et al. criteria. All subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R or WAIS-III). The discriminant function score (DFS) and the vocabulary-digit span (VDS) difference score were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were examined for several cut-offs for each marker individually and the two combined. Classification accuracy for the DFS was acceptable and better than for VDS. The use of the two markers in combination resulted in no incremental increase in classification accuracy. Issues related to the clinical application of these techniques are discussed. PMID:14591458

Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Mathias, Charles W; Houston, Rebecca J; Crouch, John A

2003-04-01

43

Development and validation of the sense of competence scale - revised.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the sense of competence of traditional age college students across the dimensions that define the construct. The Sense of Competence Scale-Revised (SCS-R) was developed to provide a measure of Chickering's (1969) first vector, an important psychosocial construct. Administrators can use data from the instrument to modify an institution's academic and social environment to enhance the development of the intellectual, physical, and interpersonal competencies of college students. During the development and validation, various aspects of the SCS-R were examined in accordance with the validity framework outlined by Messick (1995). Of the six types of validity evidence proposed by Messick (1995), four were the primary focus: content, substantive, structural and generalizability. The evidence generated from the study suggested that the chosen items for the SCS-R support the validity of estimates of a student's personal assessment of their sense of competence. PMID:23816617

McFadden, Cara; Skaggs, Gary; Janosik, Steven

2013-01-01

44

Effects of Practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Across 3- and 6Month Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 54 participants (age M?=?20.9; education M?=?14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M?=?111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6

Eduardo Estevis; Michael R. Basso; Dennis Combs

2012-01-01

45

Measurement Invariance of Core Cognitive Abilities in Heterogeneous Neurological and Community Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of…

Bowden, Stephen C.; Cook, Mark J.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Shores, E. Arthur; Carstairs, Jane R.

2004-01-01

46

Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised Korean version (IES-R-K), a self-report scale for assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Hyun-Kook Lim; Jong-Min Woo; Tae-Suk Kim; Tae-Hyung Kim; Kyeong-Sook Choi; Sang-Keun Chung; Ik-Seoung Chee; Kyoung-Uk Lee; Ki Chung Paik; Ho-Jun Seo; Won Kim; Bora Jin; Jeong-Ho Chae

2009-01-01

47

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Impact of Event Scale Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Patients and Methods: The first phase of the study included 575 patients who had undergone a motor vehicle accident. The Chinese Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, and General Health Questionnaire-20 completed by the patients 1 week after the accident were

KK Wu; SK Chan

48

The development of the Chinese version of Impact of Event ScaleRevised (CIES-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: This is an exploratory study on the psychometric properties and normative data of the Chinese translation of the Impact of\\u000a Event ScaleRevised (CIES-R). Methods: The original Impact of Event ScaleRevised was translated into Chinese and the comparability of content was verified through\\u000a back-translation procedures. The study consisted of a sample of 116 patients from

K. K. Wu; K. S. Chan

2003-01-01

49

Memory Functions in Cannabis Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the paper, the authors deal with memory functions in cannabis users, which were examined using the Wechsler Memory Scales - Third Edition (WMS-III), as part of a pro- ject implemented by the Department of Psychology at the Philosophical Faculty of Palacky University in Olomouc in partnership with the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Science and

Lenka Miovská; Michal Miovský

2004-01-01

50

Research with the Wechsler Digit Span Subtest: Implications for Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major research findings relevant to use of the Wechsler Digit Span subtest in psychoeducational assessment are summarized. The cognitive processes and behavioral characteristics which determine performance on Digit Span are related to complex abilities. Recommendations and implications for research and assessment practice are presented.…

Mishra, Shitala P.; And Others

1985-01-01

51

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale" (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX--Psychological Corporation, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV), an individually administered measure of cognitive ability for individuals aged 16 years, 0 months to 90 years, 11 months. The WAIS-IV was designed with a number of specific goals including updated norms, increased user friendliness, improved…

Climie, Emma A.; Rostad, Kristin

2011-01-01

52

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special educational…

Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

2011-01-01

53

Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III…

McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

2011-01-01

54

Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

2009-01-01

55

Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

2012-01-01

56

Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

McKean, Kevin

1983-01-01

57

Impaired memory for faces and social scenes in autism: clinical implications of memory dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical memory test, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), was used to study the auditory and visual memory of 29 high-functioning adults with autism and 34 group-matched normal controls. The individuals with autism performed as well as the controls on immediate and delayed memory for word pairs and stories and on a verbal working memory task. The autism group was

Diane L. Williams; Gerald Goldstein; Nancy J. Minshew

2005-01-01

58

Childbirth and Posttraumatic Stress Responses: A Validation Study of The Dutch Impact of Event ScaleRevised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childbirth has been identified as a possible traumatic experience, leading to traumatic stress responses and even to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in a group of women who recently gave birth (N = 435). In addition, a comparison was made

Eelco Olde; Rolf J. Kleber; Onno van der Hart; Victor J. M. Pop

2006-01-01

59

The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

2007-01-01

60

Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2010-01-01

61

Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

Hadeed, Julie

2014-01-01

62

The Archimedes negative aftereffect as an indication of memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of data obtained from 25 psychotics and 16 normals who had been given the Wechsler Memory scale and tested with the Archimedes spiral illusion, the author concludes that: (1) electric shock does not impair memory ability; (2) electric shock does not impair ability to experience the Archimedes negative aftereffect; (3) there is no relationship between memory ability

Lloyd S. Standlee

1953-01-01

63

Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

2013-01-01

64

Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

2013-01-01

65

Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were

Cheng-Sheng Chen; Chung-Ping Cheng; Cheng-Fang Yen; Tze-Chun Tang; Pinchen Yang; Rei-Cheng Yang; Ming-Shyan Huang; Yuh-Jyh Jong; Hsin-Su Yu

66

Factor analytic structure of the Impact of Events ScaleRevised when used with a firefighting sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The Impact of Events Scale (IES)\\/Impact of Events ScaleRevised (IES-R) is arguably one of the most well known tools used to assess post-traumatic symptomatology. The background literature reveals a significant gap with respect to the structural properties of the IES\\/IES-R when used with emergency service populations. In response to these identified gaps, this paper aims to

Shannon L. Wagner

2011-01-01

67

Psychometric evaluation of the Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure the internal consistency and construct validity of the Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CITES-R).Method: 158 sexually abused children, ages 7–12, and a nonabusive parent or primary caretaker completed a series of measures, including the CITES-R. A subsample of 17 repeated the assessment after 1 to 2 months with intervening treatment.Results: Internal consistency for the CITES-R scales

Mark Chaffin; Shelli K. Shultz

2001-01-01

68

The Cylindrical Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--IV: A Retest of the Guttman Model of Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study on the underlying structure of the Wechsler intelligence test (WISC-R; [Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual WISC-R: Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation]), using smallest space analysis (SSA) [Guttman, L., and Levy, S. (1991). Two structural laws for intelligence tests. "Intelligence," 15,…

Cohen, Arie; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Farley, Frank H.

2006-01-01

69

Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence…

Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

70

The Impact of Event Scale-Revised: Psychometric properties in a sample of motor vehicle accident survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminative validity of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, [Weiss, D. S. & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In: J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399–411). New York: Guilford Press]) in a sample of 182 individuals who

J. Gayle Beck; DeMond M. Grant; Jennifer P. Read; Joshua D. Clapp; Scott F. Coffey; Luana M. Miller; Sarah A. Palyo

2008-01-01

71

Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... mind works a lot like a computer. Your brain puts information it judges to be important into "files." When you remember something, you pull up a file. Memory doesn't always work perfectly. As people grow ...

72

The hierarchical factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performed a Wherry-Wherry hierarchical factor analysis on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) subtest intercorrelations reported by D. Wechsler for each of the 6 age groups included in the standardization sample. A hierarchical arrangement of abilities highly congruent with P. E. Vernon's 1950 structure-of-intellect theory was obtained. The obtained arrangement consisted of a strong general intelligence factor

Fred H. Wallbrown; John Blaha; Robert J. Wherry

1973-01-01

73

Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1998-01-01

74

The Impact of Event ScaleRevised: Psychometric properties in a sample of motor vehicle accident survivors  

PubMed Central

This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminative validity of the Impact of Event ScaleRevised (IES-R, Weiss & Marmar, 1997) in a sample of 182 individuals who had experienced a serious motor vehicle accident. Results supported the three-factor structure of the IES-R, Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, with adequate internal consistency noted for each subscale. Support was obtained for the concurrent and discriminative validity, as well as the absence of social desirability effects. Although some differences were noted between the IES-R Avoidance subscale and diagnostically-based measures of this cluster of symptoms, these differences do not necessarily signify measurement problems with the IES-R. The IES-R seems to be a solid measure of post-trauma phenomena that can augment related assessment approaches in clinical and research settings. PMID:17369016

Beck, J. Gayle; Grant, DeMond M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Clapp, Joshua D.; Coffey, Scott F.; Miller, Luana M.; Palyo, Sarah A.

2008-01-01

75

Wechsler VIQ versus PIQ differences in cerebral dysfunction: a literature review with emphasis on sex differences.  

PubMed

For the past three decades neuropsychologists have published results which indicated that left-sided cerebral dysfunction affected the Wechsler Verbal Scale whereas right-sided dysfunction affected the Performance Scale. Recent investigations have indicated that the effects of cerebral dysfunction on performance of the Wechsler Scales may be different for males and females. In view of these reports, the present review considered 24 studies (28 samples) which have reported Wechsler IQ scores in patients with unilateral or bilateral cerebral dysfunction. Eight studies (10 samples) used the Wechsler-Bellevue I, whereas 16 studies (18 samples) employed the WAIS. In these 28 published samples, there were four exceptions to the hypothesis of lower mean VIQ in patients with left-hemisphere lesions, and lower mean PIQ in patients with right-hemisphere dysfunction. Of the four exceptions to this "rule", two samples contained only women, while a third contained only patients with missile wounds of the frontal lobe. One sample appeared to be a true exception, and could not be accounted for by lesion location or sexual composition of the sample. The studies reviewed appear to add additional support to the hypothesis of sex differences in the effects of unilateral lesions. Therefore, insofar as published mean values for the Wechsler Scales are concerned, the specific effects on Verbal versus Performance IQ appear more prominently in males. PMID:6757270

Bornstein, R A; Matarazzo, J D

1982-12-01

76

Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition among a National Sample of Referred Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003a) was analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis among a national sample of 355 students referred for psychoeducational evaluation by 93 school psychologists from 35 states. The structure of the WISC-IV core battery was best represented by four…

Watkins, Marley W.

2010-01-01

77

The development and validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R).  

PubMed

The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) was revised to assess appearance comparisons relevant to women and men in a wide variety of contexts. The revised scale (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised, PACS-R) was administered to 1176 college females. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis using one half of the sample suggested a single factor structure for the PACS-R. Study 2 utilized the remaining half of the sample to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, item analysis, and to examine the convergent validity of the scale. These analyses resulted in an 11-item measure that demonstrated excellent internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of body satisfaction, eating pathology, sociocultural influences on appearance, and self-esteem. Regression analyses demonstrated the utility of the PACS-R in predicting body satisfaction and eating pathology. Overall, results indicate that the PACS-R is a reliable and valid tool for assessing appearance comparison tendencies in women. PMID:24854806

Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

2014-04-01

78

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised.  

PubMed

The Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised (NPVS-R) is an instrument derived from the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses designed to measure nurses' professional values. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the NPVS-R in a random sample of baccalaureate and master's students and practicing nurses. The NPVS-R, a 26-item Likert-scale format instrument, was tested on 782 subjects. Responses to the NPVS-R were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization resulted in a five-factor solution explaining 56.7% of the common variance. Findings supported internal consistency reliability of five factors with alpha coefficients from .70 to .85 and a total scale alpha coefficient of .92. Construct validity was supported with an overall factor loading range of .46 to .79 across the five factors labeled Caring, Activism, Trust, Professionalism, and Justice. The NPVS-R is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring professional nurses' values and enhancing professional socialization. PMID:20069950

Weis, Darlene; Schank, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

79

Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides. PMID:22208539

Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yu, Hsin-Su

2011-12-01

80

The Wechsler ACS Social Perception Subtest: A Preliminary Comparison with Other Measures of Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative to other cognitive areas, there are few clinical measures currently available to assess social perception. A new standardized measure, the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) Social Perception subtest, addresses some limitations of existing measures; however, little is known about this new test. The first goal of this investigation…

Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Chapman, Sandra B.

2012-01-01

81

Peeking inside the "Black Box" of the Flynn Effect: Evidence from Three Wechsler Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the Wechsler Performance IQ (PIQ) or Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)/ Perceptual Organization Index (POI) change over time and its relation to ability levels. PIQ or PRI/ POI was analyzed because of the known sensitivity of nonverbal scales to the Flynn effect. Scores were analyzed using two methods. First, analysis of…

Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jianjun; Weiss, Lawrence G.

2010-01-01

82

Hierarchical Factor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Wherry and Wherry (1984) hierarchical factor solution was obtained on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Revised (WPPSI–R) subtest intercorrelations for the 9 age levels included in the standardization sample. The results showed a strong general intelligence (g) factor defined by all 12 subtests for all 9 age groups. On the average, the g factor accounted for about

John Blaha; Fred H. Wallbrown

1991-01-01

83

Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of the…

Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

84

A Test-Retest Reliability Study of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test-retest IQs of 50 patients were correlated. The patients were included in the sample only because they had been given the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale before. The interval between test and retest averaged almost two years. All test-retest correlations were .90 or better. (Author)

Brown, Hilary S. R.; May, Arthur E.

1979-01-01

85

A Short Form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from standardization sample (n=1,700) of Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) were used to develop table that gives Full Scale intelligence quotients (IQs) for four-subtest (Comprehension, Arithmetic, Picture Completion, Block Design) abbreviated form of scale. Reports reliability and validity coefficients…

LoBello, Steven G.

1991-01-01

86

Validation of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in patients with burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) are often used as self-report instruments for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few validations of the IES and the IES-R against structured clinical interviews. In this study the two scales, together with the three subscales of the IES-R, were assessed for their agreement

Josefin Sveen; Aili Low; Johan Dyster-Aas; Lisa Ekselius; Mimmie Willebrand; Bengt Gerdin

2010-01-01

87

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

2006-01-01

88

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition in an Australian Clinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition (WISC–III; D. Wechsler, 1991) with a sample of 579 Australian children referred for assessment because of academic difficulties in the classroom. The children were administered the WISC–III as part of the initial eligibility determination process for funding of special education services. The children were aged between

Felicity C. Cockshott; Nigel V. Marsh; Donald W. Hine

2006-01-01

89

Relationships between scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised and Stanford-Binet IV.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised and the Stanford Binet-Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition were given to 51 preschool, kindergarten, first, and second grade students. Twelve of 15 Pearson correlations between Wechsler IQs and composite and area scores of the Stanford-Binet IV were statistically significant. It is apparent that the two tests measure similar, but not identical, concepts. PMID:1961799

Carvajal, H H; Parks, J P; Bays, K J; Logan, R A; Lujano, C I; Page, G L; Weaver, K A

1991-08-01

90

Bifactor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with general intelligence (g) as the second-order factor that explained all the covariation of several first-order factors but failed to consider a bifactor model. The WPPSI-IV normative sample contains 1,700 children aged 2 years and 6 months through 7 years and 7 months, bifurcated into 2 age groups: 2:6-3:11 year olds (n = 600) and 4:0-7:7 year olds (n = 1,100). This study applied confirmatory factor analysis to the WPPSI-IV normative sample data to test the fit of a bifactor model and to determine the reliability of the resulting factors. The bifactor model fit the WPPSI-IV normative sample data as well as or better than the higher-order models favored by Wechsler (2012). In the bifactor model, the general factor accounted for more variance in every subtest than did its corresponding domain-specific factor and the general factor accounted for more total and common variance than all domain-specific factors combined. Further, the domain-specific factors exhibited poor reliability independent of g (i.e., ?h coefficients of .05 to .33). These results suggest that only the general intelligence dimension was sufficiently robust and precise for clinical use. PMID:24188289

Watkins, Marley W; Beaujean, A Alexander

2014-03-01

91

Normative Changes on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised Animal Pegs Subtest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The published norms on the Animal Pegs subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI–R) were compared with those on the WPPSI. On the WPPSI, published 22 years before the revision, the subtest was known as Animal House. On the WPPSI–R, children usually must earn more raw score points than on the WPPSI to obtain the same

Jerome M. Sattler

1991-01-01

92

Dorsolateral prefrontal contributions to human working memory.  

PubMed

Although neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in human memory, the necessity of dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) for key competencies of working memory remains largely unexplored. We therefore studied human brain lesion patients to determine whether dlPFC is necessary for working memory function, administering subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the N-Back Task to three participant groups: dlPFC lesions (n=19), non-dlPFC lesions (n=152), and no brain lesions (n=54). DlPFC damage was associated with deficits in the manipulation of verbal and spatial knowledge, with left dlPFC necessary for manipulating information in working memory and right dlPFC critical for manipulating information in a broader range of reasoning contexts. Our findings elucidate the architecture of working memory, providing key neuropsychological evidence for the necessity of dlPFC in the manipulation of verbal and spatial knowledge. PMID:22789779

Barbey, Aron K; Koenigs, Michael; Grafman, Jordan

2013-05-01

93

Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

2015-01-01

94

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

2007-01-01

95

Construct Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, and Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports data supporting the construct validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), and the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) through convergent and…

Canivez, Gary L.; Neitzel, Ryan; Martin, Blake E.

2005-01-01

96

Short report: Influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity. PMID:22900929

Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura

2012-01-01

97

Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

Hu, Bi Ying

2015-01-01

98

Cross-Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised on the College Students in the United States and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the cultural validity of the almost perfect scale-revised (APS-R) with 300 Turkish and 300 American and international college students. First, the validity of the original APS-R was conducted on American students and international students. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) offered two-factor scale to be consistent…

Aydin, Kamile Bahar

2013-01-01

99

Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

2013-01-01

100

Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new…

Keith, Timothy Z.; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Taub, Gordon E.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

2006-01-01

101

Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

2004-01-01

102

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Score Patterns for Learning Disabled Young Adults. Part 1: Studies with New or Unusual Learning Disabled Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with earlier research using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the WISC-Revised, the Information, Digit Span, and Digit Symbol (i.e., Coding) subtests contribute substantially and independently to group differentiation. A. Bannatyne's Sequential factor also discriminates between these groups. (Author)

Cordoni, Barbara K.; And Others

1981-01-01

103

Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were

Jianghong Liu; Richard Lynn

2011-01-01

104

Technical and Practical Issues in the Structure and Clinical Invariance of the Wechsler Scales: A Rejoinder to Commentaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion article addresses issues related to expansion of the Wechsler model from four to five factors; multiple broad CHC abilities measured by the Arithmetic subtest; advantages and disadvantages of including complex tasks requiring integration of multiple broad abilities when measuring intelligence; limitations of factor analysis, which…

Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

2013-01-01

105

Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Subtests and the Halstead-Reitan Category and Tapping Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores from 94 psychiatric and neurological patients on the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Halstead-Reitan Category and Finger Tapping tests were used in a factor analysis. The Category Test is not particularly sensitive to all types of brain pathology. (Author)

Lansdell, Herbert; Donnelly, Edward F.

1977-01-01

106

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

107

A Longitudinal Study of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised over a Six-Year Period.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated stability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) intelligence quotient scores of 32 exceptional students over six-year interval. Used 20 learning disabled and 12 mentally disabled students aged 6 to 16. Test-retest findings indicated median reliability value of .74. Discusses implications for clinicians and…

Vance, Booney; And Others

1987-01-01

108

Clinical utility of the wechsler adult intelligence scale-fourth edition after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The performance of 100 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was compared with that of 100 demographically matched neurologically healthy controls. Processing Speed was the only WAIS-IV factor index that was able to discriminate between persons with moderate-severe TBI on the one hand and persons with either less severe TBI or neurologically healthy controls on the other hand. The Processing Speed index also had acceptable sensitivity and specificity when differentiating between patients with TBI who either did or did not have scores in the clinically significant range on the Trail Making Test. It is concluded that WAIS-IV Processing Speed has acceptable clinical utility in the evaluation of patients with moderate-severe TBI but that it should be supplemented with other measures to assure sufficient accuracy in the diagnostic process. PMID:24752385

Donders, Jacobus; Strong, Carrie-Ann H

2015-02-01

109

Comparing canadian and american normative scores on the wechsler adult intelligence scale-fourth edition.  

PubMed

Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. PMID:25313225

Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

2014-12-01

110

Amnestic Disturbance and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Chemical Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological assessments were performed on 70 patients referred after a Catacarb chemical release in a Northern California town. After appropriate exclusions, the 59 patients used in the final analysis were mostly White (66%), with 56% having some college level education. They were administered the: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Memory Assessment Scale (MAS), Trails A and B, Stroop, Controlled Oral

Rosemarie M. Bowler; Christopher Hartney; Long Hun Ngo

1998-01-01

111

Memory impairment in patients with cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhotic patients is usually characterized by memory impairment and psychomotor slowing. Our aim was to investigate memory status in cirrhotic patients with and without clinically overt HE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two cirrhotic patients (10 female and 22 male) aged 49 +/- 17 years and 20 healthy subjects (six female and 14 male) aged 46 +/- 12 years were included in the study. Memory status was defined by Wechsler Memory Scale, verbal memory process and complex memory process tests. RESULTS: Grade-1 HE was detected in 7 (22%) patients with cirrhosis. We detected 36 to 92% decrement in various memory tests in cirrhotic patients without HE as compared to healthy subjects. The scores for all psychometric testing results were significantly lower in cirrhotic patients without HE as compared to healthy subjects. We detected 42.9 to 100% decrement in various memory tests in cirrhotic patients with HE than cirrhotic patients without HE. However, there was no statistical significant difference between cirrhotic patients with and without HE. There was no statistical significant difference in cirrhotic patients with Child-Pugh A, B, and C. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, memory status was influenced in which patients with cirrhosis yet has a normal mental and neurological status to routine clinical examination (subclinical HE). Occasionally, decreased memory performance may adversely affect the satisfaction and lifestyle of these patients. Therefore, subclinical HE is an important social problem. PMID:15712784

Bahceci, Funda; Yildirim, Bulent; Karincaoglu, Melih; Dogan, Ibrahim; Sipahi, Birsen

2005-01-01

112

The Impact of Event ScaleRevised: psychometric properties of the Italian version in a sample of flood victims  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to verify the main psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Impact of Event ScaleRevised (IES-R) in a sample of flood victims. Methods The sample was composed of 262 subjects involved in the natural disaster of 2009 in the city of Messina (Italy). All participants completed the IES-R and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. Results The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, used to verify the construct validity of the measure, showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal. The goodness-of-fit indices (non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.99; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.99; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.04; and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02) indicated a good adaptation of the model to the data. The IES-R scales showed satisfactory values of internal consistency (intrusion, ? = 0.78; avoidance, ? = 0.72; hyper-arousal, ? = 0.83) and acceptable values of correlation with the DES-II. Conclusion These results suggest that this self-reported and easily administered instrument for assessing the dimensions of trauma has good psychometric properties and can be adopted usefully, both for research and for practice in Italy. PMID:24092980

Craparo, Giuseppe; Faraci, Palmira; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio

2013-01-01

113

Diagnostic Utility of the Impact of Event Scale–Revised in Two Samples of Survivors of War  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at examining the diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a screening tool for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of war. The IES-R was completed by two independent samples that had survived the war in the Balkans: a sample of randomly selected people who had stayed in the area of former conflict (n?=?3,313) and a sample of refugees to Western European countries (n?=?854). PTSD was diagnosed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Prevalence of PTSD was 20.1% in the Balkan sample and 33.1% in the refugee sample. Results revealed that when considering a minimum value of specificity of 0.80, the optimally sensitive cut-off score for screening for PTSD in the Balkan sample was 34. In both the Balkan sample and the refugee sample, this cut-off score provided good values on sensitivity (0.86 and 0.89, respectively) and overall efficiency (0.81 and 0.79, respectively). Further, the kappa coefficients for sensitivity for the cut-off of 34 were 0.80 in both samples. Findings of this study support the clinical utility of the IES-R as a screening tool for PTSD in large-scale research studies and intervention studies if structured diagnostic interviews are regarded as too labor-intensive and too costly. PMID:24391844

Morina, Nexhmedin; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Stefan

2013-01-01

114

Correlations between scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III and the General Purpose Abbreviated Battery of the Stanford-Binet IV.  

PubMed

Estimations of some relationships among scores on the "General Purpose Abbreviated Battery" of the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III were based on the responses of 14 boys and 18 girls enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5 and who took both tests. Of 13 Pearson correlations between the Binet IV composite score and the Wechsler subtest scores and IQs 12 were statistically significant (rs = .45 to .74). The new Wechsler scale appears to be a valid instrument for the 32 children (8-8 to 11-11) who were tested. PMID:8337322

Carvajal, H H; Hayes, J E; Lackey, K L; Rathke, M L; Wiebe, D A; Weaver, K A

1993-06-01

115

Working-delayed memory difference detects mild cognitive impairment without being affected by age and education.  

PubMed

Performance on neuropsychological tests is affected by age and education, which makes the early detection of cognitive impairment difficult when assessing individuals of varying levels of education. We examined the effects of age, education, and gender on three memory indexes of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, Delayed Memory, Working Memory and the difference between Working-Delayed Memory in a sample of patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease, and a nondemented elderly comparison group. Whereas Delayed and Working Memory scores were affected by participant type, age, and education, the Working-Delayed Memory difference score was affected by participant type, only. Our preliminary conclusions, pending replication of the findings with a larger sample, are that working-delayed memory difference was sensitive to early memory decline without being affected by age and education. PMID:16624782

Economou, Alexandra; Papageorgiou, Sokratis; Karageorgiou, Clementine

2006-05-01

116

Factor Structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as Measured by the Impact of Event Scale–Revised: Stability Across Cultures and Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as measured by the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R; Weiss & Marmar, 1997), tested factorial invariance for samples of 235 Israeli emergency room patients and 306 U.S. undergraduate students, and then evaluated factorial invariance over multiple occasions within the emergency room sample. A four-factor structure representing intrusion, avoidance-numbing, hyperarousal, and

Daniel W. King; Robert J. Orazem; Dean Lauterbach; Lynda A. King; Claire L. Hebenstreit; Arieh Y. Shalev

2009-01-01

117

Confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised in Chinese earthquake victims: Examining factor structure and its stability across sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the factor structure of posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by the Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in a large sample of individuals from China who recently experienced a destructive earthquake. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a four-factor structure (intrusion, avoidance-numbing, hyperarousal, and sleep disturbance) emerged as the model best fit in total sample, female

Li Wang; Jianxin Zhang; Zhanbiao Shi; Mingjie Zhou; Duan Huang; Ping Liu

2011-01-01

118

Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised in Mental Health and Social Professionals after a Patient Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the psychometric properties, including the internal consistency and dimensionality, of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in French-speaking mental health and social professionals in Switzerland faced with a patient suicide. Data were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 297 individuals who had experienced a patient suicide during the previous 5 years. The internal consistency

Jean-Luc Heeb; Elisabeth Gutjahr; Alida Gulfi; Dolores Angela Castelli Dransart

2011-01-01

119

The Impact of Event Scale—Revised: evaluation of the subscales and correlations to psychophysiological startle response patterns in survivors of a life-threatening cardiac event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) with special emphasis on the evaluation of the hyperarousal subscale against a standardized psychophysiological measurement. Methods: A total of 129 survivors of a life-threatening cardiac event underwent a psychodiagnostic evaluation and a psychophysiological acoustic startle reflex (ASR) paradigm. The

Jens Baumert; Heidi Simon; Harald Gündel; Claus Schmitt; Karl-Heinz Ladwig

2004-01-01

120

The structure of post-traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of war: Confirmatory factor analyses of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed at establishing the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) in survivors of war. A total sample of 4167 participants with potentially traumatic experiences during the war in Ex-Yugoslavia was split into three samples: two independent samples of people who stayed in the area of conflict and one sample of refugees to Western European countries.

Nexhmedin Morina; Hendryk F. Boehme; Dean Ajdukovic; Marija Bogic; Tanja Franciskovic; Gian M. Galeazzi; Abdulah Kucukalic; Dusica Lecic-Tosevski; Mihajlo Popovski; Matthias Schützwohl; Ulrich Stangier; Stefan Priebe

2010-01-01

121

Factorial structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence between the ages of 4 and 61\\/2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separately factor analyzed the matrix of intercorrelations among the subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) using the standardization data from 100 males and 100 females at each of 6 ages (4, 41\\/2, 5, 51\\/2, 6, and 61\\/2 yrs). 2 interpretable common factors were identified as comparable to the Verbal Comprehension factor and the Perceptual Organization

Susan Coates; Philip M. Bromberg

1973-01-01

122

Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose  

PubMed Central

Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients' memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs' poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex) and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV). Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20–64 years) were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43 ± 9.02 and 50.62 ± 9.12, respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation. PMID:25649497

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Akouchekian, Shahla; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Hakamian, Mehrnazsadat; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

2015-01-01

123

Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose.  

PubMed

Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients' memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs' poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex) and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV). Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20-64 years) were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43 ± 9.02 and 50.62 ± 9.12, respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation. PMID:25649497

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Akouchekian, Shahla; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Hakamian, Mehrnazsadat; Soltani, Rasool; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

2015-01-01

124

Validation of the Chinese version of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4) in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the reliability, sensitivity, and validity of a Chinese translation of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision\\u000a 4 (SQLS-R4). One hundred Taiwanese individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. The internal consistency reliability was\\u000a satisfactory for both the psychosocial and vitality domains (Cronbach’s ? = 0.92, 0.84). The test–retest reliability was also\\u000a high (psychosocial: ICC = 0.84, vitality: ICC = 0.84) for those individuals whose psychological

Po-Ju Kuo; Mei-Jin Chen-Sea; Ru-Band Lu; Ming-Shun Chung; Chien-Cheng Kuo; Wei-Che Huang; Hui-Ing Ma

2007-01-01

125

Assessment of long-term verbal memory in children.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the use of a Paired Associate Learning Test (PALT) and a Story Recall test with children aged from 8 to 12 years. 46 normal control children and 19 children of low ability were given the PALT from the Wechsler Memory Scale, and a story recall task, based on Wechsler's Logical Memory subtest, but using stories designed to be suitable for children. Performance on PALT approached ceiling levels for the control children. Both PALT and story recall were more strongly correlated with measures of verbal ability than with digit span. Reliable measures of immediate story recall can be obtained using two or three stories. Many children who are unable to recall a story after a 45 minute delay show dramatic improvement when given a single cue, and it is argued that cued delayed recall gives a better index of long-term memory than uncued recall. Correlations between immediate recall and cued delayed recall are high, and the data presented here may be used to compute a forgetting score which takes into account the level of immediate recall. In the sample seen here, rate of forgetting was remarkably constant across individuals, in both normal and low ability individuals. It is concluded that memory deficits affecting rate of forgetting are rare, but that the test materials described here could be useful for identifying such disorders in children with neurological impairments. PMID:7584288

Beardsworth, E; Bishop, D

1994-06-01

126

Memory loss  

MedlinePLUS

Forgetfulness; Amnesia; Impaired memory; Loss of memory; Amnestic syndrome; Dementia - memory loss ... or severe illness, including brain surgery Transient global amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause ...

127

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16

128

Mechanical memory  

DOEpatents

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15

129

Predictors of Memory and Processing Speed Dysfunctions after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors. PMID:24877054

Winardi, William; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Wang, Tse-Lun; Su, Yu-Feng; Yen, Chun-Po; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Sheehan, Jason; Su, Chwen-Yng

2014-01-01

130

Known-Groups Cross-Validation of the Letter Memory Test in a Compensation-Seeking Mixed Neurologic Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compensation-seeking neuropsychological evaluees were classified into Honest (HON; n = 37) or Probable Cognitive Feigning (PCF; n = 53) groups based on results from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, the Test of Memory Malingering, and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—3rd ed. The groups were generally comparable on demographic, background, and injury severity characteristics, although HON TBI participants were significantly

Victoria L. Vagnini; Myriam J. Sollman; David T. R. Berry; Robert P. Granacher; Jessica A. Clark; Raejean Burton; Marta OBrien; Elizabeth Bacon; Janet Saier

2006-01-01

131

Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected…

Ott, Lauren M.

2010-01-01

132

A Comparison of Preschool Children's Performance on the Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children Nonverbal Scale and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Performance Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Nonverbal Scale and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Performance Scale was examined for a sample of 48 preschool age children. The children were grouped according to their level of language development. One group consisted of normal children with no language delays. The second group was composed

H. L. Wade; Koressa Kutsick; Booney Vance

1988-01-01

133

Achievement Testing with the Wechsler Quicktest: An Examination of Its Psychometric Properties and Applied Utility with a Greek-Cypriot Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to field-test a Greek version of the Wechsler Quicktest and to examine its psychometric properties. The Quicktest was individually administered to 208 students, aged 5-14 years, along with a reading test. Based on the Rasch analysis, data for the Quicktest subtests showed acceptable fit to the model. Also, correlations were found…

Vrachimi-Souroulla, Andry; Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Lamprianou, Iasonas

2011-01-01

134

Study of the Relationship Between the Performance of Indian Youth on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Chicago Non-Verbal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to investigate the performance of American Indian youth on the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC) compared to the "Chicago Non-Verbal" (CNV) for the purpose of establishing validity and reliability of the measurement and appraisal tools, this study analyzed test data from 71 Indian youth (aged 11 to 15) attending the…

Hollingshead, Maybelle Clayton; Clayton, Charles

135

Cache Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the executmn rate of

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

136

Cache memories  

E-print Network

Cache memories are used in modern, medium and high-speed CPUs to hold temporarily those portions of the contents of main memory which are {believed to be) currently in use. Since instructions and data in cache memories can usually be referenced in 10 to 25 percent of the time required to access main memory, cache memories permit the

Alan Jay Smith

1982-01-01

137

Substance abuse, traumatic brain injury and neuropsychological outcome.  

PubMed

The neuropsychological performance of 119 patients with severe closed traumatic brain injury (TBI) who had received toxicology screens at the time of trauma centre admission was examined. Three groups were created: normal screen, positive alcohol screen, or positive abused drugs screen (with or without the presence of alcohol). The admitting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was significantly lower in the positive alcohol screen group than the normal screen group, while the three groups did not differ in length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) or years of education. Neuropsychological assessment was conducted during inpatient rehabilitation, following resolution of PTA. Normal screen patients obtained significantly better scores than the abused-drugs patients on the Full Scale IQ (FIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) indices of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Verbal Memory, General Memory, Attention-Concentration, and Delayed Recall indices of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Normal screen patients also scored significantly higher than positive alcohol screen patients on FIQ and VIQ indices and all five indices from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. These data suggest the existence of an additive effect of substance abuse on neuropsychological outcome in TBI. Findings have potential implications for both acute management and rehabilitation of TBI. PMID:9171925

Kelly, M P; Johnson, C T; Knoller, N; Drubach, D A; Winslow, M M

1997-06-01

138

The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals  

PubMed Central

The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 (C/T) of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been reported to be associated with an altered response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we examined whether this SNP is associated with cognitive function in a non-clinical population. The full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were administered to 742 and 627 Japanese individuals, respectively, followed by genotyping of rs1360780 by the TaqMan 5?-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. For both cognitive tests, we found significantly poorer attention/concentration (working memory) in aged (>50 years old) individuals carrying the T allele compared with their counterparts. This finding accords with an altered HPA axis and vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25331639

Fujii, Takashi; Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

139

The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals.  

PubMed

The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 (C/T) of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been reported to be associated with an altered response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we examined whether this SNP is associated with cognitive function in a non-clinical population. The full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were administered to 742 and 627 Japanese individuals, respectively, followed by genotyping of rs1360780 by the TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. For both cognitive tests, we found significantly poorer attention/concentration (working memory) in aged (>50 years old) individuals carrying the T allele compared with their counterparts. This finding accords with an altered HPA axis and vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25331639

Fujii, Takashi; Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

140

Studies of brain damage and dysfunction in sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedophiles, sexual aggressives and incest offenders were examined for brain damage and dysfunction using computer tomography (CT) scans, the Halstead-Reitan (HR) Neuropsychological Test Battery, including the Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), and the Space Relations Test (SRT) of the Differential Aptitude Test. Results suggest that the groups of sex offenders examined did not suffer from

R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; P. Wright; L. Handy

1989-01-01

141

Concurrent Validation of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) with Two Criteria of Cognitive Abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the performance of preschool children on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and two widely used measures of cognitive functioning, the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R). Subjects were normally functioning children between the ages of 48-60 months (N = 33). There were no significant differences

Douglas S. Faust; Jane Oakes Hollingsworth

1991-01-01

142

Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?  

PubMed Central

Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

2013-01-01

143

The Reliability of Score Differences on the WAIS, WISC-R, and WAIS-R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports reliability data for Wechsler Subtest comparisons to supplement the data in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised manuals. Results indicated that the reliabilities of the differences between Wechsler Subtest scores are low enough to warrant the exercise of caution in interpreting…

Feingold, Alan

1984-01-01

144

Efficacy of Guanfacine Extended Release Assessed During the Morning, Afternoon, and Evening Using a Modified Conners' Parent Rating Scale–Revised: Short Form  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of once-daily guanfacine extended release (GXR) monotherapy administered either in the morning or evening, using a modified Conners' Parent Rating Scale–Revised: Short Form (CPRS–R:S) assessed three times/day in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized children 6–12 years of age with ADHD into three groups: GXR a.m. (GXR in the morning and placebo in the evening), GXR p.m. (placebo in the morning and GXR in the evening), or twice-daily placebo. The CPRS–R:S, administered in the morning, afternoon, and evening prior to each study visit, was a secondary measure of efficacy. Results: A total of 333 subjects were included in the analysis population (GXR a.m., n=107; GXR p.m., n=114; placebo, n=112). At visit 10, last observation carried forward (LOCF), subjects receiving GXR demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in the daily mean CPRS–R:S total score, as well as in each of the morning, afternoon, and evening CPRS–R:S assessments, compared with placebo, regardless of the time of GXR administration (p<0.001 vs. placebo for GXR a.m. and GXR p.m.). In addition, subjects receiving GXR showed significantly greater improvements from baseline in each subscale score (oppositional, cognitive problems/inattention, hyperactivity, and ADHD index) compared with those receiving placebo, regardless of time of administration (p<0.003 vs. placebo across all subscales for GXR a.m. and GXR p.m.). Conclusions: These results provide further support for the demonstrated efficacy of once-daily GXR in reducing ADHD symptoms, and demonstrate that response is consistent throughout the day regardless of the time of administration, with improvement seen in ratings of oppositional as well as of ADHD symptoms. PMID:25286026

Rugino, Thomas; Dammerman, Ryan; Lyne, Andrew; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

2014-01-01

145

Intellectual functioning of inpatients with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Cognitive and neuropsychological aspects.  

PubMed

The intellectual functioning of 105 inpatients with multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised as part of a comprehensive research protocol. There were no significant intellectual differences between the groups on any major intelligence quotient summary score or any of the age-adjusted empirical factor scores. The anecdotal but widely accepted hypotheses that dissociative patients either have above average premorbid intelligence or that their current intellectual functioning is deleteriously affected by their fluctuant psychiatric disorder were not supported in this sample. A significant subsample of the multiple personality disorder group manifested abnormal interest scatter on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised verbal subtests, and this variability was attributed to subtle neuropsychological deficits on the Memory/Distractibility factor. We speculate that dissociative patients might need to be evaluated for attention deficit disorder in addition to the range of dissociative symptoms in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:8627274

Rossini, E D; Schwartz, D R; Braun, B G

1996-05-01

146

Cognitive memory.  

PubMed

Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA. Neural networks are an important component of the human memory system, and their purpose is for information retrieval, not for information storage. The brain's neural networks are analog devices, subject to drift and unplanned change. Only with constant training is reliable action possible. Good training time is during sleep and while awake and making use of one's memory. A cognitive memory is a learning system. Learning involves storage of patterns or data in a cognitive memory. The learning process for cognitive memory is unsupervised, i.e. autonomous. PMID:23453302

Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

2013-05-01

147

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

148

Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be

Alan Baddeley

1992-01-01

149

Memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

150

Quantum memory Quantum memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

2012-06-01

151

A profile of neuropsychological deficits in alcoholic women.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological deficits, most notable in executive, visuospatial, and functions of gait and balance, are detectable in alcoholic men even after a month of sobriety. Less well established are the severity and profile of persisting deficits in alcoholic women. The authors used an extensive test battery to examine cognitive and motor functions in 43 alcoholic women who were sober, on average, for 3.6 months. Functions most severely affected in alcoholic women involved visuospatial and verbal and nonverbal working memory processes as well as gait and balance. Areas of relative sparing were executive functions, declarative memory, and upper-limb strength and speed. The authors found that lifetime alcohol consumption was related to impairment severity on Block Design (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, D. Wechsler, 1981) and verbal and nonverbal working memory, suggesting a dose effect of alcohol abuse. The alcohol-related deficits in working memory, visuospatial, and balance implicate disruption of prefrontal, superior parietal, and cerebellar brain systems. PMID:11853359

Sullivan, Edith V; Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

2002-01-01

152

Paradoxical Facilitation of Working Memory after Basolateral Amygdala Damage  

PubMed Central

Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot “see”. To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a ‘cooperation through competition’ networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical functional facilitation effect. PMID:22715374

Morgan, Barak; Terburg, David; Thornton, Helena B.; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack

2012-01-01

153

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

154

Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting.  

PubMed

We examined the role of working memory in observed reactive parenting in a sample of 216 mothers and their same-sex twin children. The mothers and their children were observed completing two frustrating cooperation tasks during a visit to the home. The mothers worked one-on-one with each child separately. Mothers completed the Vocabulary (verbal), Block Design (spatial), and Digit Span (working memory) subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. We used a within-family quasi-experimental design to estimate the magnitude of the association between sibling differences in observed challenging behaviors (i.e., opposition and distractibility) and the difference in the mother's negativity toward each child. As hypothesized, reactive negativity was evident only among mothers with poorer working memory. Verbal and spatial ability did not show this moderating effect. The effect was replicated in a post hoc secondary data analysis of a sample of adoptive mothers and sibling children. Results implicate working memory in the etiology of harsh reactive parenting. PMID:20424026

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Sewell, Michael D; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

2010-01-01

155

Memory impairment and auditory evoked potential gating deficit in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Impaired sensory gating and memory function were reported in a study of 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. The P50 component of the auditory evoked potential was used as an index of gating. Explicit memory was tested with the Wechsler Memory Scale and implicit memory by artificial grammar learning. The schizophrenic patients showed deficits in both verbal paired associate and visual reproduction tasks. They demonstrated impaired implicit learning in color patterns but not letter strings. They also showed impaired P50 sensory gating. Three-dimensional brain mapping revealed a differential distribution of brain potentials in the processing of S1 and S2 at either P50 or N100 in both groups. However, the group difference was not statistically confirmed. In the controls, both implicit letter-string learning and explicit verbal paired associates were positively correlated with N100 gating, suggesting an association of the early attentive component with lexicons. In the schizophrenic patients, color-pattern implicit learning was positively correlated with P50 gating. The modality-specific impairment of implicit learning in schizophrenia may reflect a failure of adaptive filtering on the flooding input from color patterns. PMID:15033186

Hsieh, Ming H; Liu, Kristina; Liu, Shi-Kai; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Chen, Andrew C N

2004-02-15

156

A Comparison of Laboratory and Clinical Working Memory Tests and Their Prediction of Fluid Intelligence  

PubMed Central

The working memory (WM) construct is conceptualized similarly across domains of psychology, yet the methods used to measure WM function vary widely. The present study examined the relationship between WM measures used in the laboratory and those used in applied settings. A large sample of undergraduates completed three laboratory-based WM measures (operation span, listening span, and n-back), as well as the WM subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Performance on all of the WM subtests of the clinical batteries shared positive correlations with the lab measures; however, the Arithmetic and Spatial Span subtests shared lower correlations than the other WM tests. Factor analyses revealed that a factor comprising scores from the three lab WM measures and the clinical subtest, Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS), provided the best measurement of WM. Additionally, a latent variable approach was taken using fluid intelligence as a criterion construct to further discriminate between the WM tests. The results revealed that the lab measures, along with the LNS task, were the best predictors of fluid abilities. PMID:20161647

Shelton, Jill T.; Elliott, Emily M.; Hill, B. D.; Calamia, Matthew R.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

2010-01-01

157

Consolidating memories.  

PubMed

Our own experiences, as well as the findings of many studies, suggest that emotionally arousing experiences can create lasting memories. This autobiographical article provides a brief summary of the author's research investigating neurobiological systems responsible for the influence of emotional arousal on the consolidation of lasting memories. The research began with the finding that stimulant drugs enhanced memory in rats when administered shortly after training. Those findings suggested the possibility that endogenous systems activated by arousal might influence neural processes underlying memory consolidation. Subsequent findings that adrenal stress hormones activated by learning experiences enhance memory consolidation provided strong evidence supporting this hypothesis. Other findings suggest that the enhancement is induced by stress hormone activation of the amygdala. The findings also suggest that the basolateral amygdala modulates memory consolidation via its projections to brain regions involved in processing different aspects and forms of memory. This emotional-arousal-activated neurobiological system thus seems to play an important adaptive role in insuring that the strength of our memories will reflect their emotional significance. PMID:25559113

McGaugh, James L

2015-01-01

158

Collaging Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

Wallach, Michele

2011-01-01

159

COMMENTARY Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

160

Memory reconsolidation.  

PubMed

The formation, storage and use of memories is critical for normal adaptive functioning, including the execution of goal-directed behavior, thinking, problem solving and decision-making, and is at the center of a variety of cognitive, addictive, mood, anxiety, and developmental disorders. Memory also significantly contributes to the shaping of human personality and character, and to social interactions. Hence, understanding how memories are formed, stored, retrieved, modified, updated and used potentially impacts many areas in human life, including mental health. PMID:24028957

Alberini, Cristina M; Ledoux, Joseph E

2013-09-01

161

Learning, Memory, & Attention Instructor  

E-print Network

1 COGS 101B: Learning, Memory, & Attention · Welcome! · Instructor ­ Dr. Coulson ­ Email: coulson Attention ­ Divided Attention ­ Automaticity ­ Attentional Capture · Immediate Memory ­ Sensory Memory ­ Short-Term Memory ­ Working Memory · Long-Term Memory ­ Levels of Processing ­ Memory Systems

Coulson, Seana

162

POW Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people think eyewitness testimony is the best possible evidence against an alleged criminal -- especially when that testimony comes from the victim. But people who survive terrifying situations may actually have surprisingly unreliable memories of who or what caused them.

Science Update;

2004-07-12

163

Ferroelectric memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year it has become possible to fabricate ferroelectric thin-film memories onto standard silicon integrated circuits that combine very high speed (30-nanosecond read\\/erase\\/rewrite operation), 5-volt standard silicon logic levels, very high density (2 by 2 micrometer cell size), complete nonvolatility (no standby power required), and extreme radiation hardness. These ferroelectric random-access memories are expected to replace magnetic core

J. F. Scott; C. A. Paz de Araujo

1989-01-01

164

Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Episodic memory,and semantic memory,are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory,functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline dience- phalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial

Larry R. Squire; Stuart M. Zola

1998-01-01

165

Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory.  

PubMed

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

2014-01-01

166

Painting memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the Victorian fascination with the ways in which one visualizes, in the mind's eye, what is in fact invisible.†† In particular, it explores what happens when one exercises the faculty of memory.†† It argues that developments in painting during the period – especially the shift from an emphasis on realism to styles which invoke a spectator's subjective

Kate Flint

2003-01-01

167

Memory Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the current storm over what constitutes truth – non-fiction – and what is “made up” – fictional – my fascination with the flexibility of memory is suddenly more than a little apropos. Current literary events notwithstanding, I grew up under a dark veil of depression, which seemingly “erased” my childhood. It wasn’t until I delved into

Anne M. McDermott

2006-01-01

168

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus  

E-print Network

Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus Nicola J. Broadbent*, Larry R. Squire. Squire, August 27, 2004 There is wide agreement that spatial memory is dependent on the integrity recognition memory is not as clear. We examined the relationship between hippocampal lesion size and both

Squire, Larry R.

169

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana  

E-print Network

Memory Technologies Vivek Asthana 13th Mar 2013 #12;13-Mar-13 2 Memory Usage (2025) #12;13-Mar-13 3 Outline What is a Memory Current Memory technologies · SRAM · DRAM · Flash Upcoming Memory technologies · MRAM · PCRAM · FeRAM · ... #12;13-Mar-13 4 What is a Memory Memory cell: Binary data storage element

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

170

The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.  

PubMed

The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction. PMID:25586092

Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

2015-02-01

171

Memory on the move  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes how, competing for the US $ 11 billion portable electronic device memory market are several venerable but revitalized memory systems as well as new storage technologies: flash memory cards; PC memory cards; and small disk drives. Flashers, a relatively young technology contain one or more nonvolatile solid-state memory chips. They have no moving parts and retain data

R. M. Sherwin

2001-01-01

172

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

173

Memory Systems Doug Burger  

E-print Network

Memory Systems Doug Burger University of Wisconsin-Madison A computer's memory system and produces. A perfect memory system is one that can supply immediately any datum that the CPU requests. This ideal memory is not practically implementable, however, as the three factors of memory capacity, speed

Burger, Doug

174

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory  

E-print Network

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

Verschelde, Jan

175

Working memory deficits in multiple sclerosis: a controlled study with auditory P600 correlates  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, the P600 component of event related potentials, a waveform that is conceived to be generated and/or modulated by basal ganglia and cingulate area has been considered an index of the completion of any synchronised operation after target detection, having much in common with working memory operation. Moreover, dysfunction of these brain structures as well as working memory deficits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of P600 elicited during a working memory test in multiple sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls. Methods: Twenty two definite, chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients, with recent exacerbation of their illness, and 20 normal subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level, were studied with a computerised version of the digit span test of Wechsler batteries. Auditory P600 were measured during the anticipatory period of this test. Results: The patient group, as compared with healthy controls, showed significantly reduced latencies of P600 at left frontal areas and reduced P600 amplitudes at left temporoparietal region. Moreover, memory performance of patients was significantly more impaired when compared with healthy controls. Conclusions: These findings may indicate that multiple sclerosis is associated with abnormal features of the completion of synchronised operation after target detection, as they are reflected by P600 amplitudes and latencies. Dysfunction of this mechanism may contribute to the identification of basic cognitive processes that could account for the cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis. PMID:12933924

Sfagos, C; Papageorgiou, C; Kosma, K; Kodopadelis, E; Uzunoglu, N; Vassilopoulos, D; Rabavilas, A

2003-01-01

176

How Memory Works  

MedlinePLUS

Memory functions through three steps: acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. 347126 InteliHealth 2010-02-10 f InteliHealth/Harvard Medical Content 2012-08-24 How Memory Works Memory functions through three steps: Acquisition Consolidation ...

177

Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.  

PubMed

Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (?65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke. PMID:22955236

Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

2012-10-01

178

Memory Training in the Community Aged: Effects on Depression, Memory Complaint, and Memory Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of memory and growth training groups on memory complaints, memory performance, and affective status in the community elderly. Results indicated that both training groups significantly reduced concerns about memory and resulted in improved memory performance. (Author)

Zarit, Steven H.; And Others

1981-01-01

179

Immunological Memory is Associative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that immunological memory is in the same class of associative memories as Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory , Albus's Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer , and Marr's Theory of the Cerebellar Cortex . This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature from a sparse sampling of a huge input space by recognition units (B and T cells

Derek J. Smith; Stephanie Forrest; Alan S. Perelson

1998-01-01

180

Memory Hard Drive Peripherals  

E-print Network

1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

Stojmenovic, Ivan

181

The Impact of Event Scale: Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced into the world psychiatric nomenclature in 1978 (World Health Organization,\\u000a 1978) with the publication of the ICD-9, documenting the cross-cultural recognition of the typical symptomatic response to\\u000a exposure to traumatic life events (e.g., Horowitz, 1976). The characteristic core of the disorder includes the distressing\\u000a oscillation between intrusion and avoidance. Intrusion is characterized by nightmares,

Daniel S. Weiss

182

A UK pilot study: the specificity of the Word Memory Test effort sub-tests in acute minimal to mild head injury.  

PubMed

The specificity of the Word Memory Test (WMT) effort indices was examined in 48 individuals with minimal to mild head injury (MHI) in the acute stages post-injury. None of the individuals was involved in litigation or disability claims. At the established cut-offs, the WMT had an unacceptable false-positive rate (18%). T test analysis was also carried out for WMT passers and failures on a battery of neuropsychometric measures and across a range of demographic variables. The WMT was performed at a significantly lower level on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III word list sub-tests and verbal fluency tests (p < .05). This suggests that WMT failure may be indicative of a specific deficit in verbal processing in the acute phase of MHI. PMID:23679892

Hall, Vicki L; Worthington, Andrew; Venables, Katie

2014-09-01

183

Cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalous (iNPH) has not been clearly documented. We performed standardized neuropsychological assessments of 21 patients with iNPH and of 42 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) matched to the patients with iNPH 2:1 by age, sex, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Compared with the AD group, the iNPH group scored significantly higher on the orientation subtest of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and on the general memory and delayed recall subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and significantly lower on the attention/concentration subtest of the WMS-R and on the digit span, arithmetic, block design and digit symbol substitution subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. The impairment of frontal lobe functions is disproportionately severe and memory impairment is disproportionately mild in patients with iNPH compared with AD. Recognition of these features contributes to an early diagnosis, which can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:16374006

Ogino, Atsushi; Kazui, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriko; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ohkawa, Shingo; Tokunaga, Hiromasa; Ikejiri, Yoshitaka; Takeda, Masatoshi

2006-01-01

184

A Comparison of Three Types of Autobiographical Memories in Old-Old Age: First Memories, Pivotal Memories and Traumatic Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. Objective: This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Dov Shmotkin; Nitza Eyal; Yael Reichental; Haim Hazan

2010-01-01

185

Effectiveness of EEG-Biofeedback on Attentiveness, Working Memory and Quantitative Electroencephalography on Reading Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cognitive factors are the important correlates of reading disorder and their impairments are established in children with reading disorder. Neurofeedback as an intervention has been reported to be useful in improvement of cognitive deficits. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of this treatment on attentiveness and working memory and related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in children with reading disorder. Methods: In this single subject study, six children with reading disorder aged 8-10 years old completed twenty 30-minunt sessions of treatment. Continuous performance task, the digit span subscale of the 3rd edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and quantitative electroencephalography were used to evaluate the changes at pre and post-treatment. The data were evaluated by visual inspection of the graph, the mean percentage improvement and signal detection measures. Results: The results showed improvements in attention and working memory. Furthermore, EEG analysis did not show notable changes in the power of the targeted bands (delta, theta, and beta), rather the normalization of coherence was explicit in theta band at T3-T4, delta band at Cz-Fz, beta band at Cz-Fz, Cz-Pz and Cz-C4. Conclusions: These significant changes in coherence are possible indications of the connectivity between frontal and posterior association and integration between sensory and motor areas that explain the improvements in attention and working memory. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644508

Mosanezhad Jeddi, Elnaz; Nazari, Mohammad Ali

2013-01-01

186

Memory Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

1995-01-01

187

Virginia Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Memory initiative is part of the online presence of the Library of Virginia and it represents a magnificent effort to bring together thousands of documents that tell the story of this very unique place. The sections of the site include Digital Collections, Reading Rooms, Exhibitions, and the Online Classroom. First-time visitors may wish to start with the This Day in Virginia History section. Here they can learn about key moments in the state's history via primary documents tied to each calendar date, such as May 6, 1776, when the House of Burgesses met for the last time. The Exhibitions area contains interactive exhibits like You Have No Right: Law & Justice in Virginia. There are over two dozen past exhibits to look over on the site as well. The Digital Collections area is quite a remarkable one, featuring over 50 exhibits, including the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, Revolutionary War Virginia State Pensions, and the tremendous Richmond Esthetic Survey/Historic Building Survey. To complement these materials, the Online Classrooms area contains an educator's guide, a document-based activity titled "Shaping the Constitution," and other resources. [KMG

188

Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal and rhinal cortex volumes in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis.  

PubMed

Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the function of the primate rhinal cortex, comprising the entorhinal (ErC) and perirhinal (PrC) cortices. However, translating animal models to human memory has been limited by the technological problems associated with characterizing neural structures in vivo. Functional correlates of hippocampal and rhinal cortex volume changes were examined in a sample of 61 temporal lobe epilepsy patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS; 33 left, 28 right). Patients were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (revised or third edition), the Wechsler Memory Scale (revised or third edition), and a spatial maze task. Neuropsychological data, together with rhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes, collected in our earlier study (O'Brien CE, Bowden SC, Whelan G, Cook MJ, unpublished observations), were analyzed using multiple regression. The only significant predictor of verbal memory function was the difference score between the volume of left hippocampus and the left PrC. Spatial maze scores were predicted by the bilateral sum of ErC volume. The difference score between the left hippocampus and left PrC volumes was the most powerful predictor of verbal episodic memory. Right hippocampal volume was not a significant predictor of nonverbal episodic memory. Verbal and nonverbal semantic memory were not significantly predicted by any combination of rhinal cortex structures. This quantitative study suggests a lateralized or material-specific memory function for the left hippocampus and left PrC, in contrast to the bilateral role of the ErC. The left hippocampus and left PrC appear to act on verbal memory function through an opposing relationship. Finally, differentiation between hippocampal and subhippocampal components in terms of episodic and semantic memory, respectively, could not be supported by the current data. PMID:14750652

O'Brien, Catherine E; Bowden, Stephen C; Bardenhagen, Fiona J; Cook, Mark J

2003-01-01

189

[Memory disturbances in schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The recent literature on memory disorders in schizophrenic persons is reanalysed. The present interest in memory disorders as a core symptom of cognitive changes in schizophrenia derives from the fact that brain imaging methods have revealed a reduction of substance in the regions surrounding the lateral ventricles. Given this localisation, schizophrenics should suffer from pronounced memory deficits. The paper addresses (1) the role of memory disorders in an overall view of cognitive losses, (2) the pattern of memory losses (verbal vs non-verbal, short-term memory vs long-term memory, implicit vs explicit memory etc.) and (3) recent investigations based on simultaneous use of imaging procedures (fNMR, PET) and cortical activation during memory tasks. A survey of the literature renders it likely that frontal functions play an essential role in the type of memory deficits found among schizophrenics. Thus, a purely temporal localisation is unlikely. The reduced learning efficiency which accounts for most of the schizophrenics' cognitive problems points to a working memory disturbance. On the basis of these results, a model for the memory disorders of schizophrenics is developed. The model covers recent literature on working memory as well as neural network models of schizophrenic disorders. However, a differential psychopathological symptom and syndrome analysis remains a prerequisite for reducing the great variance of the schizophrenics' performance in memory tasks. The importance of cognitive rehabilitation for sociopsychiatric efforts aimed at re-integrating mentally ill persons should not be underestimated. PMID:8851379

Brand, A; Hildebrandt, H; Scheerer, E

1996-02-01

190

Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory  

E-print Network

Midway: Shared Memory Parallel Programming with Entry Consistency for Distributed Memory memory multiprocessing offers a cost­effective and scalable solution for a large class of scientific and numeric applications. Unfortunately, the performance of current distributed memory programming

191

A neurodevelopmental approach to understanding memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Intellectual giftedness is associated with strong strategic verbal memory while attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with strategic verbal memory deficits; however, no previous research has explored how this contradiction manifests in gifted populations with diagnoses of ADHD. The purpose of this study was to explore strategic verbal memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with and without ADHD to provide clarification regarding this specific aspect of neuropsychological functioning within this population. One hundred twenty-five youth completed neuropsychological evaluations including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C). Results revealed significant differences between groups, with intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving lower T scores on CVLT-C Trials 1 through 5 compared with intellectually gifted youth without ADHD, and intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving higher T scores than youth of average intellectual abilities with ADHD. Additionally, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect improvement among gifted youth with ADHD in short-delay recall when provided with organizational cues. Findings revealed new evidence about the role of twice exceptionality (specifically intellectual giftedness and ADHD) in strategic verbal memory and have important implications for parents, educators, psychologists and neuropsychologists, and other mental health professionals working with this population. PMID:24191777

Whitaker, Ashley M; Bell, Terece S; Houskamp, Beth M; O'Callaghan, Erin T

2015-01-01

192

Shape Memory Mechanics of an Elastic Memory Composite Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantially more attention has been given in the past to shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics than to shape memory polymers because unreinforced shape memory polymers have much lower stiffness and recovery force potential than shape memory alloys and shape memory ceramics. However, when incorporated into a fiber-reinforced composite, both the stiffness and the recovery force of a shape

Erik R. Abrahamson; Mark S. Lake; Naseem A. Munshi; Ken Gall

2003-01-01

193

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening  

E-print Network

Practical Memory Checking with Dr. Memory Derek Bruening Google bruening@google.com Qin Zhao Massachusetts Institute of Technology qin zhao@csail.mit.edu Abstract--Memory corruption, reading uninitialized memory, using freed memory, and other memory-related errors are among the most difficult programming bugs

Tomkins, Andrew

194

Coping with Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of thinking, learning, and remembering—can affect memory. Doctors use ... increasing impairment of memory and other aspects of thinking that are sufficiently severe to impair day-to- ...

195

Cocoa Flavanols and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... recruited 37 healthy men and women who underwent brain imaging and took a 20-minute memory test ... a low flavanol group. After three-months, new brain imaging and memory tests were done. The researchers ...

196

Drifting absence :: drafting memory  

E-print Network

The emotive power of a memorial derives from its ability to engage the viewer in active remembrance. The project considers the limitations of a monumentality which embraces a distinct division between viewer and memorial. ...

Kuhn, Marlene Eva

2006-01-01

197

Diabetes and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes and Memory HealthDay December 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Exercise and Physical Fitness Memory Nutrition Transcript Another big reason to eat healthy ...

198

Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

1 Slide 1 Cognitive Neuroscience PSYC 685 Learning and Memory Raja Parasuraman WorkingWorking MemoryMemory SelectiveSelective AttentionAttention Slide 2 Overview Short term, working, and long-term memory The medial temporal lobe/prefrontal cortex memory system Amnesia Implicit memory Slide 3

Parasuraman, Raja

199

Updating to the WAIS-III and WMS-III: considerations for research and clinical practice.  

PubMed

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) are the most commonly used intelligence and memory scales in both clinical and neuropsychology. In 1997, updated versions of these instruments (the WAIS-III and WMS-III) were published. Because of the extensive use of the WAIS-R and WMS-R in the field and the body of accumulated research, there is naturally some reluctance by clinicians and researchers to update to the new versions. It is sometimes difficult for clinicians who test individuals on repeated occasions to switch over to the new versions of the scales because of the difficulty of interpreting score discrepancy between the 2 versions. Researchers, especially those conducting longitudinal research, have a similar difficulty in changing measurement devices because of the possible threat of internal validity. This article reviews the substantive revisions of the scales and outlines those issues that users should take into consideration when updating to the new versions. PMID:11021148

Tulsky, D S; Ledbetter, M F

2000-09-01

200

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was designed to explore relations among reading skills; metareading, or knowledge about reading; memory; and metamemory, or knowledge about memory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability (good vs. poor readers), operativity, and grade level (second and fourth). Significant but low correlations were obtained between metareading and reading, metamemory and memory, metareading and

Diana M. Byrd; Barry Gholson

1985-01-01

201

Memory Loss Chapter 6  

E-print Network

Part II Memory Loss 129 #12;#12;Chapter 6 Generalized Conditionalization Up to this point we have to help CLF model two types of certainty-loss stories: stories in- volving memory loss and stories-sensitivity, (PEP) does almost no work in modeling stories involving memory loss. So we will proceed in stages: We

Fitelson, Branden

202

Numerical Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing an individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format. This page provides information about the memory task and how it can be used in the classroom.

203

Numerical Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Numerical Memory Experiment. This Numerical Memory experiment employs a similar format to Digit Span tasks found in assessment instruments, comparing the individual's short-term memory for digits presented in an auditory vs. visual format.

204

Memory and the Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

Conway, Martin A.

2005-01-01

205

The Impulse Memory Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulse is a memory system architecture that adds an optional level of address indirection at the memory controller. Applications can use this level of indirection to remap their data structures in memory. As a result, they can control how their data is accessed and cached, which can improve cache and bus utilization. The Impulse design does not require any mod-

Lixin Zhang; Zhen Fang; Michael Parker; Binu K. Mathew; Lambert Schaelicke; John B. Carter; Wilson C. Hsieh; Sally A. Mckee

2001-01-01

206

Quantum random access memory  

E-print Network

A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially less gates, and leads to an exponential decrease in the power needed for addressing. A quantum optical implementation is presented.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2008-03-26

207

Flexible Kernel Memory  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

2010-01-01

208

Generating memory with vaccination.  

PubMed

The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines. PMID:19637203

Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

2009-08-01

209

Immunological memory is associative  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

210

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease Donna Rose Addis autobiographical memory and identity. To test this we assessed the status of autobiographical memory and identity degree of autobiographical memory impairment was associated with changes in identity. Two tests

Addis, Donna Rose

211

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah

212

Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

2010-07-01

213

Overdistribution in source memory.  

PubMed

Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

2012-03-01

214

Similarity of WISC-R and WAIS-R Scores at Age 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined similarity of scores of 30 learning disabled students (aged 16 and 17) on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Results documented similarity between WISC-R and WAIS-R for 16 year-olds who were learning disabled and had average intellectual ability.…

Sandoval, Jonathan; And Others

1988-01-01

215

Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

2005-01-01

216

Comparison of the WAIS and the WAIS-R with Ss of High Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the performance of highly intelligent adults (N=38) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. No significant differences were found between initial scores, but combined order of administration data appeared to distort comparisons. (JAC)

Edwards, Bettina T.; Klein, Mitchell

1984-01-01

217

Comparability of WISC-R and WAIS-R IQ Scores with Educable Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised were administered in a conterbalanced design to 14 educable mentally handicapped 16-year-olds. Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores were compared. Correlations and matched t-tests were computed and the results indicated that Verbal and…

Egolf, Franklin D.

218

A Comparison of WISC-R and WAIS-R IQs in a Mentally Retarded Residential Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often regarded as equivalent instruments, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) yielded significantly different Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale scores for intellectually subaverage group, with WAIS-R consistently providing higher scores. This has implications for issues of…

Rubin, Harold H.; And Others

1985-01-01

219

A Longitudinal Study of WISC-R and WAIS-R Scores with Students Who Are Educable Mentally Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Verbal, Performance, and Full Scales were compared for 26 adolescents with educable mental handicaps. The WAIS-R, while strongly correlated with the WISC-R, provided higher scores on all three scales. Several WISC-R…

Avery, Richard O.; And Others

1989-01-01

220

A Follow-Up Comparison of WISC-R and WAIS-R IQs in a Residential Mentally Retarded Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted follow-up study of 43 subjects in mentally retarded residential population. Findings corroborated earlier findings that Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) cannot be regarded as equivalent testing instruments. WAIS-R yielded consistently higher scores for intellectually…

Rubin, Harold; And Others

1990-01-01

221

Relationships among Four Methods of Assessment of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship among Conners Teacher Rating Scale, Revised Conners Parent Rating Scale, Revised Behavior Problem Checklist, and Freedom-from-Distractibility (FD) factor score of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for 135 children and adolescents referred to learning disabilities clinic. Results appear to corroborate evidence…

Cohen, Morris; And Others

1990-01-01

222

Editorial: Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical and neurophysiological bases of memory have been significantly advanced by integrative approaches bridging previously existing gaps between individual neuroscientific disciplines. The time- and content-based division of memory has been widely accepted: episodic and semantic memory, procedural memory and priming are frequently used terms. On the anatomical side, a division into forms of memory dependent on the limbic system

Hans J. Markowitsch

1998-01-01

223

Lincoln Memorial Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is hard not be moved by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and this engaging and interactive exhibit captures the essence of this moving tribute to the nation's 16th president. The site is divided into two areas, "Reflections" and "Memorial". In the "Reflections" area, visitors can listen and watch park rangers talk about their own memories and remembrances of this august and somber place. There are seven separate profiles here, and it's a good idea to start with Kawther Elmi's thoughts on her childhood in East Africa. The "Memorial" area includes dramatic and multi-perspective views of the Lincoln statue and the Memorial grounds. Visitors may also use the "Downloads" area to download audio files of the ranger's talks, along with images of the Memorial.

224

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique for eliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memory allocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on a sequence of training inputs to ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

225

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

226

Bosonic Memory Channels  

E-print Network

We discuss a Bosonic channel model with memory effects. It relies on a multi-mode squeezed (entangled) environment's state. The case of lossy Bosonic channels is analyzed in detail. We show that in the absence of input energy constraints the memory channels are equivalent to their memoryless counterparts. In the case of input energy constraint we provide lower and upper bounds for the memory channel capacity.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Stefano Mancini

2005-06-17

227

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

Kanerva, Pentti

1988-01-01

228

Thinking and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Remembering the past is crucially important for cognitive functions, such as anticipating and planning future activities or\\u000a thinking about one’s own self. In Tulving’s hierarchy of long-term memory systems, episodic memory is the highest one that\\u000a is most likely uniquely human. One of the characteristics of episodic memory is the ability to mentally travel into the past\\u000a and the future.

Matthias Brand; Hans J. Markowitsch

229

Sparse distributed memory  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

Kanerva, P.

1988-01-01

230

Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.  

PubMed Central

Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

Kihlstrom, J F

1997-01-01

231

Sparse distributed memory overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

Raugh, Mike

1990-01-01

232

Autobiographical odor memory.  

PubMed

This overview focuses on autobiographical odor memory and how information evoked by the olfactory sense may differ from memories evoked by visual or verbal information. Three key topics are addressed: (a) age distributions of evoked memories; (b) phenomenological experience; and (c) semantic processing. Current evidence suggests that memories triggered by olfactory information are localized to the first decade of life (< 10 years) rather than to young adulthood (10-30 years) which is the typical finding for memories evoked by verbal and visual information. Further, empirical evidence indicates that odor evoked memories are more emotional, associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time, and have been thought of less often as compared to memories evoked by other sensory cues. Finally, previous observations of a significant impact of semantic influences on olfactory processing may also be generalized to retrieval of odor evoked autobiographical information. Specifically, both the age distribution and phenomenological qualities are affected by explicit knowledge of the odor cue. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings indicates that personal memories evoked by olfactory information are different from memories evoked by verbal or visual information. PMID:19686154

Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan

2009-07-01

233

The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.  

PubMed

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ? 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional. PMID:24236941

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

2014-01-01

234

[MRO] Oligocrystalline Shape Memory Alloys  

E-print Network

Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture ...

Chen, Ying

235

Impairment of motor dexterity in schizophrenia assessed by a novel finger movement test.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is characterized by a series of serious mental disturbances, including social, cognitive, and emotional dysfunctions. Although motor dysfunctions as well as the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia have been noted since the era of Kraepelin, little attention has been paid to motor dysfunctions until recently. Here, we examined the characteristics of motor dysfunctions and their relationship to other cognitive functions in schizophrenia. Subjects were 27 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 49 healthy volunteers. A series of motor tests, i.e., pegboard, mirror drawing, normal drawing, and finger movement tests, were administered, and cognitive functions were assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised, the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The finger movement test is a novel motor test that we developed to assess motor dexterity independent of motor speed. A stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the finger movement and delayed recall tests were able to distinguish patients and controls most effectively. The scores of these two tests showed no correlation. Educational level was correlated with the delayed recall score, but not with the finger movement score. A significant difference was observed in the finger movement test score between inpatients and outpatients. There was no significant correlation between dosage of antipsychotic drugs and finger movement score in the patient group. The present results suggest that impairment in motor dexterity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia, which might be independent of cognitive functions. PMID:18448171

Midorikawa, Akira; Hashimoto, Ryota; Noguchi, Hiroko; Saitoh, Osamu; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsuki

2008-06-30

236

Relationships between season of birth, schizotypy, temperament, character and neurocognition in a non-clinical population.  

PubMed

While schizophrenia has been associated with a slight excess of winter/early spring birth, it is unclear whether there is such an association in relation to schizotypal personality traits. Season of birth has also been reported to relate to temperament and character personality dimensions and cognitive functioning. Moreover, non-clinical schizotypy has been shown to be associated with mild cognitive impairment, although its precise nature is yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the relationships between season of birth, schizotypal traits, temperament and character, and cognitive function. Four hundred and fifty-one healthy adults completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and a neuropsychological test battery consisting of full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, were also administered to most of the participants. The total SPQ score of those born in winter was significantly higher than that of the remaining participants. Season of birth was not significantly associated with any of the TCI dimensions or cognitive test results. Significant but mild relationships between higher SPQ scores and lower scores on some aspects of IQ were observed. These results support the notion that schizotypy and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental conditions on the same continuum. PMID:21824667

Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Kawamoto, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2012-01-30

237

MEMORY AND CONSCIOUSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations supported by empirical observations are offered concerning different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) and corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic), with special emphasis on episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness as its necessary correlate. Evidence relevant to these speculations is derived from a case study of an amnesic patient who is conscious in some ways but not

ENDEL TULVING

1985-01-01

238

Major memory for microblogs.  

PubMed

Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

2013-05-01

239

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

SciTech Connect

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy and UCCI.IT, via Olmo 26, I-23888 Rovagnate (Italy)

2006-04-15

240

Shape Memory Polymer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past several years have witnessed significant advances in the field of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the elucidation of new compositions for property tuning, the discovery of new mechanisms for shape fixing and recovery, and the initiation of phenomenological modeling. We critically review research findings on new shape memory polymers along these lines, emphasizing exciting progress in the areas

Patrick T. Mather; Xiaofan Luo; Ingrid A. Rousseau

2009-01-01

241

Shape memory polymer nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

2002-01-01

242

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

243

Eavesdropping without quantum memory  

E-print Network

In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that the best strategy is actually to adopt the simple intercept/resend strategy.

H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci

2005-04-01

244

How Misinformation Alters Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

1998-01-01

245

Asymmetric bidirectional associative memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a potentially promising model for heteroassociative memories. However, its applications are severely restricted to networks with logical symmetry of interconnections and pattern orthogonality or small pattern size. Although the restrictions on pattern orthogonality and pattern size can be relaxed to a certain extent, all previous efforts are at the cost of increase in connection complexity.

Zong-Ben Xu; Yee Leung; Xiang-Wei He

1994-01-01

246

Ontogeny of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides an overview of the studies which, during the past half century, have demonstrated that capacity for long-term memory increases during development in both animals and man. A variety of behavioral and neurological mechanisms are examined, which might account for the increase in memory during ontogenesis, in order to stimulate research on the relative contributions of these variables to the

Byron A. Campbell; Norman E. Spear

1972-01-01

247

Human Memory: The Basics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

Martinez, Michael E.

2010-01-01

248

Working Memory and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

249

Cache-In-Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new technology of Processing-In-Memory now allows relatively large DRAM memory macros to be positioned on the same die with processing logic. Despite the high bandwidth and low latency possible with such macros, more of both is always better. Classical techniques such as caching are typically used for such performance gains, but at the cost of high power. The paper

Jason T. Zawodny; Peter M. Kogge

2001-01-01

250

Memory and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it may be disconcerting to contemplate, true and false memories arise in the same way. Memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. This article describes an approach to studying the nature of these…

Johnson, Marcia K.

2006-01-01

251

Human Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

Lieberman, David A.

2012-01-01

252

Composable memory transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing concurrent programs is notoriously difficult, and is of increasing practical importance. A particular source of concern is that even correctly-implemented concurrency abstractions cannot be composed together to form larger abstractions. In this paper we present a new concurrency model, based on transactional memory, that offers far richer composition. All the usual benefits of transactional memory are present (e.g. freedom

Tim Harris; Simon Marlow; Simon Peyton-Jones; Maurice Herlihy

2005-01-01

253

Types of Memory  

MedlinePLUS

... remember until you pass it on. Long-term memory stores information that your brain retains because it is important to you. Basic information remembered includes names of family and friends, your address, as ... Long-term memory can be further divided into explicit, implicit and ...

254

Distributed memory. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of how a neural network can store a distributed content addressable memory. Some of the properties of such a network as well as a possible site of storage of long and short-term memory are discussed.

Cooper, L.N.

1985-03-13

255

Memory's Role in Catechesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present times. Selected…

Williams, Robert Bryan

256

Memory technology survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

1981-01-01

257

Predicting Reasoning from Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

2011-01-01

258

Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

2008-01-01

259

Technology strategy for the semiconductor memory market  

E-print Network

Solid state memories are used in a variety of applications as data and code storages. A non-volatile memory is a memory that retains information when its power supply is off. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory ...

Nakamura, Tomohiko

2012-01-01

260

Optical quantum memory  

E-print Network

Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied: optical delay lines, cavities, electromagnetically-induced transparency, photon-echo, and off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here we report on the state-of-the-art in the field of optical quantum memory, including criteria for successful quantum memory and current performance levels.

A. I. Lvovsky; B. C. Sanders; W. Tittel

2010-04-16

261

Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

2012-01-01

262

Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory  

E-print Network

The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

C. Chicone; B. Mashhoon

2001-10-24

263

Noradrenergic modulation of working memory and emotional memory in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Noradrenaline (NA) is implicated in arousal. Working memory is dependent upon prefrontal cortex, and moderate levels of NA are thought to facilitate working memory whereas higher levels during extreme stress may impair working memory and engage more posterior cortical and sub-cortical circuitry. The NA system also influences emotional memory via modulation of the amygdalae and related mediotemporal structures. NA dysfunction

Samuel R. Chamberlain; Ulrich Müller; Andrew D. Blackwell; Trevor W. Robbins; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

264

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep  

E-print Network

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

Paller, Ken

265

The relation between verbal and visuospatial memory and autobiographical memory.  

PubMed

The basic-systems approach (Rubin, 2005, 2006) states that autobiographical memory is supported by other cognitive systems and argues that autobiographical memories are constructed from interactions between cognitive systems, such as language, vision and emotion. Although deficiencies in one or more of the basic systems influence the properties of autobiographical memories, little is known about how these cognitive abilities and autobiographical memory are related. To assert whether participants with stronger cognitive abilities also perform better on autobiographical memory tests, participants who completed verbal and visuospatial memory tests also recorded one personal event, which they recalled after a certain interval. Participants who performed well on the verbal memory tests also had better retention for the personal event, providing support for the basic-systems approach to autobiographical memory and preliminary support for the view that people have more memories from adolescence and early adulthood because the memory system works optimally in these lifetime periods. PMID:25460237

Janssen, Steve M J; Kristo, Gert; Rouw, Romke; Murre, Jaap M J

2015-01-01

266

Alterations of Visual Reaction Time and Short Term Memory in Military Radar Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684

MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser

2013-01-01

267

Magnetic Core Memory Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A researcher from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow provides this website on Magnetic RAM (MRAM) -- a non-volatile memory storage system similar to Flash memory except that it uses less power and switches faster. Predicting that "2005 could see mass production of MRAM parts" to be used in powering instant-on computers and computers that are in stand-by power-savings mode (as is currently done with PDAs and laptops), the author reviews some of the physical challenges yet to be overcome. The website provides some basic information on magnetic memory and binary notation, as well as sections on: the Principle of the Magnetic Memory, The Rectangular Hysterisis Loop, A Magnetic Memory Element, Arrangement of Magnetic Core Memories, Relation between the Decimal and Binary Codes, How Numbers Are Stored in a Memory, How a Binary-Coded Decimal Digit is 'written in,' How a Digit is 'read out,' and a Complete Wiring Diagram of a Matrix Plane.

Doherty, Frederico A.

268

Tutorial on semiconductor memory testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a tutorial introduction to the field of semiconductor memory testing. It begins by describing the structure and operation of the main types of semiconductor memory. The various ways in which manufacturing defects and failure mechanisms can cause erroneous memory behavior are then reviewed. Next we describe the different contexts in which memories are tested together with the

Bruce F. Cockburn

1994-01-01

269

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective  

E-print Network

Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective Daniel L. Schacter, Scott A. Guerin* and Peggy L. St. Jacques* Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Memory is prone that several types of memory distortions ­ imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors

Schacter, Daniel

270

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

271

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

Carpenter, K. H.

1974-01-01

272

Memory clinics in context  

PubMed Central

The growing number of older people in all parts of the world raises the question of how best to respond to their health needs, including those associated with memory impairment. Specialist Memory Clinics have a role to play, complementing community services which reach out to older people with mental health problems and encompassing younger people who become forgetful. Dementia is the most common syndrome seen, but there are other important treatable conditions which present with subjective or objective dysmnesia. Memory Clinics provide a high quality, devoted focus for early intervention, treatment, support and research. PMID:21416022

Jolley, David; Moniz-Cook, Esme

2009-01-01

273

Two Memory Tests for Neuropsychologists--Denman Neuropsychology Memory Scale and Recognition Memory Test. Test Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two memory tests for neuropsychologists--the Denman Neuropsychology Memory Scale and the Recognition Memory Test--are reviewed, with attention to test administration and technical features. Both tests are considered useful additions to the repertoire of tests of memory function. Implications of and cautions concerning their use in Australia are…

Ord, Geoff

1989-01-01

274

Making a Memory Book  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years old and still energetic. She was a painter and ... a group activity that family members of all ages can participate in, from young children through adults. ...

275

Modelling Immunological Memory  

E-print Network

Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

276

Memory Circuit Fault Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

2013-01-01

277

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-print Network

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01

278

Warship : memorial in antithesis  

E-print Network

This thesis is divided into three distinct yet related parts. The first consists of observations and reflections on some of New York City's many war memorials, ranging from one commemorating the Revolutionary War to one ...

Tchelistcheff, Andre Victor

1992-01-01

279

Disorders of memory.  

PubMed

This paper reviews disorders of memory. After a brief survey of the clinical varieties of the amnesic syndrome, transient and persistent, selected theoretical issues will be considered by posing a series of questions. (i) What is impaired and what is spared in anterograde amnesia? (ii) Do temporal lobe, diencephalic and frontal lobe amnesias differ? (iii) How independently semantic is semantic memory? (iv) What determines the pattern and extent of retrograde memory loss? (v) Can retrograde amnesia ever be "isolated"? (vi) Does psychogenic amnesia involve the same mechanisms as organic amnesia? (vii) How and when do false memories arise? Commonalities as well as differences across separate literatures will be emphasized, and the case for a more "dynamic" (interactionist) approach to the investigation of amnesia will be advocated. PMID:12244076

Kopelman, Michael D

2002-10-01

280

Hardware Transactional Memory  

E-print Network

This work shows how hardware transactional memory (HTM) can be implemented to support transactions of arbitrarily large size, while ensuring that small transactions run efficiently. Our implementation handles small ...

Lie, Sean

281

Object Location Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

282

Are recovered memories accurate?  

E-print Network

. Additional research in our laboratory has shown two distinct types of memory errors; semantic based errors which occur due to pre-existing category knowledge, and episodic based errors in which the source of details (list members) are misattributed...

Gerkens, David

2005-08-29

283

Plated wire memory subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

1972-01-01

284

Pitch Memory Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Pitch Memory Experiment. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979). On each trial, a target tone and a test tone are presented with five distracter tones between them. Participants will be asked to judge whether the target and test tones are the same or different. There are 38 trials when the tones are the same and 38 when they are different.

285

Cultural Memories: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon\\u000a and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized\\u000a societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which ostensibly floats free of all historical\\u000a moorings, disconnected from earlier

Peter Meusburger; Michael Heffernan; Edgar Wunder

286

Quantum Channels with Memory  

E-print Network

We present a general model for quantum channels with memory, and show that it is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: any quantum process in which outputs up to some time t do not depend on inputs at times t' > t can be decomposed into a concatenated memory channel. We then examine and present different physical setups in which channels with memory may be operated for the transfer of (private) classical and quantum information. These include setups in which either the receiver or a malicious third party have control of the initializing memory. We introduce classical and quantum channel capacities for these settings, and give several examples to show that they may or may not coincide. Entropic upper bounds on the various channel capacities are given. For forgetful quantum channels, in which the effect of the initializing memory dies out as time increases, coding theorems are presented to show that these bounds may be saturated. Forgetful quantum channels are shown to be open and dense in the set of quantum memory channels.

Dennis Kretschmann; Reinhard F. Werner

2005-05-09

287

The relationship between hippocampal volume and declarative memory in a population of combat veterans with and without PTSD.  

PubMed

Both reduced hippocampal volume and cognitive alterations have been found in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between hippocampal volume, combat exposure, symptom severity, and memory performance in a sample of combat veterans with and without a history of PTSD. Subjects were 33 male veteran volunteers (16 PTSD+, 17 PTSD-) who underwent an MRI and neuropsychological testing with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), a measure of declarative memory. Relationships between hippocampal volume (i.e., right + left hippocampal volume/whole brain volume) and performance on the CVLT were determined using partial correlational analysis controlled for age and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores. Percent hippocampal volume for the entire sample was positively associated with several aspects of memory performance as reflected by the CVLT. In the PTSD+ group, CVLT performance was negatively correlated with lifetime, but not current CAPS symptoms. CVLT performance appears to be strongly correlated with hippocampal volume in a group of trauma survivors with and without PTSD. Insofar as CVLT performance in the PTSD group was negatively associated with worst episode, but not to current PTSD symptoms, memory performance in combat veterans may reflect some aspect of risk related to the magnitude of the psychological response to trauma, rather than current symptoms that may be interfering with cognitive performance. It will be of interest to study cognitive abilities that may relate to the likelihood of specific PTSD symptoms and to track changes in CVLT performance and hippocampal volume over time in persons with and without a history of trauma exposure. PMID:16891587

Tischler, Lisa; Brand, Sarah R; Stavitsky, Karina; Labinsky, Ellen; Newmark, Randall; Grossman, Robert; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Yehuda, Rachel

2006-07-01

288

What people believe about memory.  

PubMed

Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings, and people in general had realistic views about their own memory performance. On other questions, such as the reliability of olfactory as compared with visual and auditory memory, the memory of small children in comparison with that of adults, the likelihood of repression of adult traumatic memories, and on more general questions such as the possibility of training memory and the capacity limitations of long-term memory, a large proportion of the participants expressed views that are less supported by scientific evidence. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:16754244

Magnussen, Svein; Andersson, Jan; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana; Endestad, Tor; Goodman, Gail S; Helstrup, Tore; Koriat, Asher; Larsson, Maria; Melinder, Annika; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Rönnberg, Jerker; Zimmer, Hubert

2006-07-01

289

Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity  

PubMed Central

The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Bunge, Silvia A.

2014-01-01

290

Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity.  

PubMed

The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

Johnson, Elizabeth L; Miller Singley, Alison T; Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L; Bunge, Silvia A

2014-01-01

291

Lifelogging Memory Appliance for People with Episodic Memory Impairment  

E-print Network

. Author Keywords Lifelogging, information overload, Alzheimer's disease, memory impairment, caregiver's disease, a common neurodegenerative disease that affects over 26 million people worldwide): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION Episodic memory impairment (EMI) is the main symptom associated with Alzheimer

Mankoff, Jennifer

292

Using Cyclic Memory Allocation to Eliminate Memory Leaks  

E-print Network

We present and evaluate a new memory management technique foreliminating memory leaks in programs with dynamic memoryallocation. This technique observes the execution of the program on asequence of training inputsto find ...

Nguyen, Huu Hai

2005-10-26

293

Quantum Channels with Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeatably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then.

Rybár, Tomáš

2012-11-01

294

A Balanced Memory Network  

PubMed Central

A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

2007-01-01

295

Australian War Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presence of the Australian War Memorial, located in Canberra, Australia, this site contains dozens of valuable resources for those with a penchant either for Australian military history or merely for finding the military unit in which a relative may have served during the past 100 years. With numerous sectional headings, the Web site has an effective long-form essay that serves as a good introduction to the subject, detailing the highlights of Australian military involvement from the Boer War to the Vietnam Conflict. There are numerous databases that can be searched on this site, including Australian military unit rosters and the Memorial's vast collection of papers and recorded ephemera relating to Australian military history. There is also an exhaustive section about the actual War Memorial building and grounds, detailing the inspiration for the Memorial building (completed in 1941) and a few notes by the director of the Memorial, Steve Gower, on some of his favorite selections in their holdings. All in all, the site is a wonderful resource for those with an interest in Australian military history and, more broadly, is a way of reminding the public that the contributions of Australians to world military conflicts is quite significant.

296

Efficient Memory Shadowing for 64-bit Architectures  

E-print Network

Shadow memory is used by dynamic program analysis tools to store metadata for tracking properties of application memory. The efficiency of mapping between application memory and shadow memory has substantial impact on the ...

Zhao, Qin

2010-01-01

297

Cultural differences on the children's memory scale  

E-print Network

Memory is an essential component for learning. Deficits in verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are thought to hinder language learning, reading acquisition, and academic achievement. The Children’s Memory Scale (CMS...

Cash, Deborah Dyer

2009-05-15

298

Efficacy and cognitive effects of right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy.  

PubMed

The efficacy, memory, and cognitive effects of right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at 2.5 times threshold in 32 inpatients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder were evaluated at baseline, during the course of treatment, and 1 month after treatment. Neuropsychological assessment included the Randt Memory Test, Personal Memory Test, short-version Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Self-Rating Scale of Memory Functions. At the treatment end point, although the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale mean score was decreased by 54.2%. the response rate of 2.5 times threshold RUL ECT using stringent criteria was only 31.2%. Treatment was associated with significant anterograde memory impairment in the short term. Mean total scores of the Randt Memory Test and Personal Memory Test were decreased from baseline by 14.8% and 32.5%, respectively, after six sessions of ECT. These memory deficits were significantly improved by the 1 month follow-up examination. Subjective memory scores increased consistently during treatment, correlating with improvements in mood. No adverse effects on nonmemory cognition were found. Although RUL ECT at 2.5 times threshold is not associated with marked or persistent cognitive disturbances, its efficacy may be insufficient in clinical practice. PMID:11314875

Ng, C; Schweitzer, I; Alexopoulos, P; Celi, E; Wong, L; Tuckwell, V; Sergejew, A; Tiller, J

2000-12-01

299

Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of age, actors reported a higher stability of their memory with

Nathalie Huet; Jean-Claude Marquié; Elisabeth Bacon

2010-01-01

300

Twins dispute memory ownership: A new false memory phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments, we examined a new memory phenomenon: disputed memories, in which people dispute ownership of a memory.\\u000a For example, in one disputed memory each of two twins recollected being sent home from school for wearing too short a skirt,\\u000a although only one of them was actually sent home. In Experiment 1, 20 sets of same-sex adult twins were

Mercedes Sheen; Simon Kemp; David Rubin

2001-01-01

301

Two forms of scene memory guide visual search: Memory for scene context and memory for the binding  

E-print Network

Two forms of scene memory guide visual search: Memory for scene context and memory for the binding City, IA, USA The role of scene memory in visual search was investigated in a preview-search task. Keywords: Visual search; Visual memory; Scene memory; Eye movements; Attention. Recent research has

Hollingworth, Andrew

302

Providing Good Memory Cues for People with Episodic Memory Impairment  

E-print Network

{matthew.lee, anind}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease impairs episodic memory and subtly memory, elders, cues, caregiver burden, Alzheimer's Disease 1. INTRODUCTION Recent experiences provide, and living in comfort and security. However, Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes episodic memory impairment (EMI

Mankoff, Jennifer

303

Focus: Molecular Memory Mechanisms of epigenetic memory and addiction  

E-print Network

Review Focus: Molecular Memory Mechanisms of epigenetic memory and addiction Luis M Tuesta1,2,3 & Yi Zhang1,2,3,4,* Abstract Epigenetic regulation of cellular identity and function is at least partly the advances, whether and how epigenetic factors contribute to memory formation is still poorly understood

Zhang, Yi

304

Memory and memory confidence in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological doubt, often found in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), has been theoretically linked to memory deficits, but empirical evidence for such deficits has been mixed. In contrast, many studies suggest that individuals with OCD have low confidence in their memories. The present study aimed to build upon previous research by measuring memory accuracy and confidence in OCD using ecologically

David F. Tolin; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Bartholomew D. Brigidi; Nader Amir; Edna B. Foa

2001-01-01

305

Zombie Memory: Extending Memory Lifetime by Reviving Dead Blocks  

E-print Network

Zombie Memory: Extending Memory Lifetime by Reviving Dead Blocks Rodolfo Azevedo John D. Davis ABSTRACT Zombie is an endurance management framework that en- ables a variety of error correction-change memory (PCM). Zombie sup- ports both single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) variants

Manasse, Mark S. - Microsoft Research

306

Storage Techniques in Flash Memories and Phase-change Memories  

E-print Network

Cell Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Data Reliability in Flash Memories . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Cell Programming in Flash Memories . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Challenges for Phase-change Memories . . . . . . . . . . . 8 D. Contributions... LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Shannon capacity (bits per cell) of k-limited codes . . . . . . . . . . 53 II WOM code D with t=2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 III Rates of the time-constrained codes...

Li, Hao

2010-10-12

307

The Memory Management Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Ravenbrook Limited, provides a thorough reference guide to memory management regarding computer operating systems. The site keeps you up to date with a news section featuring the latest in the world of memory management. It also features a glossary of more than 400 hundred relevant terms. A list of articles accompanied by a bibliography of books allows beginners to easily research all aspects of the topic. Additionally, the page provides a list of links and also a feedback form to contact the authors. This reference guide acts as a one-stop shop for any and all questions related to memory management. Guides to additional topics are featured through a link at the bottom of the page.

308

Digital Storage (Memory)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â?ť Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Digital Storage, is the fifteenth chapter in Volume IV â??Digital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: digital memory terms and concepts; modern nonmechanical memory; and historical, nonmechanical memories. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

309

Vietnam Veterans Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC can be an emotional experience, and it has garnered substantial acclaim since it was unveiled in 1982. The people behind the Footnote historical records site recently crafted this interactive version of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and it's well worth a look. The interactive image was assembled from 6301 images photographed by Peter Krogh and stitched together by Darren Higgins. Visitors can type in names to the search engine at the top of the homepage, browse names by category, and also look up names by military branch. Additionally, visitors can leave a tribute, a story, or a photograph about any of the 58,256 veterans listed on the Memorial.

310

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

311

Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... all of which can create serious safety concerns. Short-term memory (remembering recent events) is what becomes impaired most ... the case of Alzheimer's disease, so it is short-term memory that is important to assess when there are ...

312

Making sense of memory.  

PubMed

The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

Bernstein, Daniel M

2005-09-01

313

Pitch Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration deals with relative pitch, an ability to distinguish differences between pitches. Deutsch (1970) determined that short-term recognition of the pitch of pure tones was disrupted by six intervening tones, but not by six intervening spoken numbers, suggesting that immediate processing of musical pitch was in some way distinct from that of verbal information. Laterality and hemispheric specialization (discussed in connection with the Dichotic Listening demonstration) are also relevant to pitch memory. The pitch memory task is patterned after Deutsch (1979).

314

Memory dynamics in the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reward learning in honeybees initiates a sequence of events which leads to long-lasting memory passing through multiple phases\\u000a of transient memories. The study of memory dynamics is performed at the behavioral (both natural foraging behavior and appetitive\\u000a conditioning), neural circuit and molecular levels. The results of these combined efforts lead to a model which assumes five\\u000a kinds of sequential memories,

R. Menzel

1999-01-01

315

Wrinkling atop Shape Memory Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many surface related properties, such as surface roughness, surface tension and reflection etc are heavily dependent on the surface morphology of materials. Patterned surfaces may have significant effects on these properties. In this paper, we compare wrinkles produced atop three different types of shape memory materials, namely, shape memory alloy, shape memory polymer and shape memory hybrid. We show the advantages and disadvantages of them in terms of the processing techniques and the resultant wrinkle patterns.

Sun, L.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, W. M.; Purnawali, H.; Fu, Y. Q.

2012-04-01

316

Genetic variations of human neuropsin gene and psychiatric disorders: polymorphism screening and possible association with bipolar disorder and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Human neuropsin (NP) (hNP) has been implicated in the progressive change of cognitive abilities during primate evolution. The hNP gene maps to chromosome 19q13, a region reportedly linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Therefore, hNP is a functional and positional candidate gene for association with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and cognitive ability. Polymorphism screening was performed for the entire hNP gene. The core promoter region was determined and whether or not transcriptional activity alters in an allele-dependent manner was examined by using the dual-luciferase system. Allelic and genotypic distributions of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between patients with schizophrenia (n=439), major depression (n=409), bipolar disorder (n=207), and controls (n=727). A possible association of the hNP genotype with memory index (assessed with Wechsler Memory Scale, revised, WMS-R) and intelligence quotient (IQ assessed with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, revised; WAIS-R) was examined in healthy controls (n=166). A total of 28 SNPs, including nine novel SNPs, were identified. No significant effects on transcriptional activity were observed for SNPs in the promoter region. A significant allelic association was found between several SNPs and bipolar disorder (for SNP23 at the 3' regulatory region; odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidential interval 1.16-1.88, P=0.0015). However, such an association was not detected for schizophrenia or depression. Significant differences were observed between SNP23 and attention/concentration sub-scale score of WMS-R (P=0.016) and verbal IQ (P<0.001). Genetic variation of the hNP gene may contribute to molecular mechanisms of bipolar disorder and some aspects of memory and intelligence. PMID:18354391

Izumi, Aiko; Iijima, Yoshimi; Noguchi, Hiroko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Okada, Takeya; Hori, Hiroaki; Kato, Tadafumi; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Kosuga, Asako; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Asada, Takashi; Arima, Kunimasa; Saitoh, Osamu; Shiosaka, Sadao; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2008-12-01

317

Autobiographical Memory in Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood-memory phenomena have been studied using laboratory mood induction procedures with nondepressed subjects and with clinically depressed individuals. The present study examined both hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of autobiographical memory in people who had recently attempted suicide by overdose. Attempted suicide subjects, who were required to retrieve specific personal memories to positive or negative cue words, showed biased retrieval when

J. Mark G. Williams; Keith Broadbent

1986-01-01

318

Enhancing Memory with Redundant Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESPITE nearly a century of active research into memory, the academic psychologist is singularly ill equipped to offer good advice when asked how to enhance memory. He can only point to the apparent efficacy of techniques developed by informal study since the ancient Greeks first expounded the ``art of memory''1. These techniques were rejected as irrelevant gimmickry by the early

H. C. A. Dale; Alex McGlaughlin

1970-01-01

319

Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

2009-01-01

320

A theory of memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Develops a theory of memory retrieval and shows that it applies over a range of experimental paradigms. Access to memory traces is viewed in terms of a resonance metaphor. The probe item evokes the search set on the basis of probe–memory item relatedness, just as a ringing tuning fork evokes sympathetic vibrations in other tuning forks. Evidence is accumulated in

Roger Ratcliff

1978-01-01

321

Episodic memory in nonhuman animals  

PubMed Central

Summary Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of “having been there” has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhumans. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhumans and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap. However, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing the most crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naďve question “do nonhuman animals have episodic memory” to instead asking “what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans” are making progress. PMID:24028963

Templer, Victoria L.

2013-01-01

322

Wilhelm Wundt's psychology of memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Wilhelm Wundt and his students in the psychology of memory is reviewed. Wundt rarely used the concept ‘memory’, but he dealt extensively with a number of problems that today are often discussed under the heading of ‘memory’. Four components of his theory are distinguished and traced through the successive stages of the evolution of the theory: the

Eckart Scheerer; Universitiit Oldenburg

1980-01-01

323

Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory

Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

2012-01-01

324

Flexible Decoupled Transactional Memory Support  

E-print Network

switches 2 #12;Flexible Transactional Memory STM (e.g., RSTM) all software approach 3 0 20 40 60 80 100.) ExecutionTime #12;Flexible Transactional Memory STM (e.g., RSTM) all software approach 3 0 20 40 60 80 100Time Versioning (Isolation) Validation (Consistency check) #12;Flexible Transactional Memory STM (e.g., RSTM) all

Shriraman, Arrvindh

325

First Words and First Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

2010-01-01

326

Parallel processor\\/memory circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

An array of processor\\/memories is described comprising: an instruction decoder that generates tables of outputs in response to instructions received at the decoder, processor\\/memories each of which comprises a memory means into which data may be written and from which data may be read and a processor for producing an output depending at least in part on data read from

W. D. Hillis; T. F. Jr. Knight; A. Bawden; B. L. Kahle; D. Chapman; D. P. Christman; C. A. Lasser; C. R. Feynman

1987-01-01

327

Memory Storage and Neural Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

Alkon, Daniel L.

1989-01-01

328

Trauma and Delayed Memory: A Review of the “Repressed Memories” Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to draw balanced conclusions about trauma and memory from the intensely polarized debate currently raging over “repressed” memories, or better, delayed memories (hereafter DM). Research suggests that: emotion impacts memory; psychogenic amnesia can be a reaction to unusual levels of trauma; memory is malleable and delayed memories are prone to errors; however, inaccuracies in traumatic memories are

Marcus Flathman

1999-01-01

329

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.  

PubMed

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

2013-12-24

330

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals  

PubMed Central

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

331

Working Memory and Reactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and think-alouds, focusing on the issue of reactivity. Two WM span tasks (listening span and operation span) were administered to 42 English-speaking learners of Spanish. Learner performance on reading comprehension and written production was measured under two…

Goo, Jaemyung

2010-01-01

332

Dreams Memories & Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

Young, Bernard

2012-01-01

333

Antenatal memories and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

Neighbour, Roger

1981-01-01

334

HPA axis and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hormones of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis influence memory in situations of acute and chronic stress. The present review tries to summarize the current state of knowledge by describing the enhancing as well as the impairing effects of stress or glucocorticoid (GC) treatment documented in animals and humans. GCs secreted during the acquisition of a stressful task facilitate consolidation. However,

O. T. Wolf

2003-01-01

335

Software transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we learn from the literature, flexibility in choosing synchronizationoperations greatly simplifies the task of designinghighly concurrent programs. Unfortunately, existinghardware is inflexible and is at best on the levelof a Load Linked\\/Store Conditional operation on a singleword. Building on the hardware based transactional synchronizationmethodology of Herlihy and Moss, we offersoftware transactional memory (STM), a novel softwaremethod for supporting flexible transactional...

Nir Shavit; Dan Touitou

1995-01-01

336

Shape Memory Alloy Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

337

Shape Memory Alloy Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

338

Money Is Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the sets of feasible allocations in a large class of economic environments in which commitment is impossible (following Myerson [8], the standard definition of feasibility is adapted to take account of the lack of commitment). The environments feature eithermemoryormoney. Memory is defined as knowledge on the part of an agent of the full histories of all agents

Narayana R. Kocherlakota

1998-01-01

339

Stretching transactional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing abstraction for programming multi-core systems. Potential target applications for TM, such as business software and video games, are likely to involve complex data structures and large transactions, requiring specific software solutions (STM). So far, however, STMs have been mainly evaluated and optimized for smaller scale benchmarks. We revisit the main STM design choices from

Aleksandar Dragojevi?; Rachid Guerraoui; Michal Kapalka

2009-01-01

340

The Java memory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the new Java memory model, which has been revised as part of Java 5.0. The model specifies the legal behaviors for a multithreaded program; it defines the semantics of multithreaded Java programs and partially determines legal implementations of Java virtual machines and compilers.The new Java model provides a simple interface for correctly synchronized programs -- it guarantees

Jeremy Manson; William Pugh; Sarita V. Adve

2005-01-01

341

[Aging of memory mechanisms].  

PubMed

Human amnesia cases (after surgical removal of the hippocampi or brain anoxia) have clearly established the critical role of the hippocampal formation in anterograde amnesia. Other parts of the brain may also contribute to anterograde amnesia (mammillary bodies, medial thalamus). In neurodegenerative diseases (and specially in Alzheimer's disease) amnesia is often the prominent symptom, but the brain lesions are not restricted to the hippocampal formation. In Alzheimer's disease they involve also the cerebral cortex and several subcortical nuclei. Physiological brain aging is also associated with some degree of memory impairment, but much less severe than in Alzheimer's disease. The issue of the nature and the mechanisms of the memory impairment associated with age and with Alzheimer's disease is very important, because the frequency of these problems increases dramatically as the populations of the world is growing older. There is some evidence that neuronal loss and alterations in neurotransmitter systems occur in the aged subject, but the relationship between such changes and the age-related memory deficit is far from being clear. In Alzheimer's disease, the loss of memory is likely to be due to neuronal loss in cerebral cortex and hippocampal formation, along with alterations in neurotransmitter systems (specially cholinergic, monoaminergic and aminoacidergic systems). The work in experimental animals has largely confirmed the critical role of the hippocampal formation, as well as identified other critical structures. The mechanisms of the age-related memory impairment can be to some extent investigated in aged animals. In the aged rat there is evidence that several neurotransmitter networks are altered. Alteration in the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems have been extensively studied, but the involvement of other systems is likely. Learning and memory deficits are consistently observed in a sub-population of aged rodents (as well as in other species including non-human primates). For instance some aged rats do have a deficit in the performance of a spatial learning task such as the "water maze". There is some evidence that this deficit is due, at least in part, to alterations in the functions of the hippocampal formation. In other words, if aged rats have a spatial memory deficit, it might be due to changes in hippocampal neuronal circuitry. The study of age-related alterations in hippocampal neuronal networks, using electrophysiological techniques have shown that several neuronal properties such as resting membrane potential, membrane resistance or sodium spike amplitude are not altered in the aged rat hippocampus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7780790

Lamour, Y; Bassant, M H; Potier, B; Billard, J M; Dutar, P

1994-01-01

342

Longevity pathways and memory aging  

PubMed Central

The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation. PMID:24926313

Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

2014-01-01

343

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis. PMID:24459411

Jahn, Holger

2013-12-01

344

Global aspects of radiation memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the ‘electric’ type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although ‘magnetic’ type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged test particles obtain a net ‘kick’. Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B-mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E-mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

Winicour, J.

2014-10-01

345

Constructive memory: past and future  

PubMed Central

Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications. PMID:22577300

Schacter, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

346

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis. PMID:24459411

Jahn, Holger

2013-01-01

347

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-print Network

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

J. Winicour

2014-10-11

348

Sleep deprivation and false memories.  

PubMed

Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. PMID:25031301

Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

2014-09-01

349

Memory Complaints in Chronic Stroke Patients Are Predicted by Memory Self-Efficacy rather than Memory Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Memory self-efficacy (MSE) is the belief about one’s mastery of memory functioning. In healthy elderly, memory complaints are related to MSE rather than to objectively measured memory capacity. MSE has scarcely been studied in patients that suffered a stroke. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to examine whether memory capacity and MSE can predict the presence of

Laurien Aben; Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds; Majanka H. Heijenbrok-Kal; Marieke M. Visser; Jan J. V. Busschbach; Gerard M. Ribbers

2011-01-01

350

Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads,  

E-print Network

Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers ABSTRACT Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads, such as databases, in-memory caches, and graph analytics, pay a high cost for page-based virtual memory. They consume as much as 10% of execution cycles on TLB misses, even using large pag- es

Hill, Mark D.

351

Source memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

Summary Source memory is a representation of the origin (source) of information. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic, allowing us to differentiate one event from another [1, 2]. Here we asked if rats remember the source of encoded information. Rats foraged for distinctive flavors of food that replenished (or failed to replenish) at its recently encountered location according to a source-information rule. To predict replenishment, rats needed to remember where they had encountered a preferred food type (chocolate) with self-generated (walking along a runway encountering chocolate) or experimenter-generated (placement of the rat at the chocolate site by an experimenter) cues. Three lines of evidence implicate the presence of source memory. First, rats selectively adjusted revisits to the chocolate location based on source information, under conditions in which familiarity of events could not produce successful performance. Second, source memory was dissociated from location memory by different decay rates. Third, temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with lidocaine selectively eliminated source memory, suggesting that source memory is dependent upon an intact hippocampus. Development of an animal model of source memory may be valuable to probe the biological underpinnings of memory disorders marked by impairments in source memory. PMID:23394830

Crystal, Jonathon D.; Alford, Wesley T.; Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.

2013-01-01

352

Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.  

PubMed

Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

2014-01-01

353

Unifying Memory and Database Transactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, Joăo M.

354

The evolution of episodic memory  

PubMed Central

One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

2013-01-01

355

Place memory in crickets  

PubMed Central

Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

2008-01-01

356

Mozilla Digital Memory Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

357

Plant electrical memory.  

PubMed

Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap. PMID:19704496

Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

2008-07-01

358

Sparse distributed memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

Denning, Peter J.

1989-01-01

359

TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.  

SciTech Connect

On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

2000-05-19

360

Learning, memory, and synesthesia.  

PubMed

People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies. PMID:23307940

Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

2013-03-01

361

Basic memory module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

Tietze, F. C.

1974-01-01

362

Memory metal actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

Ruoff, C. F. (inventor)

1985-01-01

363

Fuzzy associative memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

Kosko, Bart

1991-01-01

364

Olfactory recognition memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory recognition which occurs in the context pregnancy block by male pheromones is acquired with one-trial learning contingent on mating. A memory trace is established in the accessory bulb (AOB) and is represented by a gain in Gaba-ergic feedback inhibition of granule cells on excitatory glutaminergic mitral cells. This occurs in the sub-population of mitral cells that specifically respond to

E. B. Keverne; P. A. Brennan

1996-01-01

365

Shape memory alloy actuator  

DOEpatents

An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

366

Nanomaterials: Memory Wire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine metal eyeglass frames that you can roll in a ball, only to watch it uncoil back to its original shape! How can an inanimate object, such as metal, do such a thing? There is a metal alloy that can do just that and it's one of the many discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology. Students will explore the properties of memory metal and consider the many applications it might have today and in the future.

Amy R. Taylor

2007-01-01

367

Memories of Julian Schwinger  

E-print Network

The career and accomplishments of Julian Schwinger, who shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1965, have been reviewed in numerous books and articles. For this reason these Memories, which seek to convey a sense of Schwinger's remarkable talents as a physicist, concentrate primariy (though not entirely) on heretofore unpublished pertinent recollections of the youthful Schwinger by this writer, who first encountered Schwinger in 1934 when they both were undergraduates at the City College of New York.

Gerjuoy, Edward

2014-01-01

368

Memories of Julian Schwinger  

E-print Network

The career and accomplishments of Julian Schwinger, who shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1965, have been reviewed in numerous books and articles. For this reason these Memories, which seek to convey a sense of Schwinger's remarkable talents as a physicist, concentrate primariy (though not entirely) on heretofore unpublished pertinent recollections of the youthful Schwinger by this writer, who first encountered Schwinger in 1934 when they both were undergraduates at the City College of New York.

Edward Gerjuoy

2014-12-02

369

The memory glasses : wearable computing for just-in-time memory support  

E-print Network

This thesis documents a body of wearable computing research surrounding the development of the Memory Glasses, a new type of proactive memory support technology. The Memory Glasses combines features of existing memory ...

DeVaul, Richard W. (Richard Wayne), 1971-

2004-01-01

370

Using cache memory to reduce processor-memory traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing processor-memory bandwidth is recognized in two distinct situations: single board computer systems and microprocessors of the future. Cache memory is investigated as a way to reduce the memory-processor traffic. We show that traditional caches which depend heavily on spatial locality (look-ahead) for their performance are inappropriate in these environments because they generate large bursts of bus

James R. Goodman; A Super CPU

1983-01-01

371

Emotional memory and psychopathology.  

PubMed Central

A leading model for studying how the brain forms memories about unpleasant experiences is fear conditioning. A cumulative body of work has identified major components of the neural system mediating this form of learning. The pathways involve transmission of sensory information from processing areas in the thalamus and cortex to the amygdala. The amygdala's lateral nucleus receives and integrates the sensory inputs from the thalamic and cortical areas, and the central nucleus provides the interface with motor systems controlling specific fear responses in various modalities (behavioural, autonomic, endocrine). Internal connections within the amygdala allow the lateral and central nuclei to communicate. Recent studies have begun to identify some sites of plasticity in the circuitry and the cellular mechanisms involved in fear conditioning. Through studies of fear conditioning, our understanding of emotional memory is being taken to the level of cells and synapses in the brain. Advances in understanding emotional memory hold out the possibility that emotional disorders may be better defined and treatment improved. PMID:9415924

Ledoux, J E; Muller, J

1997-01-01

372

Bell System Memorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bell System Memorial is a non-commercial website created by David Massey, who openly admits to his love of telephones and interest in the Bell System. The website "was created to help keep the memories of the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the greatest telecommunications system on earth." The author provides some technical and corporate historical information on Bell Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the Regional Bell Operating Companies. The Bell System Memorial logo on the main page links to an introductory webpage, where visitors can sort through the information based on their needs. For example, teachers will find lessons ideas, and AT&T, Western Electric, Bell Labs, Bell Operating Company retirees and current employees of the companies divested from AT&T will find some interesting corporate history. A listing of books and resources on Bell Systems is available for anyone interested in further research and hobbyists will find links to resources and associations relating to electronics and telecommunications.

373

The relationship between IQ, memory, executive function, and processing speed in recent-onset psychosis: 1-year stability and clinical outcome.  

PubMed

Studies commonly report poor performance in psychotic patients compared with controls on tasks testing a range of cognitive functions, but, because current IQ is often not matched between these groups, it is difficult to determine whether this represents a generalized deficit or specific abnormalities. Fifty-three first-episode psychosis patients and 53 healthy controls, one-to-one matched for sex, age, and full-scale current IQ, were compared on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests representing indices of perceptual organization, verbal comprehension, processing speed, and working memory as well as other tests of executive function and episodic memory. The groups showed an equivalent pattern of performance on all WAIS subtests except digit symbol processing speed, on which the patients were significantly worse. Patients were also worse on measures where performance correlated with digit symbol score, namely working and verbal memory tasks. Standardized residual scores for each subtest were calculated for each patient using the difference between their actual subtest score and a predicted subtest score based on their full-scale IQ and the performance of controls. Scaled scores and residual scores were examined for relationships with clinical measures. Digit symbol-scaled score was significantly correlated with concurrent negative syndrome score at baseline, and digit symbol residual score significantly predicted residual negative symptoms at 1-year follow-up. In summary, our comparison of patients and controls precisely matched for IQ revealed that processing speed was attenuated in recent-onset schizophrenia, contributed significantly to working and episodic memory deficits, and was a prognostic factor for poor outcome at 1 year. PMID:18682375

Leeson, Verity C; Barnes, Thomas R E; Harrison, Masuma; Matheson, Elizabeth; Harrison, Isobel; Mutsatsa, Stanley H; Ron, Maria A; Joyce, Eileen M

2010-03-01

374

Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith  

E-print Network

Immunological Memory is Associative Derek J. Smith Department of Computer Science University of New Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA asp@t10.lanl.gov Abstract This paper argues that immunological memory population in the immune system). Keywords: Immunological Memory, Associative Memory, Cross-Reactive Memory

Somayaji, Anil

375

The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

Richards, Regina G.

376

How Minds Work Working & Episodic Memory  

E-print Network

1 How Minds Work Working & Episodic Memory Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 2 Memory Systems #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 3 #12;HMW: Working and Episodic Memory 4 Percept · Result of filtering

Memphis, University of

377

Is memory purely preservative?* Jrme Dokic  

E-print Network

1 Is memory purely preservative?* Jérôme Dokic (University of Rouen and CREA, Paris) In C. Hoerl & T. McCormack (eds), Time and Memory, Oxford: OUP. §1 Two forms of memory and Goethe's Problem Let us start with a familiar distinction between two forms of memory: episodic memory (remembering a thing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Explaining the Development of False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory

Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

2002-01-01

379

Computational Cognitive Neuroscience of Early Memory Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous brain areas work in concert to subserve memory, with distinct memory functions relying differentially on distinct brain areas. For example, semantic memory relies heavily on posterior cortical regions, episodic memory on hippocampal regions, and working memory on prefrontal cortical regions. This article reviews relevant findings from…

Munakata, Yuko

2004-01-01

380

Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination  

E-print Network

We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.

Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo M. D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

2008-03-21

381

Context Memory in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function. Summary Context recall, an element of episodic memory, refers to remembering the context in which an event has occurred, such as from whom or to whom information has been transmitted. Key Messages Our review raises crucial questions. For example, (1) which context element is more prone to being forgotten in the disease? (2) How do AD patients fail to bind context features together? (3) May distinctiveness heuristic or decisions based on metacognitive expectations improve context retrieval in these patients? (4) How does cueing at retrieval enhance reinstating of encoding context in AD? By addressing these questions, our work contributes to the understanding of the memory deficits in AD. PMID:24403906

El Haj, Mohamad; Kessels, Roy P.C.

2013-01-01

382

Towards Terabit Memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm˛, the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm˛. Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm˛/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm˛ in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet little data on their energy/b. As a read-out memory with unparalleled retention and lifetime, the ROM with electron-beam direct-write-lithography (Chap. 8) should be considered for its projected 2D density of 250 Gb/cm˛, a very small read energy of 0.1 ?W/Gb/s. The lithography write-speed 10 ms/Terabit makes this ROM a serious contentender for the optimum in non-volatile, tamper-proof storage.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

383

Diagnostic Validity of Wechsler Substest Scatter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive subtest scatter has often been considered to be diagnostically significant. The current study tested the diagnostic validity of four separate operationalizations of WISC-III subtest scatter: (a) range of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (b) variance of verbal, performance, and full-scale subtests; (c) number of subtests…

Watkins, Marley W.

2005-01-01

384

Memory Management with Explicit Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been devoted to studies of and algorithms for memory management based on garbage collection or explicit allocation and deallocation. An alternative approach, region-based memory management, has been known for decades, but has not been well-studied. In a region-based system each allocation specifies a region, and memory is reclaimed by destroying a region, freeing all the storage allocated

David Gay; Alexander Aiken

1998-01-01

385

Cashmere-VLM: Remote Memory Paging for Software Distributed Shared Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software distributed shared memory (DSM) systems have successfully provided the illusion of shared memory on dis- tributed memory machines. However, most software DSM systems use the main memory of each machine as a level in a cache hierarchy, replicating copies of shared data in local memory. Since computer memories tend to be much larger than caches, DSM systems have largely

Sandhya Dwarkadas; Robert Stets; Nikos Hardavellas; Leonidas I. Kontothanassis; Rishiyur S. Nikhil

1999-01-01

386

Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation  

PubMed Central

There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

2014-01-01

387

Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

1998-01-01

388

Nitinol-reinforced shape-memory polymers  

E-print Network

Reinforced shape-memory polymers have been developed from an acrylate based thermoset shape-memory polymer and nitinol wires. A rectangular shape-memory polymer measuring approximately 1 by 2 by 0.1 inches has a ten fold ...

Di Leo, Claudio V

2010-01-01

389

Memory for Sentences: Implications for Human Associative Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates associative theories of sentence memory, based on the model of J.R. Anderson and G.H. Bower. A model of Human Associative Memory (HAM) is generalized and defined, and alternative models incorporating configural information are presented. (CK)

Foss, Donald J.; Harwood, David A.

1975-01-01

390

Selective Memory in Depression: Memory Deficit or Response Bias?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research looking for cognitive factors specific to depression has resulted in the consistent finding that memory in depression is selective. The phenomenon of selective memory for negative events in depression was investigated using signal detection methods to separately examine the contributions of information processing deficits and response…

Rabin, Adele S.

391

[Memory and brain--neurobiological correlates of memory disturbances].  

PubMed

A differentiation of memory is possible on the basis of chronological and contents-related aspects. Furthermore, it is possible to make process-specific subdivisions (encoding, transfer, consolidation, retrieval). The time-related division on the one hand refers to the general differentiation into short-term and long-term memory, and, on the other, to that between anterograde and retrograde memory ("new" and "old memory"; measured from a given time point, usually that when brain damage occurred). Anterograde memory means the successful encoding and storing of new information; retrograde the ability to retrieve successfully acquired and/or stored information. On the contents-based level, memory can be divided into five basic long-term systems--episodic memory, the knowledge system, perceptual, procedural and the priming form of memory. Neural correlates for these divisions are discussed with special emphasis of the episodic and the knowledge systems, based both on normal individuals and brain-damaged subjects. It is argued that structures of the limbic system are important for encoding of information and for its transfer into long-term memory. For this, two independent, but interacting memory circuits are proposed--one of them controlling and integrating primarily the emotional, and the other primarily the cognitive components of newly incoming information. For information storage principally neocortical structures are regarded as important and for the recall of information from the episodic and semantic memory systems the combined action of portions of prefrontal and anterior temporal regions is regarded as essential. Within this fronto-temporal agglomerate, a moderate hemispheric-specificity is assumed to exist with the right-hemispheric combination being mainly engaged in episodic memory retrieval and the left-hemispheric in that of semantic information. Evidence for this specialization comes from the results from focally brain-damaged patients as well as from that functional brain imaging in normal human subjects. Comparing results from imaging studies in memory disturbed patients with brain damage and from patients with a psychiatric diagnosis (e. g., psychogenic amnesia) revealed that both patient groups demonstrate comparable metabolic changes on the brain level. It can therefore be concluded that in neurological patients distinct, identifiable tissue damage is existent, while in psychiatric patients changes in the brain's biochemistry (release of stress hormones, and transmitters) constitute the physiological bases for the memory disturbances. PMID:12677555

Calabrese, P; Markowitsch, H J

2003-04-01

392

Nonvolatile Analog Memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

393

Theories with Memory  

E-print Network

Dimensionally reduced supersymmetric theories retain a great deal of information regarding their higher dimensional origins. In superspace, this "memory" allows us to restore the action governing a reduced theory to that describing its higher-dimensional progenitor. We illustrate this by restoring four-dimensional N=4 Yang-Mills to its six-dimensional parent, N=(1,1) Yang-Mills. Supersymmetric truncation is introduced into this framework and used to obtain the N=1 action in six dimensions. We work in light-cone superspace, dealing exclusively with physical degrees of freedom.

Sudarshan Ananth

2005-11-18

394

Magnetic bubble memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of magnetic bubble memories in systems is investigated by a review of their functions and construction. Propagation, which is achieved by varying localized magnetic field gradients, and detection, which is achieved by the magnetoresistive effect, are discussed. Board-level products, board or boxed subsystems, and custom designed systems are described, and military applications such as the PBM 90M (1 Mbyte module) for FHD replacement systems are presented. Other applications include security systems, computer terminals, and traffic control. Advantages of bubble systems are also summarized, and include the rugged nonvolatile storage medium, low cost, and high reliability.

Baker, K.

395

Black hole memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the formation of black holes during the very early stages of a universe in which the gravitational ‘constant’ evolves with time. We argue that black holes will retain ‘memory’ of the value of the gravitational ‘constant’,G, at the time of their formation. Their horizon size and their thermal characteristics are determined by the value ofG when they form, not by the value we measure in the external universe today. The observational effects of primordial black hole explosions are therefore radically altered.

Barrow, John D.

1994-01-01

396

Investigation of Shape Memory Polymers and Their Hybrid Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a newly developed polymer, shape memory polyurethane (SMP), will be introduced. The shape memory polymer possesses the same basic shape memory effect and elasticity memory effect as shape memory alloys. Shape memory polymers can change their elastic modulus up to 500 times around their glass transition temperatures. Both the shape memory effect and the elasticity memory effect

C. Liang; C. A. Rogers; E. Malafeew

1997-01-01

397

Revisiting the Academic Hardiness Scale: Revision and Revalidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used two studies to evaluate, modify, and provide initial validation for a revised Academic Hardiness scale. First, 16 experts rated scale items for content validity and identified two problematic questions. Second, confirmatory factor analyses with 300 Grade 10 students (46% boys, age range 14-17) identified a 17-item version to be the best…

Creed, Peter A.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dhaliwal, Kamal

2013-01-01

398

Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

Burt, Christopher D. B.

2008-01-01

399

Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-01-01

400

Children's Memory for Stressful Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, children's memory of venipuncture or inoculations were compared with memory of less stressful events. In another study, natural variations in children's stress and the effect of short delays were examined. In yet another study, a delay interval of one year was examined. (BB)

Goodman, Gail S.; And Others

1991-01-01

401

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF HUMAN MEMORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is re- viewed about the

J. D. E. Gabrieli

1998-01-01

402

Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

2012-01-01

403

Rehearsal in spatial working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports 3 experiments that tested a hypothesis regarding the nature of rehearsal in spatial working memory, one in which discrete shifts of spatial selective attention mediate the maintenance of location-specific representations. Experiment 1 demonstrated increases in visual processing efficiency for locations held in working memory, which suggested that attention was oriented toward these locations. Experiment 2 eliminated key

Edward Awh; John Jonides; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz

1998-01-01

404

Memory access buffering in multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In highly-pipelined machines, instructions and data are prefetched and buffered in both the processor and the cache. This is done to reduce the average memory access latency and to take advantage of memory interleaving. Lock-up free caches are designed to avoid processor blocking on a cache miss. Write buffers are often included in a pipelined machine to avoid processor waiting

Michel Dubois; Christoph Scheurich; Faye A. Briggs

1986-01-01

405

Shape memory alloy thaw sensors  

DOEpatents

A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

406

The genetics of episodic memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Studies suggest that there is a considerable genetic contribution to individual episodic memory performance. Identifying genes which impact recollection may further elucidate an emerging biology and pave the way towards novel cognitive interventions. To date, several candidate genes have been explored and a few seem to have modest but measurable effects. Methods: Here we review the biology of memory

Jeremy Koppel; Terry Goldberg

2009-01-01

407

Garnet Random-Access Memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

Katti, Romney R.

1995-01-01

408

Plated wire random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

409

A parametric associative memory emulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental associative memory facility has been created by microprogramming a conventional computer. The microprogramming was done by expansion of an IBM 1130 emulation that was microcoded on a Digital Scientific Corporation META 4 computer. The associative memory (AM), as seen by the 1130 applications programmer, is an integral part of the computer with 54 machine instructions provided for its

S. H. Dalrymple

1975-01-01

410

The Reality of Repressed Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1993-01-01

411

Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union  

E-print Network

Paver Program Oklahoma Memorial Union The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association Pave the Way in the Oklahoma Memorial Union Courtyard. Now you can. The UniversiTy of oklahoma Alumni Association 900 Asp Ave of Oklahoma is an equal opportunity institution. This brochure was printed at no cost to the taxpayers

Oklahoma, University of

412

Demonic memory for process histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demonic memory is a form of reconstructive memory for process histories. As a process executes, its states are regularly checkpointed, generating a history of the process at low time resolution. Following the initial generation, any prior state of the process can be reconstructed by starting from a checkpointed state and re-executing the process up through the desired state, thereby exploiting

Paul R. Wilson; Thomas G. Moher

1989-01-01

413

Arizona Memory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arizona Memory Project serves as a vast repository of items related to the state of Arizona and its people. It's quite impressive as they have over 100,000 items kindly offered by a range of institutions from around the state. This wealth of information can be a bit overwhelming for first-time visitors who might do well to check out the "Spotlight On" section. Here, visitors can get started with a few select items, such as WPA posters, portraits, and architectural renderings. Folks with a geographical bent may wish to look over the "Where in Arizona?" interactive map where visitors can learn about the Arizona Memory Project's partners, such as the Mohave Museum of History and Arts, and the items they have contributed. Also, visitors can use the Browse function to find items arranged by collection, time period, or topic. Educators shouldn't miss the Teacher Resources and the project's Flickr feed is a great addition, housing a trove of Arizona-related images.

414

Material for optical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and highly promising optical memory technology based on a proprietary metal oxide material has been developed in an on-going Rome Laboratory/Laser Chemical Corporation effort. Metal oxide materials are being evaluated for use as optical disk media and optically addressable electronic memory. Simultaneously presented Nd:YAG laser beams at 1.06 micrometer and doubled YAG at 532 nm are used to write blue bits on the metal oxide material. The 532 nm radiation causes electron transfer from oxygen to metal atoms. This weakens the metal- oxygen bonds, allowing lattice oxygen to be driven out. This additional electron then can move from one metal atom in the written spot to another. This process, called 'intervalence transfer,' involves absorption of visible light, making the material appear a different color then the unwritten material. The color change is permanent until the material is reheated to a temperature greater than 350 degrees Celsius either in an oven for global erase, or by a concentrated infrared laser beam for spot erase. Multiwavelength schemes are incorporated into optically reading the bits. Design, fabrication and evaluation of WO3 thin films is discussed.

Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Osman, Joseph M.; Villarica, R. M.; Chaiken, Joseph

1997-07-01

415

Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures  

PubMed Central

In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

2012-01-01

416

Unconditional Room Temperature Quantum Memory  

E-print Network

Just as classical information systems require buffers and memory, the same is true for quantum information systems. The potential that optical quantum information processing holds for revolutionising computation and communication is therefore driving significant research into developing optical quantum memory. A practical optical quantum memory must be able to store and recall quantum states on demand with high efficiency and low noise. Ideally, the platform for the memory would also be simple and inexpensive. Here, we present a complete tomographic reconstruction of quantum states that have been stored in the ground states of rubidium in a vapour cell operating at around 80$^o$C. Without conditional measurements, we show recall fidelity up to 98% for coherent pulses containing around one photon. In order to unambiguously verify that our memory beats the quantum no-cloning limit we employ state independent verification using conditional variance and signal transfer coefficients.

M. Hosseini; G. Campbell; B. M. Sparkes; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler

2014-12-29

417

The relationship between working memory and cerebral white matter volume in survivors of childhood brain tumors treated with conformal radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Survivors of childhood brain tumors (BTs) treated with CNS-directed therapy show changes in cerebral white matter that are related to neurocognitive late effects. We examined the association between white matter volume and working memory ability in survivors treated with conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Fifty survivors (25 males, age at assessment = 13.14 ± 2.88, age at CRT = 7.41 ± 3.41 years) completed Digit Span from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th Edition and experimental Self-Ordered Search (SOS) tasks as measures of working memory. Caregiver ratings were obtained using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. MRI exams were acquired on a 1.5 T scanner. Volumes of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were quantified using a well-validated automated segmentation and classification program. Correlational analyses demonstrated that NAWM volumes were significantly larger in males and participants with tumors located in the infratentorial space. Correlations between NAWM volume and Digit Span Backward were distributed across anterior and posterior regions, with evidence for greater right hemisphere involvement (r = .32-.34, p ? .05). Correlations between NAWM volume with Digit Span Backward (r = .44-.52; p ? .05) and NAWM volume with SOS-Object Total (r = .45-.52, p ? .05) were of greater magnitude in females. No relationship was found between NAWM volume and caregiver report. Working memory performance in survivors of pediatric BTs treated with CRT are related to regionally specific NAWM volume. Developmental differences in cerebral myelination may explain findings of greater risk for neurocognitive late effects in female survivors. Future studies are needed to better isolate vulnerable white matter pathways, thus facilitating the development of neuroprotective interventions. PMID:24847967

Jacola, Lisa M; Ashford, Jason M; Reddick, Wilburn E; Glass, John O; Ogg, Robert J; Merchant, Thomas E; Conklin, Heather M

2014-08-01

418

Stress, memory, and the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders. PMID:24777135

Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

2014-01-01

419

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

420

Landsberg Memorial Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In memory of the late Helmut E. Landsberg, an all-day symposium will be held at the Adult Education Center of the University of Maryland, College Park, on February 10, 1986. The symposium had originally been planned to honor what would have been the climatologist's 80th birthday. Landsberg, a past president of AGU, died December 6, 1985, while attending a meeting of the International Commission on Climatology at the World Meteorological Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.The symposium's speakers will discuss aspects of Landsberg's influence on climatology. At 5:00 P.M., several of Landsberg's close friends and colleagues will give eulogies in a commemorative ceremony. A reception will be held after this ceremony. (The banquet that had originally been planned for the symposium has been cancelled.)

421

Evolution of working memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit “system 2” forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

Carruthers, Peter

2013-01-01

422

Shape memory alloy cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional structural cables (or wire ropes) are composed of steel wires helically wound into strands, which, in turn, are wound around a core. Cables made from shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are a new structural element with promising properties for a broad range of new applications. Among the many potential advantages of this form are increased bending flexibility for spooling/packaging, better fatigue performance, energy absorption and damping, reduced thermal lag, redundancy, and signicant design flexibility. Currently there are no known studies of SMA cables in the literature, so exploratory thermo-mechanical experiments were performed on two commercially available cable designs as part of an ongoing research program to systematically characterize their thermomechanical behavior and demonstrate their potential utility as adaptive or resilient tension elements.

Reedlunn, Benjamin; Shaw, John A.

2008-03-01

423

Armstrong remembered at memorial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neil Armstrong, who died on 25 August, was recognized during a 13 September memorial service as a courageous, humble, and reluctant hero who in 1969 became the first person to step onto the Moon. The service, held at the National Cathedral in Washington, D. C., included remembrances from astronauts and friends, an excerpt from President John Kennedy's 1962 “We choose to go to the Moon” speech, and a somber rendition of the jazz standard “Fly Me to the Moon.” NASA administrator Charles Bolden said that Armstrong, commander of NASA's Apollo 11 mission, “left a foundation for the future and paved the way for future American explorers to be first to step foot on Mars or another planet. Today, let us recommit ourselves to this grand challenge in honor of the man who first demonstrated it was possible to reach new worlds—and whose life demonstrated the quiet resolve and determination that makes every new, more difficult step into space possible.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

424

Fluids with memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological "fluids" have some pretty interesting properties not the least of which is the fact that many of the most important ones are solid rocks in everyday experience. Other interesting properties include the fact that deforming geomaterials often remember the history of their deformation --- e.g. viscoelastic materials which carry their stress history, softening-plastic materials which carry a record of the total deformation or the damage caused by the deformation, and anisotropic materials which may gradually align their internal orientations with the local deformation field. This poster will explore some of these memory effects using analogy with everyday materials and common experience --- buckets of snot, pond slime and oozing sludge will all feature very prominently.

Moresi, L.

2006-12-01

425

Sam Houston Memorial Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Huntsville, Texas, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum pays homage to this celebrated American and first President of the Republic of Texas. Their homepage provides interested parties with information on his life in the "Sam's Life" area (including a timeline), along with a calendar of events and updates on their annual folk festival. It's worth nothing that the "Sam's Life" area also includes a FAQ area, quotes from the man himself, a family photo album, and a bibliography. Moving on, the "Virtual Tour" area is a bit of a treat as visitors can use the graphic to wander around the grounds. Finally, the "Fun Stuff" area includes information about the six flags of Texas, the Republic, and a few regional recipes, including one for molasses pie that sounds delicious.

426

Large capacity temporary visual memory.  

PubMed

Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to 3 or 4 items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor--proactive interference--is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation of 5-21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited, as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

Endress, Ansgar D; Potter, Mary C

2014-04-01

427

Surface shape memory in polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and applications for surface shape memory in polymers will round out the talk.

Mather, Patrick

2012-02-01

428

Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

2005-01-01

429

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

430

Memory for Traumatic Experiences in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traumatic experiences in early childhood raise important questions about memory development in general and about the durability and accessibility of memories for traumatic events in particular. We discuss memory for early childhood traumatic events, from a developmental perspective, focusing on those factors that may equally influence memories for…

Cordon, Ingrid M.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Sayfan, Liat; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.

2004-01-01

431

CS 31: Intro to Systems Virtual Memory  

E-print Network

CS 31: Intro to Systems Virtual Memory #12;Memory · Abstrac9on goal: make every process think it has the same memory layout. ­ MUCH simpler so much memory to go around, and no two processes should use the same

Danner, Andrew

432

When Distinctiveness Fails, False Memories Prevail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that fuzzy-trace theory provides a link between indices of memory performance and the theoretical processes that underlie that performance. Author argues false memories can arise because of processes that normally affect forgetting. Maintains that, to the extent that memories lose their distinctive properties, such memories may become…

Howe, Mark L.

1998-01-01

433

CLIO: Context Supporting Collective City Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal memories as expressed through narrations, photos or drawings, published or confined texts, often describe events that have occurred in cities; in time these personal memories are melded into a collective memory attached to the physical space. Collective memory is closely related to location, refers to a time period and reflects the social interactions of people who share it. All

Eleni Christopoulou; Dimitrios Ringas

2011-01-01

434

Semantic Memory for Music in Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

there is currently limited information about the effects of dementia diseases on semantic memory for music: memory for musical objects and concepts. Here we review available evidence and emerging research directions in semantic memory for music in the degenerative dementias. Neurodegenerative pathologies affect distributed brain networks and can therefore provide a perspective on musical semantic memory that complements the traditional

Rohani Omar; Julia C. Hailstone; Jason D. Warren

2012-01-01

435

Memory training for children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

One well-established fact concerning cognitive and language development in individu- als with Down syndrome is that working memory is particularly poor, with auditory working memory worse than visual working memory. Working memory serves the functions of control, regulation, and active maintenance of information and is critical in daily complex cognitive activi- ties. Thus, there is a strong need to fi

Frances A. Conners; Celia J. Rosenquist; Lori A. Taylor

2001-01-01

436

Metacognitive Aspects of Implicit/Explicit Memory  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 Metacognitive Aspects of Implicit/Explicit Memory Louis Narens University of Califmia A widely held belief in the area of implicit/explicit memory research is that implicit memory is revealed or intentional or deliberate remembrance of those experiences, whereas explicit memory is revealed when

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

437

Depression and the Test of Memory Malingering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) [Tombaugh, T. N., 1996. The Test of Memory Malingering. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems], has consistently shown that it is sensitive to exaggerated or deliberate faking of memory impairment, but it is relatively unaffected by a wide variety of neurological impairments causing genuine memory dysfunction. However, there is little research on the effects

Laura M Rees; Tom N Tombaugh; Luc Boulay

2001-01-01

438

Learning and Memory Eric R. Kandel  

E-print Network

to the question: Are there also discrete systems in the brain concerned with memory? If so, are all memory fundamentally different types of memory storage, and certain regions of the brain are much more importantBack 62 Learning and Memory Eric R. Kandel Irving Kupfermann Susan Iversen BEHAVIOR IS THE RESULT

Ulanovsky, Nachum

439

Considering an Organization's Memory Mark S. Ackerman  

E-print Network

Considering an Organization's Memory Mark S. Ackerman Information and Computer Science University 7751 krys@watson.ibm.com ABSTRACT The term organizational memory is due for an overhaul. Memory appears, and the memory used in the work activity. We do this analysis from the viewpoint of distributed cognition theory

Ackerman, Mark S.

440

Implicit memory: History and current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory for a recent event can be expressed explicitly, as conscious recollection, or implicitly, as a facilitation of test performance without conscious recollection. A growing number of recent studies have been concerned with implicit memory and its relation to explicit memory. This article presents an historical survey of observations concerning implicit memory, reviews the findings of contempo- rary experimental research,

Daniel L. Schacter

1987-01-01

441

Trauma and Delayed Memory: A Review of the "Repressed Memories" Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article aims to draw a balanced conclusion about trauma and memory from current information on repressed memories. Research suggests that (1) emotion impacts memory, (2) psychogenic amnesia can result from unusual levels of trauma, and (3) delayed memories are prone to errors. Inaccuracies in traumatic memories occur more often in peripheral…

Flathman, Marcus

1999-01-01

442

Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: Concordant findings from fMRI  

E-print Network

Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: Concordant findings from fMRI and memory Lake City, UT 84143 Contributed by Larry R. Squire, April 4, 2006 We studied item and source memory with fMRI in healthy volun- teers and carried out a parallel study in memory-impaired patients

Wagner, Anthony

443

Event Understanding and Memory 1 Running head: Event Understanding and Memory  

E-print Network

Event Understanding and Memory 1 Running head: Event Understanding and Memory Event Understanding and Memory in Healthy Aging and Dementia of the Alzheimer Type Jeffrey M. Zacks, Nicole K. Speer, Jean M Understanding and Memory 2 Abstract Segmenting ongoing activity into events is important for later memory

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

444

Gifts in Memory of LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 James B. Abeltin `74 in memory of  

E-print Network

Gifts in Memory of LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 James B. Abeltin `74 in memory of Roger K. McFillin `74 `04P James J. Addonizio `75 in memory of Roger K. McFillin `74 `04P Alan J. & Susan A. Fuirst Philanthropic Fund in memory of David J. Sielewicz `86 Betty W. Alderson in memory of James B. Hobbs Amaranth

Napier, Terrence

445

Memory consistency and event ordering in scalable shared-memory multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable shared-memory multiprocessors distribute memory among the processors and use scalable interconnection networks to provide high bandwidth and low latency communication. In addition, memory accesses are cached, buffered, and pipelined to bridge the gap between the slow shared memory and the fast processors. Unless carefully controlled, such architectural optimizations can cause memory accesses to be executed in an order different

Kourosh Gharachorloo; Daniel E. Lenoski; James P. Laudon; Phillip B. Gibbons; Anoop Gupta; John L. Hennessy

1990-01-01

446

Memory as Muse: An Argument for a Reconsideration of Memory as a Canon of Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although memory was one of the five canons of classical rhetoric, the more contemporary, narrower definition of memory as the training of the mind to remember certain things has eliminated memory as a useful rhetorical canon. However, teachers of writing who do regard memory highly, can redefine memory to restore it as one of the canons of…

Rider, Janine

447

Working Memory and Schizophrenia 1 Running head: working memory and schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Working Memory and Schizophrenia 1 Running head: working memory and schizophrenia Working memory impairments in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis Junghee Lee and Sohee Park Department of Psychology Vanderbilt.Park@vanderbilt.edu or Junghee.Lee@vanderbilt.edu #12;Working Memory and Schizophrenia 2 Abstract Working memory (WM) deficit

Park, Sohee

448

Distinguishing source memory and item memory: Brain potentials at encoding and retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vivid memory for an episode generally includes memory for a central object or event plus memory for background context or source information. To assess neural differences between source and item memory, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to monitor relevant memory processes at both encoding and retrieval. Participants fluent in Chinese studied Chinese words superimposed on a square or circular background

Chunyan Guo; Li Duan; Wen Li; Ken A. Paller

2006-01-01

449

Eye movement monitoring of memory.  

PubMed

Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior experience. The influence of memory is revealed in the extent to which scanning patterns to new images differ from scanning patterns to images that have been previously studied. Memory can also be interrogated for its specificity; for instance, eye movement patterns that differ between an identical and an altered version of a previously studied image reveal the storage of the altered detail in memory. These indices of memory can be compared across participant populations, thereby providing a powerful tool by which to examine the organization of memory in healthy individuals, and the specific changes that occur to memory with neurological insult or decline. PMID:20736919

Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

2010-01-01

450

Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

Jordan, Harry F.

1991-01-01

451

A Robust Quantum Random Access Memory  

E-print Network

A "bucket brigade" architecture for a quantum random memory of $N=2^n$ memory cells needs $n(n+5)/2$ times of quantum manipulation on control circuit nodes per memory call. Here we propose a scheme, in which only average $n/2$ times manipulation is required to accomplish a memory call. This scheme may significantly decrease the time spent on a memory call and the average overall error rate per memory call. A physical implementation scheme for storing an arbitrary state in a selected memory cell followed by reading it out is discussed.

Fang-Yu Hong; Yang Xiang; Zhi-Yan Zhu; Li-zhen Jiang; Liang-neng Wu

2012-01-11

452

A Case of Mistaken Memory? The Psychology of Eyewitness Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case explores the fundamental principles of memory, eyewitness accuracy, and police questioning techniques in witness identification in a criminal case. By studying the details of an actual series of attacks and the subsequent police investigation, students learn that memory is a reconstructive process rather than an accurate recording of events. The case has been used in an undergraduate introductory psychology course and in a course on psychology and the law. It could also be used in a cognitive psychology course.

Karen Chambers

2001-01-01

453

Spatial memory: are lizards really deficient?  

PubMed Central

In many animals, behaviours such as territoriality, mate guarding, navigation and food acquisition rely heavily on spatial memory abilities; this has been demonstrated in diverse taxa, from invertebrates to mammals. However, spatial memory ability in squamate reptiles has been seen as possible, at best, or non-existent, at worst. Of the few previous studies testing for spatial memory in squamates, some have found no evidence of spatial memory while two studies have found evidence of spatial memory in snakes, but have been criticized based on methodological issues. We used the Barnes maze, a common paradigm to test spatial memory abilities in mammals, to test for spatial memory abilities in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). We found the existence of spatial memory in this species using this spatial task. Thus, our study supports the existence of spatial memory in this squamate reptile species and seeks to parsimoniously align this species with the diverse taxa that demonstrate spatial memory ability. PMID:22933038

LaDage, L. D.; Roth, T. C.; Cerjanic, A. M.; Sinervo, B.; Pravosudov, V. V.

2012-01-01

454

Main Memory Database Systems: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Memory resident database systems (MMDB’s) store their data,in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular,characteristics,of disk,storage,mechanisms.,Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper,surveys,the major memory residence optimizations and briefly discusses some of the memory resident

Hector Garcia-molina; Kenneth Salem

1992-01-01

455

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

456

Thermodynamic Model of Spatial Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and test a thermodynamic model of spatial memory. Our model is an application of statistical thermodynamics to cognitive science. It is related to applications of the statistical mechanics framework in parallel distributed processes research. Our macroscopic model allows us to evaluate an entropy associated with spatial memory tasks. We find that older adults exhibit higher levels of entropy than younger adults. Thurstone's Law of Categorical Judgment, according to which the discriminal processes along the psychological continuum produced by presentations of a single stimulus are normally distributed, is explained by using a Hooke spring model of spatial memory. We have also analyzed a nonlinear modification of the ideal spring model of spatial memory. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

Kaufman, Miron; Allen, P.

1998-03-01

457

The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union  

E-print Network

The Leadership Cluster Memorial Union Student Leadership and Involvement Student Media Something New @ OSU #12;Access Diversity "Leadership/Citizenship" Community Connection Health & Wellness Housing & Dining Administrative Leadership #12;Student Leadership & Involvement SLI-Activities Program Club

Escher, Christine

458

Immunological memory to viral infection.  

PubMed

Immunological memory is defined by the ability of a host to remember a past encounter with a specific pathogen and to respond to it in an effective manner upon re-exposure. How long immunological memory can be maintained in the absence of re-infection continues to be a subject of great controversy. Recent studies on immunity following smallpox vaccination demonstrate that T-cell memory declines steadily with a half-life of 8-15 years, whereas antiviral antibody responses are maintained for up to 75 years without appreciable decline. By combining recent advances in quantitative immunology with historical accounts of protection against smallpox dating back to the time of Edward Jenner, we are gaining a better understanding of the duration and magnitude of immunological memory and how it relates to protective immunity. PMID:15245737

Slifka, Mark K

2004-08-01

459

Epigenetic memory: the Lamarckian brain.  

PubMed

Recent data support the view that epigenetic processes play a role in memory consolidation and help to transmit acquired memories even across generations in a Lamarckian manner. Drugs that target the epigenetic machinery were found to enhance memory function in rodents and ameliorate disease phenotypes in models for brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Chorea Huntington, Depression or Schizophrenia. In this review, I will give an overview on the current knowledge of epigenetic processes in memory function and brain disease with a focus on Morbus Alzheimer as the most common neurodegenerative disease. I will address the question whether an epigenetic therapy could indeed be a suitable therapeutic avenue to treat brain diseases and discuss the necessary steps that should help to take neuroepigenetic research to the next level. PMID:24719207

Fischer, Andre

2014-05-01

460

Philip C. Hamm Memorial Lecture  

E-print Network

. Hamm Memorial Lectureship in the Plant Sciences was established in 1980 by a grant from Monsanto positions with Monsanto before his appointment as Science Fellow in 1959 and Distinguished Science Fellow

Weiblen, George D

461

Robert Hooke's model of memory.  

PubMed

In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

Hintzman, Douglas L

2003-03-01

462

Distinct processes shape flashbulb and event memories.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the relation between memory for a consequential and emotional event and memory for the circumstances in which people learned about that event, known as flashbulb memory. We hypothesized that these two types of memory have different determinants and that event memory is not necessarily a direct causal determinant of flashbulb memory. Italian citizens (N = 352) described their memories of Italy's victory in the 2006 Football World Cup Championship after a delay of 18 months. Structural equation modeling showed that flashbulb memory and event memory could be clearly differentiated and were determined by two separate pathways. In the first pathway, importance predicted emotional intensity, which, in turn, predicted the frequency of overt and covert rehearsal. Rehearsal was the only direct determinant of vivid and detailed flashbulb memories. In the second pathway, importance predicted rehearsal by media exposure, which enhanced the accuracy and certainty of event memory. Event memory was also enhanced by prior knowledge. These results have important implications for the debate concerning whether the formation of flashbulb memory and event memory involve different processes and for understanding how flashbulb memory can be simultaneously so vivid and so error-prone. PMID:24217894

Tinti, Carla; Schmidt, Susanna; Testa, Silvia; Levine, Linda J

2014-05-01

463

Atomic snapshots of shared memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a general formulation ofatomic snapshot memory, a sharedmemory partitioned into words written(updated) by individual processes, orinstantaneously read (scanned) in itsentirety. This paper presents three wait-free implementations of atomicsnapshot memory. The first implementation in this paper uses unbounded(integer) fields in these registers, and is particularly easy tounderstand. The second implementation uses bounded registers. Itscorrectness proof follows the ideas

Yehuda Afek; Hagit Attiya; Danny Dolev; Eli Gafni; Michael Merritt; Nir Shavit

1993-01-01

464

Shape memory alloy thaw sensors  

DOEpatents

A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

1998-04-07

465

Shape-Memory Polymer Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of shape-memory polymer composites (SMPCs) enables high recovery stress levels as well as novel functions\\u000a such as electrical conductivity, magnetism, and biofunctionality. In this review chapter the substantial enhancement in mechanical\\u000a properties of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) by incorporating small amounts of stiff fillers will be highlighted exemplarily\\u000a for clay and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). Three different functions resulting

Samy A. Madbouly; Andreas Lendlein

2010-01-01

466

Transactional Memory Coherence and Consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propos a new shared memory model: Transactionalmemory Coherence and Consistency (TCC).TCC providesa model in which atomic transactions are always the basicunit of parallel work, communication, memory coherence, andmemory reference consistency.TCC greatly simplifies parallelsoftware by eliminating the need for synchronization using conventionallocks and semaphores, along with their complexities.TCC hardware must combine all writes from each transaction regionin

Lance Hammond; Vicky Wong; Michael K. Chen; Brian D. Carlstrom; John D. Davis; Ben Hertzberg; Manohar K. Prabhu; Honggo Wijaya; Christos Kozyrakis; Kunle Olukotun

2004-01-01

467

Language comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits in  

E-print Network

comprehension questions. We measured working memory by administering a reading span task. Results indicated thatLanguage comprehension and working memory language comprehension and working memory deficits examined the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in language comprehension compared

468

Incidental recall on WAIS-R digit symbol discriminates Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how Alzheimer's (n = 37) and Parkinson's (n = 21) patients perform on the incidental recall adaptation to the Digit Symbol of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and how such performance is related to established cognitive efficiency and memory measures. This adaptation requires the examinee to complete the entire subtest and then, without warning, to immediately recall the symbols associated with each number. Groups did not differ significantly on standard Digit Symbol administration (90 seconds), but on recall Parkinson's patients recalled significantly more symbols and symbol-number pairs than Alzheimer's patients. Using only the number of symbols recalled, discriminate function analysis correctly classified 76% of these patients. Correlations between age-corrected scaled score, symbols incidentally recalled, and established measures of cognitive efficiency and memory provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Age-corrected scaled scores were more consistently and strongly related to cognitive efficiency, whereas symbols recalled were more consistently and strongly related to memory measures. These findings suggest that the Digit Symbol recall adaptation is actually assessing memory and that it can be another useful way to detect memory impairment. PMID:11241368

Demakis, G J; Sawyer, T P; Fritz, D; Sweet, J J

2001-03-01

469

Neuropsychological Functioning in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Short-Term Paroxetine Treatment  

PubMed Central

A previous study found improvements in verbal declarative memory in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following one year of open-label paroxetine treatment. The purpose of the present study was to replicate prior findings and to extend the previous study by comparing the effects of paroxetine versus placebo on cognition in patients with PTSD. Methods Eighteen participants with PTSD underwent assessment of neuropsychological function, following which they were randomized to receive controlled-release (CR) paroxetine or placebo, given in a variable dose in a double-blind manner for three months. Neuropsychological testing was then repeated. Subjects who had received placebo were then treated with open-label paroxetine CR and re-assessed. Results Paroxetine CR treatment resulted in a significant increase in verbal declarative memory function in the group as a whole, as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, the Selective Reminding Test, and novel paragraph recall, and explicit recall of neutral words. Although we found patterns of improved test performance with paroxetine versus placebo treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion These findings replicate an earlier finding that open label treatment with paroxetine CR is associated with improvements in verbal declarative memory function. The current study did not show a statistically significant difference between the effects of paroxetine and placebo on memory function, which may in part be related to our small sample size. PMID:19204651

Fani, Negar; Kitayama, Noriyuki; Ashraf, Ali; Reed, Lai; Afzal, Nadeem; Jawed, Farhan; Bremner, J. Douglas

2011-01-01

470

Magnetic content addressable memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of multiple current paths. Test chip was designed for the 4-MTJ design. Simulations were done on feasibility and operation windows of ring structure, SAF+DW, SAF+STT and SAF+SAF cell designs. For STT+STT design, only primitive discussion is presented.

Jiang, Zhenye

471

Infants hierarchically organize memory representations.  

PubMed

Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into chunks. Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this ability. In particular, it remains unknown whether infants can create more complex memory hierarchies, binding representations of chunks into still larger chunks in recursive fashion. Here we tested the limits of early chunking, first measuring the number of items infants can bind into a single chunk and the number of chunks infants can maintain concurrently, and then, critically, whether infants can embed chunked representations into larger units. We tested 14-month-old infants' memory for hidden objects using a manual search task in which we manipulated memory load (the number of objects infants saw hidden) and the chunking cues provided. We found that infants are limited in the number of items they can chunk and in the number of chunks they can remember. However, we also found that infants can bind representations of chunks into 'superchunks'. These results suggest that hierarchically organizing information strongly affects working memory, starting in infancy. PMID:23786478

Rosenberg, Rebecca D; Feigenson, Lisa

2013-07-01

472

Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

2014-08-01

473

Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory  

PubMed Central

Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered ‘quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338

Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

2014-01-01

474

Contextual Modulation of Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

We investigate olfactory memory consolidation in honeybees. Three experiments are reported that include 1024 animals in 28 experimental groups. After one pairing of odorant and sucrose reward, retention is typically nonmonotonic with a minimum 3 min after conditioning. This corresponds to the “Kamin effect” in vertebrates; the postminimum rise in retention is usually interpreted as reflecting memory consolidation. First, we test for the generality of this effect across four different odorants. The postminimum rise in retention was reproducibly observed for 1-hexanol but not for 1-octanol, limonene, or geraniol. Second, we investigate whether previous learning about the training context modulates subsequent memory consolidation. On the day before training, a reward was applied either upon placement into the future training context for 1 min, halfway during exposure or just before removal from the context. In the latter group, the 3-min minimum in retention was eliminated; thus, in that group, forward pairings of context and reward (i.e., context exposure begins before reward is applied) lead to an associative context memory that can modulate subsequent olfactory memory consolidation. Third, we found no evidence for a modulation of olfactory memory consolidation by pre-exposure to the odorant. PMID:10837504

Gerber, Bertram; Menzel, Randolf

2000-01-01

475

A case of thrombosed giant aneurysm of the azygos anterior cerebral artery: clipping under monitoring of motor evoked potentials of the lower extremities.  

PubMed

Giant aneurysms of the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), especially the azygos ACA, are rare. We treated a patient with giant aneurysm of the azygos ACA who underwent aspiration of thrombus and clipping under monitoring of motor evoked potentials of the lower extremities (L-MEPs), resulting in remarkable recovery of motor and intellectual function. A 72-year-old male was admitted with left motor weakness persisting for 2 weeks. Neurologically, disorientation and intellectual impairment were also noted. Imaging disclosed a 60-mm diameter aneurysm with heterochronous thrombi arising from the distal bifurcation of the azygos ACA. One month after the onset, radical surgery was scheduled. The azygos ACA was secured and the aneurysm was dissected, and the distal parts of the azygos ACA were confirmed. After removal of the thrombus, the neck was reconstructed with eight clips. L-MEPs disappeared due to occlusion of the azygos ACA for 20 minutes but reappeared after 22 minutes and normalized 78 minutes after reperfusion. Motor weakness improved entirely with mini-mental state examination score of 29 points at 1 month after surgery. One year later, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised scores reached normal levels. Review of reported cases found this aneurysm tends to occur in males in their 50s to 70s presenting with mass sign. Decompression of the aneurysm in the frontal lobe and monitoring of L-MEPs during temporary occlusion of the ACA are important. PMID:24140776

Yoneda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami

2014-01-01

476

Shape-memory materials and hybrid composites for smart systems: Part I Shape-memory materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the current research and development of shape-memory materials, including shape-memory alloys, shape-memory ceramics and shape-memory polymers. The shape-memory materials exhibit some novel performances, such as sensoring (thermal, stress or field), large-stroke actuation, high damping, adaptive responses, shape memory and superelasticity capability, which can be utilized in various engineering approaches to smart systems. Based on an

Z. G. Wei; R. Sandstroröm; S. Miyazaki

1998-01-01

477

Remote direct memory access  

DOEpatents

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

478

Montana Memory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Montana Memory Project is a digitized collection of materials related to the cultural heritage and government of Montana. The website represents an intensive collaboration between libraries, museums, archives, and institutions, many of which are still adding materials to the site. The purpose of the site is to "serve as a resource for education, business, pleasure and lifelong learning." On the homepage, visitors will find a brief description of each of the features of the site, including the "Browse", "Advanced Search", "Preferences", and "My Favorites" features of the site. As the amount of information available on the site can be daunting, visitors would be wise to take a look at the easy-to-read "Help" link, to find assistance for such tasks as "Viewing Results", "Changing Preferences", and "Viewing Compound Objects". There are over 50 collections to browse, or search through individually. The collections range from the "Livingston High School Annuals", to the "Montana Indian Law Portal" to the "Parmly Billings Library Historic Collection".

479

Towards Quantum Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last years have seen a remarkable advance of quantum cryptography, which promises information-theoretic secure communication. A remaining challenge concerns the increase of the transmission distance beyond its current limit of 100 km. This requires the development of a quantum repeater, which relies on the possibility to store and recall photons in unknown quantum states. An original protocol for quantum memory is based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening (CRIB) of a single atomic absorption line [1]. We will present experimental investigations of coherence times of Erbium doped fibres and crystalline waveguides [2], and the possibility to implement a controlled broadening by means of the linear dc-Stark effect [3]. The new findings demonstrate the potential of Erbium doped silicate fibers for CRIB based quantum state storage. [1] B. Kraus et al, Phys. Rev. A 73, 020302 (2006). [2] M.U. Staudt et al, Opt. Comm. 266, 720 (2006). [3] S.R. Hastings-Simon et al, Opt. Comm. 266, 716 (2006).

Tittel, Wolfgang; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas; Hastings-Simon, Sara; Staudt, Matthias

2007-06-01

480

Nonvolatile random access memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

481

Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies.  

PubMed

Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new class of memory technologies and scaling of scientific procedures based on an investigation of recent progress in advanced Flash memory devices. PMID:25278820

Meena, Jagan Singh; Sze, Simon Min; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

2014-01-01

482

Further consideration of advanced clinical solutions word choice: comparison to the recognition memory test-words and classification accuracy in a clinical sample.  

PubMed

Word Choice (WC), a test in the Advanced Clinical Solutions package for Wechsler measures, was examined in two studies. The first study compared WC to the Recognition Memory Test-Words (RMT-W) in a clinical sample (N = 46). WC scores were significantly higher than RMT-W scores overall and in sample subsets grouped by separate validity indicators. In item-level analyses, WC items demonstrated lower frequency, greater imageability, and higher concreteness than RMT-W items. The second study explored WC classification accuracy in a different clinical sample grouped by separate validity indicators into Pass (n = 54), Fail-1 (n = 17), and Fail-2 (n = 8) groups. WC scores were significantly higher in the Pass group (M = 49.1, SD = 1.9) than in the Fail-1 (M = 46.0, SD = 5.3) and Fail-2 (M = 44.1, SD = 4.8) groups. WC demonstrated area under the curve of .81 in classifying Pass and Fail-2 participants. Using the test manual cutoff associated with a 10% false positive rate, sensitivity was 38% and specificity was 96% in Pass and Fail-2 groups with 24% of Fail-1 participants scoring below cutoff. WC may be optimally used in combination with other measures given observed sensitivity. PMID:25372961

Davis, Jeremy J

2014-11-01

483

Thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior for epoxy-shape memory polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various applications for shape memory polymer (SMP) in the smart materials and structures field due to its large recoverable strain and controllable driving method. The mechanical shape memory deformation mechanism is so obscure that many samples and test schemes have to be tried in order to verify a final design proposal for a smart structure system. This paper proposes a simple and very useful method to unambiguously analyze the thermoviscoelastic shape memory behavior of SMP smart structures. First, experiments under different temperature and loading conditions are performed to characterize the large deformation and thermoviscoelastic behavior of epoxy-SMP. Then, a rheological constitutive model, which is composed of a revised standard linear solid (SLS) element and a thermal expansion element, is proposed for epoxy-SMP. The thermomechanical coupling effect and nonlinear viscous flowing rules are considered in the model. Then, the model is used to predict the measured rubbery and time-dependent response of the material, and different thermomechanical loading histories are adopted to verify the shape memory behavior of the model. The results of the calculation agree with experiments satisfactorily. The proposed shape memory model is practical for the design of SMP smart structures.

Chen, Jianguo; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2014-05-01

484

Mediationism and the obfuscation of memory  

PubMed Central

Memory theorizing is going nowhere. The reason is that it is rooted in mediationism, the doctrine that memory is mediated by some sort of memory trace. Mediationism is the basic tenet of those who seek the substrate of memory; for students of memory per se it is merely a metaphor, and moreover an unfruitful one, for it cannot be penetrated by the methods of psychology. The rejection of mediationism would serve both to replace mechanistic theories with laws or other modes of explanation and to focus research on the actual experience of memory and on the context in which it occurs. The ensuing advantages are discussed and illustrated. PMID:22478247

Watkins, Michael J.

1996-01-01

485

Synchronization in the presence of memory  

E-print Network

We study the effect of memory on synchronization of identical chaotic systems driven by common external noises. Our examples show that while in general synchronization transition becomes more difficult to meet when memory range increases, for intermediate ranges the synchronization tendency of systems can be enhanced. Generally the synchronization transition is found to depend on the memory range and the ratio of noise strength to memory amplitude, which indicates on a possibility of optimizing synchronization by memory. We also point out on a close link between dynamics with memory and noise, and recently discovered synchronizing properties of networks with delayed interactions.

Rafael Morgado; Michal Ciesla; Lech Longa; Fernando A. Oliveira

2007-01-25

486

The OpenMP Memory Model  

SciTech Connect

The memory model of OpenMP has been widely misunderstood since the first OpenMP specification was published in 1997 (Fortran 1.0). The proposed OpenMP specification (version 2.5) includes a memory model section to address this issue. This section unifies and clarifies the text about the use of memory in all previous specifications, and relates the model to well-known memory consistency semantics. In this paper, we discuss the memory model and show its implications for future distributed shared memory implementations of OpenMP.

Hoeflinger, J P; de Supinski, B R

2005-06-01

487

Memory efficient error diffusion.  

PubMed

Because of its good image quality and moderate computational requirements, error diffusion has become a popular halftoning solution for desktop printers, especially inkjet printers. By making the weights and thresholds tone-dependent and using a predesigned halftone bitmap for tone-dependent threshold modulation, it is possible to achieve image quality very close to that obtained with far more computationally complex iterative methods. However, the ability to implement error diffusion in very low cost or large format products is hampered by the requirement to store the tone-dependent parameters and halftone bitmap, and also the need to store error information for an entire row of the image at any given point during the halftoning process. For the first problem, we replace the halftone bitmap by deterministic bit flipping, which has been previously applied to halftoning, and we linearly interpolate the tone-dependent weights and thresholds from a small set of knot points. We call this implementation a reduced lookup table. For the second problem, we introduce a new serial block-based approach to error diffusion. This approach depends on a novel intrablock scan path and the use of different parameter sets at different points along that path. We show that serial block-based error diffusion reduces off-chip memory access by a factor equal to the block height. With both these solutions, satisfactory image quality can only be obtained with new cost functions that we have developed for the training process. With these new cost functions and moderate block size, we can obtain image quality that is very close to that of the original tone-dependent error diffusion algorithm. PMID:18244693

Chang, Ti-chiun; Allebach, Jan P

2003-01-01

488

Optical memory development. Volume 1: prototype memory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and implementation of a prototype, partially populated, million bit read-write holographic memory system using state-of-the-art components are described. The system employs an argon ion laser, acoustooptic beam deflectors, a holographic beam splitter (hololens), a nematic liquid crystal page composer, a photoconductor-thermoplastic erasable storage medium, a silicon P-I-N photodiode array, with lenses and electronics of both conventional and custom design. Operation of the prototype memory system was successfully demonstrated. Careful attention is given to the analysis from which the design criteria were developed. Specifications for the major components are listed, along with the details of their construction and performance. The primary conclusion resulting from this program is that the basic principles of read-write holographic memory system are well understood and are reducible to practice.

Cosentino, L. S.; Mezrich, R. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.; Wendt, F. S.

1972-01-01

489

The history of memory arts.  

PubMed

Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist. PMID:2405298

Patten, B M

1990-02-01

490

Semantic graphs and associative memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

2004-12-01

491

All-printed paper memory.  

PubMed

We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal–insulator–metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. PMID:25019420

Lien, Der-Hsien; Kao, Zhen-Kai; Huang, Teng-Han; Liao, Ying-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau

2014-08-26

492

Program Transformations in Weak Memory Models   

E-print Network

We analyse the validity of common optimisations on multi-threaded programs in two memory models—the DRF guarantee and the Java Memory Model. Unlike in the single-threaded world, even simple program transformations, such ...

Sevcik, Jaroslav

2009-01-01

493

Memory coherence in the age of multicores  

E-print Network

As we enter an era of exascale multicores, the question of efficiently supporting a shared memory model has become of paramount importance. On the one hand, programmers demand the convenience of coherent shared memory; on ...

Lis, Mieszko

494

Hierarchical Traces for Reduced NSM Memory Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents work on using hierarchical long term memory to reduce the memory requirements of nearest sequence memory (NSM) learning, a previously published, instance-based reinforcement learning algorithm. A hierarchical memory representation reduces the memory requirements by allowing traces to share common sub-sequences. We present moderated mechanisms for estimating discounted future rewards and for dealing with hidden state using hierarchical memory. We also present an experimental analysis of how the sub-sequence length affects the memory compression achieved and show that the reduced memory requirements do not effect the speed of learning. Finally, we analyse and discuss the persistence of the sub-sequences independent of specific trace instances.

Dahl, Torbjřrn S.

495

Inevitability Mechanisms for Software Transactional Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactional Memory simplifies parallel programming by elim- inating the use of locks to protect concurrent accesses to shared memory. However, when locks are used to provide mutual exclu- sion for irreversible operations (I\\/O, syscalls, calls to \\

Michael F. Spear; Maged M. Michael; Michael L. Scott

2008-01-01

496

Working memory effects in speeded RSVP tasks.  

PubMed

The present paper examines the effects of memory contents and memory load in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) speeded tasks, trying to explain previous inconsistent results. We used a one target (Experiment 1) and a two-target (Experiment 2) RSVP task with a concurrent memory load of one or four items, in a dual-task paradigm. A relation between material in working memory and the target in the RSVP impaired the identification of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4, the single task was to determine whether any information in memory matched the target in the RSVP, while varying the memory load. A match was detected faster than a non-match, although only when there was some distance between targets in the RSVP (Experiment 4). The results suggest that memory contents automatically capture attention, slowing processing when the memory contents are irrelevant to the task, and speeding processing when they are relevant. PMID:23397260

Gil-Gómez de Liańo, Beatriz; Potter, Mary C; Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-01-01

497

Electrically Variable Resistive Memory Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonvolatile electronic memory devices that store data in the form of electrical- resistance values, and memory circuits based on such devices, have been invented. These devices and circuits exploit an electrically-variable-resistance phenomenon that occurs in thin films of certain oxides that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. It is worth emphasizing that, as stated in the immediately preceding article, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. A device of this type is basically a thin film resistor: it consists of a thin film of a CMR material located between, and in contact with, two electrical conductors. The application of a short-duration, low-voltage current pulse via the terminals changes the electrical resistance of the film. The amount of the change in resistance depends on the size of the pulse. The direction of change (increase or decrease of resistance) depends on the polarity of the pulse. Hence, a datum can be written (or a prior datum overwritten) in the memory device by applying a pulse of size and polarity tailored to set the resistance at a value that represents a specific numerical value. To read the datum, one applies a smaller pulse - one that is large enough to enable accurate measurement of resistance, but small enough so as not to change the resistance. In writing, the resistance can be set to any value within the dynamic range of the CMR film. Typically, the value would be one of several discrete resistance values that represent logic levels or digits. Because the number of levels can exceed 2, a memory device of this type is not limited to binary data. Like other memory devices, devices of this type can be incorporated into a memory integrated circuit by laying them out on a substrate in rows and columns, along with row and column conductors for electrically addressing them individually or collectively.

Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex; Charlson, E. J.

2010-01-01

498

Virtual memory is a technique for managing the resource of physical memory. It  

E-print Network

60 Virtual memory is a technique for managing the resource of physical memory. It gives an application the illusion of a very large amount of memory, typically much larger than what is actually of process­ es partially resident in memory. Only the most recently used portions of a process's address

Mudge, Trevor

499

Virtual memory is a technique for managing the resource of physical memory. It  

E-print Network

60 Virtual memory is a technique for managing the resource of physical memory. It gives an application the illusion of a very large amount of memory, typically much larger than what is actually of process- es partially resident in memory. Only the most recently used portions of a process's address

Mudge, Trevor

500

Dissociation between Features and Feature Relations in Infant Memory: Effects of Memory Load.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined effects of the number of features and feature relations on learning and long-term memory in 3-month olds. Findings suggested that memory load size selectively constrained infants' long-term memory for relational information, suggesting that in infants, features and relations are psychologically distinct and that memory

Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

1997-01-01