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Sample records for wechsler memory scale-revised

  1. Cross-validation of Predicted Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Scores.

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    Axelrod, Bradley N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Equations for prorating the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised General Memory (GM) and Delayed Recall (DR) index scores were confirmed in a clinical sample of 258 patients. These prediction equations for the GM and DR summary scores have validity for patient samples similar to those of the present study. (SLD)

  2. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Scores in Epilepsy Surgery Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores were analyzed for 82 epilepsy surgery candidates and used in combination with receiver operating characteristic curves to classify patients with left (LTL) and right (RTL) temporal lobe seizure onset. Results indicate that WMS-R scores used alone or in combination provide relatively poor discrimination…

  3. Bias in the use of standard American norms with Spanish translations of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised.

    PubMed

    Demsky, Y I; Mittenberg, W; Quintar, B; Katell, A D; Golden, C J

    1998-06-01

    Although most clinicians would readily agree that there is a need for Spanish translations and normative samples of major psychological tests because of the large number of individuals within the United States whose primary language is Spanish, there are in fact few well normed tests applicable to the Spanish-speaking client in the U.S. As a result, many clinicians administer cognitive tests normed on English-speaking American populations translated into Spanish, then interpret the test results using the standard American norms. The argument is generally made that such a procedure is a reasonable approximation and when cautiously interpreted can be useful. The present study investigated the impact of this practice by using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) on Spanish-speaking adults. A group of 50 normal Hispanic Americans aged 25 to 34 years were administered the WMS-R translated into Spanish. Results showed that using English-language standard norms resulted in Spanish-speaking normal individuals getting scores an average of 1 standard deviation below "average." These findings were present not only for verbal but for nonverbal tests as well. Based on these results we strongly argue against the clinical practice of using translations of English language tests without renorming and running new validity tests. PMID:9626387

  4. Cautions in Interpretation of Comparisons between the WAIS-R and the Wechsler Memory Scale.

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    Prifitera, Aurelio; Barley, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale Memory Quotient (WMS MQ) 12 points below Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Full-Scale IQ (WAIS FSIQ) may indicate memory impairment. Investigated the relation of FSIQ to MQ when the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised rather than the WAIS is used. Discrepancy between FSIQ and MQ occurred less often with WAIS-R than with…

  5. Factor analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in developmentally disabled persons.

    PubMed

    Di Nuovo, Santo F; Buono, Serafino

    2006-12-01

    The results of previous studies on the factorial structure of Wechsler Intelligence Scales are somewhat inconsistent across normal and pathological samples. To study specific clinical groups, such as developmentally disabled persons, it is useful to examine the factor structure in appropriate samples. A factor analysis was carried out using the principal component method and the Varimax orthogonal rotation on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) in a sample of 203 developmentally disabled persons, with a mean age of 25 years 4 months. Developmental disability ranged from mild to moderate. Partially contrasting with previous studies on normal samples, results found a two-factor solution. Wechsler's traditional Verbal and Performance scales seems to be more appropriate for this sample than the alternative three-factor solution. PMID:17305220

  6. Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population.

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    Salvia, Shawn Amig; Salvia, John

    1986-01-01

    Significant differences were found between college freshmen science (N=50) and nonscience (N=50) majors who were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement. (Author/CB)

  7. A Normative Study of the Wechsler Memory Scale

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    Kear-Colwell, J. J.; Heller, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Aims of this study were to determine whether the factor structure produced in earlier research by Kear-Colwell (1973, 1977) on the Wechsler Memory Scale could be replicated in a non-patient population (most research uses patient populations) and also to examine the effects of age, sex, and social class on the performance of normal adults on this…

  8. The Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--revised: effects of global mental status and age on test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C

    2000-10-01

    Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed. PMID:11094390

  9. Factor Analysis of the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale Tests in a Neuropsychological Battery.

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    Russell, Elbert W.

    1982-01-01

    The Revised Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and Halstead-Reitan battery were factor analyzed. Five types of memory were isolated: immediate verbal, recent verbal, recent figural, figural learning, and verbal learning storage. Loadings of memory and nonmemory tests indicate a closer relationship between some of…

  10. Education-Stratified Base-Rate Information on Discrepancy Scores Within and Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition

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    Dori, Galit A.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article…

  11. Testing the limits: cautions and concerns regarding the new Wechsler IQ and Memory scales.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W; Bauer, Russell M

    2010-02-23

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) are 2 of the most common psychological tests used in clinical care and research in neurology. Newly revised versions of both instruments (WAIS-IV and WMS-IV) have recently been published and are increasingly being adopted by the neuropsychology community. There have been significant changes in the structure and content of both scales, leading to the potential for inaccurate patient classification if algorithms developed using their predecessors are employed. There are presently insufficient clinical data in neurologic populations to insure their appropriate application to neuropsychological evaluations. We provide a perspective on these important new neuropsychological instruments, comment on the pressures to adopt these tests in the absence of an appropriate evidence base supporting their incremental validity, and describe the potential negative impact on both patient care and continuing research applications. PMID:20177123

  12. Changes of subtests of Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive function in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Rokhsareh; Khamseh, Mohammad E.; Malek, Mojtaba; Hadian, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid R.; Emami, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with disturbed cognitive function. In this study, changes of subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale and memory quotient were investigated in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine. The aim of the study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Material and methods Sixty subjects (51 females and 9 males) with subclinical hypothyroidism were enrolled. Memory quotient was evaluated at the beginning of the study and three months after enrollment, using Wechsler's memory test. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as serum TSH level between 4.5 mU/l and 10 mU/l in the presence of normal free-T4 (0.8-2 ng/dl) and positive anti-TPO-Ab. The intervention and control groups received levothyroxine and placebo respectively for 3 months. Re-evaluation was done using the Wechsler Memory Scale at the end of the study. Results The mean age was 34 ±10 years, mean TSH level was 8.25 ±3.64 muIU/l. Memory quotient was similar in both groups at the beginning of the study: 105.70 ±2.1 in intervention group vs. 105.87 ±2.1 in control group (p = 0.89). At the end of the study, the memory quotient rose by 9.3 points in the intervention group and by 3.23 in the controls (p = 0.002). Analysis of the scores of Wechsler Memory subtests in the intervention group indicated significant improvement of mental control (p = 0.002), logical memory (p < 0.001), associate learning (p = 0.014), age corrected score (p = 0.002), and memory quotient (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed the efficacy of levothyroxine for cognitive function of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:23319987

  13. Performance on selected visual and auditory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition during laboratory-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph L; Tapscott, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients. PMID:25655774

  14. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

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    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  15. Logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale: age and education norms and alternate-form reliability of two scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, H; Alvir, J; Hong, G; Sukoff, R; Orazio, J; Solomon, S; Saravay, S

    1987-08-01

    The Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale has been characterized by imprecise scoring instructions which can make data interpretation and study comparisons difficult. A total of 339 adults, from 18 to 83 years old, took either Form I or Form II of the LM. Verbal recall of the story passages was evaluated using gist and verbatim scoring systems. Interrater reliability was very high for both scoring approaches. The two forms were equivalent for gist recall. However, verbatim recall of Form I was more difficult than Form II because the former consists of more words to remember. Recall was related more to educational level than to age. For both gist and verbatim scoring, age and education norms were generated for immediate, delayed, and 24-h recall. PMID:3597734

  16. WAIS-R Factors and Performance on the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales: A Canonical Model of Relationships.

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    Fowler, Patrick C.; Macciocchi, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Pattern and level of performance on the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised) and the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales were examined for 93 neurologically impaired adults. Each set of procedures evidently is indexing the same theoretical constructs. (Author/ABB)

  17. Clinical validation of three short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) in a mixed clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Van Der Veld, William M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-06-01

    The reliability and validity of three short forms of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) were evaluated in a mixed clinical sample of 235 patients. The short forms were based on the WMS-IV Flexible Approach, that is, a 3-subtest combination (Older Adult Battery for Adults) and two 2-subtest combinations (Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory and Designs), which can be used to estimate the Immediate, Delayed, Auditory and Visual Memory Indices. All short forms showed good reliability coefficients. As expected, for adults (16-69 years old) the 3-subtest short form was consistently more accurate (predictive accuracy ranged from 73% to 100%) than both 2-subtest short forms (range = 61%-80%). Furthermore, for older adults (65-90 years old), the predictive accuracy of the 2-subtest short form ranged from 75% to 100%. These results suggest that caution is warranted when using the WMS-IV-NL Flexible Approach short forms to estimate all four indices. PMID:26160974

  18. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Yvette N.; Thompson, Christopher S.; McKay, Nicole S.; Waldie, Karen E.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III). COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e., met carriers relative to val homozygotes) was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research. PMID:26347681

  19. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

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    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  20. Intelligence, memory, and handedness in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Beckstead, A Lee; Blak, Thomas; Kuban, Michael E

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 473 male patients with pedophilia (assessed by the patients' sexual history and penile response in the laboratory to standardized, erotic stimuli) or other problematic sexual interests or behaviors received brief neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychological measures included a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (D. Wechsler, 1981), the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test--Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, D. Schretlen. L. Groninger. & J. Brandt, 1998), the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test--Revised (R. H. B. Benedict, 1997), and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (S. M. Williams, 1986). Pedophilia showed significant negative correlations with IQ and immediate and delayed recall memory. Pedophilia was also related to non-right-handedness even after covarying age and IQ. These results suggest that pedophilia is linked to early neurodevelopmental perturbations. PMID:14744183

  1. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent. PMID:27166321

  2. Verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptors in healthy volunteers - A PET study with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Jani; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Ilonen, Tuula; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2016-03-01

    The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years). The cognitive tests included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 5-HT1A receptor binding was measured with PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which was quantified with the gold standard method based on kinetic modeling using arterial blood samples. We found that global 5-HT1A receptor binding was positively correlated with measures of verbal memory, such that subjects who had higher receptor binding tended to have better verbal memory than subjects who had lower receptor binding. Regional analyses suggested significant correlations in multiple neocortical brain regions and the raphe nuclei. We did not find significant correlations between 5-HT1A receptor binding and executive functions as measured with WCST. We conclude that neocortical as well as raphe 5-HT1A receptors are involved in verbal memory function in man. PMID:26775837

  3. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

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    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  4. The Effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Cognitive Abilities on Math Achievement

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    Parkin, Jason R.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence…

  5. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moulton, P L; Boyko, L N; Fitzpatrick, J L; Petros, T V

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible effects of Ginkgo biloba, a widely used herbal extract, on memory. This study incorporated a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, which used 30 healthy male subjects in each of two groups. The treatment group received two 60-mg tablets of BioGinkgo (27/7) [corrected] daily for 5 days, while the placebo group received a placebo. On the fifth day, after a 2-h waiting period, all subjects were given the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test [Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 27 (1975) 1.], a reaction time control test, the vocabulary and digit span subtests of the WAIS-R [Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler adult intelligence scale - revised. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981.], a reading span test [J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 19 (1980) 450.] and a prose recall test [Discourse Proc. 13 (1990) 387.]. Blood pressure, heart rate and side effects were also monitored throughout the study. Nonsignificant results were found on all interactions involving treatment group on all tests except the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test. The extract appeared to be safe but largely ineffective in enhancing memory. PMID:11495672

  6. The Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised: A Validation Study.

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    Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.

    2003-01-01

    This study supported evidence of reliability and validity of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised (TOPS-R) scores. The TOPS-R was designed to measure theoretical orientation among counselors and trainees. Factor analysis yielded a 6-factor solution accounting for 87.5% of the total variance in the scale. The 6 factors corresponded to…

  7. Wechsler Discrepancies and the Rorschach Experience Balance.

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    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested for a link between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and personality style by comparing WAIS scores with Rorschach Experience Balance scores in two studies using 47 children and 188 psychiatric patients. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationships, indicating lack of a common factor underlying the measures. (WAS)

  8. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

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    Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

    2014-01-01

    The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

  9. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects☆

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Methods Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Results Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. Conclusions As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27051595

  10. Measurement Invariance of Core Cognitive Abilities in Heterogeneous Neurological and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Cook, Mark J.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Shores, E. Arthur; Carstairs, Jane R.

    2004-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of…

  11. Flaws in Flynn Effect Research with the Wechsler Scales

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    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Gregoire, Jacques; Zhu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Many Flynn effect (FE) studies compare scores across different editions of Wechsler's IQ tests. When construct changes are introduced by the test developers in the new edition, however, the presumed generational effects are difficult to untangle from changes due to test content. To remove this confound, we use the same edition of Wechsler…

  12. Bifactor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with…

  13. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009

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    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III…

  14. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

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    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  15. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009

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    Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special educational…

  16. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale" (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX--Psychological Corporation, 2008

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    Climie, Emma A.; Rostad, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV), an individually administered measure of cognitive ability for individuals aged 16 years, 0 months to 90 years, 11 months. The WAIS-IV was designed with a number of specific goals including updated norms, increased user friendliness, improved…

  17. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

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    Braden, Jeffery P.; Iribarren, Jacqueline A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), a Spanish translation and adaptation of the WISC-IV. The test was developed to measure the intellectual ability of Spanish-speaking children in the United States ages 6 years, 0 months, through 16 years, 11 months. These…

  18. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation

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    Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), an individually administered measure of intelligence for Spanish-speaking children who are English language learners and relatively new to American culture. The WISC-IV Spanish, like its English counterpart, the WISC-IV, is…

  19. Nicotine Effects on Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory After Substance Use Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2010-01-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent (ALCS N=29; 14 male), illicit stimulant (predominantly cocaine) dependent (STIMS N = 25; 15 male) and alcohol and illicit stimulant dependent (ALC/STIMS N = 50; 35 male) participants with co-morbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41(±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (~8–10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (High dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively or Low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale -Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMS receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMS who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMS demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory and, that considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval) underlying endpoint indicators (e.g. correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes. PMID:21526444

  20. Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

  1. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2006-01-01

    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than…

  2. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  3. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  5. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2003). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)." San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Mascolo, Jennifer T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the field of psychological assessment, the Wechsler scales continue to be the most widely used intelligence batteries. The concepts, methods, and procedures inherent in the design of the Wechsler scales have been so influential that they have guided most of the test development and research in the field for more than a half century. This…

  6. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V: Test Review.

    PubMed

    Na, Sabrina D; Burns, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Changes from the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) to the fifth edition are discussed, with particular emphasis on how the electronic administration facilitated assessment. The hierarchical organization and conceptualization of primary indices have been adjusted, based on recent theory and research on the construct of intelligence. Changes also include updates to psychometric properties and consideration of cultural bias. The scoring program allows intelligence scores to be linked statistically to achievement measures to aid in diagnoses of learning disabilities. Electronic assessment was clunky at times but overall delivered on its promise of quicker and more accurate administration and scoring. PMID:25923224

  7. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  8. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  9. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  10. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  11. A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the…

  12. Evaluating the prevalence and impact of examiner errors on the Wechsler scales of intelligence: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Styck, Kara M; Walsh, Shana M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on examiner errors for the Wechsler scales of intelligence. Results indicate that a mean of 99.7% of protocols contained at least 1 examiner error when studies that included a failure to record examinee responses as an error were combined and a mean of 41.2% of protocols contained at least 1 examiner error when studies that ignored errors of omission were combined. Furthermore, graduate student examiners were significantly more likely to make at least 1 error on Wechsler intelligence test protocols than psychologists. However, psychologists made significantly more errors per protocol than graduate student examiners regardless of the inclusion or exclusion of failure to record examinee responses as errors. On average, 73.1% of Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores changed as a result of examiner errors, whereas 15.8%-77.3% of scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), and Processing Speed Index changed as a result of examiner errors. In addition, results suggest that examiners tend to overestimate FSIQ scores and underestimate VCI scores. However, no strong pattern emerged for the PRI and WMI. It can be concluded that examiner errors occur frequently and impact index and FSIQ scores. Consequently, current estimates for the standard error of measurement of popular IQ tests may not adequately capture the variance due to the examiner. PMID:26011479

  13. The Cylindrical Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--IV: A Retest of the Guttman Model of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arie; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Farley, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    A previous study on the underlying structure of the Wechsler intelligence test (WISC-R; [Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual WISC-R: Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation]), using smallest space analysis (SSA) [Guttman, L., and Levy, S. (1991). Two structural laws for intelligence tests. "Intelligence," 15,…

  14. Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence…

  15. The sexual consent scale-revised: development, reliability, and preliminary validity.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Terry P; Brousseau, Mélanie M

    2010-09-01

    The Sexual Consent Scale-Revised (SCS-R) measures an individual's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to how sexual consent should be and is negotiated between sexual partners. This study extends previous research on sexual consent by revising a scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2001, 2005) as its theoretical foundation. The psychometric properties of the SCS-R were established using factor analysis, construct validity tests, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Five factors emerged: perceived behavioral control, positive attitude toward establishing consent, sexual consent norms, indirect consent behaviors, and awareness of consent. Results indicated that the SCS-R can be useful for examining a variety of research questions relating to sexual consent. PMID:19685367

  16. Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-revised in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor scores and variables of interest. The 3- and 5-factor models were selected as preferable on the basis of fit statistics and parsimony. For both models, the strongest correlations were with problem behavior scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and repetitive behavior scores on the ADI-R. Developmental index standard scores were not correlated with factors in either model. The results confirm the utility of the RBS-R as a measure of repetitive behaviors in young children with ASD. PMID:20405194

  17. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  18. Psychometric Validation of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Fujikawa, Mayu; Brooks, Jessica; Eastvold-Walton, Lissa; Maxwell, Kristin; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the measurement structure of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (B-ADS-R). Measure: A 12-item measure of disability acceptance based on the four value changes (enlarging the scope of values, containing the effects of the disability, subordinating the physique, and transforming comparative-status values to asset…

  19. Development and Validation of Turkish Version of The Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Serdar; Onaran, Öykü Izel; Topalan, Kıvanç; Aydın, Çağrı Arıoğlu; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The sexually related personal distress becomes an obligation for the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R) was developed, extensively validated, and is among the most widely used tools to measure distress associated with impaired sexual function. Aim This study aims to develop a Turkish version of the FSDS-R, to evaluate its psychometric reliability and validity, and to estimate the optimal cutoff score that corresponds best to the clinical diagnosis of sexual dysfunction. Methods Ninety-five participants were diagnosed with female sexual interest and arousal disorder (FSIAD), 25 participants were diagnosed with another FSD, and 128 participants were healthy. Alpha coefficients (α) were used as an indicator of internal consistency. Test–retest reliability over a 2-week period was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Correlation analysis conducted between the FSDS-R total score, the Female Sexual Function Index subscale, and total score was examined for convergent validity. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing mean scores of the FSD and control groups in a between-groups analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine optimal cutoff values of the Turkish version of Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (Tr-FSDS-R). Main Outcomes Measures Sexuality-related distress measured by the Turkish version of the FSDS-R. Results Internal consistencies of the FSDS-R across the two assessments point for the three groups of women ranged from α = 0.87 to α = 0.99. ICCs ranged from 0.92 to 0.94 for baseline and day 15 for FSIAD, other FSD, and no FSD groups. One-factor unidimensional model explained 85.7% of the total variance of the Tr-FSDS-R items. The optimal cutoff score was found to be >11.5 to provide optimal sensitivity (97.9%) and specificity (83.2%). Significant differences in the FSDS-R scores were found between healthy

  20. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised.

    PubMed

    Weis, Darlene; Schank, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Nurses Professional Values Scale--Revised (NPVS-R) is an instrument derived from the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses designed to measure nurses' professional values. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the NPVS-R in a random sample of baccalaureate and master's students and practicing nurses. The NPVS-R, a 26-item Likert-scale format instrument, was tested on 782 subjects. Responses to the NPVS-R were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization resulted in a five-factor solution explaining 56.7% of the common variance. Findings supported internal consistency reliability of five factors with alpha coefficients from .70 to .85 and a total scale alpha coefficient of .92. Construct validity was supported with an overall factor loading range of .46 to .79 across the five factors labeled Caring, Activism, Trust, Professionalism, and Justice. The NPVS-R is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring professional nurses' values and enhancing professional socialization. PMID:20069950

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  3. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  4. Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition among a National Sample of Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003a) was analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis among a national sample of 355 students referred for psychoeducational evaluation by 93 school psychologists from 35 states. The structure of the WISC-IV core battery was best represented by four…

  5. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  6. Validity of Verbal IQ as a Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)

  7. Actuarial Assessment of Wechsler Verbal-Performance Scale Differences as Signs of Lateralized Cerebral Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leli, Dano A.; Filskov, Susan B.

    1981-01-01

    The long-standing clinical lore which holds that a discrepancy between Wechsler-Bellevue Verbal-Performance Scale weighted scores is a more sensitive sign of lateralized brain damage than a discrepancy between Verbal-Performance Scale IQ is investigated. The results do not support the clinical lore. (Author/AL)

  8. The Comparison of Two Methods of Instruction in Teaching the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    The purpose of the study was to determine if there were any differences in learning between graduate students taught to understand, administer, and score the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) by an independent study method as compared to those taught by a more traditional instructional procedure. The subjects were those students…

  9. Peeking inside the "Black Box" of the Flynn Effect: Evidence from Three Wechsler Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jianjun; Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the Wechsler Performance IQ (PIQ) or Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)/ Perceptual Organization Index (POI) change over time and its relation to ability levels. PIQ or PRI/ POI was analyzed because of the known sensitivity of nonverbal scales to the Flynn effect. Scores were analyzed using two methods. First, analysis of…

  10. The Wechsler ACS Social Perception Subtest: A Preliminary Comparison with Other Measures of Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to other cognitive areas, there are few clinical measures currently available to assess social perception. A new standardized measure, the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) Social Perception subtest, addresses some limitations of existing measures; however, little is known about this new test. The first goal of this investigation…

  11. Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of the…

  12. Wechsler Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Index in a Forensic Sample: A Reconsideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWolfe, Alan S.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other. (JAC)

  13. Reproducing the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Factor Model Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    One of the ways to increase the reproducibility of research is for authors to provide a sufficient description of the data analytic procedures so that others can replicate the results. The publishers of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V) do not follow these guidelines when reporting their confirmatory factor…

  14. Local Navajo Norms for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempest, Phyllis

    1998-01-01

    A project developed Navajo norms for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III). Urban Navajo students and those who were proficient in English had higher WISC-III verbal scores than rural Navajo students and those who were functional in English. English-language proficiency did not affect scores on nonverbal…

  15. Norms for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised for Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempest, Phyllis; Skipper, Betty

    1988-01-01

    Norms were developed for Navajo Indian students for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, by sampling 16 percent of the Navajo school population from first through eighth grade in 8 schools in McKinley County, New Mexico. The norms, based on 539 students, help to separate cultural and language differences from learning…

  16. Longitudinal Invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition in a Referral Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richerson, Lindsay P.; Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a group of 352 students eligible for psychoeducational evaluations tested, on average, 2.8 years apart. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance were found. However, the error variance of the Coding subtest was not constant…

  17. The Development of the Wechsler Scales and Their Influence on Contemporary Intelligence Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benisz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The history of intelligence testing merits study as standardized intelligence tests have been administered for only a little over a century. The most popular tests in use today are the Wechsler scales, despite the availability of other test batteries that are better grounded in contemporary theory. To understand why contemporary revisions of…

  18. Cognitive Process Development as Measured by an Adapted Version of Wechsler's Similarities Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozencwajg, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the development of taxonomic processing as measured by an adapted version of the Wechsler Similarities subtest, which distinguishes between categorization of concrete and abstract words. Two factors--age and concreteness--are also tested by a recall task. The results show an age-related increase in taxonomic categorization,…

  19. Raven's Progressive Matrices Test Correlations with Measures of Lorge-Thorndike and Wechsler Intelligence Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purl, Mabel C.; Curtis, Jonathan

    The relationship of the Progressive Matrices Test (PM) to the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test (LTIQ) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is examined. Predictive power of these measures with respect to a number of achievement measures was also investigated. The initial sample consisted of 242 first graders and 281 second…

  20. The Use of Wechsler Scales in the Assessment of Native Americans of the Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, C. Sue; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the Wechsler Scales as predictors of academic achievement for a sample of Native Americans (N=75) from the Columbia Basin area. Results indicated significant Verbal-Performance discrepancies with mean Verbal scores significantly below the normative mean and Performance scores at or above the normative mean. (LLL)

  1. On a practitioner's need of further development of Wechsler scales. Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2).

    PubMed

    Kubinger, Klaus D

    2004-11-01

    Wechsler's intelligence test-batteries are still popular yet suffer from psychometric shortcomings and lack a certain content improvement and enlargement. In this paper a new approach will be presented that suits traditional Wechsler-testing. The approach in question is the Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2; Kubinger & Wurst, 2000). Due to it's "branched testing" design, AID 2 works out to be more economical and in this regard also offers other advantages, such as parallel tests and short forms. AID 2 offers a method of survey for identifying specific developmental disorders or learning disabilities. It includes an optional non-verbal instruction and a schedule for retrograde observation support of behavioral misfits. It also offers discriminative indicators for intellectual neglect vs. intellectual advancement. PMID:15581231

  2. Working Memory: A Selective Review.

    PubMed

    Kent, Phillip L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a selective overview of the evolution of the concept and assessment of working memory, and how its assessment has been confused with the assessment of some components of attention. A literature search using PsychNet Gold was conducted using the terms working memory. In addition, the writer reviewed recommendations from a sampling of recent neuropsychology texts in regard to the assessment of attention and working memory, as well as the two most recent editions of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It is argued that many clinicians have an incomplete understanding of the relationship between attention and working memory, and often conflate the two in assessment and treatment. Suggestions were made for assessing these abilities. PMID:27191213

  3. Relationship of Sensory Modality to Retention of Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeri; Woodworth, Craig; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Rossini, Edward; Jackson, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the difference between episodic memory for verbal information presented in an oral format versus equivalent material presented in a written format. The study utilized the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Fourth Edition and the recently validated Morris Revision-IV Paragraphs. In a sample of 97 normal participants, auditory and visual memory performances were found to be significantly correlated (r = .651, p < .001). Post-hoc analysis revealed a slight though not clinically significant preference for retention in the visual modality. The results demonstrate a high-degree correlation for retention of episodic memory for these two sensory modalities in normal participants. PMID:25372988

  4. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  5. Exploring the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scales-Revised (ECERS-R) Evaluation on Preschool Children's Pre-Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fundus, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical, social, cognitive, and language outcomes of targeted Title I preschool students participating in programs not meeting and programs meeting Nebraska Department of Education, Early Childhood Evaluation Rating Scales-Revised (ECERS-R) requirements. As more requirements are being required for…

  6. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults--An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J.; Hufnagel, Demetra H.; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ…

  7. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised on the College Students in the United States and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kamile Bahar

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the cultural validity of the almost perfect scale-revised (APS-R) with 300 Turkish and 300 American and international college students. First, the validity of the original APS-R was conducted on American students and international students. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) offered two-factor scale to be consistent…

  8. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  9. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

  10. Are the Indicators for the Language and Reasoning Subscale of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Psychometrically Appropriate for Caribbean Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Williams, Sian G.; Morrison, Johnetta W.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen E.; Mayfield, Wayne A.; Thornburg, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of the indicators that comprise the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) language-reasoning scale from an item response theory (IRT) perspective on a sample of observations from 334 Caribbean classrooms, Stout's procedure revealed that all indicators on this dimension are not part of a…

  11. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition in a High-Stakes Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisceglia, Rossana; Perlman, Michal; Schaack, Diana; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R) were examined using 153 classrooms from child-care centers where resources were tied to center performance. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the scale measures one global aspect of quality. To decrease redundancy, subsets of items were…

  12. Measurement of Quality in Preschool Child Care Classrooms: An Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Deborah J.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Hegde, Archana; Hestenes, Stephen; Mims, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) with a large sample (1313 classrooms). We explored both the seven subscales and the possibility of fewer distinct aspects of quality being measured by the scale. The large sample size allowed both…

  13. The value of the wechsler intelligence scale for children-fourth edition digit span as an embedded measure of effort: an investigation into children with dual diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert; Hertza, Jeremy

    2012-11-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort which has traditionally been utilized with adults, but which more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, commonly used in neuropsychological evaluations, can also be functional as an embedded measure by detecting effort in children with dual diagnoses; a population yet to be investigated. Participants (n = 51) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, WISC-IV, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Children's Memory Scale, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful scaled score of ≤4 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 43%. This study supports previous research that the WISC-IV Digit Span has good utility in determining optimal effort, even in children with dual diagnosis or comorbidities. PMID:22975746

  14. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition in an Australian clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Cockshott, Felicity C; Marsh, Nigel V; Hine, Donald W

    2006-09-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; D. Wechsler, 1991) with a sample of 579 Australian children referred for assessment because of academic difficulties in the classroom. The children were administered the WISC-III as part of the initial eligibility determination process for funding of special education services. The children were aged between 6 years and 16 years 7 months. One-, two-, three-, and four-factor models were tested. The four-factor model proposed in the WISC-III manual fit the data significantly better than all other models tested. PMID:16953739

  15. Diagnostic utility of the impact of event scale-revised in two samples of survivors of war.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at examining the diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a screening tool for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of war. The IES-R was completed by two independent samples that had survived the war in the Balkans: a sample of randomly selected people who had stayed in the area of former conflict (n = 3,313) and a sample of refugees to Western European countries (n = 854). PTSD was diagnosed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Prevalence of PTSD was 20.1% in the Balkan sample and 33.1% in the refugee sample. Results revealed that when considering a minimum value of specificity of 0.80, the optimally sensitive cut-off score for screening for PTSD in the Balkan sample was 34. In both the Balkan sample and the refugee sample, this cut-off score provided good values on sensitivity (0.86 and 0.89, respectively) and overall efficiency (0.81 and 0.79, respectively). Further, the kappa coefficients for sensitivity for the cut-off of 34 were 0.80 in both samples. Findings of this study support the clinical utility of the IES-R as a screening tool for PTSD in large-scale research studies and intervention studies if structured diagnostic interviews are regarded as too labor-intensive and too costly. PMID:24391844

  16. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  17. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and…

  18. Construct Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, and Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Neitzel, Ryan; Martin, Blake E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports data supporting the construct validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), and the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) through convergent and…

  19. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

  20. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphress, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  1. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  2. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and…

  3. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  4. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. PMID:25271008

  5. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Konold, Timothy R.; Collins, Jason M.; Wilson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal-crystallized abilities and nonverbal-fluid-visual abilities. With a sample of 152…

  6. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

  7. Technical and Practical Issues in the Structure and Clinical Invariance of the Wechsler Scales: A Rejoinder to Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

    2013-01-01

    This discussion article addresses issues related to expansion of the Wechsler model from four to five factors; multiple broad CHC abilities measured by the Arithmetic subtest; advantages and disadvantages of including complex tasks requiring integration of multiple broad abilities when measuring intelligence; limitations of factor analysis, which…

  8. Referred Students' Performance on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Paulin, Rachel V.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the convergent relations of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Data from counterbalanced administrations of each instrument to 48 elementary school students referred for psychoeducational testing were examined. Analysis of the 96…

  9. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  10. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  11. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  12. Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Taub, Gordon E.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2006-01-01

    The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new…

  13. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

  14. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  15. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score: a new scoring system for the Coma Recovery Scale-revised for assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Sattin, Davide; Minati, Ludovico; Rossi, Davide; Covelli, Venusia; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Leonardi, Matilde

    2015-12-01

    The differential diagnosis between vegetative state and minimally conscious state is still complex and the development of an evaluation systems is one of the challenging tasks for researchers and professionals. The Coma Recovery Scale-revised is considered the gold standard for clinical/behavioral assessment and for the differential diagnosis of patients with disorder of consciousness. However, the scale presents some limitations in that (i) scores may partially overlap between different diagnoses and (ii) there is an underlying assumption that if a patient is able to show higher-level behaviors, he/she is also able to show lower-level responses. In the present study, a procedure to calculate a modified Coma Recovery Scale-revised score is presented that attempts to avoid these problems. To exemplify this new scoring approach, 60 patients with disorder of consciousness were studied and the results showed the usefulness of the Modified Score. PMID:26465775

  16. Accuracy of Short Forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: Third Edition.

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra; Hendriksen, Jos; Dek, Joelle; Kooij, Andress

    2016-04-01

    This article investigated the accuracy of six short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third edition (WPPSI-III-NL) in estimating intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in healthy children aged 4 to 7 years (N = 1,037). Overall, accuracy for each short form was studied, comparing IQ equivalences based on the short forms with the original WPPSI-III-NL Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores. Next, our sample was divided into three groups: children performing below average, average, or above average, based on the WPPSI-III-NL FSIQ estimates of the original long form, to study the accuracy of WPPSI-III-NL short forms at the tails of the FSIQ distribution. While studying the entire sample, all IQ estimates of the WPPSI-III-NL short forms correlated highly with the FSIQ estimates of the original long form (all rs ≥ .83). Correlations decreased significantly while studying only the tails of the IQ distribution (rs varied between .55 and .83). Furthermore, IQ estimates of the short forms deviated significantly from the FSIQ score of the original long form, when the IQ estimates were based on short forms containing only two subtests. In contrast, unlike the short forms that contained two to four subtests, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning) and the General Ability Index short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Comprehension, Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concepts) produced less variations when compared with the original FSIQ score. PMID:25804438

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Child’s Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale-Revised in English and Lugandan

    PubMed Central

    Napper, Lucy E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Jaffe, Adi; Jones, Russell T.; Lamphear, Vivian S.; Joseph, Lisa; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Brief and age-appropriate measures of trauma-related symptoms are useful for identifying children in need of clinical services. The current study examines the psychometric properties of the 23-item Child’s Reaction to Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CRTES-R). The CRTES-R includes subscales assessing hyperarousal, avoidance and intrusion. To date, no studies have examined the psychometric properties of this revised measure or cross-cultural differences in its factor structure. Two samples of (a) children (ages 6–21) who had experienced a hurricane in the USA or Grenada (N = 135), and (b) Ugandan children (ages 8–17) who had experienced a variety of traumatic events (N = 339) completed the CRTES-R in English or Lugandan. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an empirically adjusted model with three modified latent factors in both the English (χ2/df = 1.34, CFI = .90, RMSEA = .05) and Lugandan samples (χ2/df = 1.45, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .04). Although the analysis supported separate hyperarousal, avoidance and intrusion subscales, the items that loaded on each factor differed from the original CRTES-R subscales. The English version of the CRTES-R showed good concurrent validity with the Kauai Recovery Index measure of trauma symptoms. Those using the CRTES-R to assess children’s experiences of the different symptom types should consider using the empirically-derived subscales described in this paper; however, those who wish to capture a broad spectrum of PTSD symptoms should consider using all the original CRTES-R items and calculating a total score. PMID:26085785

  18. Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

  19. An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth Edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported. PMID:23544403

  20. Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M; Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2013-06-01

    Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) was examined with a sample of 300 individuals referred for evaluation at a university-based clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WAIS-IV structure was best represented by 4 first-order factors as well as a general intelligence factor in a direct hierarchical model. The general intelligence factor accounted for the most common and total variance among the subtests. Incremental validity analyses indicated that the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) generally accounted for medium to large portions of academic achievement variance. For all measures of academic achievement, the first-order factors combined accounted for significant achievement variance beyond that accounted for by the FSIQ, but individual factor index scores contributed trivial amounts of achievement variance. Implications for interpreting WAIS-IV results are discussed. PMID:23544395

  1. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients. PMID:26058660

  2. SEX DIFFERENCES ON THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN-III IN BAHRAIN AND THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah; Lynn, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) are reported for children in Bahrain and the United States. The results for the two samples were consistent in showing no significant differences in Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs, higher average scores by boys on the Block design and Mazes subtests of spatial ability, and higher average scores by girls on Coding. There was also greater variability in boys than in girls. PMID:26595296

  3. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances. PMID:25821443

  4. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances. PMID:25821443

  5. Correlates of memory complaints and personality, depression, and anxiety in a memory clinic.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Mohammad; Zhand, Naista; Eybpoosh, Sana; Yazdi, Narges; Ansari, Sahar; Ramezani, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find whether there is an association between subjective memory complaint and memory impairment and probable underlying psychological conditions. A total of 90 patients with subjective memory complaint enrolled in this study. Short history and demographic information were obtained and then the patients underwent memory and mental health assessments, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test tools. The mean age of the participants was 52.31 ± 17.97. Forty patients out of 90 (44.4%) were male. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and memory impairment was 10%, 12.2%, and 28.8%, respectively. Memory impairment has only shown a significant association with the presence of anxiety disorder according to the HADS findings (P=0.001). Regarding the MMPI, considerable differences were observed in the average grade of hysteria among patients with and without memory impairment: 8.38 ± 2.27 vs. 4.35 ± 1.96. There was also significant statistical association between the average score of depression on the MMPI in patients with and without memory impairment that were 13.7 ± 3.33 and 8.31 ±3.86, (P=0.03). The result of the current study shows that underlying psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, and histrionic personality are associated with memory impairment. PMID:26024700

  6. [Ageism: adaptation of the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised to the French language and testing the effects of empathy, social dominance orientation and dogmatism on ageism].

    PubMed

    Boudjemad, Valérian; Gana, Kamel

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACTThis article presents two studies dealing with ageism. The objective of the first study was to adapt to French language and validate the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised (FSA-R) which contains 23 items, while the objective of the second study was to test a structural model containing ageism as measured by the FSA-R and the "Big Three": empathy, social dominance orientation, and dogmatism, controlled for by sex and age. The results of the first study (n = 323) generated a version of the FSA-R comprising 14 items, of which the psychometric properties were very satisfactory. Using structural equation modelling and bootstrap procedure, the results of the second study (n = 284) showed a direct negative and significant effect of empathy on agism. They also showed that this negative effect was mediated by dogmatism and social dominance orientation, which both exerted a positive effect on ageism. PMID:19925702

  7. The behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R): factor analysis, internal consistency, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and convergent validity.

    PubMed

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Green, Vanessa A; Sigafoos, Jeff; Korzilius, Hubert; Pituch, Keenan; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R), a new scale intended for assessing behavioral flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Seventy-six direct care staff members and 56 parents completed the BFRS-R for 70 children with developmental disabilities. Factor analysis revealed three factors (i.e., Flexibility towards objects, Flexibility towards the environment, and Flexibility towards persons) and results of several analyses indicated an excellent internal consistency and good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the total scale. These data suggest that the BFRS-R may provide a reliable rating of behavioral flexibility when used by direct-care staff and parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:17826945

  8. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): a scale to assist the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in adults: an international validation study.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J; Hufnagel, Demetra H; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-08-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of the questions and total mean ASD vs. the comparison groups' scores were significantly different (p < .0001). Concurrent validity with Constantino Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult = 95.59%. Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%, test-retest reliability r = .987. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subscales and 4 derived factors were good. We conclude that the RAADS-R is a useful adjunct diagnostic tool for adults with ASD. PMID:21086033

  9. The structure of post-traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of war: confirmatory factor analyses of the Impact of Event Scale--revised.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Böhme, Hendryk F; Ajdukovic, Dean; Bogic, Marija; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian M; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Popovski, Mihajlo; Schützwohl, Matthias; Stangier, Ulrich; Priebe, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    The study aimed at establishing the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in survivors of war. A total sample of 4167 participants with potentially traumatic experiences during the war in Ex-Yugoslavia was split into three samples: two independent samples of people who stayed in the area of conflict and one sample of refugees to Western European countries. Alternative models with three, four, and five factors of post-traumatic symptoms were tested in one sample. The other samples were used for cross-validation. Results indicated that the model of best fit had five factors, i.e., intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal, numbing, and sleep disturbance. Model superiority was cross-validated in the two other samples. These findings suggest a five-factor model of post-traumatic stress symptoms in war survivors with numbing and sleep disturbance as separate factors in addition to intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. PMID:20430572

  10. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patti

    2004-01-01

    This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were divided into three…

  12. Memory and executive dysfunctions associated with acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Geneviève; Doyon, Julien; Brunet, Alain

    2010-05-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in its chronic form has been associated with a number of neurocognitive impairments involving emotionally neutral stimuli. It remains unknown whether such impairments also characterize acute PTSD. In the present investigation, neurocognitive functions were examined in trauma exposed individuals with (n=21) and without (n=16) acute PTSD, as well as in a group of individuals never exposed to trauma (n=17) using specific and standardized tasks such as the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Aggie's Figure Learning Test, the Autobiographical Memory Interview, the D2 test, the Stroop task, the digit and visual span tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, the Trail Making Test, the Tower of London and the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A number of deficits in the cognitive domains of memory, high-level attentional resources, executive function and working memory were found in the group with a diagnosis of acute PTSD only and not among the other groups. The findings, which point to the possibility of disturbed fronto-temporal system function in trauma-exposed individuals with acute PTSD, are particularly relevant for the early clinical management of this disorder. PMID:20381880

  13. Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lynn, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were generally consistent, with a male advantage on a subtest of spatial abilities (Mazes). Males in the Chinese sample obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQ scores than females and had lower variability in their test scores. These observations were not present in the Japan and United States samples. Mean Full Scale IQ score in the Chinese sample was 104.1, representing a 4-point increase from 1988 to 2004. PMID:21686316

  14. Achievement Testing with the Wechsler Quicktest: An Examination of Its Psychometric Properties and Applied Utility with a Greek-Cypriot Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrachimi-Souroulla, Andry; Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to field-test a Greek version of the Wechsler Quicktest and to examine its psychometric properties. The Quicktest was individually administered to 208 students, aged 5-14 years, along with a reading test. Based on the Rasch analysis, data for the Quicktest subtests showed acceptable fit to the model. Also, correlations were found…

  15. Long-Term Stability of Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required…

  16. Implications for Educational Classification and Psychological Diagnoses Using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with Canadian versus American Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a recent work of Harrison, Armstrong, Harrison, Iverson and Lange which suggested that Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) scores might systematically overestimate the severity of intellectual impairments if Canadian norms are used, the present study examined differences between Canadian and American derived…

  17. The Relationship between the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III in a Clinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javorsky, James

    1993-01-01

    This study found a significant relationship between the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) in 63 youth at a psychiatric hospital. A multiple regression equation was derived to provide an estimate of the WISC-III Full Scale Intelligence Quotient using the composites of the K-BIT.…

  18. The Role of Sex Differences in the Referral Process as Measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored sex differences on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in a sample of 432 Arkansas school children, ages 6 to 16, referred for special education assessment. Analysis of variance indicated significant sex differences among WISC-R Full Scale, Verbal, and…

  19. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  20. Latent Mean and Covariance Differences with Measurement Equivalence in College Students with Developmental Difficulties versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-III Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah; Davis, Mark; Coleman, Chris; Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence…

  1. Item response theory analysis of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Elizabeth D; Staniewska, Dorota; Coyne, Karin S; Boyer, Stacey; White, Leigh Ann; Zach, Neta; Cedarbaum, Jesse M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to examine dimensionality and item-level performance of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) across time using classical and modern test theory approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were conducted using data from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Pooled Resources Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with complete ALSFRS-R data (n = 888) at three time-points (Time 0, Time 1 (6-months), Time 2 (1-year)). Results demonstrated that in this population of 888 patients, mean age was 54.6 years, 64.4% were male, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The CFA supported a 4* individual-domain structure (bulbar, gross motor, fine motor, and respiratory domains). IRT analysis within each domain revealed misfitting items and overlapping item response category thresholds at all time-points, particularly in the gross motor and respiratory domain items. Results indicate that many of the items of the ALSFRS-R may sub-optimally distinguish among varying levels of disability assessed by each domain, particularly in patients with less severe disability. Measure performance improved across time as patient disability severity increased. In conclusion, modifications to select ALSFRS-R items may improve the instrument's specificity to disability level and sensitivity to treatment effects. PMID:26473473

  2. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  3. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  4. Reliability of delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98) using variance-based multivariate modelling.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Slor, Chantal J; Leonard, Maeve; Witlox, Joost; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Macdonald, Alastair J D; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David

    2013-07-01

    Delirium's characteristic fluctuation in symptom severity complicates the assessment of test-retest reliability of scales using classical analyses, but application of modelling to longitudinal data offers a new approach. We evaluated test-retest reliability of the delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98), two widely used instruments with high validity and inter-rater reliability. Two existing longitudinal datasets for each scale included DSM-IV criteria for delirium diagnosis and repeated measurements using the DRS or DRS-R98. To estimate the reliability coefficients RT and RΛ for each scale we used a macros provided by Dr. Laenen at http://www.ibiostat.be/software/measurement.asp. For each dataset a linear mixed-effects model was fitted to estimate the variance-covariance parameters. A total of 531 cases with between 4 and 9 measurement points across studies including both delirious and non-delirious patients. Comorbid dementia in the datasets varied from 27% to 55%. Overall RT for the DRS were 0.71 and 0.50 and for DRS-R98 0.75 and 0.84. RΛ values for DRS were 0.99 and 0.98 and for DRS-R98 were 0.92 and 0.96. Individual RT measures for DRS-R98 and DRS across visits within studies showed more range than overall values. Our models found high overall reliability for both scales. Multiple factors impact a scale's reliability values including sample size, repeated measurements, patient population, etc in addition to rater variability. PMID:23522935

  5. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    PubMed

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. PMID:25451477

  6. [Controlled study of an abbreviated form of the Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Adults (HAWIE, Dahl's WIP) in a heterogenous clinical group].

    PubMed

    Olbrich, R

    1976-01-01

    The "reduzierte Wechsler-Intelligenztest für psychiatrische Kranke (WIP)" by Dahl, a short form of the German version (HAWIE) of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, comprising the subtests Information, Similarities, Picture Completion and Block Design was applied in a replication study to a heterogeneous group of 420 mental patients. Results show a sufficiently high level of agreement (multiple correlation) between the present test and the HAWIE-IQ. With this result and a sample independence of the correlation, two of the requirements of board clinical application of the WIP are met. On the other hand Dahl's assumption that the WIP represents the optimal (quadruple)combination of subtests of the full scale was not confirmed. Criticisms of the WIP in the literature are discussed. On the basis of previous studies and the present investigations it is held that the WIP is a useful contribution to measurement of general ability in a clinical setting. PMID:952032

  7. Orthogonal higher order structure and confirmatory factor analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization transformation (SLT) to the standardization data published in the French technical manual for the WAIS-III. Results showed that the general factor accounted for 63% of the common variance and that the specific contributions of the 1st-order factors were weak (4.7%-15.9%). We also addressed this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the bifactor model (with 1st-order group and general factors) better fit the data than did the traditional higher order structure. Models based on the CHC framework were also tested. Results indicated that a higher order CHC model showed a better fit than did the classical 4-factor model; however, the WAIS bifactor structure was the most adequate. We recommend that users do not discount the Full Scale IQ when interpreting the index scores of the WAIS-III because the general factor accounts for the bulk of the common variance in the French WAIS-III. The 4 index scores cannot be considered to reflect only broad ability because they include a strong contribution of the general factor. PMID:21171782

  8. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    PubMed Central

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  9. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  10. Working memory mediates the relationship between intellectual enrichment and long-term memory in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory analysis of cognitive reserve.

    PubMed

    Sandry, Joshua; Sumowski, James F

    2014-09-01

    Some individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) show decrements in long-term memory (LTM) while other individuals do not. The theory of cognitive reserve suggests that individuals with greater pre-morbid intellectual enrichment are protected from disease-related cognitive decline. How intellectual enrichment affords this benefit remains poorly understood. The present study tested an exploratory meditational hypothesis whereby working memory (WM) capacity may mediate the relationship between intellectual enrichment and verbal LTM decline in MS. Intellectual enrichment, verbal LTM, and WM capacity were estimated with the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, delayed recall of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Logical Memory of the Wechsler Memory Scale, and Digit Span Total, respectively. Intellectual enrichment predicted LTM (B=.54; p=.003) and predicted WM capacity (B=.91; p<.001). WM capacity predicted LTM, (B=.44; p<.001) and fully mediated the relationship between intellectual enrichment (B=.24; p=.27) and LTM (B=.33, p=.03), Sobel test, Z=3.31, p<.001. These findings implicate WM capacity as an underlying mechanism of cognitive reserve and are an initial first step in understanding the relationship between intellectual enrichment, WM, and LTM in MS. PMID:25017699

  11. [Memory systems and memory disorders].

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

    2003-02-15

    Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

  12. Learning and memory in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Erickson, Roger L; Hartman, Jo Ann; Brown, Warren S

    2016-06-01

    Damage to long white matter pathways in the cerebral cortex is known to affect memory capacity. However, the specific contribution of interhemispheric connectivity in memory functioning is only beginning to become understood. The present study examined verbal and visual memory processing in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997b). Thirty participants with AgCC (FSIQ >78) were compared against 30 healthy age and IQ matched controls on auditory/verbal (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates) and visual (Visual Reproduction, Faces) memory subtests. Performance was worse in AgCC than controls on immediate and delayed verbal recall for rote word pairs and on delayed recall of faces, as well as on percent recall for these tasks. Immediate recall for thematic information from stories was also worse in AgCC, but groups did not differ on memory for details from narratives or on recall for thematic information following a time delay. Groups also did not differ on memory for abstract figures or immediate recall of faces. On all subtests, individuals with AgCC had greater frequency of clinically significant impairments than predicted by the normal distribution. Results suggest less efficient overall verbal and visual learning and memory with relative weaknesses processing verbal pairs and delayed recall for faces. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates more efficient learning and recall for both verbal and visual information, that individuals with AgCC may benefit from receiving verbal information within semantic context, and that known deficits in facial processing in individuals with AgCC may contribute to their impairments in recall for faces. PMID:27091586

  13. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  14. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis. PMID:8780106

  15. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Budson, Andrew E

    2010-08-01

    Converging evidence from patient and neuroimaging studies suggests that memory is a collection of abilities that use different neuroanatomic systems. Neurologic injury may impair one or more of these memory systems. Episodic memory allows us to mentally travel back in time and relive an episode of our life. Episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, other medial temporal lobe structures, the limbic system, and the frontal lobes, as well as several other brain regions. Semantic memory provides our general knowledge about the world and is unconnected to any specific episode of our life. Although semantic memory likely involves much of the neocortex, the inferolateral temporal lobes (particularly the left) are most important. Procedural memory enables us to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and algorithms that operate at an automatic, unconscious level. Damage to the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area often impair procedural memory. PMID:22810510

  16. Cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  17. An improved spatial span test of visuospatial memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-09-01

    In the widely used Corsi Block Test and Wechsler Spatial Span Tests, participants must reproduce sequences of blocks in the order touched by the examiner until two trials are missed at the same sequence length. The examiner records either the maximum number of blocks correctly reported or the total number of correct lists. Here, we describe a computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that uses psychophysical procedures to quantify visuospatial mean span (MnS) with sub-digit precision. Results from 187 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years showed that accuracy declined gradually with list length around the MnS (by ∼30% per item). Simulation studies revealed high variance and biases in CBT and Wechsler measures, and demonstrated that the C-SST provided the most accurate estimate of true span (i.e., the sequence length producing 50% correct). MnS declined more rapidly with age than mean digit span (MnDS) measured in the same participants. Response times correlated with both MnS and MnDS scores. Error analysis showed that omission and transposition errors predominated, with weaker primacy and recency effects in spatial span than digit span testing. The C-SST improves the precision of spatial span testing and reveals significant differences between visuospatial and verbal working memory. PMID:26357906

  18. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  19. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  20. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  1. Different effects of anterior temporal lobectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy on verbal memory performance of patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The advantage of selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) over anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains controversial. Because ATL is more extensive and involves the lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe, it may be predicted that its impact on memory is more important than SAH, which involves resection of medial temporal structures only. However, several studies do not support this assumption. Possible explanations include task-specific factors such as the extent of semantic and syntactic information to be memorized and failure to control for main confounders. We compared preoperative vs. postoperative memory performance in 13 patients with SAH with 26 patients who underwent ATL matched on side of surgery, IQ, age at seizure onset, and age at surgery. Memory function was assessed using the Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales - 3rd edition (LM-WMS), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed opposite effects of SAH and ATL on the two verbal learning memory tests. On the immediate recall trial of the LM-WMS, performance deteriorated after ATL in comparison with that after SAH. By contrast, on the delayed recognition trial of the RAVLT, performance deteriorated after SAH compared with that after ATL. However, additional analyses revealed that the latter finding was only observed when surgery was conducted in the right hemisphere. No interaction effects were found on other memory outcomes. The results are congruent with the view that tasks involving rich semantic content and syntactical structure are more sensitive to the effects of lateral temporal cortex resection as compared with mesiotemporal resection. The findings highlight the importance of task selection in the assessment of memory in patients undergoing TLE surgery. PMID

  2. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  3. Paradoxical Facilitation of Working Memory after Basolateral Amygdala Damage

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Barak; Terburg, David; Thornton, Helena B.; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot “see”. To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a ‘cooperation through competition’ networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical functional

  4. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  5. Determination of the crystallographic parameters of cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transformation using the infinitesimal deformation approach and wechsler, lieberman, and read theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navruz, N.

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to discuss the infinitesimal deformation (ID) approach’s application and practical applicability. Therefore, ID theory was reformulated and applied to the face centered cubic (fcc) to body centered tetragonal (bct) martensitic transformation for the case of the (110) [bar 110] slip system as the lattice invariant shear (LIS). The analytical solutions for the habit plane orientation, the magnitude of the lattice invariant shear, the orientation relation between parent and product phases, etc. were derived for fcc to bct martensitic transformation in an Fe-7 pct Al-2 pct C alloy. In order to compare with phenomenological theory’s results, crystallographic parameters were also calculated by using Wechsler, Lieberman, and Read (W-L-R) phenomenological theory. Agreement between the two results obtained from ID approach and W-L-R theory was found to be excellent.

  6. Beyond the Floor Effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Ed. (WISC-IV): Calculating IQ and Indexes of Subjects Presenting a Floored Pattern of Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, A.; Pezzuti, L.; Hulbert, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are…

  7. Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting.

    PubMed

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Sewell, Michael D; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of working memory in observed reactive parenting in a sample of 216 mothers and their same-sex twin children. The mothers and their children were observed completing two frustrating cooperation tasks during a visit to the home. The mothers worked one-on-one with each child separately. Mothers completed the Vocabulary (verbal), Block Design (spatial), and Digit Span (working memory) subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. We used a within-family quasi-experimental design to estimate the magnitude of the association between sibling differences in observed challenging behaviors (i.e., opposition and distractibility) and the difference in the mother's negativity toward each child. As hypothesized, reactive negativity was evident only among mothers with poorer working memory. Verbal and spatial ability did not show this moderating effect. The effect was replicated in a post hoc secondary data analysis of a sample of adoptive mothers and sibling children. Results implicate working memory in the etiology of harsh reactive parenting. PMID:20424026

  8. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  9. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Provides numerous ideas for helping students write about special memories in the following categories: growing up--future dreams; authors and illustrators; family history; special places; and special memories. Describes how to write a "bio poem," and includes a bibliography of children's books that enhance and enrich student learning and writing.…

  10. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  11. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  12. A Comparison of Laboratory and Clinical Working Memory Tests and Their Prediction of Fluid Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Jill T.; Elliott, Emily M.; Hill, B. D.; Calamia, Matthew R.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2010-01-01

    The working memory (WM) construct is conceptualized similarly across domains of psychology, yet the methods used to measure WM function vary widely. The present study examined the relationship between WM measures used in the laboratory and those used in applied settings. A large sample of undergraduates completed three laboratory-based WM measures (operation span, listening span, and n-back), as well as the WM subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Performance on all of the WM subtests of the clinical batteries shared positive correlations with the lab measures; however, the Arithmetic and Spatial Span subtests shared lower correlations than the other WM tests. Factor analyses revealed that a factor comprising scores from the three lab WM measures and the clinical subtest, Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS), provided the best measurement of WM. Additionally, a latent variable approach was taken using fluid intelligence as a criterion construct to further discriminate between the WM tests. The results revealed that the lab measures, along with the LNS task, were the best predictors of fluid abilities. PMID:20161647

  13. Retrograde amnesia: a study of its relation to anterograde amnesia and semantic memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, K; Vollmer, H

    1997-04-01

    This group study of 24 amnesic patients and 40 control subjects examined the hypothesis that retrograde memory deficits result from a combination of two impairment mechanisms: (1) a deficit in the retrieval of contents that is related to dysfunctioning of the hippocampal anterograde memory system, and (2) a deficit in the storage and/or retrieval of contents that is related to concomitant neocortical lesions. Retrograde amnesia was evaluated with the use of new Famous Persons and Autobiographical Memory Tests. The postulated components of retrograde memory impairment were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale and a new Semantic Memory Test, respectively. Regression analyses showed that recent episodic autobiography was exclusively related to the hippocampal component, while memory for famous persons and childhood autobiography was related to the neocortical component. In the case of details concerning people of recent fame, both components were identified as independent determinants. The temporal gradient of patients' impairment at the Famous Persons Test was marked for detailed knowledge, but small for overlearned knowledge. The present results thus support the combination hypothesis. They conform to the view that the transition from a hippocampus-dependent to a neocortex-dependent mnemonic representation of new contents is mediated by reiteration, and occurs within 5-10 years. PMID:9106279

  14. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually include asking questions of family members and friends. For this reason, they should come to the appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term ...

  15. A combined analysis of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R): Different perfectionist profiles in adolescent high school students.

    PubMed

    Sironic, Amanda; Reeve, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences and similarities in the dimensional constructs of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 938 high school students completed the 3 perfectionism questionnaires, as well as the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Preliminary analyses revealed commonly observed factor structures for each perfectionism questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis of item responses from the questionnaires (combined) yielded a 4-factor solution (factors were labeled High Personal Standards, Concerns, Doubts and Discrepancy, Externally Motivated Perfectionism, and Organization and Order). A latent class analysis of individuals' mean ratings on each of the 4 factors yielded a 6-class solution. Three of the 6 classes represented perfectionist subgroups (labeled adaptive perfectionist, externally motivated maladaptive perfectionist, and mixed maladaptive perfectionist), and 3 represented nonperfectionist subgroups (labeled nonperfectionist A, nonperfectionist B, and order and organization nonperfectionist). Each of the 6 subgroups was meaningfully associated with the DASS. Findings showed that 3 out of 10 students were classified as maladaptive perfectionists, and maladaptive perfectionists were more prevalent than adaptive perfectionists. In sum, it is evident that combined ratings from the FMPS, CAPS, and APS-R offer a meaningful characterization of perfectionism. PMID:25984636

  16. Working Memory Spans as Predictors of Spoken Word Recognition and Receptive Vocabulary in Children with Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether individual differences in working memory could account for a significant proportion of the variance in the open-set word recognition and receptive vocabulary skills of prelingually deafened, pediatric cochlear implant recipients, after the contribution of known predictors was taken into account. The contributions of four measures of working memory were examined separately for children using oral communication (OC) (n = 32) and Total Communication (TC) (n = 29). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC) digit-spans, requiring immediate recall of auditory-only lists in both forwards and backwards directions were, collected. Two versions of a novel "memory span game" were also administered: One required memory for sequences of colored lights; the other assessed memory for colored lights presented in conjunction with auditory color-names. A contribution from working memory was observed only for the span tasks that incorporated an auditory processing component. These results suggest a relationship between working memory and the examined outcome measures that is specific to the auditory modality, partially linked to communication mode, and not related to individual differences in a general-purpose component of working memory. PMID:21666765

  17. Concurrent Validity of Persian Version of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition and Cognitive Assessment System in Patients with Learning Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Reza; Sadeghi, Vahid; Zarei, Jamileh; Haddadi, Parvaneh; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Salamati, Payman

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the Persian version of the wechsler intelligence scale for children - fourth edition (WISC-IV) and cognitive assessment system (CAS) tests, to determine the correlation between their scales and to evaluate the probable concurrent validity of these tests in patients with learning disorders. Methods One-hundered-sixty-two children with learning disorder who were presented at Atieh Comprehensive Psychiatry Center were selected in a consecutive non-randomized order. All of the patients were assessed based on WISC-IV and CAS scores questionnaires. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between the data and to assess the concurrent validity of the two tests. Linear regression was used for statistical modeling. The type one error was considered 5% in maximum. Findings There was a strong correlation between total score of WISC-IV test and total score of CAS test in the patients (r=0.75, P<0.001). The correlations among the other scales were mostly high and all of them were statistically significant (P<0.001). A linear regression model was obtained (α = 0.51, β = 0.81 and P<0.001). Conclusion There is an acceptable correlation between the WISC-IV scales and CAS test in children with learning disorders. A concurrent validity is established between the two tests and their scales. PMID:23724180

  18. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  19. Memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Squire, Larry R; Genzel, Lisa; Wixted, John T; Morris, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Conscious memory for a new experience is initially dependent on information stored in both the hippocampus and neocortex. Systems consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus. Early evidence for systems consolidation was provided by studies of retrograde amnesia, which found that damage to the hippocampus-impaired memories formed in the recent past, but typically spared memories formed in the more remote past. Systems consolidation has been found to occur for both episodic and semantic memories and for both spatial and nonspatial memories, although empirical inconsistencies and theoretical disagreements remain about these issues. Recent work has begun to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie the dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex (e.g., "neural replay," which occurs during sharp wave ripple activity). New work has also identified variables, such as the amount of preexisting knowledge, that affect the rate of consolidation. The increasing use of molecular genetic tools (e.g., optogenetics) can be expected to further improve understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying consolidation. PMID:26238360

  20. Concurrent Validity of the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test: Comparison with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition and the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy L.; Rucker, Marggi; Finch, A. J., Jr.; Alexander, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the concurrent validity of the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test (S-FRIT) by comparing S-FRIT scores to the scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised (WJ-R). Results revealed that the S-FRIT scores were more related to overall intelligence,…

  1. The effect of magnetic resonance imaging on human cognition.

    PubMed

    Sweetland, J; Kertesz, A; Prato, F S; Nantau, K

    1987-01-01

    Potential effects of MRI exposure on aspects of human cognition were investigated out of concern that possible safety hazards associated with the procedure may exist. One hundred and fifty-seven volunteer subjects were randomly assigned to either an imaged, sham-imaged or nonimaged control condition. The following psychological tests were administered in a double blind procedure at pretreatment, post-treatment and follow-up time periods: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (Digit Span, Block Design and Digit Symbol), the Wechsler Memory Scale Paired Associate Learning test, the Benton Revised Visual Retention test, the Vandenberg Mental Rotation test, the Sternberg memory scanning paradigm and the State Anxiety Inventory. The overall analysis of results indicated that MRI at 0.15 T has no significant effect upon the cognitive functions assessed. PMID:3295446

  2. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  3. "Why" or "How": The Effect of Concrete Versus Abstract Processing on Intrusive Memories Following Analogue Trauma.

    PubMed

    White, Rachel; Wild, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Emergency service workers, military personnel, and journalists working in conflict zones are regularly exposed to trauma as part of their jobs and suffer higher rates of posttraumatic stress compared with the general population. These individuals often know that they will be exposed to trauma and therefore have the opportunity to adopt potentially protective cognitive strategies. One cognitive strategy linked to better mood and recovery from upsetting events is concrete information processing. Conversely, abstract information processing is linked to the development of anxiety and depression. We trained 50 healthy participants to apply an abstract or concrete mode of processing to six traumatic film clips and to apply this mode of processing to a posttraining traumatic film. Intrusive memories of the films were recorded for 1week and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R; Weiss & Marmar, 1997) was completed at 1-week follow-up. As predicted, participants in the concrete condition reported significantly fewer intrusive memories in response to the films and had lower IES-R scores compared with those in the abstract condition. They also showed reduced emotional reactivity to the posttraining film. Self-reported proneness to intrusive memories in everyday life was significantly correlated with intrusive memories of the films, whereas trait rumination, trait dissociation, and sleep difficulties were not. Findings suggest that training individuals to adopt a concrete mode of information processing during analogue trauma may protect against the development of intrusive memories. PMID:27157033

  4. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  5. Memory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amici, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Memory is the cognitive ability that allows to acquire, store and recall information; its dysfunction is called amnesia and can be a presentation of unilateral ischemic stroke in the territory of the posterior cerebral and anterior choroidal artery as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22377863

  6. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  7. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  8. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  9. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  10. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  11. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  12. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  13. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60-78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  14. Mechanisms of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the brain processes and brain systems involved in learning and memory from a neuropsychological perspective of analysis. Reports findings related to the locus of memory storage, types of memory and knowledge, and memory consolidation. Models of animal memory are also examined. An extensive reference list is included. (ML)

  15. The relation between fornix injury and memory impairment in patients with diffuse axonal injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Oh Lyong; Bai, Dai Seg; Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the relation between fornix injury and memory impairment in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). In the current study, we attempted to investigate fornix injury in patients with memory impairment following DAI, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Nine patients with DAI and nine age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. The DTIs were acquired using a sensitivity-encoding head coil on a 1.5 T. Five regions of interest (ROI) were drawn manually on a color fractional anisotropy (FA) map: two ROIs for each column, one ROI for the body, and two ROIs for each crus. The FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each of the ROIs. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Memory Assessment Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and Mini-Mental State Exam. In the DAI group, the FA value in the fornix body was significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. In contrast, we did not find significant differences in the column and crus of the fornix. Among all of the cognitive function scales, only the Memory Assessment Scale scores were significantly correlated with the FA values of the fornix body in the DAI group. We found that memory impairment in patients with DAI is closely related to neuronal injury of the fornix body among the three fornix regions that we assessed. DTI could be useful in the evaluation of patients with memory impairment following DAI. PMID:20555158

  16. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction. PMID:25586092

  17. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  18. Alcohol use disorders and cognitive abilities in young adulthood: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Phillip K; Sher, Kenneth J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2002-08-01

    The effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on cognitive and neuropsychological abilities was investigated in a prospective study of 68 freshmen who met past-year criteria for AUD on 2 or more occasions during their college years and 66 matched controls. At baseline, participants were administered a total of 14 subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Wechsler Memory Scale, and Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. At 7-year follow-up, most measures were readministered, along with the Reflective Judgment Interview, Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, and Plant Test. Analyses revealed few differences between AUD and control groups. However, visuospatial deficits may be present among AUD participants with poor baseline visuospatial performance. Alcohol exposure measures yielded similar patterns to those shown with AUD. PMID:12182273

  19. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  20. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  1. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  2. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  3. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  4. The effect of NaO Li Su on memory functions and blood chemistry in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Iversen, T; Fiirgaard, K M; Schriver, P; Rasmussen, O; Andreasen, F

    1997-04-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine a mixture of bee pollen, radix polygoni multiflore, semen ziziphi spinosae, radix salviae multiorhizae, fructus schisandrae and fructus ligustris lucidae, known as NaO Li Su, has a reputation as a remedy against declining memory functions. In the present study the effect of the preparation on failing memory was assessed in 100 elderly Danish volunteers who complained of a deteriorating memory. The study was a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over trial. The effect was evaluated after treatment periods of 3 months' duration by a battery of psychological and biochemical tests. No desirable effects on memory functions were achieved by the active treatment. Increases in the number of red blood cells and in the serum creatinine levels were seen after active treatment. In the subgroup initially showing a number of red blood cells below the median a significant positive correlation was found between changes in the number of red blood cells and changes in the Wechsler Memory Scale scores. PMID:9174971

  5. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  6. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  7. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  8. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production.

    PubMed

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children's stories scored higher than deaf children's at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children's oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children's ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  9. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  10. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory. PMID:21897823

  11. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R. G.; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J.; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What’s the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients’ parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  12. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R G; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What's the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients' parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  13. A neurodevelopmental approach to understanding memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Ashley M; Bell, Terece S; Houskamp, Beth M; O'Callaghan, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual giftedness is associated with strong strategic verbal memory while attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with strategic verbal memory deficits; however, no previous research has explored how this contradiction manifests in gifted populations with diagnoses of ADHD. The purpose of this study was to explore strategic verbal memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with and without ADHD to provide clarification regarding this specific aspect of neuropsychological functioning within this population. One hundred twenty-five youth completed neuropsychological evaluations including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C). Results revealed significant differences between groups, with intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving lower T scores on CVLT-C Trials 1 through 5 compared with intellectually gifted youth without ADHD, and intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving higher T scores than youth of average intellectual abilities with ADHD. Additionally, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect improvement among gifted youth with ADHD in short-delay recall when provided with organizational cues. Findings revealed new evidence about the role of twice exceptionality (specifically intellectual giftedness and ADHD) in strategic verbal memory and have important implications for parents, educators, psychologists and neuropsychologists, and other mental health professionals working with this population. PMID:24191777

  14. Four-hour delayed memory recall for stories: Theoretical and clinical implications of measuring accelerated long-term forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ladowsky-Brooks, Ricki L

    2016-01-01

    It has been noted that clinical neuropsychological assessment is "blind" to certain abnormalities of consolidation that occur beyond standard 30-min delay intervals. For example, normal forgetting at 30-min delays has been followed by enhanced forgetting at longer delays in temporal-lobe epilepsy, termed accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). To evaluate whether ALF could be identified in the neuropsychological assessment of a small sample of examinees with head injuries or other neurological diagnoses (n = 42), a 4-hr delayed recall condition was added to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. A small percentage of examinees (5/42 or 11%), despite exhibiting unimpaired story recall immediately and after 30-min delays, showed increased forgetting when compared with the average retention of stories (M = 0.83, SD = 0.17) after a 4-hr delay. Three of these 5 examinees also had impaired scores on 20-min delayed recall of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and would have been identified as having memory impairment without an extended, 4-hr delayed recall. In fact, the highest correlation among memory indexes was between 4-hr delayed recall of stories and delayed recall of the CVLT-II word list (r = .59, p < .0001), suggesting different consolidation rates for relational and nonrelational material. PMID:26502999

  15. Understanding Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory problems—causes and treatments Help for serious memory problems What you need to know Where can I get more information? Words to know ... of Health U.S. Department of Health & Human Services USA.gov

  16. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  17. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  18. Generation and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  19. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  20. The Bush Memorial Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamline University Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Bush Memorial Library was formally dedicated on October 9, 1971. As part of Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Bush Memorial Library has a reading room, audio booths, and audio-visual classroom as well as an audio control room. The Bush Memorial Library is a member of the Cooperating Libraries in Consortium which is a cooperative…

  1. Make-believe memories.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2003-11-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited. PMID:14609374

  2. Make-Believe Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2003-01-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited.

  3. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  4. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  5. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26638836

  6. Reduced glucose tolerance is associated with poor memory performance and hippocampal atrophy among normal elderly

    PubMed Central

    Convit, Antonio; Wolf, Oliver T.; Tarshish, Chaim; de Leon, Mony J.

    2003-01-01

    Poor glucose tolerance and memory deficits, short of dementia, often accompanies aging. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether, among nondiabetic, nondemented middle-aged and elderly individuals, poorer glucose tolerance is associated with reductions in memory performance and smaller hippocampal volumes. We studied 30 subjects who were evaluated consecutively in an outpatient research setting. The composition of the participant group was 57% female and 68.6 ± 7.5 years of age; the participants had an average education of 16.2 ± 2.3 years, a score on the Mini Mental State Examination of 28.6 ± 1.5, a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) of 5.88 ± 0.74%, and a body mass index of 24.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2. Glucose tolerance was measured by an i.v. glucose tolerance test. Memory was tested by using the Wechsler Paragraphs recall tests at the time of administering the i.v. glucose tolerance test. The hippocampus and other brain volumes were measured by using validated methods on standardized MRIs. Decreased peripheral glucose regulation was associated with decreased general cognitive performance, memory impairments, and atrophy of the hippocampus, a brain area that is key for learning and memory. These associations were independent of age and Mini Mental State Examination scores. Therefore, these data suggest that metabolic substrate delivery may influence hippocampal structure and function. This observation may bring to light a mechanism for aging brain injury that may have substantial medical impact, given the large number of elderly individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:12571363

  7. Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood. PMID:23137723

  8. Memory: sins and virtues

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of doing so. PMID:23909686

  9. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-01

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes. PMID:19654771

  10. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  11. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  12. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  13. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  14. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  15. Correlations between behavior, memory, sleep-wake and melatonin in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Stella Donadon; Giacheti, Celia Maria; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Campos, Leila Maria Guissoni; Pinato, Luciana

    2016-05-15

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosomic region 7q11.23, presents with peculiar behavioral and neurocognitive phenotypes that are marked by apparently preserved social and communicative abilities, which contrasts with low overall cognitive and particularly visuospatial performance. In addition, parents often report complaints of sleep disorders and behavioral problems of unknown cause. Sleep is a biological phenomenon that is modulated by the plasma concentration of melatonin and with influence on behavioral aspects and memory. Thus, this study sought to investigate the behavior, memory and the presence of sleep disorders in WBS and to correlate these factors with each other and with the plasma melatonin content. We used the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL), the digit subtest of the Wechsler scale for auditory memory, the visual sequential memory subtest of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Determination of urinary aMT6s, an indirect measure of plasma melatonin content, was held for 72h by ELISA, and the analysis of the circadian rhythm of this content was performed by the Cosinor method. The results of the CBCL showed that 87% of the WBS group presented with a clinical score on the overall competence and total behavioral problems. Furthermore, the behavioral problems that were most frequently reported by parents were anxiety and problems of thought. All individuals with WBS presented with impairments in auditory memory and 47% with impairments in visual sequential memory; 65% of the WBS group presented with an indicative of at least one sleep disorder, where respiratory, initiation and maintenance of sleep (DIMS) and hyperhidrosis were the most frequent disorders. The night time aMT6s levels were lower in individuals with WBS when compared with controls; 53% of the WBS group did not present with circadian rhythm

  16. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  17. Overdistribution in source memory.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

    2012-03-01

    Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

  18. Does fascia hold memories?

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The idea that tissues may possess some sort of memory is a controversial topic in manual medicine, calling for research and clinical exploration. Many bodyworkers, at some point in their practice, have experienced phenomena that may be interpreted as representing a release of memory traces when working on dysfunctional tissues. This feeling may have been accompanied by some type of sensory experience, for the therapist and/or the patient. In some cases, early traumatic experiences may be recalled. When this happens, the potency of the memory may be erased or eased, along with restoration of tissue function. Hence the questions: can memories be held in the fascia? And: are these memories accessible during manual fascial work? Modern research has proposed a variety of different interpretations as to how memory might be stored in soft tissues, possibly involving other forms of information storage not exclusively processed neurologically (Box 1). PMID:24725795

  19. Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herbener, Ellen S.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:18632728

  20. Autosuggestibility in memory development.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    1995-02-01

    Autosuggestibility is a potentially common source of false memories in children. We studied a form of autosuggestibility in which children's answers to memory tests were shifted in the direction of their illogical solutions to reasoning problems. In Experiments 1 and 2, illogic-consistent shifts were identified in children's memories of the numerical inputs on class-inclusion problems. The magnitudes of the shifts declined with age, and they appeared to be due to the intrusion of inappropriate gist on memory probes rather than retroactive interference from illogical reasoning. A model of how gist intrusion causes autosuggestibility was investigated in Experiments 3-5. The model assumes that children retrieve and process inappropriate gist when memory tests supply cues that are inadequate to permit access to verbatim memories. PMID:7895469

  1. Optical mass memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and magnetic variants in the design of trillion-bit read/write memories are compared and tabulated. Components and materials suitable for a random access read/write nonmoving memory system are examined, with preference given to holography and photoplastic materials. Advantages and deficiencies of photoplastics are reviewed. Holographic page composer design, essential features of an optical memory with no moving parts, fiche-oriented random access memory design, and materials suitable for an efficient photoplastic fiche are considered. The optical variants offer advantages in lower volume and weight at data transfer rates near 1 Mbit/sec, but power drain is of the same order as for the magnetic variants (tape memory, disk memory). The mechanical properties of photoplastic film materials still leave much to be desired.

  2. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  3. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  4. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  5. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  6. Sparse distributed memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, P.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

  7. Magnetic bubble domain memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ypma, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Some attractive features of Bubble Domain Memory and its relation to existing technologies are discussed. Two promising applications are block access mass memory and tape recorder replacement. The required chip capabilities for these uses are listed, and the specifications for a block access mass memory designed to fit between core and HPT disk are presented. A feasibility model for a tape recorder replacement is introduced.

  8. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  9. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  10. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-11-29

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925