Science.gov

Sample records for weeds

  1. Agronomic Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines agronomic weed problems and control. Contents include a listing of the characteristics of weeds, a section on herbicides, and a section on the important weeds of agronomic crops in Pennsylvania. The herbicide section discusses systemic herbicides, contact…

  2. WEED RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds in peppermint and spearmint reduce mint oil yield and quality. Presence of weeds in mint hay at harvest can result in off flavors, odors, and colors in the oil. Several weed species have developed resistance to, or are poorly controlled by herbicides labeled for mint production. Pigweed is oft...

  3. Flowers & Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  4. Weed Management in Organic Crops

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Weed Management in Organic Crops Research Results Update Bill Curran Penn State University #12;Weed · Fertilization · Hand weeding · Cultivation · Thermal weed control · Biological weed control · Natural products of weeds relative to crops · Direct controls - large hammers ­ Herbicides ­ Cultivation ­ Thermal

  5. Green Weeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penniman, Sarah; McColl, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Gone are the days of tiptoeing to the dumpsters with boxes of weeded books in tow. Lots of libraries are now taking advantage of the many low-cost services and solutions that promise to help extend the lives of collection discards. Some of these options can be very profitable. Some create goodwill within the local community. Some may seem more…

  6. Weed management recommendations for

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Weed management recommendations for Florida citrus Analiza H.M. Ramirez and Megh Singh Citrus Research and Education Center July 24, 2012 #12;Outline of presentation I. Impact of weeds on citrus production II. Weed management tactics III. Weed management programs a. Young citrus b. Older citrus IV

  7. Eradication of Major Weeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Strategies for weed control in cropped and non-cropped areas are presented together with an operational plan for implementing a program for weed control at the national level. The program includes training personnel and community education procedures. (EC)

  8. Weed Management Costs, Weed Best Management Practices, and The Roundup Ready Weed Management Program

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Paul D.

    Weed Management Costs, Weed Best Management Practices, and The Roundup Ready® Weed Management-commercial purposes by any means, provide that this copyright notice appears on all such copies. #12;1 Weed Management Costs, Weed Best Management Practices, and The Roundup Ready® Weed Management Program T.M. Hurley

  9. MINT WEED RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds lower mint oil yield and quality and weed control represents a major production cost and investment of time for producers of mint oil. The goal of this research is to develop improved weed control methods in spearmint and peppermint and to identify promising new herbicides on spearmint and pe...

  10. Weed I.D. and Management featuring 10 common weeds

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Weed I.D. and Management featuring 10 common weeds Test your skills Bill Curran Penn State University #12;Weed identification · Most people want to know the names of (and how to control) the weeds they encounter or are having problems with · Certain weed species can be found around the world, while others

  11. Weeds in LawnsWeeds in Lawns University of California

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Weeds in LawnsWeeds in Lawns University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program Weeds occur in all lawns but seldom become problems in well-managed, healthy turfgrass. Poor maintenance it to weed invasion. Total eradication of weeds isn't realistic or necessary for most lawns. With good

  12. Introduction to Weeds and Herbicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is an introduction to weed control and herbicide use. An initial discussion of the characteristics of weeds includes scientific naming, weed competition with crops, weed dispersal and dormancy, and conditions affecting weed seed germination. The main body of the…

  13. Invasive Weed Outreach in Earl Creech

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    1 Invasive Weed Outreach in Nevada Earl Creech Extension Weed Specialist Cache Valley, Utah at Purdue What does the Extension Weed Specialist do? Control Nevada's weeds What does the Extension Weed Specialist do? Control Nevada's weeds Enforce weed control laws What does the Extension Weed Specialist do

  14. Herbicide Resistant Weed Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metribuzin and rimsulfuron are the only two herbicides registered for postemergence broadleaf weed control in potatoes, and represent the two classes of herbicides, triazines and ALS inhibitors, with the most reported cases of resistant weeds world wide. Other postemergence grass herbicides belongin...

  15. Bioherbicides for Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the first commercially successfully biological control of weeds with fungal pathogens a model for a good bioherbicide was developed. It was assumed that a good agent was one that could be grown cheaply and quickly; was aggressive and patentable; could be easily applied; had single-weed sp...

  16. Weed Research in Mint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds present in peppermint and spearmint reduce mint oil yield and quality. Mustard seed meal applied at 1 and 2 ton/acre to newly planted peppermint reduced annual weed emergence for several weeks without injuring peppermint. Field pennycress seed meal applied at similar rates did not suppress wee...

  17. WEED RESEARCH IN MINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncontrolled weeds in peppermint and spearmint reduce mint oil yield and quality. Several weed species have developed resistance to, or are poorly controlled by herbicides labeled for mint production. Flucarbazone, and propoxycarbazone applied to dormant native spearmint caused little or no crop inj...

  18. Weed Research in Mint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of high quality and high yielding peppermint and spearmint oil requires effective management of weeds. Since soil disturbance is kept to a minimum to reduce the spread of Verticillium wilt in mint production, weed control is accomplished primarily with herbicides. Flucarbazone, and propox...

  19. EMERGING WEED PROBLEMS IN MINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New weed problems continue to evolve in mint production. Common groundsel, western salsify, white cockle, rattail fescue are four weeds that are difficult to control and often escape weed management programs in mint production. All four of these weeds have the ability to germinate in fall and spr...

  20. Weeds of the South

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because there is no comprehensive weed identification manual for the southeastern U.S.A., a book was compiled to include accepted nomenclature, synonyms, descriptions, life history, special identifying characteristics, habitat preference, toxicity information, distribution maps, grass collar region ...

  1. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by swallowing weed killers containing a chemical called glyphosate. This is for information only and not for ... Glyphosate ... Glyphosate is found in various weed killers, including the brands listed below: Roundup Bronco Glifonox Kleen-up ...

  2. Modelling for precision weed management.

    PubMed

    Kropff, M J; Wallinga, J; Lotz, L A

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the need for the development of weed management systems with a reduced dependency on herbicides has increased because of concern about environmental side-effects and cost. The development of such systems requires new strategies based on improvements with respect to (1) prevention, (2) decision making and (3) weed control technology. For the development of improvements in all three aspects, quantitative understanding of weed population dynamics and crop-weed interactions is needed. Models that integrate the available quantitative knowledge can be used to design preventive measures, to develop long-term and short-term strategies for weed management, to assist in decision making to determine if, when, where and how weeds should be controlled and to identify new opportunities for weed control. Ecophysiological simulation models for crop-weed competition simulate growth and production of species in mixtures, based on ecophysiological processes in plants and their response to the environment. Such models help improve insight into the crop-weed system and can be used for purposes such as the development of simple predictive yield-loss models, threshold levels or the design of competitive crop plant types. For strategic weed management decisions, preventive measures and the identification of new opportunities for weed control, quantitative insight into the dynamics and spatial patterns of weed populations is also required. The complexity of the process and the long-term character of weed population dynamics make the use of models necessary. Different modelling approaches have been developed and are described briefly. Opportunities to use the available knowledge and models to improve weed management are discussed. Weeds occur in patches and their sensitivity to herbicides changes strongly with developmental stage, making precision techniques for herbicide application in time and space an option for reducing herbicide use. Limitations related to insight in biological processes as well as the state of technological development are discussed. PMID:9573477

  3. Controlling Landscape Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuss, James Robert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of common grass and broadleaf weeds through the use of mulches and herbicides. The section on mulches discusses the different types of mulching materials, their advantages and disadvantages, herbicide-mulch combinations, and lists source of…

  4. WEEDING IN TRANSGENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenes promise to reduce insecticide and fungicide use, but relatively little has been done to significantly reduce herbicide use through genetic engineering. Three strategies for transgene utilization are discussed which have the potential to change this: 1) improvement of weed-specific biocon...

  5. Weed Research in Mint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds present in peppermint and spearmint reduce mint oil yield and quality. Flumioxazin combinations with clomazone and pendimethalin applied to dormant peppermint controlled prickly lettuce and flixweed without significant injury to the crop. Low rates of flumioxazin and sulfentrazone applied imm...

  6. Biotechnology in weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  7. Seasonal Weed Control for Northeast Florida

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 Seasonal Weed Control for Northeast Florida #12;2 Introduction Weed control is a constant battle things you can do to reduce the economic impact of weeds. A healthy pasture has fewer weed problems. Soil to maintain a weed free pasture. Always use certi- fied seed to establish pastures and hay fields. Clean

  8. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  9. DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED WITH WEED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED WITH WEED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION Montana Agricultural Experiment Station MSU Specialist Center for Invasive Species Management Elizabeth Galli-Noble, Director Kim Goodwin, Weed Science, Biological Control of Weeds Jane Mangold, Integrated Invasive Plant Management Bruce Maxwell, Agroecology

  10. TABLE OF CONTENTS 2001 Weed Trials

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    i TABLE OF CONTENTS 2001 Weed Trials FOREWORD FOR BROADLEAF WEED CONTROL IN ROUND-UP READY CORN (RSCNNP50101) ..............................................................95 EFFECTS OF MESOTRIONE ON WEED CONTROL AND CORN YIELD (RSCNNP50201

  11. DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED WITH WEED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED WITH WEED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION Montana Agricultural Experiment Station MSU-Noble, CISM Director Kim Goodwin, Weed Science Land Resources and Environmental Sciences Erik Lehnhoff, Invasive Plant Ecology Jeff Littlefield, Biological Control of Weeds Jane Mangold, Integrated Invasive

  12. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

  13. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

  14. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

  15. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

  16. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

  17. Invasive Weed Management Is Site-Specific Weed Management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific weed management in crops and invasive weed management in natural lands and rangelands appear to be unrelated research areas but there are many connections in the research problems, approaches and solutions. An obvious link is technology. The technology of precision agriculture - GPS, ...

  18. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  19. Parasitic Weeds, a Scientific Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent issue of the SCI journal Pest Management Science (May, 2009) was devoted to an overview of the problem of parasitic weeds and to the research that is being done to alleviate it. These papers are from an OECD-sponsored conference entitled Managing Parasitic Weeds that recently brought the b...

  20. Organic weed control in watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is an essential element for certified organic crop production and producers place weed control as their highest research priority within their IPM programs. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the impact of integrated organic weed control systems o...

  1. 248 Weed Science 50, MarchApril 2002 Weed Science, 50:248260. 2002

    E-print Network

    Bradford, Kent

    248 · Weed Science 50, March­April 2002 Weed Science, 50:248­260. 2002 Applications of hydrothermal@ucdavis.edu Knowledge and prediction of seasonal weed seedling emergence patterns is useful in weed management programs and nutrients to support plant growth. Seed dormancy is a characteristic feature of many weed species, allowing

  2. Weeds in LandscapesWeeds in Landscapes Nothing disturbs tidy gardeners more

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Weeds in LandscapesWeeds in Landscapes Nothing disturbs tidy gardeners more than a weed filled flower or landscape bed. Weeds will invade any bare or thin area in a landscape. Prevent invasions in new beds with good site preparation. Keep weeds out with an integrated program that includes competitive

  3. WeedScience,47:282-290. 1999 Weed suppression by Medicago sativa in subsequent cereal

    E-print Network

    Kenkel, Norm

    WeedScience,47:282-290. 1999 Weed suppression by Medicago sativa in subsequent cereal crops;approximatelyhalffromeachfieldtype.Principlecom- ponentanalysisindicatedthatthe inclusionof M sativain croprotationsresulted in weed communitiesdifferentfrom those,fieldpennycress;Setariaviridis(L.)Beauv.SETVI,greenfoxtail. Keywords: Alternativeweedcontrol,relativeabundance,weed/cropecology,weed suppression

  4. Examples Chemical Name Herbicide Family Target Weed

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Herbicide Brand Name Examples Chemical Name Herbicide Family Target Weed Sps. Mode of Action Y2000 prices for some trade products 2,4 D Navigate® , Class® , Weed-Pro®, Justice ® (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid phenoxy broadleaf weeds Auxin mimic $35/gal WeedHo Clopyralid Reclaim ® , Curtail®, Transline

  5. Managing Print Collections: JRUL Weeding Policy

    E-print Network

    Abrahams, I. David

    Managing Print Collections: JRUL Weeding Policy Why weed? Stock and space are key issues in an annual weeding programme to ensure that there is sufficient space to house newly purchased material and on duplication across the HE sector (using the weeding criteria below). Unaccessioned material The Library has

  6. Montana Noxious Weed List Effective: July 2015

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Montana Noxious Weed List Effective: July 2015 PRIORITY 1A These weeds are not present or have Reed (Phragmites australis ssp. australis) PRIORITY 1B These weeds have limited presence in Montana skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) (d) Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) PRIORITY 2A These weeds are common

  7. Weeding the School Library Media Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Quarterly, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This document prepared by Calgary Board of Education, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, discusses a systematic approach to strengthening the library media collection. A statement of principle, what to weed, specific guides to weeding (by Dewey Decimal classification and type of material), what not to weed, procedures, and weeding follow-up are…

  8. Managing weeds in potato rotations without herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing weeds without herbicides requires an integration of methods and strategies and a change in how weeds are perceived. Weeds should be managed in a holistic, intentional and proactive manner. Successful weed management in organic systems attempts to understand the interactions between the crop...

  9. WEED EMERGENCE PATTERNS IN THE COASTAL PLAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of a weed to interfere with crop growth is a function of the competitive ability of the weed and its emergence time relative to the crop. Knowledge of weed emergence patterns may help optimize crop production and weed management systems. Seeds of coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis), Flo...

  10. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  11. Annual Weeds, Alternative Crops for Alternative Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All cropland acreage in Alabama is infested with one or more species of annual weeds. Weeds are estimated to cost producers in the state approximately 8% of their potential yield, even with the current weed control technology available. Weed management continues to be the most expensive row crop pr...

  12. THE ROLE OF BIOHERBICIDES IN WEED MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bioherbicide approach to weed management involves the release of high numbers of selected microorganisms for attacking specific weeds and controlling the weed infestation within the same year of application. Ideally, bioherbicides are most effective for weed management in annual cropping systems...

  13. Managing arable weeds for biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Storkey, Jonathan; Westbury, Duncan B

    2007-06-01

    As a result of the recent intensification of crop production, the abundance and diversity of UK arable weeds adapted to cultivated land have declined, with an associated reduction in farmland birds. A number of questions need to be addressed when considering how these declines can be reversed. Firstly, can the delivery of crop production and biodiversity be reconciled by spatially separating cropping from designated wildlife areas? A number of subsidised environmental schemes in the UK take this approach and are focused on establishing vegetation cover on uncropped land. However, because of the lack of regular disturbance in these habitats, they are dominated by perennials and they therefore have limited potential for promoting the recovery of annual weed populations. A number of farmland bird species also rely on the provision of resources in field centres, and it is therefore likely that the recovery of their populations will rely on weed management options targeted at the cropped areas of the field. This raises two further questions. Firstly, is it possible to identify beneficial weed species that are relatively poor competitors with the crop and also have biodiversity value? Secondly, are the tools available to manage these species at acceptable levels while controlling pernicious weeds? A number of approaches are being employed to answer these questions, including predicting yield loss from weed competition models and exploiting herbicide selectivity. The further development of these tools is crucial if farmer opposition to managing weeds in crops is to be overcome. PMID:17437252

  14. Weed Busters: Sprayer Calibration Guide 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan; Hanselka, C. Wayne; Lyons, Robert K.; Hart, Charles R.; Cadenhead, J. F.

    2005-03-07

    , especially when boom- less nozzles are used. ?Read and follow the herbicide label directions. L-5465 1/05 Sprayer Calibration Guide Safe and effective four-step method to calibrate herbicide sprays Weed Treatment Series Allan McGinty, Extension Range... can become excessive; you may be in violation of the label; and you might cause environmental dam- age. If you apply too little herbicide, the weeds may not be controlled adequately. Many sprayer calibration methods are available and can be used...

  15. Weed Control in Texas Pastures. 

    E-print Network

    Long, John A.; Trew, E. M.

    1958-01-01

    broad-leaved annual and s~scec';~'- Figure 12. Yankeeweeds sprayed in the strip on the right the previous summer were killed. Another spraying was needed to kill the croton (goatweed) that came from seed the following spring. TCA. TCA is available... is not suggested. Mowing will preT production. Figure 14. Vegetation areas in Texas lull lun lurc BASKETFLOWER COCKLEBUR PINEWOODS CONEFLOWER CROTON (GOAT WEED) TABLE 1. COMMON CULTIVATED PASTURE WEEDS IN TEXAS ] Common name' I Botanical name2 Length...

  16. Can Global Weed Assemblages Be Used to Predict Future Weeds?

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Louise; Paini, Dean R.; Randall, Roderick P.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting which plant taxa are more likely to become weeds in a region presents significant challenges to both researchers and government agencies. Often it is done in a qualitative or semi-quantitative way. In this study, we explored the potential of using the quantitative self-organising map (SOM) approach to analyse global weed assemblages and estimate likelihoods of plant taxa becoming weeds before and after they have been moved to a new region. The SOM approach examines plant taxa associations by analysing where a taxon is recorded as a weed and what other taxa are recorded as weeds in those regions. The dataset analysed was extracted from a pre-existing, extensive worldwide database of plant taxa recorded as weeds or other related status and, following reformatting, included 187 regions and 6690 plant taxa. To assess the value of the SOM approach we selected Australia as a case study. We found that the key and most important limitation in using such analytical approach lies with the dataset used. The classification of a taxon as a weed in the literature is not often based on actual data that document the economic, environmental and/or social impact of the taxon, but mostly based on human perceptions that the taxon is troublesome or simply not wanted in a particular situation. The adoption of consistent and objective criteria that incorporate a standardized approach for impact assessment of plant taxa will be necessary to develop a new global database suitable to make predictions regarding weediness using methods like SOM. It may however, be more realistic to opt for a classification system that focuses on the invasive characteristics of plant taxa without any inference to impacts, which to be defined would require some level of research to avoid bias from human perceptions and value systems. PMID:23393591

  17. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  18. 838 Weed Science 54, SeptemberOctober 2006 Weed Science, 54:838846. 2006

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hao

    838 · Weed Science 54, September­October 2006 Weed Science, 54:838­846. 2006 Modeling site the landscape and may facilitate better timing of weed control where residue is present. Emergence of wild oat to improving prediction of weed seedling emergence. Nomenclature: Wild oat, Avena fatua L., AVEFA; winter wheat

  19. 264 Weed Science 53, MarchApril 2005 Weed Science, 53:264273. 2005

    E-print Network

    Brown, Cynthia S.

    264 · Weed Science 53, March­April 2005 Weed Science, 53:264­273. 2005 Symposium Translation of remote sensing data into weed management decisions David R. Shaw Corresponding author. Plant & Soil@gri.msstate.edu Remote sensing and associated spatial technologies provide tremendous opportunity to enhance weed

  20. 902 Weed Science 53, NovemberDecember 2005 Weed Science, 53:902908. 2005

    E-print Network

    Landis, Doug

    902 · Weed Science 53, November­December 2005 Weed Science, 53:902­908. 2005 Symposium Manipulating habitats dominated by a few plant species where pesticides play a major role in managing weed and insect by manipulating plant species and communities to benefit natural enemies of insects and weeds. Such efforts aim

  1. Weed Biology and Management 3, 204212 (2003) Introduced weeds pollinated by introduced bees

    E-print Network

    2003-01-01

    Weed Biology and Management 3, 204­212 (2003) REVIEW Introduced weeds pollinated by introduced bees establishment and spread of intro- duced weed species.Using data drawn from the literature and from our own review relationships between seed set of exotic weeds and visitation by introduced pollinators

  2. 172 Weed Science 52, JanuaryFebruary 2004 Weed Science, 52:172177. 2004

    E-print Network

    Rilli, Matthias C.

    172 · Weed Science 52, January­February 2004 Weed Science, 52:172­177. 2004 Influence of spotted@mso.umt.edu Spotted knapweed is an invasive mycorrhizal weed prevalent in the Pacific Northwest of the United States weeds, picloram, clopyr- alid, 2,4-D. Spotted knapweed is an invasive plant from Eurasia that has

  3. Using Stochastic Effciency Analysis To Factor Distribution Of Weed Escapes Into Weed Management Decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds in patches may be more easily managed than the same number of weeds spread throughout the field. We explored choosing weed management strategies based on both net return and the distribution of weed escapes within a field. Expected net returns with several different postemergence herbicides of...

  4. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include...

  5. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include...

  6. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include...

  7. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include...

  8. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include...

  9. Aquatic Plants: Not Just Weeds6

    E-print Network

    Serianni, Anthony S.

    117 Aquatic Plants: Not Just Weeds6 Introduction For a frustrated lake resident, rooted aquatic plants. The term "minimize" is appropriate because eradicating water weeds is neither practical nor wise in a healthy lake ecosystem. Boaters with clogged props may consider all aquatic plants to be "weeds" and curse

  10. c Copyright 2015 Jonathan Robert Weed

    E-print Network

    c Copyright 2015 Jonathan Robert Weed #12;Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment Jonathan Robert Weed A thesis submitted in partial plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment Jonathan Robert Weed

  11. IMPROVING SPORT FISHING of AQUATIC WEEDS

    E-print Network

    IMPROVING SPORT FISHING by CONTROL of AQUATIC WEEDS CIRCULAR 128 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT BY CONTROL OF AQUATIC WEEDS By Eugene W. Surber Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Atlanta, Georgia of algae and submersed weeds. Kenneth M. Mackenthun kindly furnished Figures 2 and 9. George C. Hockney

  12. DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED WITH WEED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED WITH WEED RESEARCH AND EDUCATION Montana Agricultural Experiment Station MSU for Invasive Species Management Liz Galli-Noble, Director (2008­2013) Kim Goodwin, Weed Science Land Resources Littlefield, Biological Control of Weeds Jane Mangold, Integrated Invasive Plant Mgmt. Bruce Maxwell

  13. Weed control options for transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As interest in sweet onion production has grown in Oklahoma and Arkansas, so has the realization that uncontrolled weeds can result in a total loss of marketable onion production. Although mechanical weed control can successfully control weeds between rows, producers need reliable methods for contro...

  14. Managing weeds with a population dynamics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. A critical aspect of no-till is controlling weeds. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Scientists and producers are seeking a broader perspectiv...

  15. Weed ecology and management for organic production

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    . Herbicide use in our conventional farming systems 2. Developing world 3. Organic farms...??? #12;1a. Impacts human activity (Zimdahl 1993). #12;1D.3 Impacts of weeds: Organic farms On organic farms in U.S., weedsWeed ecology and management for organic production Erin Haramoto Department of Horticulture

  16. What’s a Weed? Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour of Park Visitors about Weeds

    PubMed Central

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity globally degrading natural areas of high conservation value. But what are our attitudes about weeds and their management including weeds in national parks? Do we know what a weed is? Do we consider weeds a problem? Do we support their management? Are we unintentionally spreading weeds in parks? To answer these questions, we surveyed visitors entering a large popular national park near the city of Brisbane, Australia. Park visitors were knowledgeable about weeds; with >75% correctly defining weeds as ‘plants that grow where they are not wanted’. About 10% of the visitors, however, provided their own sophisticated definitions. This capacity to define weeds did not vary with people’s age, sex or level of education. We constructed a scale measuring visitors’ overall concern about weeds in parks using the responses to ten Likert scale statements. Over 85% of visitors were concerned about weeds with older visitors, hikers, and those who could correctly define weeds more concerned than their counterparts. The majority think visitors unintentionally introduce seeds into parks, with many (63%) having found seeds on their own clothing. However, over a third disposed of these seeds in ways that could facilitate weed spread. Therefore, although most visitors were knowledgeable and concerned about weeds, and support their control, there is a clear need for more effective communication regarding the risk of visitors unintentionally dispersing weed seeds in parks. PMID:26252004

  17. Using weeds to fight wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University have discovered that jimson weed and wild tomato plants can remove the toxic wastes in wastewater associated with the production of trinitrotoluene (TNT). According to Wolfgang F. Mueller of New Mexico State, tissue-cultured cells of jimson weed rapidly absorb and break down toxic and carcinogenic elements in {open_quotes}pink water,{close_quotes} a by-product of the manufacture of TNT. Mueller and his colleagues have found similar results with the wild tomato plant.

  18. CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control of weeds is an important tool for managing invasive alien plants that have become too widespread to control by conventional methods. It involves the discovery and release of naturally occurring species of natural enemies (insects, mites or pathogens) to control a pest (...

  19. Organic weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) has been identified as an organic herbicide for weed control in turf and established vegetable plants, direct contact with vegetable seeds can decrease crop seedling development and plant survival by inhibiting root and shoot development. Therefore, the use of CGM as a preemer...

  20. WEED CONTROL RESEARCH IN MINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse trials, Western salsify, a difficult to control weed in mint, was controlled with preemergence applied flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, terbacil and oxyfluorfen. In field trials, sulfentrazone and flumioxazin applied preemergence in fall or spring were safe on native spearmint and peppermi...

  1. Weed control in conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the introduction of the selective herbicide, 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), in the 1940’s, weed control in agricultural crops was primarily achieved through mechanical cultivation of the soil. Since that time, an increasing number of highly efficacious herbicide options, paired wi...

  2. Montana Rangeland N i W dNoxious Weeds

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana Rangeland N i W dNoxious Weeds M i P kMonica Pokorny #12;Rangeland Noxious WeedsRangeland Noxious Weeds · Weed - plant growing where it is not wanted · Invasive plant - displace more desired species, have the ability to dominate · Noxious weed - invasive plants that cause economic and

  3. Ground-Based Sensing System for Weed Mapping in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ground-based weed mapping system was developed to measure weed intensity and distribution in a cotton field. The weed mapping system includes WeedSeeker® PhD600 sensor modules to indicate the presence of weeds between rows, a GPS receiver to provide spatial information, and a data acquisition and ...

  4. Preemergence herbicides affect critical period of weed control in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective weed control systems must eliminate emerged weeds as well as account for subsequent weed emergence. Two common questions associated with herbicide control are: 1) how long can weeds compete with a crop for resources before yield is reduced and 2) when do weeds that emerge late in the seaso...

  5. The future for weed control and technology.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Dale L; Beckie, Hugh J

    2014-09-01

    This review is both a retrospective (what have we missed?) and prospective (where are we going?) examination of weed control and technology, particularly as it applies to herbicide-resistant weed management (RWM). Major obstacles to RWM are discussed, including lack of diversity in weed management, unwillingness of many weed researchers to conduct real integrated weed management research or growers to accept recommendations, influence or role of agrichemical marketing and governmental policy and lack of multidisciplinary research. We then look ahead to new technologies that are needed for future weed control in general and RWM in particular, in areas such as non-chemical and chemical weed management, novel herbicides, site-specific weed management, drones for monitoring large areas, wider application of 'omics' and simulation model development. Finally, we discuss implementation strategies for integrated weed management to achieve RWM, development of RWM for developing countries, a new classification of herbicides based on mode of metabolism to facilitate greater stewardship and greater global exchange of information to focus efforts on areas that maximize progress in weed control and RWM. There is little doubt that new or emerging technologies will provide novel tools for RMW in the future, but will they arrive in time? PMID:24339388

  6. Weed Identification: Using Plant Structures as a Key (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Baumann, Paul A.

    1999-08-30

    Weed identification is necessary to the success of any weed control program. Frequently, simple plant keys or "picture book identification guides are used to identify weeds. This handbook, which identifies and labels plant structures, is intended...

  7. Revised 1/09 PLANT / WEED IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Revised 1/09 PLANT / WEED IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL Items with * must be completed for control ____________________ Date submitted ___________________ Mail report (No email) PLANT OR WEED INFORMATION. Items with * must ______________________________ rate ____________________________when__________________________ none used unknown 6. If weed

  8. Integration of herbicides with manual weeding for controlling the weeds in rice under saline environment.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Karim, S M Rezaul; Kausar, H

    2015-11-01

    The pot experiment was conducted to select appropriate integrated weed management method in rice under different salinity levels (0, 4 and 8 dS m(-1)). All the parameters including rice and weed measured were significantly influenced by weed control treatments at all salinity levels. Treatments including weed-free condition, Pretilachlor @0.375 kg ai ha(-1) + hand weeding, Propanil + Thiobencarb @ 0.9 kg ai ha(-1) and 1.8 kg ai ha(-1)+ hand weeding performed better under all salinity levels. Pretilachlor @ 0.375 kg ai ha(-1) with one round of hand weeding and propanil + thiobencarb 0.9 kg ai ha(-1) + 1.8 kg ai ha(-1) with one round of hand weeding were comparable to weed-free yields, and were superior to other treatments under salinity condition. Considering all the parameters, pretilachlor @ 0.375 kg ai ha(-1) + one round of hand weeding (at 65 DAT), propanil + thiobencarb 0.9 kg ai ha(-1) +1.8 kg ai ha(-1) + one round of hand weeding (at 65 DAT) gave the most effective control of weeds in rice under saline environments. PMID:26688966

  9. UC Davis Weed Science 1 Brad Hanson, Tom Lanini, and Lynn Sosnoskie, UC Davis Weed Science

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Brad

    2/21/2012 2012 CWSS UC Davis Weed Science 1 Brad Hanson, Tom Lanini, and Lynn Sosnoskie, UC Davis Weed Science bhanson@ucdavis.edu Cuttings first brought to North America from France in 1856 floors are managed for a number of reasons Facilitate crop production and harvest practices Weed

  10. WEED COMMUNITY COMPOSTION IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL WEED CONTROL PRACTICES IN A CALIFORNIA VINEYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated weed management (IWM) employs multiple tactics to control weed infestations, and can be useful in reducing problematic weeds. IWM in California vineyards typically involves the integration of post-emergence herbicides and pre-emergence herbicides, with less emphasis on incorporation of no...

  11. Weeding Is Not Just for Gardeners: A Case Study on Weeding a Reference Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Weeding a reference collection can be time consuming, a thankless job, and an endless task. It is a dusty job and can add to the librarian's workload. Weeding the collection can add to its currency and usability; plus it removes outdated materials. Periodically weeding allows librarians to remember what is in the collection and what can be removed…

  12. Broadleaf weed control in lima beans.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadleaf weeds are particularly troublesome in lima beans due to the long growing season which extends beyond the period in which soil residual herbicides provide control. Weeds reduce yield and quality of lima beans, reduce harvest efficiency, and increase incidence of white mold. A study was co...

  13. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  14. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  15. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  16. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  17. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  18. Integrating management of soil nitrogen and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop-weed interference often depends on soil nitrogen (N) supply and the N mineralization potential of the soil. Knowledge of these soil properties combined with an understanding of weed-crop competition dynamics in response to soil nutrient levels can be used to optimize N fertilizer rates to shift...

  19. WEED SUPPRESSION WITH ORGANIC MULCH IN ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic herbicides often are used to control weeds that cause yield loss and contribute to insect pests and diseases in orchards. Alternative weed management may be required due to negative public perception and possible regulatory restriction of some synthetic herbicides and to the increase of o...

  20. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  1. Post-directed weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and ...

  2. Preemergence weed control in watermelon - Lane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is a major vegetable crop in Oklahoma. Weed control on this crop is crucial for commercial growers particularly as labor costs increase and availability of hoeing crews decrease. Weed infested fields can be a source of pest problems including insect and disease, in addition to the obvio...

  3. WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on weed management in conservation crop production systems is needed as adoption of practices such as reduced tillage and cover crops become more widespread. This review summarizes recent research on weed management aspects in these systems. Changes in soil environment and patterns of t...

  4. Nutsedge ecology in plasticulture affects weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple nutsedge and yellow nutsedge are naturalized exotic invasive weeds that are the most troublesome weeds of vegetable crops in the southeast US. Tubers are the primary means of nutsedge reproduction. Effective management strategies must suppress nutsedge tuber production. Greenhouse studies eva...

  5. Weeding the Library Media Center Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Betty Jo

    These guidelines for weeding library media collections are addressed to elementary and secondary school library media centers and to community college and vocational school library resource centers in Iowa. The publication includes some philosophy about weeding, and specific guidelines are summarized in bold-faced type for ease of use. The…

  6. Weed management options for organic cantaloupe production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cantaloupe producers need weed control practices that will enable production of suitable yields of a quality crop. Research was conducted in 2010 in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to compare several possible weed management strategies for growing cantaloupe. Treatments include...

  7. Scythe (pelargonic acid) weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season-long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  8. Control of Weeds in Rice Fields. 

    E-print Network

    Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

    1918-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. President BULLETIN NO. 239 DECEMBER, 1918 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY Control of Weeds in Rice Fields B. YOUNGBLOOD, DI~OTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. STATION STAFF... ............................................ Cultivation of rice 5 ................... Yields from cultivated and non-cultivated plats 7 ....................................... Distribution of weed seed 9 ............................................. Type of levee 9 Yure seed...

  9. CONSERVATION NOTES SEAWEEDS are not weeds

    E-print Network

    CONSERVATION NOTES SEAWEEDS are not weeds Seaweeds are not weeds but are veryusefulplants. Some and the resulting products used in many articles of commerce, including food substances. Seaweeds are a good source necessary to normal growth. '-- Seaweeds are marine algae. There are four groups--red, brown, green

  10. CONTROL OF HAIRY FLEABANE AND OTHER PROBLEM WEEDS IN

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Brad

    2/21/2012 1 CONTROL OF HAIRY FLEABANE AND OTHER PROBLEM WEEDS IN PEACH ORCHARDS Brad Hanson Cooperative Extension Weed Specialist December 13, 2011 NSJV Cling Peach Day Modesto, CA What do we spend on weed control? 2009 cost study ­ Day et al. (fresh mkt peach) Annual costs for weed mgt $74 ­ winter

  11. 2011 New England Guide To Chemical Weed and

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    2011 New England Guide To Chemical Weed and Brush Control in Christmas Trees This publication. A BASIC WEED MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 1. Identify the problem weeds on your farm and evaluate control strategies. Monitor weeds before bud break in the spring and in June and August to help make those decisions. 2

  12. Weed control and desiccation strategies in chickpea Executive Summary

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    1 Weed control and desiccation strategies in chickpea Executive Summary Broadleaf weed control is the number one priority for chickpea growers according to surveys from 2000 to 2005. Broadleaf weeds production. The loss of pyridate in 2003 for postemergence weed control limits current herbicide options

  13. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  14. Weed Biology and Management 5, 6976 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Weed Biology and Management 5, 69­76 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER Weed composition and cover after three, could lead to increased weed problems for agricultural production. This experiment was conducted to assess weed pressure and species composition on plots receiving various inorganic and organic soil

  15. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  16. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  17. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  18. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. As... determined that the following plants 1 or plant products fall within the definition of “noxious weed”...

  19. Weed Garden: An Effective Tool for Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A weed garden was constructed to quantify and improve identification skills among clientele. The garden was planted with over 100 weed species based on surveys on problematic weeds. The weed garden proved useful for introducing additional hands-on learning activities into traditional lecture-based seminars. Through seminar and field day attendee…

  20. Identifying soybean traits of interest for weed competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic soybean producers rely on a variety of tactics for weed management. The use of soybean cultivars with enhanced ability to compete with weeds may increase weed control. Our objective was to identify genetic traits that may enhance soybean’s competitive ability to suppress weeds. Experimental ...

  1. POST weed control using halosulfuron in direct-seeded watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is needed in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production to avoid losses in crop yield and marketability that result from weed interference. Not only does weed control provide direct benefits to crop yields, but uncontrolled weeds hamper the management of insect and disease pests and redu...

  2. A rotational framework to reduce weed density in organic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are a major obstacle to successful crop production in organic farming. Producers may be able to reduce inputs for weed management by designing rotations to disrupt population dynamics of weeds. Population-based management in conventional farming has reduced herbicide use 50% because weed den...

  3. Nevada's Noxious Weed Program Nevada Department of Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Nevada's Noxious Weed Program Nevada Department of Agriculture Dawn Rafferty, State Weed Program Coordinator #12;NEVADA'S NOXIOUS WEED LAW "...I didn't know yellow starthistle was illegal...." #12;What, detrimental or destructive and difficult to control or eradicate" NAC 555.010 lists Nevada Noxious Weeds

  4. 237-Response of a weed community to nitrogen fertilization -Response of a weed community to nitrogen fertilization

    E-print Network

    Leps, Jan "Suspa"

    237- Response of a weed community to nitrogen fertilization - Response of a weed community-mail KRIVAN%CSEARN@SEARN; Abstract. The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the composition of a weed community effect on the composition of the weed community. The results suggest that both the direct effect

  5. A study of weeding policies in eleven TALON resource libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, C H

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the weeding policies and practices of eleven TALON resource libraries. The results indicated that although weeding, or collection evaluation as it is also known, was performed by most of the libraries, few had a written policy. The reasons for weeding and the types of weeding done by the libraries are described. A discussion of the prevalent means of disposition of withdrawn materials and of the obstacles to cooperative weeding is included. PMID:7248594

  6. Weed seeds on clothing: a global review.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity including in areas of high conservation value. Unfortunately, people may be unintentionally introducing and dispersing weed seeds on their clothing when they visit these areas. To inform the management of these areas, we conducted a systematic quantitative literature review to determine the diversity and characteristics of species with seeds that can attach and be dispersed from clothing. Across 21 studies identified from systematic literature searches on this topic, seeds from 449 species have been recorded on clothing, more than double the diversity found in a previous review. Nearly all of them, 391 species, are listed weeds in one or more countries, with 58 classified as internationally-recognised environmental weeds. When our database was compared with weed lists from different countries and continents we found that clothing can carry the seeds of important regional weeds. A total of 287 of the species are listed as aliens in one or more countries in Europe, 156 are invasive species/noxious weeds in North America, 211 are naturalized alien plants in Australia, 97 are alien species in India, 33 are invasive species in China and 5 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. Seeds on the clothing of hikers can be carried to an average distance of 13 km, and where people travel in cars, trains, planes and boats, the seeds on their clothing can be carried much further. Factors that affect this type of seed dispersal include the type of clothing, the type of material the clothing is made from, the number and location of the seeds on plants, and seed traits such as adhesive and attachment structures. With increasing use of protected areas by tourists, including in remote regions, popular protected areas may be at great risk of biological invasions by weeds with seeds carried on clothing. PMID:24956465

  7. Suggestions for Weed Control in Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Baumann, Paul A.; Coffman, Cloyce G.

    2001-05-04

    Tables in this publication list weeds that commonly infest grain sorghum, the products that control them, and details about spray volume and timing. There are also instructions for sprayer calibration....

  8. Using Weeds and Wildflowers to Study Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Offers suggestions for activities in which local weeds and wildflowers are used to study a variety of topics. These topics include classification, ecological succession, and mapping. Also lists the types of experiments students can perform with these plants. (JN)

  9. Kyllinga, troublesome sedge weeds in turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kyllinga sedges are troublesome weeds in turf, lawns, flowerbeds, seasonally wet right-of-ways, vegetable crops, nursery plantings, and container plants. Descriptions, illustrations, and biological information are presented for green kyllinga (Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.), false green kyllinga (Kylli...

  10. Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds.

    PubMed

    Heap, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Two hundred and twenty weed species have evolved resistance to one or more herbicides, and there are now 404 unique cases (species?×?site of action) of herbicide-resistant weeds globally. ALS inhibitor-resistant weeds account for about a third of all cases (133/404) and are particularly troublesome in rice and cereals. Although 71 weed species have been identified with triazine resistance, their importance has dwindled with the shift towards Roundup Ready® crops in the USA and the reduction of triazine usage in Europe. Forty-three grasses have evolved resistance to ACCase inhibitors, with the most serious cases being Avena?spp., Lolium?spp., Phalaris?spp., Setaria?spp. and Alopecurus?myosuroides, infesting more than 25?million hectares of cereal production globally. Of the 24 weed species with glyphosate resistance, 16 have been found in Roundup Ready® cropping systems. Although Conyza?canadensis is the most widespread glyphosate-resistant weed, Amaranthus?palmeri and Amaranthus?tuberculartus are the two most economically important glyphosate-resistant weeds because of the area they infest and the fact that these species have evolved resistance to numerous other herbicide sites of action, leaving growers with few herbicidal options for their control. The agricultural chemical industry has not brought any new herbicides with novel sites of action to market in over 30?years, making growers reliant on using existing herbicides in new ways. In addition, tougher registration and environmental regulations on herbicides have resulted in a loss of some herbicides, particularly in Europe. The lack of novel herbicide chemistries being brought to market combined with the rapid increase in multiple resistance in weeds threatens crop production worldwide. PMID:24302673

  11. Weed control using allelopathic crop plants.

    PubMed

    Leather, G R

    1983-08-01

    The concept that some crop plants may be allelopathic to common weeds of agricultural lands is receiving greater attention as an alternative weed control strategy. Several crops showing promise are: grain and forage species such as barley (Hordeum), oat (A vena), fescue (Festuca), and sorghum (Sorghum), and the agronomic species of corn (Zea) and sunflower (Helianthus). Among the problems that hinder the conclusive demonstration of allelopathic effects of crop plants are the loss of that capacity through selection and the variability among cultivars. Recent studies to evaluate the allelopathic potential of crop plants have shown that several sunflower varieties inhibit the germination and growth of associated weeds and to a greater extent than found in several biotypes of native sunflower. Aqueous extracts of dried sunflower and rape tissue inhibited or stimulated germination and growth of weeds, and the response depended upon the source of extract, the extract concentration, and the weed species tested. The validity of bioassay results was tested in a 5-year field study with sunflower and oat grown in rotation. Weed density increased in all plots but the extent of increase was significantly less in plots of sunflower than in control plots. The use of crop plants with increased allelochemical production could limit the need for conventional herbicides to early season application with late season control provided by the crop. PMID:24407794

  12. Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities

    PubMed Central

    Storkey, J; Holst, N; Bøjer, O Q; Bigongiali, F; Bocci, G; Colbach, N; Dorner, Z; Riemens, M M; Sartorato, I; Sønderskov, M; Verschwele, A

    2015-01-01

    A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, populated and analysed, initially using data for 19 common European weeds, to begin to consolidate trait data in a single repository. The initial choice of traits was driven by the requirements of empirical models of weed population dynamics to identify correlations between traits and model parameters. These relationships were used to build a generic model, operating at the level of functional traits, to simulate the impact of increasing herbicide and fertiliser use on virtual weeds along gradients of seed weight and maximum height. The model generated ‘fitness contours’ (defined as population growth rates) within this trait space in different scenarios, onto which two sets of weed species, defined as common or declining in the UK, were mapped. The effect of increasing inputs on the weed flora was successfully simulated; 77% of common species were predicted to have stable or increasing populations under high fertiliser and herbicide use, in contrast with only 29% of the species that have declined. Future development of the WTDB will aim to increase the number of species covered, incorporate a wider range of traits and analyse intraspecific variability under contrasting management and environments. PMID:26190870

  13. SHIFTS IN VINEYARD WEED SEED BANK COMPOSITION IN REPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL WEED CONTROL PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this research was to compare the organic weed control practice, soil cultivation, to the conventional practice, applications of the herbicide, glyphosate, in terms of their effects on weed seed bank in a vineyard system. The experiment was conducted in a commercial winegrape vineyard in t...

  14. Do weed-suppressive rice lines maintain weed control at reduced planting densities?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed interference and control have long been major costs to U.S. rice production systems and are even more challenging and unpredictable in reduced-herbicide-input systems. Although conventional cultivars typically suppress weeds very little, indica lines and commercial hybrid cultivars have freque...

  15. Weed escapes and delayed weed emergence in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2001 and 2002, field experiments were conducted in soybean crops at four Minnesota locations with the aim of studying the effects of different glyphosate treatments (one-pass glyphosate, two-pass glyphosate) on weed control and weed community composition by focusing on the identity and abunda...

  16. hile one of the best methods to reduce weeds is to not water them, there are

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    hile one of the best methods to reduce weeds is to not water them, there are some that survive even to consider our weed management strategies: · Which weeds will survive? · How do drought conditions affect control? Which Weeds will Survive? Many weeds, once established, need very little water to survive. Weeds

  17. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction. PMID:26071767

  18. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction.

  19. Weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp).

    PubMed

    Kothari, Sushil K; Singh, Chandra P; Singh, Kamla

    2002-12-01

    Abstract: Field investigations were carried out during 1999 and 2000 to identify effective chemical/ cultural methods of weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp). The treatments comprised pre-emergence applications of oxyfluorfen (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand weeding, hoeing and mulching using spent of lemon grass (at 5 tonnes ha(-1)) 45 days after planting (DAP), three hand-weedings 30, 60 and 90 DAP, weed-free (frequent manual weeding) and weedy control. Broad-leaf weeds were more predominant than grass and sedge weeds, accounting for 85.8% weed density and 93.0% weed dry weight in 1999 and 77.2% weed density and 93.9% weed dry weight in 2000. Unrestricted weed growth significantly reduced geranium oil yield, by 61.6% and 70.6% in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin (0.75-1.00 kgAI ha(-1)) or oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand-weeding, hoeing and mulching and three hand-weedings were highly effective in reducing weed density and dry weight and gave oil yield comparable to the weed-free check. Application of oxyfluorfen (0.15 or 0.20 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50 kg AI ha(-1)) were less effective in controlling the weed species in geranium. None of the herbicides impaired the quality of rose-scented geranium oil measured in terms of citronellol and geraniol content. PMID:12477000

  20. Sequential applications of pelargonic acid for weed control in squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control can be a constant challenge, especially when dealing with the limited herbicide options available to organic vegetable producers. Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide weed control throughout the production season. Although...

  1. LESS KNOWN USES OF WEEDS AS MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the author presents medicinal or otherwise useful weed species with details of family, vernacular name and its medicinal utility. Information on other general economic importance of medicinal weeds is also described here. PMID:22557414

  2. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were assessed by discriminant analysis. The ultrasonic readings permitted the separation between weed infested zones and non-infested areas with up to 92.8% of success. This system will potentially reduce the cost of weed detection and offers an opportunity to its use in non-selective methods for weed control. PMID:23443401

  3. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were assessed by discriminant analysis. The ultrasonic readings permitted the separation between weed infested zones and non-infested areas with up to 92.8% of success. This system will potentially reduce the cost of weed detection and offers an opportunity to its use in non-selective methods for weed control. PMID:23443401

  4. Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Table 1. Summary of weed seedbank distribution, diversity (number of species per field) and density across all farms Unit Total Weeds Average Highest Lowest Total Identified Weed Species number 67 13 21 5 Total Identified Weed Species Densityb no./ft 2 274 1081 30 Total Identified Broadleaf Weed Species

  5. Guidelines for management of noxious weeds at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, R.C.; Malady, M.B.

    1995-10-27

    Integrated Pest Management Services is responsible for management and control of noxious weeds on the Hanford Site. Weed species and populations are prioritized and objective defined, according to potential site and regional impact. Population controls are implemented according to priority. An integrated approach is planned for noxious weed control in which several management options are considered and implemented separately or in coordination to best meet management objectives. Noxious weeds are inventories and monitored to provide information for planning and program review.

  6. Linking theory and practice in ecological weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models of management effects on weed demography and the experience of successful organic and low-external-input farmers point in the same direction: long-term weed management success depends on diversified strategies that attack multiple weed life stages. In an era of declining research b...

  7. Biological control of weeds in the tropics and sustainability

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    1 Biological control of weeds in the tropics and sustainability R. Muniappan, G. V. P. Reddy, and A. Raman 1.1 Introduction Efforts to manage weeds using biological control have been gaining momentum to the same extent as developed nations. The first documented case of biological control of weeds

  8. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  9. From Conventional to Organic: Weed Management Principles for the

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    From Conventional to Organic: Weed Management Principles for the Transition Years Fabián Menalled.montana.edu/cropweeds #12;A Disclaimer · This is not going to be a "traditional" weed extension presentation · Your best weed management tool is located between your ears www.forages.oregonsate.edu #12;Today, we'll talk more

  10. Interannual variation in weed biomass on arable land in Sweden

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Michael W.

    Interannual variation in weed biomass on arable land in Sweden P MILBERG, E HALLGREN* & M W PALMER 1999 Summary Data were analysed on weed biomass from untreated plots in 2672 ®eld experiments conducted) among years in the biomass of annual weeds per square metre was 29% in autumn-sown crops. In spring

  11. continuedonthenextpage... Guide to Common Weeds in Lawns in California

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    continuedonthenextpage... Guide to Common Weeds in Lawns in California Crabgrass Spring/summer annual weed. Control by reducing irrigation; check for leaks and overseeding. Apply a preemergent to Common Weeds in Lawns in California Yellow nutsedge Perennial. Sprouts from tubers in spring; dies back

  12. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY WEEDING POLICY (March 2007, rev. April 2010)

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    UNIVERSITY LIBRARY WEEDING POLICY (March 2007, rev. April 2010) Collection development is often considered the process of adding new materials to the Library to benefit the university community. Weeding and serves to maximize the usefulness of the Library collection. Weeding the collection provides space

  13. Toadflax Stem Miners and Gallers: The Original Weed Whackers

    E-print Network

    1 Toadflax Stem Miners and Gallers: The Original Weed Whackers May/June 2014 · ISSUE 11 THE TROUBLE toadflax are aesthetically pleasing weeds wreaking havoc in rangelands across the western United States as particularly powerful "weed whackers" against toadflax. Biological control of toadflax is complicated

  14. TROPICAL SPIDERWORT (COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS): THE WORST WEED IN COTTON?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical spiderwort is an exotic invasive weed, listed as a Federal Noxious Weed. GA and FL list spiderwort as the most troublesome weed in cotton, and it is a pest in peanut, corn, soybean, nursery stock, and orchards. Key identifying characteristics are: 1.) leaves that are no more than three-time...

  15. PROGRESS REPORT: WEED MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC PEANUT PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have been conducted in Tifton, GA since 2003 to develop weed management systems for organic peanut production. Trials in conventional tillage production systems evaluated row patterns, cultivation, and remedial weed management using propane flaming, clove oil, and citric acid. Weed control...

  16. Agricultural weed research: a critique and two proposals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate sub-disciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. While some...

  17. Potential Weed Management Systems for Organic Peanut Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Tifton, GA to develop weed management systems for organic peanut production. Trials in 2004 and 2005 evaluated row patterns (two levels), remedial weed control (four levels), and cultivation (three levels). Row patterns were wide rows and narrow rows. Remedial weed contr...

  18. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52...Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The determination of...bulblets, or tubers of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight should be...

  19. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52...Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The determination of...bulblets, or tubers of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight should be...

  20. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture...Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this...

  1. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52...Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The determination of...bulblets, or tubers of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight should be...

  2. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture...Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this...

  3. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52...Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The determination of...bulblets, or tubers of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight should be...

  4. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52...Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) The determination of...bulblets, or tubers of individual noxious weeds present per unit weight should be...

  5. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture...Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this...

  6. Weighing Abiotic and Biotic Influences on Weed Seed Predation Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed predation is an important ecosystem service supporting weed management in low-external-input agroecosystems. Current knowledge of weed seed predation in arable systems focuses on biotic mechanisms, with less understood about the relative impact of abiotic variables on this process. In orde...

  7. Organic weed control in two watermelon variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are often cited as the number one pest problem in organic vegetable production systems. The weed control methods employed must be organically approved and fully integrated into the organic production system. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the impact of different weed c...

  8. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  9. WEEDS AS HOSTS FOR THE SOUTHERN ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, can reproduce on many different plants, including many weeds, but the amount of reproduction that occurs on weeds is not well documented. This study was conducted to document the relative host status of weeds common in Georgia. Seeds of cotton,...

  10. Weed Community Response to No-Till in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and producers in Ukraine are interested in no-till crop production, but are concerned about weed management. In North America, producers have used no-till systems for several decades without increasing weed community density in croplands. Initially, weed density escalated with no-till, ...

  11. Weed control through seedling abrasion with an organic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many tools exist to control weeds in organic crops, and each has utility in specific situations. Nevertheless, surveys of organic farmers indicate that weed management often is second only to labor supply as their main bottleneck for success. Consequently, new tactics for managing weeds are desirabl...

  12. Simple tools and software for precision weed mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple Tools and Software for Precision Weed Mapping L. Wiles If you have a color digital camera and a handheld GPS unit, you can map weed problems in your fields. German researchers are perfecting technology to map weed species and density with digital cameras for precision herbicide application. ...

  13. Weed Control Research in Sugar Beets. 

    E-print Network

    Wiese, A. F.; Scott, P. R.; Lavake, D. E.; Winter, S. R.; Owen, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M University1 College Station, Texas r B-1158 November 1975 WEED CONTROL RESEARCH IN SUGAR BEETS A. F. Wiese, P. R. Scott, D. E. Lavake, S. R. Winter and D. F. Owen* Total sugar beet acreage... in the Texas Panhandle Service, Bushland; Holly Sugar Corporation, has paried from 20,000 to 40,000 acres since Holly Hereford; Texas Tech Center, Pantex; and farmers in Sugar Corporation started operations in 1964. the Panhandle. : Ineffective weed control...

  14. Stachys sp? (Weed in cultivated area) 

    E-print Network

    David C. Reed

    2011-08-10

    AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M University1 College Station, Texas r B-1158 November 1975 WEED CONTROL RESEARCH IN SUGAR BEETS A. F. Wiese, P. R. Scott, D. E. Lavake, S. R. Winter and D. F. Owen* Total sugar beet acreage... in the Texas Panhandle Service, Bushland; Holly Sugar Corporation, has paried from 20,000 to 40,000 acres since Holly Hereford; Texas Tech Center, Pantex; and farmers in Sugar Corporation started operations in 1964. the Panhandle. : Ineffective weed control...

  15. [Control effects of rice-duck farming and other weed management strategies on weed communities in paddy fields].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shouhui; Qiang, Sheng; Ma, Bo; Wei, Jiguang; Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Jianqiang; Xie, Tongzhou; Shen, Xiaokun

    2005-06-01

    By the methods of community ecology, field studies were conducted to evaluate the control effects of three weed management strategies, i. e., rice-duck farming (RD), manual weeding (MW) and chemical weeding (CW), on the weed communities in paddy fields. The results showed that under rice-duck farming, the weed density in paddy fields decreased significantly, and the control effects on dominant weed species such as Monochoria vaginalis, Cyperus difformis, Sagittaria pygmaea were all above 95%, with an overall effect higher than CW and MW. Under RD, the species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices decreased slightly, while Pielou community evenness indices increased markedly, indicating that the species composition of weed community was greatly improved, and the infestation of former dominant weed species was reduced. The structure of weed communities in paddy fields varied with different weed management strategies, e. g., under RD, Lindernia procumbens, Cyperus difformis and Fimbristylis miliacea constituted the major weed community, and the Whittaker index was significant higher than that of CW, MW and CK, which indicated that rice-duck farming had a greater effect on the structure of the weed communities. The same conclusion could be drawn from Sorensen's similarity indices and cluster analysis with Sorensen's index as the distance measurement. PMID:16180755

  16. Characterization of an EST database for the perennial weed leafy spurge: an important resource for weed biology research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics programs in the weed science community have not developed as rapidly as that of other crop, horticultural, forestry, and model plant systems. Development of genomic resources for selected model weeds are expected to enhance our understanding of weed biology, just as they have in other plant...

  17. Virus infection of a weed increases vector attraction to and vector fitness on the weed

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gong; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Fang, Yong; Shi, Xiaobin; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Weeds are important in the ecology of field crops, and when crops are harvested, weeds often become the main hosts for plant viruses and their insect vectors. Few studies, however, have examined the relationships between plant viruses, vectors, and weeds. Here, we investigated how infection of the weed Datura stramonium L. by tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) affects the host preference and performance of the TYLCV vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q. The results of a choice experiment indicated that B. tabaci Q preferentially settled and oviposited on TYLCV-infected plants rather than on healthy plants. In addition, B. tabaci Q performed better on TYLCV-infected plants than on healthy plants. These results demonstrate that TYLCV is indirectly mutualistic to B. tabaci Q. The mutually beneficial interaction between TYLCV and B. tabaci Q may help explain the concurrent outbreaks of TYLCV and B. tabaci Q in China. PMID:23872717

  18. Weed Busters: How to Repel Rayless Goldenrod 

    E-print Network

    2005-03-07

    . ? Controlling rayless goldenrod is not a one-time job. You may need to re-treat periodically. L-5464 1/05 How to Repel Rayless Goldenrod Safe and effective three-step ways to control rayless goldenrod Weed Treatment Series Charles R. Hart, Extension Range...

  19. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  20. Weed Science and Technology. MP-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Harold P.; Lee, Gary A.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It presents the principles and methods of weed control especially as it relates to the use of herbicides. The factors influencing the effectiveness of both foliar-applied and soil-applied herbicides are discussed. A listing of…

  1. Alternathera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach - alligator weed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, began when George Vogt, USDA, conducted several surveys by public transport in South America during the 1960s. Three agents were released in USA and two of them, the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila and the moth Arcola malloi were re...

  2. Challenges in Weed Management Without Methyl Bromide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide has been used for several decades for pre-plant soil fumigation in high value agricultural and horticultural crops because it can provide broad-spectrum control of insects, nematodes, pathogens, and weeds. However, MeBr has been identified as a powerful ozone-depleting chemical and i...

  3. Weed Busters: How to Pound Threadleaf Groundsel 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan; Hart, Charles R.; Cadenhead, J. F.

    2005-10-05

    Threadleaf groundsel is a shrubby perennial weed found on rangelands in west central and west Texas. It is toxic to cattle and horses. Two methods of controlling this plant are described--the ground broadcast spray method and the individual plant...

  4. RISING CARBON DIOXIDE AND WEED ECOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Documented and projected changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] and other gases suggest potential changes in climate stability which could negatively impact human systems. One such system would involve negative impacts on agricultural crops and associated weeds. Climatic o...

  5. Organic weed control in Cowpea: Summer 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within the state of Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is primarily handled with preemergence and some postemergence herbicid...

  6. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  7. Weed control in organic watermelon variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer interest and increasing demand for organically produced crops continues to grow in the U.S. More information concerning the impact of different organic production systems on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is needed. In addition, weed control is often cited as the number one p...

  8. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...structures classified as inert matter. (b) Wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets that have any part of the husk...round-hole sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert matter, refer...

  9. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...structures classified as inert matter. (b) Wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets that have any part of the husk...round-hole sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert matter, refer...

  10. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...structures classified as inert matter. (b) Wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets that have any part of the husk...round-hole sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert matter, refer...

  11. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...structures classified as inert matter. (b) Wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets that have any part of the husk...round-hole sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert matter, refer...

  12. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...structures classified as inert matter. (b) Wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets that have any part of the husk...round-hole sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert matter, refer...

  13. with input from Rich Zollinger, NDSU Weed Science Herbicides to Complement Glyphosate

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    with input from Rich Zollinger, NDSU Weed Science Herbicides to Complement Glyphosate Common Giant Prepared by Jeff Gunsolus (U of MN Weed Science), Tom Peters (U of MN / NDSU Weed Science) #12;Prepared by Jeff Gunsolus (U of MN Weed Science), Tom Peters (U of MN / NDSU Weed Science) Herbicides to Complement

  14. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 266 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

  15. Mercer et al.: Quackgrass differentiation 677 Weed Science, 50:677685. 2002

    E-print Network

    Mercer et al.: Quackgrass differentiation · 677 Weed Science, 50:677­685. 2002 Multivariate of a farming system and weed management de- creases the risk of evolution of a weed population highly adapted, perennial, clonal. Weed populations experience intense pressures from weed control techniques

  16. NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND CROP RESIDUE EFFECTS ON SEED MORTALITY OF EIGHT ANNUAL WEED SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed persistence in the soil seedbank plays a central role in weed population dynamics, yet limited knowledge of mechanisms regulating weed seed survival in soil remains an obstacle to developing weed seedbank management practices. Weed seeds are rich in carbon and nitrogen, and therefore may ...

  17. A Non-Chemical System for Online Weed Control

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Ayala, Victor; Peteinatos, Gerassimos; Gerhards, Roland; Andújar, Dionisio

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemical weed control methods need to be directed towards a site-specific weeding approach, in order to be able to compete the conventional herbicide equivalents. A system for online weed control was developed. It automatically adjusts the tine angle of a harrow and creates different levels of intensity: from gentle to aggressive. Two experimental plots in a maize field were harrowed with two consecutive passes. The plots presented from low to high weed infestation levels. Discriminant capabilities of an ultrasonic sensor were used to determine the crop and weed variability of the field. A controlling unit used ultrasonic readings to adjust the tine angle, producing an appropriate harrowing intensity. Thus, areas with high crop and weed densities were more aggressively harrowed, while areas with lower densities were cultivated with a gentler treatment; areas with very low densities or without weeds were not treated. Although the weed development was relatively advanced and the soil surface was hard, the weed control achieved by the system reached an average of 51% (20%–91%), without causing significant crop damage as a result of harrowing. This system is proposed as a relatively low cost, online, and real-time automatic harrow that improves the weed control efficacy, reduces energy consumption, and avoids the usage of herbicide. PMID:25831085

  18. A non-chemical system for online weed control.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Ayala, Victor; Peteinatos, Gerassimos; Gerhards, Roland; Andújar, Dionisio

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemical weed control methods need to be directed towards a site-specific weeding approach, in order to be able to compete the conventional herbicide equivalents. A system for online weed control was developed. It automatically adjusts the tine angle of a harrow and creates different levels of intensity: from gentle to aggressive. Two experimental plots in a maize field were harrowed with two consecutive passes. The plots presented from low to high weed infestation levels. Discriminant capabilities of an ultrasonic sensor were used to determine the crop and weed variability of the field. A controlling unit used ultrasonic readings to adjust the tine angle, producing an appropriate harrowing intensity. Thus, areas with high crop and weed densities were more aggressively harrowed, while areas with lower densities were cultivated with a gentler treatment; areas with very low densities or without weeds were not treated. Although the weed development was relatively advanced and the soil surface was hard, the weed control achieved by the system reached an average of 51% (20%-91%), without causing significant crop damage as a result of harrowing. This system is proposed as a relatively low cost, online, and real-time automatic harrow that improves the weed control efficacy, reduces energy consumption, and avoids the usage of herbicide. PMID:25831085

  19. FEDERAL NOXIOUS WEED LIST as of 09/08/2000 Aquatic/Wetland

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    FEDERAL NOXIOUS WEED LIST as of 09/08/2000 Aquatic/Wetland Azolla pinnata (Azollaceae) (mosquito) Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae) (Miramar weed) Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) (Chinese waterspinach) Lagarosiphon major (Hydrocharitaceae) (Oxygen weed) Limnophila sessiliflora (Scrophulariaceae) (ambulia

  20. RMRS Weed Biocontrol Research: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Future Challenges

    E-print Network

    RMRS Weed Biocontrol Research: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Future Challenges RMRS Weed Biontrol Team Accomplishments Report Fiscal Years 2007-2011 USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain..........................................................................................................................................3 The Weed Biocontrol Research Team

  1. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an...

  2. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal...

  3. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. 360.501 Section 360.501...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition...

  4. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal...

  5. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. 360.501 Section 360.501...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition...

  6. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal...

  7. 76 FR 70954 - Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Idaho; Idaho Panhandle National Forest Noxious Weed Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...Idaho Panhandle National Forest Noxious Weed Treatment Project AGENCY: Forest Service...The proposal includes both an Integrated Weed Management (IWM) approach as well as...Idaho Panhandle National Forests Noxious Weed Treatment Project Team Leader, at...

  8. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. 360.501 Section 360.501...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition...

  9. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an...

  10. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. 360.501 Section 360.501...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition...

  11. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an...

  12. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. 360.305 ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a...

  13. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. 360.305 ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a...

  14. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal...

  15. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an...

  16. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. 360.305 ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a...

  17. 7 CFR 360.300 - General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits. 360.300 Section 360...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 General prohibitions...restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits. (a) No person may...

  18. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. 360.305 ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a...

  19. Plant-Soil Interactions, Weed Control, and Rice Tolerance as Affected by Saflufenacil 

    E-print Network

    Camargo, Edinalvo

    2012-10-19

    Saflufenacil is a new herbicide for broadleaf weed control. Limited information is available for crop tolerance, weed control and herbicide behavior in the rice environment. Studies were designed to 1 and 2) evaluate rice tolerance and weed control...

  20. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  1. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  2. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  3. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  4. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  5. A Tale of Two Depositories: Weeding Federal Depository Collections 

    E-print Network

    Sare, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Spring 2009 37 FEATURE Library weeding involves selecting materials to be with-drawn so that a high-quality collection is maintained while providing space for new materials. Weeding is especially important for depository libraries now that so many... docu- ments are available online; often tangible copies in print or microfiche have been replaced by online revised editions. ?e superseded copies need to be withdrawn so that the documents collection remains current. Weeding also frees shelf space...

  6. While soil-applied herbicides can be quite valuable in weed control, misuse can cause crop injury or failure to control weeds. This guide

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    While soil-applied herbicides can be quite valuable in weed control, misuse can cause crop injury or failure to control weeds. This guide is an overview of factors that influence the fate, effectiveness-Applied Herbicides by Fabián D. Menalled, Extension Cropland Weeds Specialist, and William E. Dyer, Professor, Weed

  7. Critical Period of Weed Control in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, A.

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7–49 days after seeding in off-season and 7–53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23–40 days in off-season and 21–43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21–43 days for better yield and higher economic return. PMID:22778701

  8. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aquatic and wetland weeds: Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito fern, water velvet) Caulerpa taxifolia (Mediterranean clone) Eichornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (anchored waterhyacinth, rooted waterhyacinth) Hydrilla verticillata...

  9. Activity of mesotrione on resistant weeds in maize.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Peter; Richards, Claire; Buren, Larry; Glasgow, Les

    2002-09-01

    Mesotrione is a new callistemone herbicide that inhibits the HPPD enzyme (p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) and introduces a new naturally selective tool into weed-management programmes for use in maize. Mesotrione provides control of the major broad-leaved weeds, and it can be used in integrated weed-management programmes depending on the grower's preferred weed-control strategy. At post-emergence rates of 150 g AI ha-1 or less, mesotrione provides naturally selective control of key species that may show triazine resistance (TR), e.g. Chenopodium album L, Amaranthus species, Solanum nigrum L, as well as species of weed that show resistance to acetolactase synthase (ALS) inhibitors e.g. Xanthium strumarium L, Amaranthus spp and Sonchus spp. The data presented show that resistant and susceptible biotypes of these species with resistance to triazine herbicides, such as atrazine, simazine, terbutylazine and metribuzin, or ALS-inhibitor herbicides, such as imazethepyr, remain susceptible to mesotrione. These results confirm that there is no cross-resistance in biotypes with target site resistance to triazine or ALS-inhibiting herbicides. It is important that herbicide choice and rotation becomes an integral part of planning weed management, so as to minimise the risks of crop losses from weed competition, build-up of weed seed in the soil and the further development of weed resistance across a range of herbicide modes of action. PMID:12233193

  10. SURVEY OF WEEDS AND WEED MANAGEMENT IN SWEET CORN GROWN FOR PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The north-central United States produces approximately one-half of sweet corn grown for processing, predominantly in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Improved weed management systems for sweet corn are desired greatly by growers, processors, and the seed industry; however, information on problem...

  11. A cultural system to reduce weed interference in organic soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined cultural strategies during the transition from a cool-season crop to soybean for suppression of weeds. The study was arranged as a three-way factorial, with...

  12. Weeds of the Midwestern United States and Central Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Weeds of the Central United States and Canada, includes 356 of the most common and/or troublesome weeds of agricultural and natural areas found within the central region of the United States and Canada. The books includes an introduction, a key to plant families contained in the book, glo...

  13. Weed Seedling Emergence and Survival as Affected by Crop Canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured impact of cool-season crops on seedling emergence, survival, and seed production of weeds common in corn and soybean. Weed dynamics were monitored in permanently-marked quadrats in winter wheat, spring wheat, and canola. Three species, green foxtail, yellow foxtail, and common ...

  14. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of...

  15. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed seeds. (a) Seeds of the plants listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section shall...

  16. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed seeds. (a) Seeds of the plants listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section shall...

  17. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of...

  19. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed seeds. (a) Seeds of the plants listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section shall...

  1. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed seeds. (a) Seeds of the plants listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section shall...

  2. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed seeds. (a) Seeds of the plants listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section shall...

  3. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of...

  6. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of...

  7. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.52 Section 201.52 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.52 Noxious-weed seeds. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of...

  9. Working the Educational Soil and Pulling Up Weeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins-Newby, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    The job of an instructional leader, according to former Baltimore principal Deborah Wortham, is to be a gardener. School cultures left unattended, she says, sprout weeds that will eventually overwhelm the research-based programs, practices, and best efforts of teachers and administrators. The most aggressive and harmful educational weeds Wortham…

  10. 'Carolina' session: a major utilities program to manage aquatic weeds

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, D.H.

    1984-06-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company has recently experienced aquatic weed problems in two of its impoundments. These problems have impacted power plant operations, water quality, and recreational activities. The Company is actively pursuing a program to deal with these weed problems through education, research, monitoring, and control activities.

  11. DICLOSULAM AND IMAZAPIC COMBINATIONS FOR WEED CONTROL IN GEORGIA PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida beggarweed, sicklepod, wild poinsettia, Palmer amaranth, and morningglories remain troublesome weeds in strip- and conventional tillage systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of diclosulam and imazapic combinations on peanut weed control and yield in cropping sit...

  12. Potential components for weed management in organic vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic vegetable production relies on a variety of tactics for preventing losses to crop yield and quality that result from weed interference. These include field selection, long term field management, cultivation practices, mulching, and manual weeding to name a few. The concept of "herbicides" th...

  13. 2009 Herbicide Recommendations for Specific Weed Problems In Corn

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    2009 Herbicide Recommendations for Specific Weed Problems In Corn NOTICE: It is unlawful to use any for suggested uses according to Federal registration and State laws and regulations in effect at the time postemergence up to 4-leaf stage of corn, with weeds no more than 1 inch tall. Corn must be planted at least 1

  14. SOLARIA HELP PREDICT IN-CROP WEED DENSITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At locations in Argentina and USA, solaria (miniature, portable, plastic greenhouses or plastic sheets about 1 m**2) were placed on field soils in autumn or late winter in an attempt to predict summer annual weed densities. Initial emergence of summer annual weeds, covered by solaria commenced weeks...

  15. Organic weed control with vinegar: Application volumes and adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary results have indicated that vinegar has potential as an organic herbicide, but further research is needed to increase our understanding of the relationship between acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, adjuvants, weed species, and weed maturity on effectiveness of vinegar to c...

  16. Emerging Technologies: An Opportunity for Weed Biology Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of the Emerging Technologies Symposium at the 2007 WSSA Annual Meeting was to provide the weed science community with the principles behind emerging technologies and how they can be used to study weed biology. Specifically, aspects and applications related to genomic database deve...

  17. Post-directed weed control in bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  18. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  19. Managing weeds in organic farming systems: an ecological approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous investigators have concluded that improvements in weed management strategies that are minimally reliant on herbicides require the integration of multiple weed suppression tactics. However, the most cost-effective and efficacious ways to choose and combine tactics remain unclear. Here we sug...

  20. Effects of seeding date and weed control on switchgrass establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment evaluated the effects of seeding date and weed control during switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) establishment. Switchgrass was no-till seeded in early-May, late-May, and mid-June and three postemergence weed management treatments were evaluated including mow only, broadleaf herbicide o...

  1. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  2. Nitrogen, Water, Weeds and Applying Science to the Art of

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Nitrogen, Water, Weeds and Beetles: Applying Science to the Art of Vegetable Gardening 2009 LRES challenges in the management of insect pests, soil nutrients, water, and weeds. This paper presents to reduce flea beetle damage, planting Mustard and Collard plants around Brassica greens. Intercropping

  3. Cultivation strategies for weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management in organic peanut production is difficult and costly. Previous research demonstrated limitations of propane flaming and OMRI-approved herbicides suitable use in organic production. Furthermore, related studies clearly showed the inability to manage weeds in reduced-tillage organic ...

  4. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea, a major crop in Oklahoma, is produced for the fresh market and canning industry. Synthetic preemergence and postemergence herbicides are the primary weed control method in conventional (non-organic) production systems. Organic weed control in organic cowpea production includes obstacles wh...

  5. Weed science research and funding: a call to action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed science has contributed much to agriculture, forestry and natural resource management over its history. However, if it is to remain relevant as a scientific discipline, it is long past time for weed scientists to take a step outside the “herbicide efficacy box” and address system-level issues i...

  6. Molecular Biology and Genomics: New Tools for Weed Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain plant species are particularly well adapted to environments disturbed by humans. Often such species are invasive and problematic, and thus are classified as weeds. Despite our best efforts to control weeds, they continue to interfere with crop production. Clearly there is much to learn about...

  7. Impact of weed barriers on newly planted peach trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly planted (Feb. 2005) ‘Sunracer’ and ‘Sunhome’ nectarine and ‘Tropic Snow’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) trees were subjected to conventional and four 'organic' weed control methods. Two of the 'organic' methods used weed barriers of white plastic (WP) or landscape fabric (LF). A third co...

  8. The Importance of Intertrophic Interactions in Biological Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The earliest research leading to successful weed biocontrol included observations and some analysis that the strict “gate-keeping” by peer reviewers, editors and publishers does not often allow today. Within these pioneering studies was a valid picture of the biology of weed biocontrol that is appli...

  9. EVALUATION OF WEED CONTROL DURING SWITCHGRASS ESTABLISHMENT WITH POSTEMERGENCE HERBICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass weeds can often pose a severe threat to the establishment of switchgrass, so identifying herbicides which can control grass weeds without inhibiting switchgrass growth would prove beneficial. Quinclorac and sulfosulfuron, recently labeled for CRP and seed production, were evaluated for use in...

  10. Spectral reflectance and digital image relations among five aquatic weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports on the use of an artificial quartz halogen lighting source to facilitate the acquisition of spectral light reflectance measurements and digital imaging of invasive aquatic weeds. Spectral leaf or leaf/stem reflectance measurements were made on five aquatic weeds: Eurasian watermil...

  11. Crop diversity sequencing can improve crop tolerance to weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn-soybean rotation in eastern South Dakota has led to a weed community comprised of species with similar life cycles to the crops; subsequently, weed management is a major input cost for producers. We are exploring crop diversity in this rotation to determine if producers can reduce the need...

  12. Weed Community Emergence Pattern in Eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who followed rotations comprised of crops with different growth periods are able to manage weeds with less herbicides. The diversity in growth periods provides more opportunities for producers to prevent weed seed production. In our research program, we are exploring impact of cool-seaso...

  13. Weed Suppression by Seven Clover Species

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2001-01-01

    Used as cover crops, clover species may differ in their ability to suppress weed growth. Field trials were conducted in Alberta, Canada to measure the growth of brown mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], in mowed and nonmowed production, as influenced by alsike (Trifolium hybridum L.), balansa [T. michelianum Savi var. balansae (Boiss.) Azn.], berseem (T. alexandrinum L.), crimson [T. incarnatum (Boiss.) Azn.], berseem (T. alexandrinum L.), crimson (T. incarnatum L.), Persian (T. resupinatum L.), red (T. pratense L.), and white Dutch (T. repens L.) clover and fall rye (Secale cereale L.). In 1997, clovers reduced mustard biomass in nonmowed treatments by 29% on a high- fertility soil (Typic Cryoboroll) at Edmonton and by 57% on a low- fertility soil (Typic Cryoboralf) at Breton. At Edmonton, nonmowed mustard biomass was reduced by alsike and berseem clover in 1996 and by alsike, balansa, berseem, and crimson clover in 1997. At Breton, all seven clover species suppressed weed biomass. A negative correlation was noted among clover and mustard biomass at Edmonton but not at Breton. The effects of mowing varied with location, timing, and species. Mowing was beneficial to crop/weed proportion at Edmonton but not at Breton. Mowing at early flowering of mustard large-seeded legumes and sweetclover (Melilotus offici) produced greater benefit than mowing at late flowering. With early mowing, all clover species suppressed mustard growth at Edmonton. Clovers reduced mustard regrowth (g plant21 ) and the number of mustard plants producing regrowth. The characteristics of berseem clover (upright growth, long stems, high biomass, and late flowering) would support its use as a cover crop or forage in north-central Alberta.

  14. Natural compounds for pest and weed control.

    PubMed

    Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

    2009-09-23

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

  15. Current substances for organic weed control in vegetables or what do we have in our organic weed control tool box?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is the top research priority among organic producers. Organic producers have a short, but growing list of organic approved herbicides. The purpose of this publication is to provide general overview of weed control options for organic crop production. Research has demonstrated that co...

  16. PUTTING PLANT PATHOGENS TO WORK: PROGRESS AND POSSIBILITIES IN WEED BIOCONTROL PART 2. IMPROVING WEED CONTROL EFFICACY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of plant pathogenic weed biological control agents can be approached using two strategies, termed the classical and biological approaches. The classical involves the search for pathogens in the native range of an invasive weed and its importation and release into the area of introdu...

  17. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN FIELD CORN

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 18 WEED CONTROL IN FIELD CORN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Field Corn solution for weeds 3 inches or less in height. BALANCE FLEXX may be tank mixed with PARAQUAT, GLYPHOSATE

  18. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 70 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide any time prior to planting. For best results, apply to weeds that are less than 4 inches tall (less

  19. Managing Weeds in Lentils In recent years there has been increased interest in

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Managing Weeds in Lentils In recent years there has been increased interest in diversifying Montana and opportunities of managing weeds in these crops. Weed management in lentils is of particular importance vegetative growth. Yield loss from competition with weeds can range as high as 80 percent. Lentil's low

  20. Potential of 3D-weed density maps in Precision Matthias Backes and Lutz Plumer

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    Potential of 3D-weed density maps in Precision Farming Matthias Backes and Lutz Pl¨umer Institute;pluemer)@ikg.uni-bonn.de WWW: http://www.ikg.uni-bonn.de Abstract. The exact knowledge about the spatial distribution of weeds weed maps derived from spatial sampling continuous threshold-based contours of weed patches or areas

  1. Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland, and weeds are strong competitors for resources, particularly water. We conducted a 3-year experiment of full-light versus artificial shading and weed presence versus weed mowing. We measured seedling

  2. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 270 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

  3. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  4. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  5. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  6. Evolution of Weediness and Invasiveness: Charting the Course for Weed Genomics

    E-print Network

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Evolution of Weediness and Invasiveness: Charting the Course for Weed Genomics C. Neal Stewart, Jr these important features of weed biology. However, the genomic tools and resources available for weed research increasingly accessible and less expensive, the time is ripe for weed scientists to incorporate these methods

  7. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 158 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  8. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 189 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Small concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution. Rate dependent on weed size. Apply before planting

  9. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  10. LRES 443 -WEED ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENT Instructor: Dr. Bruce Maxwell TA: Melissa Bridges

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    1 LRES 443 - WEED ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENT Instructor: Dr. Bruce Maxwell TA: Melissa Bridges Professor and understanding of the principles of weed science. 2. To develop an appreciation for adaptations that allow weeds and concepts associated with plant population and community ecology. 4. To develop an understanding of how weed

  11. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  12. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  13. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  14. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 215 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  15. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  16. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  17. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 198 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Small concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution. Rate dependent on weed size. Apply before planting

  18. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 274 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

  19. Vinegar (20% acetic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic weed control research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top applications of acetic acid (vinegar) on weed control efficacy, crop injury and onion yields. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes, 2 hand-weeding ...

  20. Managing Weeds in Potato Health Management, ed. D. Johnson. APS Press

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds must be managed throughout the entire crop rotation to optimize potato tuber yield and quality. Understanding factors that promote weed species and allow them to persist in crop rotations is key to designing cropping systems that discourage and reduce the impact of weeds. Weeds can be best man...

  1. Economics of supplemental weed control applications on spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research conducted to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) measured weed control efficacy, impact of herbicides on crop injury, and the resulting weed competition on crop yields and marketable bulb size. Weed competition produ...

  2. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. Results A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local livelihoods was ubiquitously perceived, with all participants reporting their contribution towards food security and nutrition. Conclusion The present study confirm findings from similar studies conducted elsewhere that rural households engage in harvesting of wild edible vegetables and other non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as a survival strategy. Based on their potential nutritional and medicinal value, edible weeds could contribute in a major way to food security, basic primary health care and balanced diets of rural households and possibly urban households as well. PMID:23962298

  3. Wallowa Canyonlands Weed Partnership : Completion Report November 19, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Mark C.; Ketchum, Sarah

    2008-12-30

    Noxious weeds threaten fish and wildlife habitat by contributing to increased sedimentation rates, diminishing riparian structure and function, and reducing forage quality and quantity. Wallowa Resources Wallowa Canyonlands Partnership (WCP) protects the unique ecological and economic values of the Hells Canyon grasslands along lower Joseph Creek, the lower Grande Ronde and Imnaha Rivers from invasion and degradation by noxious weeds using Integrated Weed Management techniques. Objectives of this grant were to inventory and map high priority weeds, coordinate treatment of those weeds, release and monitor bio-control agents, educate the public as to the dangers of noxious weeds and how to deal with them, and restore lands to productive plant communities after treatment. With collaborative help from partners, WCP inventoried {approx} 215,000 upland acres and 52.2 miles of riparian habitat, released bio-controls at 23 sites, and educated the public through posters, weed profiles, newspaper articles, and radio advertisements. Additionally, WCP used other sources of funding to finance the treatment of 1,802 acres during the course of this grant.

  4. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  5. Weed Control Sprayers: Calibration and Maintenance. Special Circular 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Arthur L.

    This manual covers aspects of calibration and maintenance of weed control sprayers including variables affecting application rate, the pre-calibration check, calculations, band spraying, nozzle tip selection, agitation, and cleaning. (BB)

  6. Protecting the Environment Using Integrated Weed Management in Lawns 

    E-print Network

    Ketchersid, Mary; Baumann, Paul A.

    2008-03-27

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can be used to control weeds, keep lawns healthy and protect the environment. This publication explains the steps to take in an IPM program and the importance of calibrating equipment and making proper calculations...

  7. Integrated Systems of Weed Management in Organic 'Vidalia' Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trials were conducted in southeastern Georgia to develop integrated systems of weed management in organic Vidalia® onion. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation, and herbicides appropriate for use in certified organic production systems. Plots were solarized wi...

  8. DEVELOPING WEED SUPPRESSIVE SOILS THROUGH IMPROVED SOIL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agriculture is based in part on efficient management of soil microorganisms for improving soil quality. However, identification of biological indicators of soil quality for predicting weed suppression in soils has received little attention. We investigated differences in soil microbial ...

  9. Mapping invasive weeds and their control with spatial information technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We discuss applications of airborne multispectral digital imaging systems, imaging processing techniques, global positioning systems (GPS), and geographic information systems (GIS) for mapping the invasive weeds giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) and Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and fo...

  10. `Raising the bar': improving the standard and utility of weed

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    . Recently, commentators have started to question if the substantial effort and investment in `weed science of southern Montana provided an inspiring setting to bring together an international cast of leading

  11. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...at the species level include all subspecies, varieties, and forms within the species. (a) Aquatic and wetland weeds: Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito fern, water velvet) Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, Mediterranean strain...

  12. Cultural control of weeds in herbicide-free annual forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of zero tillage systems improves soil water conservation, allowing for increased crop intensification and diversification in the semiarid northern Great Plains. Zero tillage systems rely primarily on herbicides for weed management, increasing selection pressure for herbicide resistance...

  13. Feeding Preferences of Weed Seed Predators and Effect on Weed Emergence Sharon S. White, Karen A. Renner, Fabian D. Menalled, and Douglas A. Landis*

    E-print Network

    Landis, Doug

    Feeding Preferences of Weed Seed Predators and Effect on Weed Emergence Sharon S. White, Karen A. Renner, Fabian D. Menalled, and Douglas A. Landis* We determined feeding preferences of invertebrate seed predators and the effect of seed predation on weed emergence. Feeding choice studies were completed

  14. Crop performance and weed suppression by weed-suppressive rice cultivars in furrow- and flood-irrigated systems under reduced herbicide inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in rice is challenging, particularly in light of increased resistance to herbicides in weed populations and diminishing availability of irrigation water. Certain indica rice cultivars can produce high yields and suppress weeds in conventional flood-irrigated, drill-seeded systems in the...

  15. The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?

    PubMed

    Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E

    2013-09-01

    Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These 'microbial weeds' are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized--or at least partially vacant--habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a 'dustbin' group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology. PMID:23336673

  16. The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?

    PubMed Central

    Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These ‘microbial weeds’ are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized – or at least partially vacant – habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a ‘dustbin’ group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology. PMID:23336673

  17. Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Y.; Tian, Lei F.; Zhu, Heping

    2011-01-01

    An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA). PMID:22163954

  18. Robust crop and weed segmentation under uncontrolled outdoor illumination.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Y; Tian, Lei F; Zhu, Heping

    2011-01-01

    An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA). PMID:22163954

  19. Preplant weed management and planting date influence yield, water use, and weed seed production in herbicide-free forage barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semiarid regions, the adoption of zero tillage improves soil water conservation, allowing for increased crop intensification and diversification. Zero tillage crop production relies heavily on herbicides for weed management, particularly the herbicide glyphosate, increasing selection pressure fo...

  20. Published by: Virginia Cooperative Extension Content Coordinator: Chuan Hong, Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science Produced by: Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture-1 Nematodes .........................................................................2-25 Weeds.................................................................................2-27 3 Grapes Diseases and Insects in Vineyards .......................................3-1 Weed

  1. Microfungal "weeds" in the leafcutter ant symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A; Bacci, M; Mueller, U G; Ortiz, A; Pagnocca, F C

    2008-11-01

    Leafcutter ants (Formicidae: tribe Attini) are well-known insects that cultivate basidiomycete fungi (Agaricales: Lepiotaceae) as their principal food. Fungus gardens are monocultures of a single cultivar strain, but they also harbor a diverse assemblage of additional microbes with largely unknown roles in the symbiosis. Cultivar-attacking microfungi in the genus Escovopsis are specialized parasites found only in association with attine gardens. Evolutionary theory predicts that the low genetic diversity in monocultures should render ant gardens susceptible to a wide range of diseases, and additional parasites with roles similar to that of Escovopsis are expected to exist. We profiled the diversity of cultivable microfungi found in 37 nests from ten Acromyrmex species from Southern Brazil and compared this diversity to published surveys. Our study revealed a total of 85 microfungal strains. Fusarium oxysporum and Escovopsis were the predominant species in the surveyed gardens, infecting 40.5% and 27% of the nests, respectively. No specific relationship existed regarding microfungal species and ant-host species, ant substrate preference (dicot versus grass) or nesting habit. Molecular data indicated high genetic diversity among Escovopsis isolates. In contrast to the garden parasite, F. oxysporum strains are not specific parasites of the cultivated fungus because strains isolated from attine gardens have similar counterparts found in the environment. Overall, the survey indicates that saprophytic microfungi are prevalent in South American leafcutter ants. We discuss the antagonistic potential of these microorganisms as "weeds" in the ant-fungus symbiosis. PMID:18369523

  2. Characterising Measures of Lexical Distributional Similarity Julie Weeds, David Weir and Diana McCarthy

    E-print Network

    Characterising Measures of Lexical Distributional Similarity Julie Weeds, David Weir and Diana Mc. However, it is not at all obvious that one universally best measure exists for all applica- tions (Weeds

  3. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...Lygodium flexuosum (Linnaeus) Swartz) to the list of terrestrial noxious weeds. This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of these noxious weeds within and into the United States. DATES: Effective on May 3, 2010, we are adopting as...

  4. EFFECTS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRACTICES ON WEED CONTROL IN A PERENNIAL CROPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under the influence of an organic weed control practice, soil cultivation with a Clemens cultivator, and applications of the herbicide, glyphosate. Experimental treatments (winter-spring glyphosate, spring cultivation, fall-spring cultivation, fall cultivatio...

  5. Linkages Among Agronomic, Environmental and Weed Management Characteristics in North American Sweet Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of weed management systems varies greatly across the landscape in both growers’ fields and in experimental trials conducted by agricultural scientists. Using agronomic, environmental, and weed management information from growers’ fields and experimental trials, we identified dominant ch...

  6. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review.

    PubMed

    Harding, Dylan P; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested. PMID:26379687

  7. Toxicological evaluation of jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seed.

    PubMed

    Dugan, G M; Gumbmann, M R; Friedman, M

    1989-08-01

    Diets containing 0.5, 1.58 and 5.0% jimson weed seed were fed to male and female rats (20/group) in a 90-day subchronic feeding study. The alkaloid content was 2.71 mg atropine and 0.66 mg scopolamine/g of seed. Gross clinical observations, body weights and feed and water intakes were recorded weekly. Tear production and pupil dilation measurements were made throughout the study. At 90 days, all of the animals were autopsied and clinical-chemistry analyses, complete haematology and bone-marrow evaluation for evidence of clastogenic effects were performed. Tissues from control (0% seed) and high-dose animals were examined histologically. The principal effects of jimson weed seed were: decreased body-weight gain, serum albumin and serum calcium; increased liver and testes weights (as a percentage of body weight), serum alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen. Female rats showed more marked responses to jimson weed seed than did males. In addition to the effects seen in both sexes, the females developed decreased serum total protein and cholesterol, and increased serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and chloride, red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and packed red cell volume. No histological lesions were associated with ingestion of jimson weed seed at 5.0%. It is concluded that jimson weed seed at concentrations of 0.5% or more in the diet produced adverse physiological changes in rats. PMID:2792973

  8. Classification of Maize and Weeds by Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapron, Michel; Oprea, Alina; Sultana, Bogdan; Assemat, Louis

    2007-11-01

    Precision Agriculture is concerned with all sorts of within-field variability, spatially and temporally, that reduces the efficacy of agronomic practices applied in a uniform way all over the field. Because of these sources of heterogeneity, uniform management actions strongly reduce the efficiency of the resource input to the crop (i.e. fertilization, water) or for the agrochemicals use for pest control (i.e. herbicide). Moreover, this low efficacy means high environmental cost (pollution) and reduced economic return for the farmer. Weed plants are one of these sources of variability for the crop, as they occur in patches in the field. Detecting the location, size and internal density of these patches, along with identification of main weed species involved, open the way to a site-specific weed control strategy, where only patches of weeds would receive the appropriate herbicide (type and dose). Herein, an automatic recognition method of vegetal species is described. First, the pixels of soil and vegetation are classified in two classes, then the vegetation part of the input image is segmented from the distance image by using the watershed method and finally the leaves of the vegetation are partitioned in two parts maize and weeds thanks to the two Bayesian networks.

  9. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Dylan P.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested. PMID:26379687

  10. CRITICAL WEED FREE PERIOD IN TWIN-ROW CONSERVATION-TILLAGE CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The critical period for weed control is the crop growth stage when weeds must be controlled to prevent cash crop yield losses. Field trials were conducted at the E.V. Smith Research and Extension Center near Shorter, AL, in 2004 and 2005 to compare the critical period for weed control in twin (19 c...

  11. Schnick et al.: Biocontrol of common dandelion 173 Weed Science, 50:173178. 2002

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    Schnick et al.: Biocontrol of common dandelion · 173 Weed Science, 50:173­178. 2002 2,4-D@uoguelph.ca Integration of two or more methods in a weed control strategy may produce a positive interaction, possibly decreasing the cost or volume of use of herbicides in tradi- tional weed control strategies

  12. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  13. Managing Weeds in Dry Peas Agronomic and market considerations have sparked an

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Managing Weeds in Dry Peas Agronomic and market considerations have sparked an increased interest in incorporating dry peas into their crop rotation should be aware of the associated weed management challenges to inadequate weed management. For example, a wild oat density of 4 plants/ft2 can lead to a 51 percent loss

  14. Weed dynamics on Amazonian Dark Earth and adjacent soils of Brazil

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Weed dynamics on Amazonian Dark Earth and adjacent soils of Brazil Julie Major a,*, Antonio Di attributable to past-use history. Consequently, maize yield and weed pressure varied among field locations, reflecting these differences in soil fertility in addition to differences in weed reservoirs

  15. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  16. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  17. VINEYARD WEED SEEDBANK COMPOSITION RESPONDS TO GLYPHOSATE AND CULTIVATION AFTER THREE YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide and tillage have been shown to influence weed seedbank composition in annual cropping systems, but little information is available for perennial cropping systems like vineyards, where weed control practices are comparatively less intensive. We hypothesized that vineyard weed seedbanks woul...

  18. Population-based threshold models describe weed germination and emergence patterns across varying

    E-print Network

    Bradford, Kent

    Population-based threshold models describe weed germination and emergence patterns across varying and success of control measures often hinges on the timing of weed emergence. We used population of herbicide-resistant and -susceptible Echinochloa phyllopogon, a weed of temperate paddy rice, and applied

  19. The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers S. M. Stewart-Wade1., Neumann, S., Collins, L. L. and Boland, G. J. 2002. The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum Wiggers (dandelion, pissenlit officinal) is a perennial weed occurring in parks, gardens, pastures

  20. Data Weeding Techniques Applied to Roget's Thesaurus Uta Priss, L. John Old

    E-print Network

    Priss, Uta

    Data Weeding Techniques Applied to Roget's Thesaurus Uta Priss, L. John Old Edinburgh Napier- riety of "data weeding" techniques that can be applied in order to reduce the size of a concept lattice about which data to select resemble a form of filtering analogous to "weeding" in a garden, because

  1. Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    BUL867 Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1 visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu. 2. David L. Sutton, professor (aquatic weeds), retired; Vernon V. Vandiver Jr., associate professor (aquatic weeds specialist), retired; and Jeffrey E

  2. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 301 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Cory Heaton, Ag and Natural Resources Agent Aquatic weeds in ponds or lakes can be controlled by physical removal such as target weeds, non-target plants, and what the water is used for. Physical removal can be accomplished

  3. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  4. Weed Technology. 2004. Volume 18:15141517 Management of Plant Invasions: The Conflict of Perspective1

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    1514 Weed Technology. 2004. Volume 18:1514­1517 Symposium Management of Plant Invasions, as the issue of plant invasion gained recognition in the public domain, both ecologists and weed scientists lands. Diverse views of nature carried to the table by ecologists and weed scientists have resulted

  5. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  6. Preharvest Treatment Options for Dry Edible Beans Christy Sprague, Associate Professor and Weed Extension Specialist

    E-print Network

    Preharvest Treatment Options for Dry Edible Beans Christy Sprague, Associate Professor and Weed Extension Specialist Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University "Green" weeds not controlled by earlier weed management practices and "green" stems or leaves of dry bean plants can be a major problem

  7. Data Weeding Techniques Applied to Roget's Thesaurus Uta Priss, L. John Old

    E-print Network

    Old, L. John

    Data Weeding Techniques Applied to Roget's Thesaurus Uta Priss, L. John Old Napier University- riety of "data weeding" techniques that can be applied in order to reduce the size of a concept lattice about which data to select resemble a form of "weeding" in a garden because whether a plant

  8. WEED CONTROL IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Charles S. Johnson, Extension Plant Pathologist, Tobacco

    E-print Network

    WEED CONTROL IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO Charles S. Johnson, Extension Plant Pathologist, Tobacco Good weed control uses crop rotation, early root and stalk destruction, cultivation, and appropriate use) will reduce reliance on tillage and cultivation for early season weed control. Some herbicides may also

  9. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  10. 7 CFR 360.300 - General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of noxious weeds; permits. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  12. Characteristics of Herbicides and Weed Management Programs Most Important to Corn, Cotton, and Soybean Growers

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Paul D.

    Characteristics of Herbicides and Weed Management Programs Most Important to Corn, Cotton of Herbicides and Weed Management Programs Most Important to Corn, Cotton, and Soybean Growers T.M. Hurley in better understanding the characteristics of herbicides and weed management programs that are important

  13. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  14. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  15. On the adequacy of GIS-generated weed maps for Precision Farming

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    On the adequacy of GIS-generated weed maps for Precision Farming Matthias Backes1 , Lutz Plümer1 1 an increasing importance in modern Precision Farming. For the application of herbicides in a field, maps of weed reason why farmers tend to be hesitant in applying the GIS-generated weed maps. In this paper, the lack

  16. Effects of abiotic factors on species richness and cover in Central European weed communities

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    Effects of abiotic factors on species richness and cover in Central European weed communities Petr 2005; accepted 17 February 2005 Abstract Plant species richness and cover of 698 samples of weed flora variables on weed species number and cover, independent of covariance with other variables, were determined

  17. Airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data integration for weed detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamás, János; Lehoczky, Éva; Fehér, János; Fórián, Tünde; Nagy, Attila; Bozsik, Éva; Gálya, Bernadett; Riczu, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture uses 70% of global available fresh water. However, ca. 50-70% of water used by cultivated plants, the rest of water transpirated by the weeds. Thus, to define the distribution of weeds is very important in precision agriculture and horticulture as well. To survey weeds on larger fields by traditional methods is often time consuming. Remote sensing instruments are useful to detect weeds in larger area. In our investigation a 3D airborne laser scanner (RIEGL LMS-Q680i) was used in agricultural field near Sopron to scouting weeds. Beside the airborne LiDAR, hyperspectral imaging system (AISA DUAL) and air photos helped to investigate weed coverage. The LiDAR survey was carried out at early April, 2012, before sprouting of cultivated plants. Thus, there could be detected emerging of weeds and direction of cultivation. However airborne LiDAR system was ideal to detect weeds, identification of weeds at species level was infeasible. Higher point density LiDAR - Terrestrial laser scanning - systems are appropriate to distinguish weed species. Based on the results, laser scanner is an effective tool to scouting of weeds. Appropriate weed detection and mapping systems could contribute to elaborate water and herbicide saving management technique. This publication was supported by the OTKA project K 105789.

  18. WEED INFESTATIONS ARE GENERALLY MORE frequent along roadsides and other disturbed areas than

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    WEED INFESTATIONS ARE GENERALLY MORE frequent along roadsides and other disturbed areas than habitats for weed growth. Many types of vehicles, including passenger cars, 4-wheel drive (4WD) trucks. Transport and spread of weeds via vehicles is a concern for many land managers because management activities

  19. Aquatic Weeds: Nuisance and Necessity Managing Waterweeds in Cayuga, Owasco and Seneca Lakes

    E-print Network

    Serianni, Anthony S.

    1 Aquatic Weeds: Nuisance and Necessity Managing Waterweeds in Cayuga, Owasco and Seneca Lakes July in the yard can have an immediate effect on water quality ­ and excessive water weeds can ruin the enjoyment, the lake. For many this includes the need for weed management, used here to mean activities intended

  20. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  1. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  2. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  3. WEED MANAGEMENT IN SHELTERBELTS IS important as unwanted plants can compete for moisture,

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    WEED MANAGEMENT IN SHELTERBELTS IS important as unwanted plants can compete for moisture, nutrients and light. Unmanaged shelterbelts can also serve as a source of weed propagules into surrounding habitats. If weeds are not properly managed they can reduce the growth and survival of desirable species in recently

  4. Effects of Weed Resistance Concerns and Resistance Management Practices on the Value of Roundup Ready Crops

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Paul D.

    Effects of Weed Resistance Concerns and Resistance Management Practices on the Value of Roundup-commercial purposes by any means, provide that this copyright notice appears on all such copies. #12;1 Effects of Weed Tucson, AZ Abstract This study estimates grower benefits of Roundup-Ready® (RR) weed management programs

  5. Effective Weed Management, Collective Action, and Landownership Change in Western Montana

    E-print Network

    Yung, Laurie

    Effective Weed Management, Collective Action, and Landownership Change in Western Montana Author(2):193-202. Published By: Weed Science Society of America DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/IPSM-D-14-00059.1 URL: http access to critical research. #12;Invasive Plant Science and Management 2015 8:193­202 Effective Weed

  6. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  7. 76 FR 70954 - Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Idaho; Idaho Panhandle National Forest Noxious Weed Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Forest Noxious Weed Treatment Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare... counties in Montana; and Pend Oreille County in Washington. The proposal includes both an Integrated Weed... Weed Treatment Project Team Leader, at the Priest Lake Ranger District, 32203 Highway 57, Priest...

  8. Reforestation: Herbaceous Weed Control After Planting http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Reforestation: Herbaceous Weed Control After Planting http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 2 Band Spray within 6 hours of application. Broadcast Spray (Aerial): Broadcast applications of herbaceous weed the treatment area boundaries with a In the practice called herbaceous weed control, herbicides are used

  9. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  10. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  11. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 120 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Newly Sprigged Bermudagrass Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode: Apply OUTRIDER at 1.33 oz/A to control johnsongrass, yellow and purple nutsedge, and other weeds

  12. Early establishment of planted Retama sphaerocarpa seedlings under different levels of light, water and weed competition

    E-print Network

    Rey Benayas, José María

    and weed competition José María Rey Benayas1,*, Antonio López-Pintor1 , Carmen García2 , Nuria de la Cámara, Shrub establishment, Weed biomass Abstract Large amounts of former cropland are being abandoned of artificial shading, irrigation, and removal of weed competi- tion on the performance of Retama sphaerocarpa

  13. Applying molecular-based approaches to classical biological control of weeds John F. Gaskin a,

    E-print Network

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    Review Applying molecular-based approaches to classical biological control of weeds John F. Gaskin 2010 Accepted 30 March 2011 Available online 5 April 2011 Keywords: Biological control Weeds Invasion analyses are able to elucidate information about target weeds that is critical to improving control success

  14. Introduction Weed control is of fundamental importance when planting trees, particularly

    E-print Network

    Introduction Weed control is of fundamental importance when planting trees, particularly during the establishment phase which may last up to five years. Weeds compete for nutrients, water and light, and can severely threaten the survival and early growth of newly planted trees. Failure to control weeds represents

  15. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  16. Synergistic interactions between an exotic honeybee and an exotic weed: pollination of Lantana camara

    E-print Network

    that are threatened by this noxious weed. Management of honeybee populations may provide a powerful tool for costSynergistic interactions between an exotic honeybee and an exotic weed: pollination of Lantana the most widespread and troublesome exotic weeds of the old-world tropics. It invades pasture, crops

  17. Federal Noxious Weed List (as of June 30, 2006) Aquatic/Wetland

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Federal Noxious Weed List (as of June 30, 2006) Aquatic/Wetland Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito.) Royle (hydrilla) Hygrophila polysperma T. Anderson (Miramar weed) Ipomoea aquatica Forsskal (water Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) King & Robinson (crofton weed) Alternanthera sessilis (Linnaeus) R. Brown ex

  18. Improving weed germination models by incorporating seed microclimate and translocation by tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed emergence models are of critical importance in deciding the timing of field weed control measures (tillage or chemical). However, the state of weed germination modeling is still in its infancy. Existing models do provide a baseline picture of emergence patterns, but improvements are needed to m...

  19. Chemical and physical defense of weed seeds in relation to soil seedbank persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistent soil seedbanks drive the long-term population dynamics of annual weeds of arable fields, yet most weed management tactics are targeted at the seedling stage. Development of effective strategies for weed seedbank management will depend upon better mechanistic understanding of the ecologica...

  20. Broadcast application of Racer for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling weeds can be a costly and time consuming process and uncontrolled weeds can reduce or eliminate crop yields and profits. In conventional agriculture, the use of herbicides provides a valuable tool within an integrated weed control system, but there are very few organically approved her...

  1. Lawn Weed Control with Herbicides. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 123.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Information and diagrams are given for identification and treatment of weed grasses and broadleaf weeds. Herbicides are suggested for use against each weed and instructions are given for proper application. Information is given for buying herbicides, and applying sprays and cleaning sprayers. (BB)

  2. Current state of weed management in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses due to weeds result in reduced yields and quality and increases in harvest costs. Weeds can also harbor pests (nematodes, insects, pathogens) of the crop reducing potential yields and quality further. Weed management often requires major resource inputs to produce a successful crop. He...

  3. Management filters and species traits: Weed community assembly in long-term organic and conventional systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community assembly theory provides a useful framework to assess the response of weed communities to agricultural management systems and to improve the predictive power of weed science. Under this framework, weed community assembly is constrained by abiotic and biotic "filters" that act on species tr...

  4. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201...REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall...

  5. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to import a noxious...

  6. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360.500 Section 360.500...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the...

  7. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to import a noxious...

  8. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201...REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall...

  9. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360.500 Section 360.500...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the...

  10. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201...REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall...

  11. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360.500 Section 360.500...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the...

  12. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically...should not be listed as a Federal noxious weed and therefore will not be regulated under...Inspection Service's regulations for noxious weeds. Our decision is based on our...

  13. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360.500 Section 360.500...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the...

  14. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201...REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall...

  15. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201...REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall...

  16. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to import a noxious...

  17. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information...applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to import a noxious...

  18. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  19. TWIN-ROW SPACING DOES NOT AFFECT WEED FREE CRITICAL PERIOD IN CONSERVATION-TILLAGE CORN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The critical period for weed control is the crop growth stage when weeds must be controlled to prevent cash crop yield losses. Field trials were conducted at the E.V. Smith Research and Extension Center near Shorter, AL, in 2004 and 2005 to compare the critical period for weed control in twin (19 c...

  20. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  1. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  2. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  3. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  4. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  5. Beyond Patch Spraying: Site-specific Weed Mmanagement With Multiple Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific weed management can include both limiting herbicide to areas of the field where weed pressure is above the economic threshold (patch spraying) and varying the choice of herbicide for most cost-effective weed control of local populations. The benefits of patch spraying with multiple, po...

  6. Reducing the germinable weed seedbank with soil disturbance and cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologically-based weed management relies heavily on a greater integration of cultural and mechanical control tactics. As such, management outcomes are more dependent on the biology of the weed and the interaction between management and weed population size. In this study, we assessed the influence ...

  7. Genomics of compositae weeds: EST libraries, microarrays, and evidence of introgression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Premise of Study: Weeds cause considerable environmental and economic damage. However, genomic characterization of weeds has lagged behind that of model plants and crop species. Here we report on the development of genomic tools and resources for 11 weeds from the Compositae family that can serve ...

  8. Potential synergistic effects of cereal rye biomass and soybean planting density on weed suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing crop density is a cultural weed management practice that can complement the use of cover crops for weed suppression. In this research, we created a range of cover crop biomass and soybean densities in order to assess their weed suppressive ability alone and in combination. The experiment ...

  9. Development of the Alaska agricultural weed flora 1981-2004: a case for prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural fields in Alaska were surveyed in 2004, 23 years after a similar 1981 study, to determine if new weed species had been introduced and whether different environmental and management variables were correlated field weed species composition. Percent cover of each weed species was determine...

  10. Establishing a weed prevention area, a step-by-step user's guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, weed management activities are only initiated after a weed has become a major economic problem in an area. This guide provides a process for individuals interested in developing community based weed prevention areas (WPA) to take a proactive approach to invasive species management. ...

  11. Smoking the Other: marijuana and counterhegemony in Weeds.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Dusty

    2011-01-01

    Subverting suburban modernity, the SHOWTIME television series Weeds invites its audiences to situate their opinions about marijuana amid spheres of bourgeois soccer-moms, class politics, turf wars, raw economics, violent milieux, and multiculti heterogeneity. I argue that Weeds encourages us to "smoke the Other"; that is, to hesitantly accept difference, in line with many drug circles' etiquette. The phrase "smoking the Other" is a critical alteration of bell hooks' (1992, Black looks: Race and representation. Boston: South End Press) conception of whites' ethnic "devouring" as "eating the Other," a rather rigid schematic itself problematized by Weeds' transgressive self-conscious playfulness with stereotyped ethnicities, loopy plotlines, and counterhegemonic dialogue. Cultural/political implications follow. PMID:21599507

  12. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared.

  13. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf.

    PubMed

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared. PMID:15846520

  14. Many lawns in New Hampshire are infested with one or more broadleaf weeds. This may be from planting a new lawn on soil infested with weed seeds; sowing weedy, low-quality grass seed; or using

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Many lawns in New Hampshire are infested with one or more broadleaf weeds. This may be from planting a new lawn on soil infested with weed seeds; sowing weedy, low-quality grass seed; or using manure contaminated with weed seeds. Established lawns may become infested with weeds as a result of low fertility

  15. Development of a spatial method for weed detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vioix, Jean-Baptiste; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Truchetet, Fréd. éric

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents an algorithm specifically developed for filtering low frequency signals. The application is related to weed detection into aerial images where crop lines are detected as repetitive structures. Theoretical bases of this work are presented first. Then, two methods are compared to select low frequency signals and their limitations are described. A decomposition based on wavelet packet is used to combine advantages of both methods. This algorithm allows a high selectivity of low frequency signals with an interesting computation time. At last, a complete algorithm for weed/crop classification is explained and a few results are shown.

  16. Controlling Weeds and Volunteer Crops During Fallow Periods. 

    E-print Network

    Wiese, A.F.; Chenault, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    ~ ~ ;' 1~~7 ? \\ , Texas A&M UOIverslty I Controlling . Weeds & Volunteer Crops During Fallow Periods 8-1568 April 1987 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONlNevilie P. Clarke, Director/The Texas A&M University System/College Station, Texas Cover.../barley/corn/sorghurn/glyphosate/paraquat/con trolled droplet applicator. Controlling Weeds and Volunteer Crops During Fallow Periods A. F. Wiese and E. W. Chenault Professor and Research Associate The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bushland, Texas Summary Because postemergence...

  17. Weed Busters: How to Get Drummond's and Common Goldenweed 

    E-print Network

    2005-03-07

    . Using these Weed Busters methods, you will be able to selectively kill unwanted goldenweed plants with little or no damage to desirable vegetation. Your results may vary, but you should be able to kill at least seven of every 10 plants treated. Works... cone nozzle (ConeJet 5500 - X6 to X8 orifice size) that can deliver a coarse spray (large droplets). Prepare the Herbicide Mixture You can expect greater than 76 percent control of goldenweed by spraying with Grazon P+D?, Weed- master? or Range Star...

  18. Western Society of Weed Science, Albuquerque, New Mexico. March 10-12, 2009. Skurski TC, Maxwell, BD, and Rew LJ

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Western Society of Weed Science, Albuquerque, New Mexico. March 10-12, 2009. Skurski TC, Maxwell significant environmental correlates with NIS impact and response to treatment will help guide weed management" approaches are utilized to measure the competitive effects of NIS: weed removal and weed addition8. We

  19. Long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on the carbon and nitrogen pools of a

    E-print Network

    Martin, Timothy

    Long-term effects of weed control and fertilization on the carbon and nitrogen pools of a slash. Jokela Abstract: The effects of fertilization, weed control, and fertilization plus weed control accumulated in fertilized forests without weed control was 20% (slash pine) and 40% (loblolly pine) greater

  20. Modeling "habitat suitability" for a herbicide resistant weed using a species distribution model and presence-only data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide resistant weeds are like invasive weeds: prompt management is needed to prevent their spread. For invasive weeds, first reports of a weed's occurrence are often analyzed with species distribution models (SDM) to prioritize detection and treatment. Suitability of other areas as habitat for ...

  1. Data diving with cross-validation: an investigation of broad-scale gradients in Swedish weed communities

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Michael W.

    Data diving with cross-validation: an investigation of broad-scale gradients in Swedish weed statistically by subdividing the data set. 2 We analysed data on weed biomass and environmental variables from an overwhelming in¯uence on the weed ¯ora, and many weed species, both annual and perennial, showed strong

  2. Occurrence of the new invasive insect Contarinia nasturtii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cruciferous weeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M; Wang, Ping; Hoepting, Christy A; Kain, Wendy C; Brainard, Daniel C

    2009-02-01

    Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe and a new invasive pest in North America, causes severe damage to cruciferous crops. In the United States, C. nasturtii was first reported in western New York in 2004. From 2005 to 2007, field surveys were conducted in western New York to investigate the occurrence of C. nasturtii in weeds that might serve as a reservoir for this pest. The results indicate that 12 cruciferous weed species were found in and around commercial vegetable crucifer plantings, and C. nasturtii emergence was detected from most of them. The number of C. nasturtii that emerged from the weeds was low and varied by species, year, and the timing of sampling. Peak emergence from weeds in fallow fields occurred in June. Nonchoice tests in the laboratory showed that significantly fewer larvae were found on cruciferous weeds than on cauliflower plants, although C. nasturtii could lay eggs on the weeds. When weeds and cauliflower plants were simultaneously exposed to C. nasturtii adults for egg laying (choice tests), 97.3% of the C. nasturtii larvae were found on the cauliflower plants 8 d after oviposition, 2.7% on Sinapis arvensis L., and none on the other five weed species tested. Our results suggest that cruciferous weeds can serve as alternative host plants of C. nasturtii but are less suitable than cauliflower. A method of detecting C. nasturtii on weeds and control of C. nasturtii through weed management are discussed. PMID:19253625

  3. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    PubMed

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut. PMID:19287723

  4. Waterhyacinth: Florida's Worst Floating Weed1 Lyn A. Gettys2

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    SS-AGR-380 Waterhyacinth: Florida's Worst Floating Weed1 Lyn A. Gettys2 1. This document is SS Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Introduction Waterhyacinth is a free-floating be spread in other ways. For example, small plants easily become caught in boat trailers or live wells

  5. RESPONSE OF SWEETPOTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS) CULTIVARS TO WEED INTERFERENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field experiments were conducted to assess how sweetpotato cultivars respond to weed interference. The first experiment included 11 sweetpotato cultivars and breeding clones with markedly different growth habits and canopy architecture. Over five repetitions of the experiment at two locations, a...

  6. Crop Tolerance to Weeds is Influenced by Preceding Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems in the Great Plains of the United States are changing because of no-till. Rotations now include a diversity of crops in contrast with rotations in tilled systems that grow only one or two crops. This change in rotation design has enabled producers to develop population-based weed ...

  7. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  8. An application of soft sets in weed identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft set theory is originally proposed as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties present in most of our real life. This study applied soft sets to improve low accuracy of weed identification caused by similar features. Firstly, three types of plant leaf features including shape, ...

  9. A new approach to weed management, based on population dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are improving precipitation-use-efficiency, increasing land productivity, and restoring soil health in semiarid regions of the world. However, weed resistance, rising costs, and concern about environmental impacts are stimulating questions about the extensive reliance on he...

  10. Performance of methyl bromide alternatives for weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous research trials were conducted over five years to evaluate potential alternatives to methyl bromide for control of a broad spectrum of soilborne pests, including nematodes, plant pathogenic fungi, and weeds. Trials were conducted at the field demonstration, experimental plot, greenhouse, an...

  11. Response of `Alamo` switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to weed management practices

    SciTech Connect

    Sledge, S.L.; Walker, R.H.

    1995-11-01

    Field studies were conducted in 1992 and 1994 to evaluate herbicides that would provide weed control and biomass yield of `Alamo` switchgrass during the year of establishment. For grass weed control, bensulide was applied preplant incorporated (PPI) at 4.4 kg ai ha{sup -1}, while MSMA was applied postemergence over the top (POST) at 2.2 kg ai ha{sup -1} to switchgrass that had two to four leaves. Herbicides applied POST for control of broadleaf weed species included 2,4-D at 0.6 kg ai ha{sup -1} or metsulfuron at 0.02 kg ai ha{sup -1}. Herbicide treatments included bensulide and MSMA applied alone or in combination with s,3-D or metsulfuron. They were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times. Weed control, crop tolerance and yield data were taken over time. Bensulide or MSMA applied alone provided 80% or greater control of large crabgrass, broadleaf signalgrass and fall panicum for the two years. The addition of metsulfuron or 2,4-D provided acceptable control of smooth pigweed, prickly sida, pitted morningglory and sicklepod. MSMA treatments produced slight PANVI injury that ranged from 20 to 36%. Bensulide injury was mostly moderate ranging from 19 to 88%. Although less injury was recorded with MSMA treatments, bensulide treatments trended higher for establishment-year biomass production that averaged 5123 kg ha{sup -1} as compared to 4239 kg ha{sup -1} for MSMA treatments.

  12. ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF INTEGRATED CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report presents results of a four-year study of the ecological impacts of chemical, biological, and integrated methods of aquatic weed control. Biological and water quality changes occurred as abundance of macrophytic vegetation was altered by natural factors or manage...

  13. Crop seeding level: implications for weed management in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn is seeded under a wide range of population densities; however, the extent to which variable population density influences weed fitness is unknown. Therefore, field studies were undertaken to quantify the influence of sweet corn seeding level on growth, seed production, and post-harvest se...

  14. Effects of Soybean Seed Size on Weed Competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic soybean producers must rely on various, nonherbicidal tactics for weed management. Increased soybean seed size may be one method to increase the competitiveness of the soybean canopy. Soybean varieties Hutcheson, NC-Roy, and NC-Raleigh were separated into four or five seed size classes. Seed...

  15. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  16. Laser-induced fluorescence for discrimination of crops and weeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Peter J.

    2000-11-01

    This paper reports the use of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) of plants to discriminate between crops and weeds for potential use in an intelligent crop spraying system. Past and current work in intelligent crop spraying has concentrated on using multi-spectral reflectance data in particular using near infrared (NIR) and color. Texture and shape image processing has also been used with limited success and is usually computationally expensive. Also, most of these approaches are error prone since they rely on ambient solar illumination and so are susceptible to errors caused by cloud variations, shadows and other non-uniformities. There are several commercial spraying systems available that detect presence or absence of plants using the NIR 'red-edge' effect without discrimination between species. 'Weedseeker' and 'Detectspray' are two examples of such systems, the 'Weedseeker' system being one of the few active systems, incorporating its own light source. However, both systems suffer from poor spatial resolution. The use of plant or chlorophyll fluorescence for discrimination between species is a relatively under researched area. This paper shows that LIF of several crops and weeds can be used to discriminate between species. Spectra are presented for two crop and two weed species over a range of discrete laser excitation wavelengths. The technique can be directly implemented with a laser imaging system for real-time detection and discrimination of crops and weeds.

  17. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  18. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

  19. COVER CROP SYSTEMS AFFECT WEED COMMUNITIES IN A CALIFORNIA VINEYARD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under four dormant season cover crop systems representative of those used in the north-coastal grape-growing region of California: no-till annuals (rose clover, soft brome, zorro fescue; ANoT), no-till perennials (blue wildrye, California brome, meadow barley,...

  20. A NOVEL BIOHERBICIDE FOR CONTROL OF GRASSY WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of Poa, Triticale, Triticum, Hordeum, and Lolium species. These bacterial isolates were initially screened for the ability of live cultures to cause stunting of the roots and shoots of young seedlings of the grassy weed known as annual bluegrass (...

  1. Response of Two Sweet Potato Cultivars to Weed Interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted at Charleston, SC to assess the effect of different durations of weed interference on two sweetpotato cultivars with distinctly different shoot growth habits. The cultivars were Beauregard, which has a spreading growth habit, and Carolina Bunch, which has an erect g...

  2. Significance of Atrazine in Weed Management Systems of Sweet Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed management systems being used by sweet corn growers, including the role of atrazine in these systems, is poorly characterized. Management records of 175 fields throughout the major sweet corn production areas of the Midwest were surveyed from 2005 to 2007. Seventy-four percent of s...

  3. Corn gluten meal application equipment evaluations for organic weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further use of CGM in vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface and detrimental impact of CGM on direct-seeded vegetables. ...

  4. 2009 Herbicide Recommendations for Specific Weed Problems In Forages

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    seedings of alfalfa, red clover, or birdsfoot trefoil only - do not use on dutch white clover Apply when alfalfa has minimum of four trifoliate leaves to avoid crop injury. Apply before weeds exceed 4-leaf stage, 2 inches in height, or 1 inch in diameter, whichever comes first. Do not apply when

  5. Weed Community and Glyphosate Management in Soybean Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A concern to some conservationists is the loss of biodiversity of weedy plant species in the face of wide-spread adoption by farmers of transgenic crops that are resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate. We studied weed biodiversity in both Argentina and the USA, the two countries w...

  6. Robust crop and weed segmentation under uncontrolled outdoor illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new machine vision for weed detection was developed from RGB color model images. Processes included in the algorithm for the detection were excessive green conversion, threshold value computation by statistical analysis, adaptive image segmentation by adjusting the threshold value, median filter, ...

  7. Vinegar: Application volumes and adjuvants for weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vinegar has been identified as a potential organic herbicide, yet more information is needed to determine influence of application volume and use of additives (adjuvants) on weed control. Vinegar is a solution containing water and acetic acid, an organic acid produced through the natural fermentatio...

  8. Rice hulls for weed control in container crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in nursery container crops is primarily accomplished with preemergence herbicides. However, there are some crops that are sensitive to herbicide applications, and some sites where herbicides are not registered for use. Parboiled rice hulls can be used where herbicides are either not s...

  9. Corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea, Spring 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is with preemergence and some postemergence herbicides, but recently fresh market...

  10. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration. PMID:22507010

  11. STRATEGIES FOR THE USE OF NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR WEED MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products have not been utilized as extensively for weed management as they have been for insect and plant pathogen management, but there are several notable successes such as glufosinate and the natural product-derived triketone herbicides. The two fundamental approaches to the use of natur...

  12. Potential of Air-Propelled Abrasives for Selective Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel forms of selective weed control are needed by many types of growers, but especially organic growers who are restricted from using synthetic herbicides. Abrasive grit made from corn cobs was expelled from a sand blaster at 517 kPa pressure and aimed at seedlings of common lambsquarters and corn...

  13. Revegetation Guidelines for the Great Basin: Considering Invasive Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large portions of the Great Basin become degraded and disturbed every day due to natural and human-induced causes. Some disturbed areas may recover naturally in time, but other areas may never recover naturally because invasive weeds establish quickly and prevent native plants from establishing. I...

  14. Weed control and canopy light management in blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in blackberries (Rubus spp.) is a serious problem for organic producers and those who wish to reduce their reliance on herbicides. At the southern limits of blackberry production, late season yields are reduced because of high day-time temperatures generated by solar irradiation and ot...

  15. AXXE® (Pelargonic acid) and Racer® (Ammonium Nonanoate): Weed control comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production, any uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reductions by the end of the growing season. Organic vegetable producers need additional organic herbicides that c...

  16. Herbicide Leaching Column for a Weed Science Teaching Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an experiment which enables weed science students to observe first-hand the process of herbicide leaching in soils. Features of this technique which demonstrate the movement of herbicide within a column of soil are outlined. Diagrams are provided of the apparatus employed in the exercise. (ML)

  17. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INVASIVE WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six insects attacking yellow starthistle are widespread in California's central valley but have not substantially reduced weed populations. The accidentally introduced, false peacock fly is now widespread, but appears to pose no risk to native Cirsium thistles and negligible risk to safflower produ...

  18. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  19. RISING CARBON DIOXIDE & IMPLICATIONS FOR WEED CROP MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ongoing increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and associated changes in temperature and precipitation will almost certainly alter the growth, reproduction, and location of weedy species, with subsequent effects on weed/crop competition. In the review of data presented here, I examine th...

  20. Confused about Fusion? Weed Your Science Collection with a Pro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Charli

    1998-01-01

    Provides guidelines on weeding science collections in junior high/high school libraries. Highlights include checking copyright dates, online sources, 13 science subject areas that deserve special consideration (plate tectonics, fission, fusion, radioactive dating, weather/climate, astronomy/space science, elements, integrated science,…

  1. Cover crop and organic weed control integration in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in organic vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. An experiment was established in autumn 2005 and 2006 at the North Alabama Horticulture Experiment Station, Cullman,...

  2. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  3. Classical biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) and other weeds in areas of limited or restricted weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are considered noxious in five states and listed as invasive in more than a dozen others, despite having little effect on agriculture. They are problematic in areas of limited weed management such as along highways and railroads and in ditches, wetlands and parks. A ...

  4. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  5. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  6. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  7. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  8. Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

    2015-03-01

    There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems. PMID:25346235

  9. Impact of the timing and duration of weed control on the establishment of a rubber tree plantation.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Caio D; Carvalho, Leonardo B de; Giancotti, Paulo R F; Alves, Pedro L C A; Gonçalves, Elaine C P; Martins, José V F

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tree production is reduced by weeds that compete for environmental resources; therefore, the timing and duration of weed control influences weed interference. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plants, to determine the critical period for weed control, and to evaluate the growth recovery of rubber trees that coexisted with weeds for different periods of time after planting. Two groups of treatments were established under field conditions in the first year of the investigation: one group contained crescent periods of weed infestation, while the other contained crescent periods of weed control, also including a weed-free check and a total weedy check. In the second year of the investigation, the weeds were totally controlled. Urochloa decumbens was the dominant weed (over 90% groundcover). Crop growth was greatly reduced due to the weed interference. Plant height decreased more rapidly than did any other characteristic. Plant height, leaf dry mass, and leaf area decreased by 99%, 97% and 96%, respectively, and were the most reduced characteristics. Plant height also recovered more rapidly than did any characteristic when the period of weed control was lengthened. However, stem dry mass increased by 750%, making it the most recovered characteristic. The critical period for weed control was between 4 and 9½ months after planting in the first year; however, the rubber trees showed an expressive growth recovery when the weeds were controlled throughout the second year. PMID:24519007

  10. A Hybrid Differential Invasive Weed Algorithm for Congestion Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Aniruddha; Pal, Siddharth; Pandi, V. Ravikumar; Panigrahi, B. K.; Das, Swagatam

    This work is dedicated to solve the problem of congestion management in restructured power systems. Nowadays we have open access market which pushes the power system operation to their limits for maximum economic benefits but at the same time making the system more susceptible to congestion. In this regard congestion management is absolutely vital. In this paper we try to remove congestion by generation rescheduling where the cost involved in the rescheduling process is minimized. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid of Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) and Differential Evolution (DE). The resultant hybrid algorithm was applied on standard IEEE 30 bus system and observed to beat existing algorithms like Simple Bacterial foraging (SBF), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO), Differential Evolution (DE) and hybrid algorithms like Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Differential Evolution (HBFDE) and Adaptive Bacterial Foraging with Nelder Mead (ABFNM).

  11. Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds.

    PubMed

    Délye, Christophe; Jasieniuk, Marie; Le Corre, Valérie

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to herbicides in arable weeds is increasing rapidly worldwide and threatening global food security. Resistance has now been reported to all major herbicide modes of action despite the development of resistance management strategies in the 1990s. We review here recent advances in understanding the genetic bases and evolutionary drivers of herbicide resistance that highlight the complex nature of selection for this adaptive trait. Whereas early studied cases of resistance were highly herbicide-specific and largely under monogenic control, cases of greatest concern today generally involve resistance to multiple modes of action, are under polygenic control, and are derived from pre-existing stress response pathways. Although 'omics' approaches should enable unraveling the genetic bases of complex resistances, the appearance, selection, and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations can only be fully elucidated by focusing on evolutionary dynamics and implementing integrative modeling efforts. PMID:23830583

  12. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit....

  13. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit....

  14. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit....

  15. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit....

  16. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  17. Killing Weeds with 2,4-D. Extension Bulletin 389.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Oliver C.

    Discussed is the use of the herbicide 2,4-D. Though written for farmers and agricultural workers, the pamphlet considers turf weed control and use of 2,4-D near ornamental plants. Aspects of the use of this herbicide covered are: (1) the common forms of 2,4-D; (2) plant responses and tolerances to the herbicide; (3) dilution and concentration of…

  18. Controlling invasive weed: Center begins evaluating giant salvinia-eating weevils 

    E-print Network

    Orth, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Controlling invasive weed.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3292 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Controlling invasive weed.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859... Resources Institute (TWRI), is evaluating and demonstrating multiple control methods? biological and chemical?and assessing their e?ectiveness in killing giant salvinia. Controlling invasive weed In the fall of ????, project members constructed weevil...

  19. Contolling invasive weed: Center begins evaluating giant salvina-eating weevils 

    E-print Network

    Orth, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Controlling invasive weed.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3292 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Controlling invasive weed.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859... Resources Institute (TWRI), is evaluating and demonstrating multiple control methods? biological and chemical?and assessing their e?ectiveness in killing giant salvinia. Controlling invasive weed In the fall of ????, project members constructed weevil...

  20. Taxonomic and Life History Bias in Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Implications for Deployment of Resistant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Jodie S.; Welles, Shana R.; Silvera, Katia; Heap, Ian M.; Heredia, Sylvia M.; Martinez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Palenscar, Kai T.; Sweet, Lynn C.; Ellstrand, Norman C.

    2013-01-01

    Evolved herbicide resistance (EHR) is an important agronomic problem and consequently a food security problem, as it jeopardizes herbicide effectiveness and increases the difficulty and cost of weed management. EHR in weeds was first reported in 1970 and the number of cases has accelerated dramatically over the last two decades. Despite 40 years of research on EHR, why some weeds evolve resistance and others do not is poorly understood. Here we ask whether weed species that have EHR are different from weeds in general. Comparing taxonomic and life history traits of weeds with EHR to a control group (“the world's worst weeds”), we found weeds with EHR significantly over-represented in certain plant families and having certain life history biases. In particular, resistance is overrepresented in Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae and Poaceae relative to all weeds, and annuality is ca. 1.5 times as frequent in weeds with EHR as in the control group. Also, for perennial EHR weeds, vegetative reproduction is only 60% as frequent as in the control group. We found the same trends for subsets of weeds with EHR to acetolactate synthase (ALS), photosystem II (PSII), and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase-inhibitor herbicides and with multiple resistance. As herbicide resistant crops (transgenic or not) are increasingly deployed in developing countries, the problems of EHR could increase in those countries as it has in the USA if the selecting herbicides are heavily applied and appropriate management strategies are not employed. Given our analysis, we make some predictions about additional species that might evolve resistance. PMID:24039727

  1. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. PMID:26314055

  2. Can feral weeds evolve from cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae)?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A

    2009-02-01

    Cultivated plants that cannot survive on their own often have maladaptive domestication traits. Unharvested crop seeds may generate feral populations, at times causing serious weed problems, but little is known about the evolution of ferality. We explored the potential for cultivated radish, Raphanus sativus, to become feral, given that closely related taxa (e.g., R. raphanistrum and crop-wild hybrids) are well-documented weeds. First, we measured the population growth of five experimental, cultivated, self-seeding radish populations in Michigan, USA, for three generations. Three late-flowering populations went extinct, and two others apparently hybridized with local R. raphanistrum. A common garden experiment showed that the two surviving populations had earlier flowering, smaller root diameters, and greater individual fecundity than did nonhybridized populations. We also used artificial selection to measure the evolutionary potential for earlier flowering. After two generations of strong selection, two of three lineages flowered earlier and produced more seeds than control lineages, but insufficient genetic variation prevented dramatic evolution of crop phenotypes. In summary, it seems unlikely that radishes could spontaneously become feral in our study area without gene flow from R. raphanistrum. Applying these approaches to other cultivated species may provide a better understanding of mechanisms promoting the evolution of feral weeds. PMID:21628205

  3. Protocols for Robust Herbicide Resistance Testing in Different Weed Species.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Silvia; Scarabel, Laura; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Robust protocols to test putative herbicide resistant weed populations at whole plant level are essential to confirm the resistance status. The presented protocols, based on whole-plant bioassays performed in a greenhouse, can be readily adapted to a wide range of weed species and herbicides through appropriate variants. Seed samples from plants that survived a field herbicide treatment are collected and stored dry at low temperature until used. Germination methods differ according to weed species and seed dormancy type. Seedlings at similar growth stage are transplanted and maintained in the greenhouse under appropriate conditions until plants have reached the right growth stage for herbicide treatment. Accuracy is required to prepare the herbicide solution to avoid unverifiable mistakes. Other critical steps such as the application volume and spray speed are also evaluated. The advantages of this protocol, compared to others based on whole plant bioassays using one herbicide dose, are related to the higher reliability and the possibility of inferring the resistance level. Quicker and less expensive in vivo or in vitro diagnostic screening tests have been proposed (Petri dish bioassays, spectrophotometric tests), but they provide only qualitative information and their widespread use is hindered by the laborious set-up that some species may require. For routine resistance testing, the proposed whole plant bioassay can be applied at only one herbicide dose, so reducing the costs. PMID:26167668

  4. Organic fields sustain weed metacommunity dynamics in farmland landscapes.

    PubMed

    Henckel, Laura; Börger, Luca; Meiss, Helmut; Gaba, Sabrina; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Agro-ecosystems constitute essential habitat for many organisms. Agricultural intensification, however, has caused a strong decline of farmland biodiversity. Organic farming (OF) is often presented as a more biodiversity-friendly practice, but the generality of the beneficial effects of OF is debated as the effects appear often species- and context-dependent, and current research has highlighted the need to quantify the relative effects of local- and landscape-scale management on farmland biodiversity. Yet very few studies have investigated the landscape-level effects of OF; that is to say, how the biodiversity of a field is affected by the presence or density of organically farmed fields in the surrounding landscape. We addressed this issue using the metacommunity framework, with weed species richness in winter wheat within an intensively farmed landscape in France as model system. Controlling for the effects of local and landscape structure, we showed that OF leads to higher local weed diversity and that the presence of OF in the landscape is associated with higher local weed biodiversity also for conventionally farmed fields, and may reach a similar biodiversity level to organic fields in field margins. Based on these results, we derive indications for improving the sustainable management of farming systems. PMID:25994672

  5. Integration of agronomic practices with herbicides for sustainable weed management in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Mohamed, M T M; Uddin, M K; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point. PMID:24223513

  6. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding. PMID:25911836

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Weed quadrangle, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Volume II contains the flight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the Weed Quadrangle in California.

  8. How weeds emerge: a taxonomic and trait-based examination using United States data

    PubMed Central

    Kuester, Adam; Conner, Jeffrey K; Culley, Theresa; Baucom, Regina S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds can cause great economic and ecological harm to ecosystems. Despite their importance, comparisons of the taxonomy and traits of successful weeds often focus on a few specific comparisons – for example, introduced versus native weeds.We used publicly available inventories of US plant species to make comprehensive comparisons of the factors that underlie weediness. We quantitatively examined taxonomy to determine if certain genera are overrepresented by introduced, weedy or herbicide-resistant species, and we compared phenotypic traits of weeds to those of nonweeds, whether introduced or native.We uncovered genera that have more weeds and introduced species than expected by chance and plant families that have more herbicide-resistant species than expected by chance. Certain traits, generally related to fast reproduction, were more likely to be associated with weedy plants regardless of species’ origins. We also found stress tolerance traits associated with either native or introduced weeds compared with native or introduced nonweeds. Weeds and introduced species have significantly smaller genomes than nonweeds and native species.These results support trends for weedy plants reported from other floras, suggest that native and introduced weeds have different stress adaptations, and provide a comprehensive survey of trends across weeds within the USA. PMID:24494694

  9. Broccoli/weed/soil discrimination by optical reflectance using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1995-04-01

    Broccoli is grown extensively in Scotland, and has become one of the main vegetables cropped, due to its high yields and profits. Broccoli, weed and soil samples from 6 different farms were collected and their spectra obtained and analyzed using discriminant analysis. High crop/weed/soil discrimination success rates were encountered in each farm, but the selected wavelengths varied in each farm due to differences in broccoli variety, weed species incidence and soil type. In order to use only three wavelengths, neural networks were introduced and high crop/weed/soil discrimination accuracies for each farm were achieved.

  10. Weed Science Society of America Biocontrol of Common St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum) with Chrysolina hyperici and

    E-print Network

    Reekie, Ed

    Weed Science Society of America Biocontrol of Common St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum,herbivory,integrated control,Aphis chloris. Abbreviations: C.g.-hypericum,Colletotrichumgloeosporioides f. sp. hypericum

  11. Development of remote sensing based site specific weed management for Midwest mint production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumz, Mary Saumur Paulson

    Peppermint and spearmint are high value essential oil crops in Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Although the mints are profitable alternatives to corn and soybeans, mint production efficiency must improve in order to allow industry survival against foreign produced oils and synthetic flavorings. Weed control is the major input cost in mint production and tools to increase efficiency are necessary. Remote sensing-based site-specific weed management offers potential for decreasing weed control costs through simplified weed detection and control from accurate site specific weed and herbicide application maps. This research showed the practicability of remote sensing for weed detection in the mints. Research was designed to compare spectral response curves of field grown mint and weeds, and to use these data to develop spectral vegetation indices for automated weed detection. Viability of remote sensing in mint production was established using unsupervised classification, supervised classification, handheld spectroradiometer readings and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Unsupervised classification of multispectral images of peppermint production fields generated crop health maps with 92 and 67% accuracy in meadow and row peppermint, respectively. Supervised classification of multispectral images identified weed infestations with 97% and 85% accuracy for meadow and row peppermint, respectively. Supervised classification showed that peppermint was spectrally distinct from weeds, but the accuracy of these measures was dependent on extensive ground referencing which is impractical and too costly for on-farm use. Handheld spectroradiometer measurements of peppermint, spearmint, and several weeds and crop and weed mixtures were taken over three years from greenhouse grown plants, replicated field plots, and production peppermint and spearmint fields. Results showed that mints have greater near infrared (NIR) and lower green reflectance and a steeper red edge slope than all weed species. These distinguishing characteristics were combined to develop narrow band and broadband spectral vegetation indices (SVIs, ratios of NIR/green reflectance), that were effective in differentiating mint from key weed species. Hyperspectral images of production peppermint and spearmint fields were then classified using SVI-based classification. Narrowband and broadband SVIs classified early season peppermint and spearmint with 64 to 100% accuracy compared to 79 to 100% accuracy for supervised classification of multispectral images of the same fields. Broadband SVIs have potential for use as an automated spectral indicator for weeds in the mints since they require minimal ground referencing and can be calculated from multispectral imagery which is cheaper and more readily available than hyperspectral imagery. This research will allow growers to implement remote sensing based site specific weed management in mint resulting in reduced grower input costs and reduced herbicide entry into the environment and will have applications in other specialty and meadow crops.

  12. Phytotoxicity of the volatile monoterpene citronellal against some weeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder K; Arora, Komal

    2006-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the phytotoxicity of citronellal, an oxygenated monoterpenoid with an aldehyde group, towards some weedy species [Ageratum conyzoides L., Chenopodium album L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.), Garcke, Cassia occidentalis L. and Phalaris minor Retz.]. A significant effect on weed emergence and early seedling growth was observed in a dose-response based laboratory bioassay in a sand culture. Emergence of all test weeds was completely inhibited at 100 micro/g sand content of citronellal. Seeds of A. conyzoides and P. hysterophorus failed to emerge even at 50 microg/g content. Root length was inhibited more compared to shoot length. The failure of root growth was attributed to the effect of citronellal on the mitotic activity of growing root tips cells as ascertained by the onion root tip bioassay. At 2.5 mM treatment of citronellal, mitosis was completely suppressed and at higher concentrations cells showed various degrees of distortion and were even enucleated. The post-emergent application of citronellal also caused visible injury in the form of chlorosis and necrosis, leading to wilting and even death of test weeds. Among the test weeds, the effect was severe on C. album and P. hysterophorus. There was loss of chlorophyll pigment and reduction in cellular respiration upon citronellal treatment indicating the impairment of photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism. Scanning electron microscopic studies in C. occidentalis leaves upon treatment of citronellal revealed disruption of cuticular wax, clogging of stomata and shrinkage of epidermal cells at many places. There was a rapid electrolyte leakage in the leaf tissue upon exposure to citronellal during the initial few hours. In P. minor electrolyte leakage in response to 2 mM citronellal was closer to the maximum leakage that was obtained upon boiling the tissue. The rapid ion leakage is indicative of the severe effect of citronellal on the membrane structure and loss of membrane integrity. In all, the study concludes that citronellal causes a severe phytotoxicity on the weeds. PMID:16869489

  13. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management. PMID:26364480

  14. Montana Weed Control Association Annual Meeting, Missoula, MT. January 13, 2010. Skurski T, Rew LJ, Maxwell BD and Lehnhoff E

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana Weed Control Association Annual Meeting, Missoula, MT. January 13, 2010. Skurski T, Rew LJ, Maxwell BD and Lehnhoff E Quantifying invasiveness as part of a weed management prioritization framework

  15. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and noxious farm...

  16. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and noxious farm...

  17. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and noxious farm...

  18. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides...and regulations relating to livestock diseases, sanitation and noxious farm...

  19. Response of rice genotypes to weed competition in dry direct-seeded rice in India.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Gulshan; Ramesha, Mugalodi S; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    The differential weed-competitive abilities of eight rice genotypes and the traits that may confer such attributes were investigated under partial weedy and weed-free conditions in naturally occurring weed flora in dry direct-seeded rice during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The results showed genotypic differences in competitiveness against weeds. In weed-free plots, grain yield varied from 6.6 to 8.9 t ha(-1) across different genotypes; it was lowest for PR-115 and highest for the hybrid H-97158. In partial weedy plots, grain yield and weed biomass at flowering varied from 3.6 to 6.7 t ha(-1) and from 174 to 419 g m(-2), respectively. In partial weedy plots, grain yield was lowest for PR-115 and highest for PR-120. Average yield loss due to weed competition ranged from 21 to 46% in different rice genotypes. The study showed that early canopy closure, high leaf area index at early stage, and high root biomass and volume correlated positively with competitiveness. This study suggests that some traits (root biomass, leaf area index, and shoot biomass at the early stage) could play an important role in conferring weed competitiveness and these traits can be explored for dry-seeded rice. PMID:25093205

  20. Software to quantify and map vegetative cover in fallow fields for weed management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping weed cover during the fallow period of dryland crop rotations would be valuable for weed management in subsequent crops and could be done with low cost color digital cameras, however most managers lack the specialized software and expertise needed to create a map from the images. We develope...