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Sample records for weight hmw adiponectin

  1. Serum concentrations of high-molecular weight adiponectin and their association with sex steroids in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Imthurn, Bruno; Rosselli, Marinella; Spanaus, Katharina

    2011-02-01

    At present, the association between adiponectin and sex hormones in women is controversial. Recent studies suggest that it is high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and the HMW to total adiponectin ratio rather than total adiponectin that are associated with antiatherogenic activities, insulin sensitivity, metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events. The present study aimed to investigate whether measuring HMW adiponectin and the HMW to total adiponectin ratio rather than total adiponectin might be more useful to detect an association between circulating female sex steroids and adipocytokines. In a clinical trial, we investigated the associations of total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and the HMW to adiponectin ratio with several androgens and estradiol in 36 healthy premenopausal women with regular cycles. No association between the investigated sex hormones and adiponectin was observed. The HMW adiponectin was negatively correlated with estradiol after adjustment for age and body mass index. The HMW to total adiponectin ratio was significantly negatively associated with testosterone, free testosterone, and androstenedione. The testosterone to estradiol ratio, as a parameter for the estrogen-androgen balance, was not associated with adiponectin or the HMW isoform. In conclusion, there is a negative association between estradiol and HMW adiponectin, and between testosterone, free testosterone, and androstenedione and the HMW to adiponectin ratio. Thus, one mechanism whereby female sex steroids may influence the cardiovascular risk of women could be alteration of the relationship between HMW and total adiponectin concentrations in plasma. PMID:20096895

  2. Effect of weight loss on high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese children.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Martínez, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico; Argente, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of weight reduction on total (T-) and high-molecular weight (HMW-) adiponectin in obese (OB) prepubertal children. Seventy OB prepubertal white patients were followed for 18 months and studied after reducing their BMI by 1 (n = 51) and 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) (n = 21) under conservative treatment, and 6 months after achieving weight loss (n = 44). Body composition dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum levels of T- and HMW-adiponectin, resistin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), tumoral necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were determined. The control group consisted of 61 healthy prepubertal children. At diagnosis T-adiponectin was higher (P < 0.01; confidence interval (+0.04) - (+0.15)) and HMW-adiponectin lower (P < 0.001; confidence interval (-0.45) - (-0.21)) in OB children than in controls. A reduction in body fat increased T- and HMW-adiponectin and sOB-R (all P < 0.001) and decreased leptin (P < 0.001) and interleukin-6 levels (P < 0.05). After 6 months of sustained weight reduction a decrease in tumoral necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01) occurred, whereas weight recovery increased leptin (P < 0.001) and decreased T-adiponectin (P < 0.05). HMW-adiponectin levels negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and BMI in the whole cohort (both P < 0.001), as did T-adiponectin levels and HOMA index in OB patients (P < 0.01), but neither T- nor HMW-adiponectin correlated with body fat content (BFC) in OB children. We conclude that the impairment of T- and HMW-adiponectin levels in childhood obesity is different to that in elder OB patients, showing closer relationship with carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with BFC, but increasing their levels after weight loss and in association with metabolic improvement. PMID:20339359

  3. Low-molecular-weight adiponectin is more closely associated with disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis than other adiponectin multimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Li; Ma, Cui-Li; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Rui; Bi, Li-qi

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin is divided into high-molecular-weight (HMW), medium-molecular-weight (MMW), and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. These forms differ not only in the number of adiponectin molecules but also in their biological activity. There are conflicting findings regarding the role of adiponectin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, few reports have described the relationships between serum adiponectin multimers levels and RA. Therefore, we examined the association of total adiponectin and its multimers with RA. Two study groups were examined: 180 recently diagnosed untreated RA patients with disease duration less than 1 year (RA group) and 160 age- and sex-matched control subjects (control group). RA-related factors, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, complete lipid profile, and adiponectin multimers were measured. The levels of total adiponectin and each multimer of adiponectin were significantly lower in the RA than in the control (P < 0.01). Serum levels of total, HMW, MMW, and LMW were positively correlated with triglycerides levels and negatively correlated with the Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). Multivariate regression analysis showed that total, HMW, and MMW adiponectin were independently associated with serum triglycerides level. LMW adiponectin was independently correlated with serum triglycerides level and DAS28. The decreased LMW adiponectin levels may be associated with disease activity of RA. PMID:25750183

  4. Improvement in insulin sensitivity by weight loss does not affect hyperinsulinemia-mediated reduction in total and high molecular weight adiponectin: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Sophie; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Brochu, Martin; Prud'homme, Denis; Imbeault, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    Acute hyperinsulinemia reduces total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels in humans. Whether an increase in insulin sensitivity (IS) is accompanied by a greater suppressive effect of hyperinsulinemia on adiponectin levels is unknown, however. To clarify the inhibitory role of insulin on adiponectin, total and HMW adiponectin levels were measured during acute hyperinsulinemia before and after an improvement in insulin sensitivity in response to weight loss. Forty-six overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to either 6-month caloric restriction (CR) alone (n= 22), or CR with resistance training (CR+RT, n = 24). IS (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was assessed before and after weight loss. Total and HMW adiponectin levels were measured by ELISA at baseline, 90, 160, and 180min of each clamp. Relative mean body weight loss was-8.0% 4.4% for both groups (CR:-7.7% 3.8%; CR+RT:-8.2% 5.0%). IS increased significantly, by 18.4% 25.3% (CR: 19.3% 29.7%; CR+RT: 17.7% 21.0%). Before each intervention, total and HMW adiponectin levels in both groups significantly decreased in response to hyperinsulinemia (total:-8.4% 19.4%; HMW:-3.2% 13.2%). Despite the improvement in IS seen after each intervention, a similar pattern of reduction to that before weight loss was observed in total and HMW adiponectin levels during hyperinsulinemia. These results establish that total and HMW adiponectin levels decline during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Also, the insulin-sensitizing effect of weight loss via caloric restriction alone or with resistance training does not amplify the reduction in adiponectin levels observed during hyperinsulinemia in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:21609280

  5. High Molecular Weight Adiponectin and Incident Ischemic Stroke in Postmenopausal Women: A Women’s Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Mancuso, Peter; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Allison, Matthew A.; Baird, Alison E.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose While low levels of adiponectin are associated with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, it is unclear whether adiponectin levels are related to the risk of developing ischemic stroke. Methods We examined the relationship between baseline high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and incident ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women, using data and specimens from the Hormones and Biomarkers Predicting Stroke Study, a case-control study nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Included were 855 incident ischemic stroke cases and 855 controls, matched for age, race-ethnicity, date of entry into the cohort, and follow-up time. Odds ratios of incident ischemic stroke associated with baseline HMW adiponectin levels were calculated using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusting for body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, LDL-C, HDL-C, physical activity, C-reactive protein, and aspirin use. Results Lower levels of HMW adiponectin were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, higher BMI, waist, glucose, and insulin levels, and lower HDL-C levels. The distribution of incident stroke cases by HMW adiponectin quartiles was 49.9%, 50.5%, 50.7%, and 48.9%, respectively (p =0.96). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of stroke associated with the top three quartiles of HMW adiponectin versus the first quartile were 0.99 (95%CI 0.71 to 1.37), 1.37 (0.99 to 1.91), and 1.25 (0.88 to 1.79), respectively (p-trend =0.14). Conclusion Despite moderate associations between HMW adiponectin and CVD risk factors, we found no evidence of an association between HMW adiponectin levels and incident ischemic stroke in these postmenopausal women. PMID:20508194

  6. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Frnzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Argelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-Mara; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Gran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectinan adipose tissue-derived proteinmay provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested casecontrol study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.530.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.340.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.681.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.260.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.601.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

  7. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin and ethnic-specific differences in adiposity and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic-specific differences in insulin resistance (IR) are well described but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing adipocytokine that circulates as multiple isoforms, with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin associated with greatest insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study is to determine if plasma total and HMW adiponectin concentrations underlie ethnic-specific differences in IR. Methods Healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults (N?=?634) were assessed for sociodemographics; lifestyle; fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and total and HMW adiponectin; and adiposity measures [BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (quantified by computed tomography)]. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed IR. Results South Asians had the greatest HOMA-IR, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations were lower in Chinese and South Asians than Aboriginal and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P?HMW adiponectin and HOMA-IR with stronger effects observed in Aboriginals (P?=?0.001), Chinese (P?=?0.002), and South Asians (P?=?0.040) compared to Europeans. This was not observed for total adiponectin (P?=?0.431). At mean total adiponectin concentrations South Asians had higher HOMA-IR than Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations a greater increase in HOMA-IR is observed in Aboriginals, Chinese, and South Asians than Europeans. Ethnic-specific differences in HMW adiponectin may account for differences in IR. PMID:24225161

  8. High molecular weight adiponectin reduces apolipoprotein B and E release in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Sigruener, Alexander; Eggenhofer, Elke; Weigert, Johanna; Weiss, Thomas S.; Schaeffler, Andreas; Schlitt, Hans J.; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Piso, Pompiliu; Langmann, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-01-12

    Low circulating levels of high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-Apm) have been linked to dyslipidaemia and systemic HMW-Apm negatively correlates with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and ApoE and is positively associated with ApoA-I. Therefore, it was investigated whether HMW-Apm alters the hepatic synthesis of ApoB, ApoE, and ApoA-I or the activity of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as the main determinant of plasma HDL. HMW-Apm reduces hepatic ApoB and ApoE release whereas ABCA1 protein, activity and ApoA-I were not altered. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hepatic nuclear factor 4-{alpha} (HNF4-{alpha}) and HNF4-{alpha} regulated genes like ApoB are downregulated by HMW-Apm and this was confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. Therefore it is concluded that HMW-adiponectin may ameliorate dyslipidaemia by reducing the hepatic release of ApoB and ApoE, whereas ABCA1 function and ApoA-I secretion are not influenced.

  9. Effects of an in-patient treatment program based on regular exercise and a balanced diet on high molecular weight adiponectin, resistin levels, and insulin resistance in adolescents with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Carine; Mougin, Fabienne; Simon-Rigaud, Marie-Laure; Regnard, Jacques; Ngre, Vronique; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2012-08-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant hormone produced by adipose tissue, circulates in 3 isoforms, including high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. The latter has been suggested to be a better predictor of metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance associated with obesity. This study investigated changes in total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) during a 9-month in-patient treatment program based on physical exercise and a balanced diet in 32 severely obese adolescents. Total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, and HOMA were measured at baseline (month 0) and during the program (months 3, 6, 9). In addition, a control group of 15 teenagers served as a reference for the baseline assessments. At baseline, HMW adiponectin was more markedly decreased in obese adolescents than total adiponectin, and both were lower than in controls. Conversely, resistin and HOMA were higher in obese adolescents. During the program, there was a significant change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity among obese teenagers. In addition, HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW-to-total adiponectin increased throughout the study, whereas total adiponectin only increased up until the sixth month. On the contrary, resistin did not show any significant change. In obese adolescents, a long-term combination of aerobic exercise and a balanced diet, inducing change in body composition and improved insulin sensitivity, markedly increased HMW adiponectin compared with total adiponectin, without any change in resistin concentrations. Our results thus suggest that the determination of HMW adiponectin could be more useful than measurement of total adiponectin in clinical settings. PMID:22574715

  10. Potential impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and calcium channel blockers on plasma high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Yao, Naoyuki; Hirayama, Tomoya; Ishida, Mari; Ishida, Hironori; Wada, Atsushi; Fujino, Takayuki; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2011-05-01

    Although metabolic syndrome confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population, little is known about the alteration of abdominal adiposity and its association with adipocytokines in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the plasma high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin level and its relationship to visceral fat area (VFA) and various markers of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, plasma total and HMW adiponectin, the number of components of the metabolic syndrome and, using computed tomography, the distribution of abdominal adiposity were assessed in 144 hemodialysis patients (90 men and 54 women; mean age, 60.7 years) and 30 age- and sex-matched patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma HMW adiponectin levels in hemodialysis patients were significantly higher than those in patients with CKD, negatively associated with VFA and serum triglycerides and positively associated with plasma total adiponectin, as well as the HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio in men and women (all P < 0.05) in a simple regression analysis. In a multiple regression analysis, VFA was a significant determinant of HMW adiponectin in hemodialysis patients. Furthermore, after adjustment for classical risk factors, HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or calcium channel blockers compared with patients not undergoing such treatment. This study shows that plasma HMW adiponectin levels were negatively associated with VFA and positively associated with treatment with blockade of the renin-angiotensin system and of the calcium channel. Therefore, these drugs might be effective for improving adipocytokine-related metabolic abnormalities in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21289628

  11. Paradoxical elevation of high molecular weight adiponectin in acquired extreme insulin resistance due to insulin receptor antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Robert K.; Halberg, Nils H.; Burling, Keith; Soos, Maria A.; Schraw, Todd; Luan, Jianan; Cochran, Elaine K.; Dunger, David B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Gorden, Phillip; ORahilly, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Objective Total plasma adiponectin and high molecular weight (HMW) polymeric adiponectin are strongly positively correlated with insulin sensitivity. However we have recently reported paradoxical hyperadiponectinemia in patients with severe insulin resistance due to genetically defective insulin receptors. This implies either that the insulin receptor has a critical physiological role in controlling adiponectin production and/or clearance, or that constitutive insulin receptor dysfunction influences adiponectin levels through developmental effects. The aim of the current study was to distinguish between these possibilities using a human model of reversible antibody-mediated insulin receptor dysfunction, and to refine the previous observations by determining adiponectin complex distribution. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal determination of fasting plasma adiponectin and adiponectin complex distribution in patients with extreme insulin resistance due to insulin receptor mutations, anti-insulin receptor antibodies (type B insulin resistance), or of undefined cause. Results Despite extreme insulin resistance, patients with type B insulin resistance (all female; mean age 42 years (range 12-54)) had dramatically elevated total plasma adiponectin compared to the general population (mean 43.0 mg/l (range 31.3-54.2) vs mean 8.9 mg/l (range 1.5-28.5 for B.M.I.<25 kg/m2)), which was accounted for largely by HMW polymers. Hyperadiponectinaemia resolved in parallel with reduction of insulin receptor antibodies and clinical resolution of insulin resistance. Conclusions While the well established inverse relationship between plasma insulin and adiponectin levels may, in part, reflect positive effects of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity, these data suggest that the magnitude of the effect of insulin action on adiponectin levels may have been underestimated. PMID:17325257

  12. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 5060% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25435686

  13. Adding glimepiride to current insulin therapy increases high-molecular weight adiponectin levels to improve glycemic control in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To observe the efficacy and safety of adding glimepiride to established insulin therapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to assess the relationship of changes in the serum high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and glycemic control after glimepiride treatment. Methods Fifty-six subjects with poorly controlled insulin-treated T2D were randomly assigned to either the glimepiride-added group (the group A, n?=?29) or the insulin-increasing group (the group B, n?=?27) while continuing current insulin-based therapy. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value, daily insulin dose, body weight, waist circumference, plasma lipid concentration, serum HMW adiponectin level and the number of hypoglycemic events were evaluated before and after treatment. Results At the end of study, insulin doses were significantly reduced, and the mean HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (P2BG) were improved greater in the group A compared with the group B. The serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly increased in the group A compared with the group B. Most importantly, we found that changes in HbA1c were inversely correlated with changes in serum HMW adiponectin in the group A (r?=??0.452, p?=?0.02). Conclusions Adding glimepiride to current insulin treatment led to better improvement in glycemic control with a significant smaller daily insulin dose, and the increases in the serum HMW adiponectin levels may directly contribute to improvement glycemic control. PMID:24650537

  14. Extracellular conversion of adiponectin hexamers into trimers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-a; Nuez, Martha; Briggs, DavidB.; Laskowski, BethanyL.; Chhun, JimmyJ.; Eleid, JosephK.; Quon, MichaelJ.; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that exists as trimers, hexamers and larger species collectively referred to as HMW (high-molecular-weight) adiponectin. Whether hexamers or HMW adiponectin serve as precursors for trimers outside the circulation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that adiponectin trimers can be generated from larger oligomers secreted from primary rat adipose cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Purified hexameric, but not HMW, adiponectin converted into trimers in conditioned media separated from 3T3-L1 adipocytes or, more efficiently, when enclosed in the dialysis membrane in the presence of adipocytes. Several lines of evidence indicate that the conversion is mediated by an extracellular redox system. First, N-terminal epitope-tagged hexamers converted into trimers without proteolytic removal of the tag. Secondly, appearance of trimers was associated with conversion of disulfide-bonded dimers into monomers. Thirdly, thiol-reactive agents inhibited conversion into trimers. Consistent with a redox-based mechanism, purified hexamers reductively converted into trimers in defined glutathione redox buffer with reduction potential typically found in the extracellular environment while the HMW adiponectin remained stable. In addition, conversion of hexamers into trimers was enhanced by NADPH, but not by NADP+. Collectively, these data strongly suggest the presence of an extracellular redox system capable of converting adiponectin oligomers. PMID:22973892

  15. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function

    PubMed Central

    Skalska, Urszula; Kontny, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW) and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW) adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGF?, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs. PMID:26681953

  16. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function.

    PubMed

    Skalska, Urszula; Kontny, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW) and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW) adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGF?, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs. PMID:26681953

  17. Differential effects of endurance training and weight loss on plasma adiponectin multimers and adipose tissue macrophages in younger, moderately overweight men.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Pernille; Nordby, Pernille; Bendtsen, Line Q; Mehlsen, Jesper L; Basnet, Smita K; Vestergaard, Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil; Stallknecht, Bente

    2013-09-01

    Obese individuals are characterized by low circulating adiponectin concentrations and an increased number of macrophages in adipose tissue, which is believed to be causally associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Regular physical exercise decreases overall morbidity in obese subjects, which may be due to modulations of inflammatory pathways. In this randomized clinical trial we investigated the separate effects of endurance training-induced weight loss, diet-induced weight loss, and endurance training per se (without weight loss) on plasma adiponectin multimer composition (Western blotting) and adipose tissue macrophage content (immunohistochemistry) in young, moderately overweight men. Weight loss and endurance training per se decreased whole body fat percentage in an additive manner. No intervention-induced changes were observed for plasma total adiponectin. Surprisingly, endurance training, irrespectively of any associated weight loss, shifted the adiponectin multimer distribution toward a lower molecular weight (21% decrease in HMW/LMW, P = 0.015), whereas diet-induced weight loss shifted the distribution toward a higher molecular weight (42% increase in HMW/MMW, P < 0.001). Furthermore, endurance training per se increased the number of anti-inflammatory CD163? macrophages [from 12.7 2.1 (means SE) to 16.1 3.1 CD163? cells/100 adipocytes, P = 0.013], whereas diet-induced weight loss tended to decrease CD68? macrophages in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Thus regular physical exercise influences systemic and adipose tissue inflammatory pathways differently than diet-induced weight loss in younger, moderately overweight men. Our data suggest that some of the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle may occur through modulations of anti- rather than pro-inflammatory pathways in young, overweight men. PMID:23842679

  18. Adiponectin in mice with altered GH action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D; Kineman, Rhonda D; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2013-03-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered GH signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH vs IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying that the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot specific. Interestingly, rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity. PMID:23261955

  19. Adiponectin in mice with altered growth hormone action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    PubMed Central

    Lubbers, Ellen R.; List, Edward O.; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high molecular weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered growth hormone (GH) signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH versus IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot-specific. Interestingly rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity. PMID:23261955

  20. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Adiponectin Interactions in Man

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Boschmann, Michael; Engeli, Stefan; Moro, Cedric; Arafat, Ayman M.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Reduced circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations are independently associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, while increased natriuretic peptide levels appear to be protective. Observations in vitro and in heart failure patients suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) promotes adiponectin release, an adipokine with insulin sensitizing properties. We tested the hypothesis that ANP acutely raises adiponectin levels in 12 healthy men. We infused ANP intravenously over 135 minutes while collecting venous blood and adipose tissue microdialysates at baseline and at the end of ANP-infusion. We obtained blood samples at identical time-points without ANP infusion in 7 age and BMI matched men. With infusion, venous ANP concentrations increased ∼10 fold. Systemic and adipose tissue glycerol concentrations increased 70% and 80%, respectively (P<0.01). ANP infusion increased total adiponectin 14±5% and high molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin 13±5% (P<0.05). Adiponectin did not change in the control group (P<0.05 vs. infusion). ANP-induced changes in HMW adiponectin and adipose tissue lipolysis were directly correlated with each other, possibly suggesting a common mechanism. Our data show that ANP acutely increases systemic total and HMW-adiponectin concentrations in healthy subjects. Our study could have implications for the physiological regulation of adiponectin and for disease states associated with altered natriuretic peptide availability. PMID:22916229

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide and adiponectin interactions in man.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Boschmann, Michael; Engeli, Stefan; Moro, Cedric; Arafat, Ayman M; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Reduced circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations are independently associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, while increased natriuretic peptide levels appear to be protective. Observations in vitro and in heart failure patients suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) promotes adiponectin release, an adipokine with insulin sensitizing properties. We tested the hypothesis that ANP acutely raises adiponectin levels in 12 healthy men. We infused ANP intravenously over 135 minutes while collecting venous blood and adipose tissue microdialysates at baseline and at the end of ANP-infusion. We obtained blood samples at identical time-points without ANP infusion in 7 age and BMI matched men. With infusion, venous ANP concentrations increased ∼10 fold. Systemic and adipose tissue glycerol concentrations increased 70% and 80%, respectively (P<0.01). ANP infusion increased total adiponectin 14 ± 5% and high molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin 13 ± 5% (P<0.05). Adiponectin did not change in the control group (P<0.05 vs. infusion). ANP-induced changes in HMW adiponectin and adipose tissue lipolysis were directly correlated with each other, possibly suggesting a common mechanism. Our data show that ANP acutely increases systemic total and HMW-adiponectin concentrations in healthy subjects. Our study could have implications for the physiological regulation of adiponectin and for disease states associated with altered natriuretic peptide availability. PMID:22916229

  2. Exercise training intensity/volume affects plasma and tissue adiponectin concentrations in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Garekani, Elahe Talebi; Mohebbi, Hamid; Kraemer, Robert R; Fathi, Rozita

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of exercise training intensity/volume on plasma total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and tissue total adiponectin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight week-old male Wistar rats (185 ± 5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34 m/min ∼%80-%85 VO(2)max), moderate intensity (MI: 28 m/min ∼%70-%75 VO(2)max), low intensity (LI: 20 m/min ∼ %50-%55 VO(2)max), and sedentary control (SED). Experimental groups completed a 12-week exercise program of treadmill running at 0° slope, 1h/day, 5 days/week. Since frequency and duration of exercise were identical among training groups, the volume of training was highest in the HI group followed by the MI and LI groups. Compared with SED animals, fasting plasma total and HMW adiponectin and adipose tissue total adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in the HI and MI groups, but total adiponectin concentrations in liver and soleus muscle were not significantly lower than the SED rats. There were significantly lower plasma total testosterone levels in the HI group vs. SED group. Plasma total and HMW adiponectin were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and insulin whereas total adiponectin was inversely related to TNF-α and HMW adiponectin was negatively correlated with total testosterone. Thus, data suggest there is a dose effect for exercise training intensity and accompanying volume for the adaptation of adipose tissue and circulating total and HMW adiponectin concentrations, whereas the changes of adiponectin concentrations in skeletal muscle and liver tissue may depend on the body's energy balance in the recovery period. PMID:21291933

  3. Baseline serum total adiponectin level is positively associated with changes in bone mineral density after 1-year treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2010-09-01

    Although recent clinical studies have shown that serum adiponectin level was negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD), serum adiponectin action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. We investigated the relationships between serum levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and its ratio (HMW-total ratio) vs chronological changes in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), and one third of the radius after 1-year treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 32 Japanese patients. Serum total adiponectin, but not HMW adiponectin or HMW-total ratio, was significantly and positively correlated with percentage change in FN-BMD (r = 0.35, P < .05). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, sex, body height, body weight, waist circumference, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin A(1c) showed that serum total adiponectin was still significantly and positively correlated with percentage change in FN-BMD (r = 0.65, P < .01). On the other hand, no significant relationships were found between serum levels of hemoglobin A(1c), pentosidine, bone formation markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), or a bone resorption marker (urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen) vs percentage change in BMD at any site. These findings suggest that serum total adiponectin could be clinically useful for predicting BMD change during treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adiponectin might protect against BMD reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:20045535

  4. Disulfide-dependent self-assembly of adiponectin octadecamers from trimers and presence of stable octadecameric adiponectin lacking disulfide bonds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David B; Jones, Christopher M; Mashalidis, Ellene H; Nuez, Martha; Hausrath, Andrew C; Wysocki, Vicki H; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen

    2009-12-29

    Adiponectin is a circulating insulin-sensitizing hormone that homooligomerizes into trimers, hexamers, and higher molecular weight (HMW) species. Low levels of circulating HMW adiponectin appear to increase the risk for insulin resistance. Currently, assembly of adiponectin oligomers and, consequently, mechanisms responsible for decreased HMW adiponectin in insulin resistance are not well understood. In the work reported here, we analyzed the reassembly of the most abundant HMW adiponectin species, the octadecamer, following its collapse to smaller oligomers in vitro. Purified bovine serum adiponectin octadecamer was treated with reducing agents at pH 5 to obtain trimers. These reduced trimers partially and spontaneously reassembled into octadecamers upon oxidative formation of disulfide bonds. Disulfide bonds appear to occupy a greater role in the process of oligomerization than in the structural stabilization of mature octadecamer. Stable octadecamers lacking virtually all disulfide bonds could be observed in abundance using native gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and collision-induced dissociation nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These findings indicate that while disulfide bonds help to maintain the mature octadecameric adiponectin structure, their more important function is to stabilize intermediates during the assembly of octadecamer. Adiponectin oligomerization must proceed through intermediates that are at least partially reduced. Accordingly, fully oxidized adiponectin hexamers failed to reassemble into octadecamers at a rate comparable to that of reduced trimers. As the findings from the present study are based on in vitro experiments, their in vivo relevance remains unclear. Nevertheless, they describe a redox environment-dependent model of adiponectin oligomerization that can be tested using cell-based approaches. PMID:19943704

  5. THE ASSOCIATION OF SNP276G>T AT ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CIRCULATING ADIPONECTIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN RESPONSE TO MILD WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and the features of insulin resistance in response to a weight loss intervention. 294 nondiabetic/overweight-obese Koreans ...

  6. Influence of acute aerobic exercise on adiponectin oligomer concentrations in middle-aged abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Katayama, Yasutomi; Hayashi, Yoichi; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2011-02-01

    Exercise intensity may induce changes in total adiponectin and adiponectin oligomer levels. However, the effects of acute aerobic exercise on total adiponectin and adiponectin oligomers in middle-aged abdominally obese men remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of aerobic exercise intensity on changes in the concentrations of total adiponectin and adiponectin oligomers (high-molecular weight [HMW] and middle- plus low-molecular weight [MLMW] adiponectin), and the endocrine mechanisms involved in exercise-induced changes in adiponectin oligomer profiles in middle-aged abdominally obese men. Using a crossover design, 9 middle-aged abdominally obese men (age, 54.1 2.4 years; body mass index, 27.9 0.6 kg/m) underwent 2 trials that consisted of 60 minutes of stationary cycle exercise at either moderate-intensity (ME) or high-intensity (HE) aerobic exercise (50% or 70% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively). Blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of adiponectin oligomers, hormones (catecholamines, insulin, and growth hormone), metabolites (free fatty acid, glycerol, triglyceride, and glucose), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?). After exercise, plasma catecholamine concentrations were higher during HE than during ME (P < .05). Total adiponectin concentration decreased at the end of HE (P < .05), but remained unchanged after ME. The HMW adiponectin concentration did not change at either intensity, whereas the MLMW concentration decreased at the end of HE (P < .05). The ratio of HMW to total adiponectin concentration increased significantly (P < .05), whereas the ratio of MLMW to total adiponectin concentration decreased significantly (P < .05), at the end of HE. The percentage changes in epinephrine concentration from baseline to the end of exercise were correlated with the percentage changes in total adiponectin concentration (r = -0.67, P < .05) and MLMW adiponectin concentration (r = -0.82, P < .05) from baseline to the end of HE. Our results indicate that the change in total adiponectin was mainly due to a change in MLMW adiponectin concentration during high-intensity exercise in middle-aged abdominally obese men. Epinephrine may partially regulate the decrease in total and MLMW adiponectin concentrations during high-intensity exercise. PMID:20102772

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? enhances adiponectin secretion via up-regulating DsbA-L expression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, An; He, Yiduo; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zaiqing

    2015-08-15

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase like-protein (DsbA-L) was identified as a molecular chaperone facilitating the assembly and secretion of adiponectin, an adipokine with multiple beneficial effects. In obesity the level of DsbA-L is reduced with a concomitant decrease of the circulating adiponectin level, especially of the high molecular weight form (HMW). Both rodent and human studies have shown that the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists increase adiponectin levels in serum by activating PPAR?, which up-regulates critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones thus facilitating protein folding. As shown in the present study, overexpression of PPAR? in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells elicited the cellular release of HMW adiponectin. PPAR? enhanced expression of DsbA-L by binding directly to peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) site within the DsbA-L promoter. Conversely, in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, PPAR? knockdown resulted in decreased expression of Adiponectin, DsbA-L and ERp44. DsbA-L expression increased after PPAR? agonist treatment and decreased upon treatment with PPAR? antagonist in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DsbA-L deficiency in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells impaired the secretion of adiponectin. We therefore propose that DsbA-L plays an important role in facilitating HMW adiponectin formation and release from cells under the regulation of PPAR?. PMID:25917454

  8. Essential roles of insulin, AMPK signaling and lysyl and prolyl hydroxylases in the biosynthesis and multimerization of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming-Ming; Corcoran, Marie; Zhang, Shaoping; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the adiponectin molecule are essential for its full bioactivity, and defects in PTMs leading to its defective production and multimerization have been linked to the mechanisms of insulin resistance, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Here we observed that, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, decreased insulin signaling caused by blocking of insulin receptors (InsR) with an anti-InsR blocking antibody, increased rates of adiponectin secretion, whereas concomitant elevations in insulin levels counteracted this effect. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling regulated adiponectin production by modulating the expression of adiponectin receptors, the secretion of adiponectin, and eventually the expression of adiponectin itself. We found that lysyl hydroxylases (LHs) and prolyl hydroxylases (PHs) were expressed in white-adipose tissue of ob/ob mice, wherein LH3 levels were increased compared with controls. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both non-specific inhibition of LHs and PHs by dipyridyl, and specific inhibition of LHs by minoxidil and of P4H with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, caused significant suppression of adiponectin production, more particularly of the higher-order isoforms. Transient gene knock-down of LH3 (Plod3) caused a suppressive effect, especially on the high molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. These data indicate that PHs and LHs are both required for physiological adiponectin production and in particular are essential for the formation/secretion of the HMW isoforms. PMID:25240468

  9. Identification of Unprecedented Anticancer Properties of High Molecular Weight Biomacromolecular Complex Containing Bovine Lactoferrin (HMW-bLf)

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R.; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Kanwar, Rupinder K.

    2014-01-01

    With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (?250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (?7880 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01) of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further. PMID:25222273

  10. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf).

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Fawzi; Shankaranarayanan, Jayanth Suryanarayanan; Kanwar, Jagat R; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2014-01-01

    With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (?250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (?78-80 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01) of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further. PMID:25222273

  11. Lipoprotein particles and size, total and high molecular weight adiponectin, and leptin in relation to incident coronary heart disease among severely obese postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study????

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Rachel H.; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Chang, Yuefang F.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Evans, Rhobert W.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Howard, Barbara V.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Liu, Simin; Kulick, Doina; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that higher concentrations of LDL particles (LDL-P) and leptin, and lower concentrations of HDL particles (HDL-P), and total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, would predict incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among severely obese postmenopausal women. Methods In a casecohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, we sampled 677 of the 1852 white or black women with body mass index (BMI) ?40kg/m2 and no prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), including all 124 cases of incident CHD over mean 5.0year follow-up. Biomarkers were assayed on stored blood samples. Results In multivariable-adjusted weighted Cox models, higher baseline levels of total and small LDL-P, and lower levels of total and medium HDL-P, and smaller mean HDL-P size were significantly associated with incident CHD. In contrast, large HDL-P levels were inversely associated with CHD only for women without diabetes, and higher total and HMW adiponectin levels and lower leptin levels were associated with CHD only for women with diabetes. Higher total LDL-P and lower HDL-P were associated with CHD risk independently of confounders including CV risk factors and other lipoprotein measures, with adjusted HR (95% CIs) of 1.55 (1.28, 1.88) and 0.70 (0.57, 0.85), respectively, and similar results for medium HDL-P. Conclusions Higher CHD risk among severely obese postmenopausal women is strongly associated with modifiable concentrations of LDL-P and HDL-P, independent of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, physical activity, BMI and waist circumference. General significance Severely obese postmenopausal women should be considered high risk candidates for lipid lowering therapy. PMID:25825692

  12. Impact of Weight Loss on Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin in Overweight-to-Obese Post Menopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J.; Sedlacek, Scot M.; Wolfe, Pamela; Paul, Devchand; Lakoski, Susan G.; Playdon, Mary C.; McGinley, John N.; Matthews, Shawna B.

    2015-01-01

    Women who are obese at the time of breast cancer diagnosis have higher overall mortality than normal weight women and some evidence implicates adiponectin and leptin as contributing to prognostic disadvantage. While intentional weight loss is thought to improve prognosis, its impact on these adipokines is unclear. This study compared the pattern of change in plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight-to-obese post-menopausal breast cancer survivors during weight loss. Given the controversies about what dietary pattern is most appropriate for breast cancer control and regulation of adipokine metabolism, the effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate pattern was evaluated using a non-randomized, controlled study design. Anthropometric data and fasted plasma were obtained monthly during the six-month weight loss intervention. While leptin was associated with fat mass, adiponectin was not, and the lack of correlation between leptin and adiponectin concentrations throughout weight loss implies independent mechanisms of regulation. The temporal pattern of change in leptin but not adiponectin was affected by magnitude of weight loss. Dietary pattern was without effect on either adipokine. Mechanisms not directly related to dietary pattern, weight loss, or fat mass appear to play dominant roles in the regulation of circulating levels of these adipokines. PMID:26132992

  13. Lifestyle-Induced Decrease in Fat Mass Improves Adiponectin Secretion in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen R.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Cook, Marc; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have identified relationships between weight loss and adipokine levels; however none have looked at the combined effect of aerobic exercise training with consumption of a low, or high glycemic diet. We examined the effects of 12-weeks of aerobic exercise combined with either a low- (GI: ~40, LoGIX) or high-glycemic (GI: ~80, HiGIX) diet on plasma leptin and adiponectin (total and high molecular weight - HMW) in 27 older obese adults (age 65±0.5 years; BMI 34.5±0.7 kg/m2). Methods Insulin sensitivity was calculated from an oral glucose tolerance test (ISIOGTT). Fasting HMW adiponectin and leptin were quantified from plasma samples obtained prior to the ISIOGTT. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained before and every 30 min during the test. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography was used to determine body composition and to quantify subcutaneous and visceral abdominal adiposity, respectively. Results Fasting leptin was significantly decreased in both groups (LoGIX, pre: 33.8±4.7, post: 19.2±4.5; HiGIX, pre: 27.9±4.2, post: 11.9±2.2 ng/ml, P=0.004), and HMW adiponectin was significantly increased (LoGIX, pre: 1606.9±34.6, post: 3502.3±57; HiGIX, pre: 3704.8±38.1, post: 4284.3±52.8 pg/ml; P=0.003) following the 12-week intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions, and visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, while subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. Conclusions The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary GI, favorably alters HMW adiponectin and leptin secretion, and that a reduction in visceral fat mass is a key factor regulating HMW adiponectin in older obese persons. PMID:24614337

  14. Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Benjamin A.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Arthur, John M.; McFee, Wayne E.; Janech, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload) have higher levels of 2 h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2 h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean ± SD) at 763 ± 298 and 727 ± 291 pmol/ml, respectively (p = 0.91); however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared to controls (30.0 ± 6.3 versus 17.0 ± 6.6%, respectively; p = 0.016). Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r = 0.999, p  < 0.001), but not in cases, which is possibly a reflection of insulin resistance. Although total adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with metabolic disorders. PMID:24065958

  15. Characterization of two HMW glutenin subunit genes from Taenitherum Nevski.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ze-Hong; Wei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ji-Rui; Liu, Deng-Cai; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2006-05-01

    The compositions of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits from three species of Taenitherum Nevski (TaTa, 2n = 2x = 14), Ta. caput-medusae, Ta. crinitum and Ta. asperum, were investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis. The electrophoresis mobility of the x-type HMW glutenin subunits were slower or equal to that of wheat HMW glutenin subunit Dx2, and the electrophoresis mobility of the y-type subunits were faster than that of wheat HMW glutenin subunit Dy12. Two HMW glutenin genes, designated as Tax and Tay, were isolated from Ta. crinitum, and their complete nucleotide coding sequences were determined. Sequencing and multiple sequences alignment suggested that the HMW glutenin subunits derived from Ta. crinitum had the similar structures to the HMW glutenin subunits from wheat and related species with a signal peptide, and N- and C-conservative domains flanking by a repetitive domain consisted of the repeated short peptide motifs. However, the encoding sequences of Tax and Tay had some novel modification compared with the HMW glutenin genes reported so far: (1) A short peptide with the consensus sequences of KGGSFYP, which was observed in the N-terminal of all known HMW glutenin genes, was absent in Tax; (2) There is a specified short peptide tandem of tripeptide, hexapeptide and nonapeptide and three tandem of tripeptide in the repetitive domain of Tax; (3) The amino acid residues number is 105 (an extra Q presented) but not 104 in the N-terminal of Tay, which was similar to most of y-type HMW glutenin genes from Elytrigia elongata and Crithopsis delileana. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tax subunit was mostly related to Ax1, Cx, Ux and Dx5, and Tay was more related to Ay, Cy and Ry. PMID:16850230

  16. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507) were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34) years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p < 0.05) with body weight at baseline and in the longitudinal analyses. The rs266729 C allele and the rare minor alleles of rs2241766 and rs2082940 were associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio of developing T2DM. The differences in baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were seen according to rs16861210, rs17366568, rs2241766, rs6773957 and rs2082940 and differences in the change of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to the four year examination were seen according to rs16861205, especially in subjects who were able to lose weight during the first year of intervention. Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167 PMID:21219602

  17. Adiponectin and leptin levels in migraineurs in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Dearborn, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Kurth, Tobias; Pankow, James S.; Couper, David J.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate adiponectin and leptin levels in older men and women with migraine. Methods: Fasting total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin levels were evaluated in a casecohort study of nondiabetic older migraine and nonmigraine control participants from the ongoing, longitudinal, general population, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at visit 1 (19871989). A standardized headache questionnaire was completed at visit 3 (19931995). Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, center, body mass index, and fasting glucose were used to evaluate the association of each adipocytokine with migraine. Results: Of the 981 participants, the mean age at baseline was 52.8 years (SE 0.3); 131 fulfilled migraine criteria. Crude, mean total adiponectin levels were greater in men and women with migraine (8.1 g/mL, SE 0.5) as compared to those without migraine (7.0 g/mL, SE 0.2) (p = 0.031). After adjustments, the odds of migraine were increased by 88% with each SD increase in total adiponectin in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15, 3.01; p = 0.011), but not in women (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.80, 1.37; p = 0.728; p interaction = 0.029). Similar results were demonstrated for HMW adiponectin. Crude and adjusted leptin levels were not associated with migraine. Conclusions: Although crude, total adiponectin levels were higher in older men and women with migraine than controls, after adjustments, the prevalence of migraine was significantly associated with total adiponectin only in older men, suggesting the association may be confounded or absent in older women. Leptin was not associated with migraine in older men or women. PMID:25378672

  18. Intermittent hypoxia suppresses adiponectin secretion by adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Magalang, U J; Cruff, J P; Rajappan, R; Hunter, M G; Patel, T; Marsh, C B; Raman, S V; Parinandi, N L

    2009-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by cyclic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin (APN), an adipocytokine secreted exclusively by adipocytes, possesses antiatherogenic properties. Low levels of APN, particularly the high-molecular-weight (HMW) form, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we hypothesized that IH would result in the dysregulation of APN expression and secretion. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to IH at 12 cycles/h for 6 h/d to simulate the IH condition similar to that encountered in OSA. Control adipocytes were exposed to 21% O(2) under identical conditions. After 48 h of incubation, IH caused a decrease in the secretion of total and HMW APN in spite of a significant upregulation of APN mRNA expression by adipocytes. This study suggested a novel mechanism of how the cyclic hypoxemia in OSA predisposes OSA patients to cardiovascular disease through the dysregulation of secretion of APN by adipocytes. Further studies are needed to determine the exact molecular mechanism how IH reduces the release of APN by adipocytes. PMID:18563681

  19. Registration of isogenic HMW-GS Ax1 protein deficient lines of an elite wheat variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded on the A-genome of an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. This set of A-genome encoded HMW-GS defi...

  20. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum ?-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22136751

  1. Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n=29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n=14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n=30) and heifers (n=14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24months or lesser (P<0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P>0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

  2. Gene molecular analysis and Adiponectin expression in professional Water Polo players.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Ersilia; Sangiorgio, Dino; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Polito, Rita; Villone, Giovanni; Daniele, Aurora

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome prevalence has reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Adiponectin (Acrp30), and in particular its High Molecular Weight (HMW) oligomers, contributes to enhance insulin sensitivity and to reduce inflammation levels. Physical exercise improves body's biochemical balance and metabolism resulting effective in prevention of metabolic diseases. Whether improvement of metabolic features mediated by physical exercise is associated with changes in Acrp30 serum composition is not yet clarified. In the present study, we investigated total Acrp30 expression, its oligomeric status and genetic variants in adiponectin gene (ACDC) in twenty-two professional Water Polo (WP) Players and 40 age- and sex-matched controls. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and total Acrp30 were assessed; Acrp30 oligomeric profile was characterized by Western blot as well as by FPLC analysis. ACDC gene was analyzed by direct-sequencing analysis. Significant elevated body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels and, conversely, significantly lower concentrations of total and cholesterol low density lipoprotein were present in WP players. No significant difference was found in total Acrp30 and/or HMW oligomers. Interestingly, in WP players, a direct relationship between total Acrp30 and monocytes as well as an inverse relationship between total Acrp30 and AST levels were found. ACDC screening revealed previously described SNPs. In conclusion, our study confirms the long-term beneficial effects of high physical training on metabolism and suggests that they are not associated with Acrp30 and/or HMW oligomers changes. Moreover, the correlation of Acrp30 with monocytes in WP athletes could represent a mechanism by which Acrp30 participates in exercise-induced anti-inflammatory functions and/or cardiovascular health. PMID:26970705

  3. Fasting and postprandial regulation of the intracellular localization of adiponectin and of adipokines secretion by dietary fat in rats

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-García, V; Torre-Villalvazo, I; Velázquez-Villegas, L; Alemán, G; Lara, N; López-Romero, P; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Díaz-Villaseñor, A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: Dietary fat sources modulate fasting serum concentration of adipokines, particularly adiponectin. However, previous studies utilized obese animals in which adipose tissue function is severely altered. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the postprandial regulation of adipokine secretion in nonobese rats that consumed high-fat diet (HFD) composed of different types of fat for a short time. Methods: The rats were fed a control diet or a HFD containing coconut, safflower or soybean oil (rich in saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid or polyunsaturated fatty acid, respectively) for 21 days. The serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, retinol, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), visfatin and resistin were determined at fasting and after refeeding. Adiponectin multimerization and intracellular localization, as well as the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and transcriptional regulators, were evaluated in epididymal white adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed rats, serum adiponectin was significantly decreased 30 min after refeeding. With coconut oil, all three multimeric forms were reduced; with safflower oil, only the high-molecular-weight (HMW) and medium-molecular-weight (MMW) forms were decreased; and with soybean oil, only the HMW form was diminished. These reductions were due not to modifications in mRNA abundance or adiponectin multimerization but rather to an increment in intracellular localization at the ER and plasma membrane. Thus, when rats consumed a HFD, the type of dietary fat differentially affected the abundance of endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 kDa (ERp44), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mRNAs, all of which are involved in the post-translational processing of adiponectin required for its secretion. Leptin, RBP-4, resistin and visfatin serum concentrations did not change during fasting, whereas modest alterations were observed after refeeding. Conclusions: The short-term consumption of a HFD affected adiponectin localization in adipose tissue, thereby decreasing its secretion to a different magnitude depending on the dietary fat source. Evaluating the fasting serum concentration of adipokines was not sufficient to identify alterations in their secretion, whereas postprandial values provided additional information as dynamic indicators. PMID:26619368

  4. Porcine Adiponectin Receptor 1 Transgene Resists High-fat/Sucrose Diet-Induced Weight Gain, Hepatosteatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Ya-Chin; Huang, Chao-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chien; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Mersmann, Harry J.; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin and its receptors have been demonstrated to play important roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease are highly correlated with down-regulated adiponectin signaling. In this study, we generated mice overexpressing the porcine Adipor1 transgene (pAdipor1) to study its beneficial effects in metabolic syndromes as expressed in diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Wild-type (WT) and pAdipor1 transgenic mice were fed ad libitum with a standard chow diet (Chow) or a high-fat/sucrose diet (HFSD) for 24 weeks, beginning at 6 to 7 weeks of age. There were 12 mice per genetic/diet/sex group. When challenged with HFSD to induce obesity, the pAdipor1 transgenic mice resisted development of weight gain, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. These mice had lowered plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and glycerol concentrations compared to WT mice. Moreover, we found that (indicated by mRNA levels) fatty acid oxidation was enhanced in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and liver lipogenesis was inhibited. The pAdipor1 transgene also restored HFSD-reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose transporter 4 mRNA in the adipose tissues, implying that the increased Pck1 may promote glyceroneogenesis to reduce glucose intolerance and thus activate the flux of glyceride-glycerol to resist diet-induced weight gain in the adipose tissues. Taken together, we demonstrated that pAdipor1 can prevent diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance. Our findings may provide potential therapeutic strategies for treating metabolic syndromes and obesity, such as treatment with an ADIPOR1 agonist or activation of Adipor1 downstream targets. PMID:24172199

  5. Pediatric Obesity and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Proteomic Approach Identifies Multimeric Adiponectin as a Key Link between These Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Gillian E.; Ricotti, Roberta; Roccio, Marta; Moia, Stefania; Bellone, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Key circulating molecules that link vitamin D (VD) to pediatric obesity and its co-morbidities remain unclear. Using a proteomic approach, our objective was to identify key molecules in obese children dichotomized according to 25OH-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. A total of 42 obese children (M/F?=?18/24) were divided according to their 25OHD3 levels into 25OHD3 deficient (VDD; n?=?18; 25OHD<15 ng/ml) or normal subjects (NVD; n?=?24; >30 ng/ml). Plasma proteomic analyses by two dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis were performed at baseline in all subjects. VDD subjects underwent a 12mo treatment with 3000 IU vitamin D3 once a week to confirm the proteomic analyses. The proteomic analyses identified 53 spots that differed between VDD and NVD (p<0.05), amongst which adiponectin was identified. Adiponectin was selected for confirmational studies due to its tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Western Immunoblot (WIB) analyses of 2D-gels demonstrated a downregulation of adiponectin in VDD subjects, which was confirmed in the plasma from VDD with respect to NVD subjects (p<0.035) and increased following 12mo vitamin D3 supplementation in VDD subjects (p<0.02). High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, a surrogate indicator of insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower in VDD subjects (p<0.02) and improved with vitamin D3 supplementation (p<0.042). A direct effect in vitro of 1?,25-(OH)2D3 on adipocyte adiponectin synthesis was demonstrated, with adiponectin and its multimeric forms upregulated, even at low pharmacological doses (10?9 M) of 1?,25-(OH)2D3. This upregulation was paralleled by the adiponectin interactive protein, DsbA-L, suggesting that the VD regulation of adiponectin involves post-transciptional events. Using a proteomic approach, multimeric adiponectin has been identified as a key plasma protein that links VDD to pediatric obesity. PMID:24404137

  6. Aerobic training increases the expression of adiponectin receptor genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of young men.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Hong, H R; Han, T K; Kang, H S

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of exercise training on the expression of adiponectin receptor genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In this study, we investigated the effects of aerobic training on the expression of AdipoR1 and AidpoR2 mRNAs in PBMCs, whole body insulin sensitivity, and circulating adiponectins in men. Thirty young men were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15) or an exercise (n=15) group. Subjects assigned to the exercise group underwent a 12-week jogging and/or running programme on a motor-driven treadmill at an intensity of 60%-75% of the age-based maximum heart rate with duration of 40 minutes per session and a frequency of 5 days per week. Two-way mixed ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test any significant time-by-group interaction effects for the measured variables at p=0.05. We found significant time-by-group interaction effects for waist circumference (p=0.001), VO2max (p<0.001), fasting insulin (p=0.016), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.010), area under the curve (AUC) for insulin response during the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (p=0.002), high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (p=0.016), and the PBMC mRNA levels of AdipoR1 (p<0.001) and AdipoR2 (p=0.001). The exercise group had significantly increased mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in PBMCs, along with increased whole body insulin sensitivity and HMW adiponectin, decreased waist circumference, and increased VO2max compared with the control group. In summary, the current findings suggest that exercise training modulates the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs in PBMCs, implying that manipulation of the expression of these genes could be a potential surrogate for lifestyle intervention-mediated improvements of whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. PMID:26424919

  7. THE WHEAT D-GENOME HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS:BAC SEQUENCING, GENE DISTRIBUTION, AND RETROTRANSPOSON CLUSTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y- type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur...

  8. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ADIPONECTIN MULTIMERS INCREASE FOLLOWING ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS SURGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to weight loss, bariatric surgery for severe obesity has been reported to rapidly improve insulin sensitivity, often leading to a sustained resolution of type-2 diabetes mellitus 1. This effect has been proposed to result from the marked early restriction of food intake and/or increased ...

  9. Adiponectin and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Shao, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the premier energy depot. Since the discovery of the hormonal properties of adipose-secreted proteins such as leptin and adiponectin, WAT has been classified as an endocrine organ. Although many regulatory effects of the adipocyte-derived hormones on various biological systems have been identified, maintaining systemic energy homeostasis is still the essential function of most adipocyte-derived hormones. Adiponectin is one adipocyte-derived hormone and well known for its effect in improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Unlike most other adipocyte-derived hormones, adiponectin gene expression and blood concentration are inversely associated with adiposity. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in addition to its insulin sensitizing effects, adiponectin plays an important role in maintaining energy homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the progress of research about 1) the causal relationship of adiposity, energy intake, and adiponectin gene expression; and 2) the regulatory role of adiponectin in systemic energy metabolism. PMID:24170312

  10. The Role of Adiponectin in Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dalamaga, Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope N.

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight is associated not only with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also with various types of malignancies. Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, exhibits insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, proapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties. Circulating adiponectin levels, which are determined predominantly by genetic factors, diet, physical activity, and abdominal adiposity, are decreased in patients with diabetes, CVD, and several obesity-associated cancers. Also, adiponectin levels are inversely associated with the risk of developing diabetes, CVD, and several malignancies later in life. Many cancer cell lines express adiponectin receptors, and adiponectin in vitro limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Recent in vitro studies demonstrate the antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties of adiponectin. Studies in both animals and humans have investigated adiponectin and adiponectin receptor regulation and expression in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role of adiponectin as a novel risk factor and potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer. In addition, either adiponectin per se or medications that increase adiponectin levels or up-regulate signaling pathways downstream of adiponectin may prove to be useful anticancer agents. This review presents the role of adiponectin in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and examines the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the association between adiponectin and malignancy in the context of a dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. Understanding of these mechanisms may be important for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against obesity-associated malignancies. PMID:22547160

  11. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (?3070 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 3.85 ?g/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (? = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  12. Adiponectin in metabolic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, I

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin has attracted widespread attention because of its pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Adiponectin and its receptor are shown to be expressed in osteoblasts, suggesting that adiponectin might affect bone metabolism. A number of clinical studies have shown that serum adiponectin is negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with biochemical markers of bone turnover, suggesting that adiponectin may be a negative regulator of bone mass. However, most in vitro studies demonstrate that adiponectin stimulates the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts as well as the expression of osteocalcin. Adiponectin indirectly stimulates osteoclast differentiation via receptor activator for nuclear factor ?B ligand and osteoprotegerin expression in osteoblasts, while adiponectin directly inhibits osteoclast activity and bone resorption. These in vitro findings suggest that adiponectin stimulates bone formation and remodeling as well as inhibits bone resorption. In contrast, previous in vivo studies using overexpression and knockout mice of adiponectin have produced controversial results. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that osteocalcin derived form osteoblasts acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass. Osteocalcin could decrease fat pads and stimulate the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes, suggesting that bone metabolism is associated with fat metabolism through adiponectin and osteocalcin. In this review, I summarize the effect of adiponectin on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo, the association of adiponectin with BMD and bone markers in humans, and the role of adiponectin in the endocrine loop between bone and fat metabolism. PMID:22876926

  13. The Activities of Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 (LH3) Regulate the Amount and Oligomerization Status of Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heli; Wang, Yu; Karppinen, Marjo; Bergmann, Ulrich; Kvist, Ari-Pekka; Pospiech, Helmut; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Myllyl, Raili

    2012-01-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) has lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase, and glucosyltransferase activities, which are sequentially required for the formation of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysines in collagens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that LH3 also modifies the lysine residues in the collagenous domain of adiponectin, which has important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Hydroxylation and, especially, glycosylation of the lysine residues of adiponectin have been shown to be essential for the formation of the more active high molecular weight adiponectin oligomers and thus for its function. In cells that totally lack LH3 enzyme, the galactosylhydroxylysine residues of adiponectin were not glucosylated to glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine residues and the formation of high and middle molecular weight adiponectin oligomers was impaired. Circulating adiponectin levels in mutant mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 were significantly reduced, which indicates that LH3 is required for complete modification of lysine residues in adiponectin and the loss of some of the glycosylated hydroxylysine residues severely affects the secretion of adiponectin. LH mutant mice with reduced adiponectin level showed a high fat diet-induced increase in glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol levels, hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in humans. Our results reveal the first indication that LH3 is an important regulator of adiponectin biosynthesis, secretion and activity and thus might be a potential candidate for therapeutic applications in diseases associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23209641

  14. Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Brittany M.; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Drury, Bertram E.; Nagel, Susan C.; Welshons, Wade V.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000 μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0–24h),we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose–response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. PMID:23892310

  15. Adiponectin effects on the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Natalie; Sharma, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a 30-kDa polypeptide secreted primarily by adipose tissue and plays a key role in kidney disease. In obesity, reduced adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and obesity related kidney disease. The latter includes microalbuminuria, glomerulomegaly, overt proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetics also negatively correlate with early features of nephropathy. However, in patients with established chronic kidney disease, adiponectin levels are elevated and positively predict progression of disease. The mechanism of action of adiponectin in the kidney appears to be related to AMPK activation and NADPH oxidase. Further studies are needed to elucidate this pathway and investigate the role of potential targets of adiponectin-AMPK-Nox pathway for CKD as obesity-related CKD is increasing worldwide. PMID:24417947

  16. Role of the Adiponectin Binding Protein, T-Cadherin (Cdh13), in Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alison S.; Kasahara, David I.; Verbout, Norah G.; Fedulov, Alexey V.; Zhu, Ming; Si, Huiqing; Wurmbrand, Allison P.; Hug, Christopher; Ranscht, Barbara; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose derived hormone that declines in obesity. We have previously shown that exogenous administration of adiponectin reduces allergic airways responses in mice. T-cadherin (T-cad; Cdh13) is a binding protein for the high molecular weight isoforms of adiponectin. To determine whether the beneficial effects of adiponectin on allergic airways responses require T-cad, we sensitized wildtype (WT), T-cadherin deficient (T-cad−/−) and adiponectin and T-cad bideficient mice to ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged the mice with aerosolized OVA or PBS. Compared to WT, T-cad−/− mice were protected against OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, increases in BAL inflammatory cells, and induction of IL-13, IL-17, and eotaxin expression. Histological analysis of the lungs of OVA-challenged T-cad−/− versus WT mice indicated reduced inflammation around the airways, and reduced mucous cell hyperplasia. Combined adiponectin and T-cad deficiency reversed the effects of T-cad deficiency alone, indicating that the observed effects of T-cad deficiency require adiponectin. Compared to WT, serum adiponectin was markedly increased in T-cad−/− mice, likely because adiponectin that is normally sequestered by endothelial T-cad remains free in the circulation. In conclusion, T-cad does not mediate the protective effects of adiponectin. Instead, mice lacking T-cad have reduced allergic airways disease, likely because elevated serum adiponectin levels act on other adiponectin signaling pathways. PMID:22815927

  17. Characterization of a novel y-type HMW-GS with eight cysteine residues from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenglin; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Gang; Kou, Chunlan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Jiang, Qi; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan

    2015-11-15

    The composition and number of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) play important roles in determining the grain-processing quality of common wheat. The Glu-1Ay allele is silent in common wheat. In this study, an active y-type HMW-GS allele termed 1Ay8.2 (GenBank No. KP137569) was identified from Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n=2x=14), a species with a genome related to the A-genome of common wheat. Compared with previously reported active 1Ay subunits, this novel subunit contained an extra cysteine residue at position 103 of the amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region, in addition to the six cysteines in the N- and C-terminal regions found in most active 1Ay subunits and the one in the repetitive region that appears in only a few 1Ay alleles. This subunit was expressed in an amphiploid (AAAmAmBB, 2n=6x=42) between Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon and T. monococcum ssp. monococcum. This amphiploid could be used as a bridge to transfer 1Ay8.2 into common wheat cultivars. Replacing the silenced 1Ay in common wheat with the active 1Ay8.2 allele harboring an extra cysteine residue is expected to improve the quality by increasing the number of HMW-GSs and promoting the formation of covalent interactions through disulfide bonds with the extra cysteine residue. PMID:26187064

  18. Structural Determinants of the Interaction between the TpsA and TpsB Proteins in the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 Two-Partner Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Susan; Rempe, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway in Gram-negative bacteria consists of a TpsA exoprotein and a cognate TpsB outer membrane pore-forming translocator protein. Previous work has demonstrated that the TpsA protein contains an N-terminal TPS domain that plays an important role in targeting the TpsB protein and is required for secretion. The nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins are homologous proteins that are prototype TpsA proteins and are secreted by the HMW1B and HMW2B TpsB proteins. In the present study, we sought to define the structural determinants of HMW1 interaction with HMW1B during the transport process and while anchored to the bacterial surface. Modeling of HMW1B revealed an N-terminal periplasmic region that contains two polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains and a C-terminal membrane-localized region that forms a pore. Biochemical studies demonstrated that HMW1 engages HMW1B via interaction between the HMW1 TPS domain and the HMW1B periplasmic region, specifically, the predicted POTRA1 and POTRA2 domains. Subsequently, HMW1 is shuttled to the HMW1B pore, facilitated by the N-terminal region, the middle region, and the NPNG motif in the HMW1 TPS domain. Additional analysis revealed that the interaction between HMW1 and HMW1B is highly specific and is dependent upon the POTRA domains and the pore-forming domain of HMW1B. Further studies established that tethering of HMW1 to the surface-exposed region of HMW1B is dependent upon the external loops of HMW1B formed by residues 267 to 283 and residues 324 to 330. These observations may have broad relevance to proteins secreted by the TPS pathway. IMPORTANCE Secretion of HMW1 involves a recognition event between the extended form of the HMW1 propiece and the HMW1B POTRA domains. Our results identify specific interactions between the HMW1 propiece and the periplasmic HMW1B POTRA domains. The results also suggest that the process of HMW1 translocation involves at least two discrete steps, including initial interaction between the HMW1 propiece and the HMW1B POTRA domains and then a separate translocation event. We have also discovered that the HMW1B pore itself appears to influence the translocation process. These observations extend our knowledge of the two-partner secretion system and may be broadly relevant to other proteins secreted by the TPS pathway. PMID:25777673

  19. Role of adiponectin in delayed embryonic development of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adiponectin in the delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. Adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR1) abundance was first observed to be lower during the delayed versus non-delayed periods of utero-embryonic unit development. The effects of adiponectin treatment on embryonic development were then evaluated during the period of delayed development. Exogenous treatment increased the in vivo rate of embryonic development, as indicated by an increase in weight, ADIPOR1 levels in the utero-embryonic unit, and histological changes in embryonic development. Treatment with adiponectin during embryonic diapause showed a significant increase in circulating progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and in production of their receptors in the utero-embryonic unit. The adiponectin-induced increase in estradiol synthesis was correlated with increased cell survival (BCL2 protein levels) and cell proliferation (PCNA protein levels) in the utero-embryonic unit, suggesting an indirect effect of adiponectin via estradiol synthesis by the ovary. An in vitro study further confirmed the in vivo findings that adiponectin treatment increases PCNA levels together with increased uptake of glucose by increasing the abundance of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the utero-embryonic unit. The in vitro study also revealed that adiponectin, together with estradiol but not alone, significantly increased ADIPOR1 protein levels. Thus, adiponectin works in concert with estradiol to increase glucose transport to the utero-embryonic unit and promote cell proliferation, which together accelerate embryonic development. PMID:25295970

  20. Physiological, Pharmacological, and Nutritional Regulation of Circulating Adiponectin Concentrations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone that links visceral adiposity with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. It is unique among adipocyte-derived hormones in that its circulating concentrations are inversely proportional to adiposity, and low adiponectin concentrations predict the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, in the decade since its discovery, adiponectin has generated immense interest as a potential therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. This review summarizes current research regarding the regulation of circulating adiponectin concentrations by physiological, pharmacological, and nutritional factors, with an emphasis on human studies. In humans, plasma adiponectin concentrations are influenced by age and gender, and are inversely proportional to visceral adiposity. In vitro studies suggest that adiponectin production may be determined primarily by adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity, with larger, insulin-resistant adipocytes producing less adiponectin. While adiponectin concentrations are unchanged after meal ingestion, they are increased by significant weight loss, such as after bariatric surgery. In addition, adiponectin production is inhibited by a number of hormones, including testosterone, prolactin, glucocorticoids and growth hormone, and by inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Smoking decreases, while moderate alcohol consumption increases, circulating adiponectin concentrations. Dietary fatty acid composition in rodents influences adiponectin production via ligand-activated nuclear receptors (PPARs); however, current evidence in humans is equivocal. In addition to PPAR agonists (such as thiazolidinediones and fibrates), a number of pharmacological agents (angiotensin receptor type 1 blockers, ACE inhibitors, and cannabinoid receptor antagonists) used in treatment of the metabolic syndrome also increase adiponectin concentrations in humans. PMID:18510434

  1. Enhanced adiponectin actions by overexpression of adiponectin receptor 1 in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Nanlan; Chung, B Hong; Wang, Xiangdong; Klein, Richard L.; Tang, Chao-Ke; Garvey, W. Timothy; Fu, Yuchang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adiponectin is one of several important, metabolically active cytokines secreted from adipose tissue. Epidemiologic studies have associated low circulating levels of this adipokine with multiple metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To investigate how enhanced adiponectin-mediated changes in metabolism in vivo, we generated transgenic mice which specifically overexpress the gene coding for adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in mouse macrophages using the human scavenger receptor A-I gene (SR-AI) enhancer/promoter. We found that macrophage-specific AdipoR1 transgenic mice (AdR1-TG) presented reduced whole body weight, fat accumulation and liver steatosis when these transgenic mice were fed with a high fat diet. Moreover, these macrophage AdR1-TG mice exhibited enhanced whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity with reduced proinflammatory cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF-α, both in the serum and in the insulin target metabolic tissues. Additional studies demonstrated that these macrophage AdR1-TG animals exhibited reduced macrophage foam cell formation in the arterial wall when these transgenic mice were crossed with a low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) deficient mouse model. Conclusions These results suggest that AdipoR1 overexpressed in macrophages can physiologically modulate metabolic activities in vivo by enhancing adiponectin actions in distal metabolically active tissues. The AdipoR1 modified macrophages provide unique interactions with the residented tissues/cells, suggesting a novel role of macrophage adiponectin receptor in improving metabolic disorders in vivo. PMID:23510830

  2. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Adiponectin Level and Adiponectin-related Protein Expression in Myocardial Tissue of ApoE(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Li-Hui; Li, Jiang-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Numerous reports have confirmed the effect of ApoE knockout in the induction of cardiovascular diseases and the protective effect of adiponectin against the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to reveal the roles of adiponectin signaling in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout and to analyze the healthy effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE knockout mice (ApoE(-/-) mice) through observing the changes of adiponectin signaling caused by ApoE knockout and aerobic exercise. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program was carried out on the male ApoE(-/-) mice and the C57BL / 6J mice (C57 mice) of the same strain. Results show that the body weights, blood lipid level, plasma adiponectin level and adiponectin-related proteins in myocardial tissue were all significantly changed by ApoE knockout. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only minimal effects on the body weights, blood lipid levels, and plasma adiponectin levels of ApoE(-/-) mice, but increased the expressions of four adiponectin-related proteins, AdipoR1, PPAR?, AMPK and P-AMPK, in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE(-/-) mice. In summary, adiponectin signaling may play an import role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout, and the beneficial health effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE(-/-) mice may be mainly from the increased adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. Key pointsA twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only limited effects on the body weights and the plasma adiponectin levels of both the normal mice and the ApoE(-/-) mice but did effectively regulate the blood lipid levels of the normal mice (but not the ApoE(-/-) mice).After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise, expression of the adiponectin-related proteins in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE(-/-) and normal mice was increased, but the increased amplitudes of these proteins in the ApoE(-/-) mice were much larger in the ApoE(-/-) mice than in the normal mice.Aerobic exercise might not alter the plasma adiponectin levels and blood lipid levels of ApoE(-/-) mice, but improve myocardial energy metabolism and relieve cardiovascular disease symptoms by increasing adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. PMID:26664286

  3. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Adiponectin Level and Adiponectin-related Protein Expression in Myocardial Tissue of ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Li-Hui; Li, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Numerous reports have confirmed the effect of ApoE knockout in the induction of cardiovascular diseases and the protective effect of adiponectin against the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to reveal the roles of adiponectin signaling in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout and to analyze the healthy effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE knockout mice (ApoE-/- mice) through observing the changes of adiponectin signaling caused by ApoE knockout and aerobic exercise. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program was carried out on the male ApoE-/- mice and the C57BL / 6J mice (C57 mice) of the same strain. Results show that the body weights, blood lipid level, plasma adiponectin level and adiponectin-related proteins in myocardial tissue were all significantly changed by ApoE knockout. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only minimal effects on the body weights, blood lipid levels, and plasma adiponectin levels of ApoE-/- mice, but increased the expressions of four adiponectin-related proteins, AdipoR1, PPAR?, AMPK and P-AMPK, in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE-/- mice. In summary, adiponectin signaling may play an import role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout, and the beneficial health effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE-/- mice may be mainly from the increased adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. Key points A twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only limited effects on the body weights and the plasma adiponectin levels of both the normal mice and the ApoE-/- mice but did effectively regulate the blood lipid levels of the normal mice (but not the ApoE-/- mice). After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise, expression of the adiponectin-related proteins in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE-/- and normal mice was increased, but the increased amplitudes of these proteins in the ApoE-/- mice were much larger in the ApoE-/- mice than in the normal mice. Aerobic exercise might not alter the plasma adiponectin levels and blood lipid levels of ApoE-/- mice, but improve myocardial energy metabolism and relieve cardiovascular disease symptoms by increasing adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. PMID:26664286

  4. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADIPONECTIN, INSULIN RESISTANCE, AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer; however, weight alone does not account for all cases. The authors hypothesized that insulin resistance also contributes to an increased risk for endometrial cancer. Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipose...

  5. High fat diet induced changes in gastric vagal afferent response to adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Stephen J; Ratcliff, Kyle; Li, Hui; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2015-12-01

    Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Adiponectin, secreted primarily from adipocytes, also has a role in regulating food intake. However, the involvement of vagal afferents in this effect remains to be established. We aimed to determine if adiponectin can modulate gastric vagal afferent (GVA) satiety signals and further whether this is altered in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a HFD for 12weeks. Plasma adiponectin levels were assayed, and the expression of adiponectin in the gastric mucosa was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The location of adiponectin protein within the gastric mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the direct effect of adiponectin on vagal afferent endings we determined adiponectin receptor expression in whole nodose ganglia (NDG) and also specifically in GVA neurons using retrograde tracing and qRT-PCR. An in vitro preparation was used to determine the effect of adiponectin on GVA response to mechanical stimulation. HFD mice exhibited an increased body weight and adiposity and showed delayed gastric emptying relative to SLD mice. Plasma adiponectin levels were not significantly different in HFD compared to SLD mice. Adiponectin mRNA was detected in the gastric mucosa of both SLD and HFD mice and presence of protein was confirmed immunohistochemically by the detection of adiponectin immunoreactive cells in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and 2 (ADIPOR2) mRNA was present in both the SLD and HFD whole NDG and also specifically traced gastric mucosal and muscular neurons. There was a reduction in ADIPOR1 mRNA in the mucosal afferents of the HFD mice relative to the SLD mice. In HFD mice adiponectin potentiated gastric mucosal afferent responses to mucosal stroking, an effect not observed in SLD mice. Adiponectin reduced the responses of tension receptors to circular stretch to a similar extent in both SLD and HFD mice. In conclusion, adiponectin modulates GVA satiety signals. This modulatory effect is altered in HFD-induced obesity. It remains to be conclusively determined whether this modulation is involved in the regulation of food intake and what the whole animal phenotypic consequence is. PMID:26074203

  6. Adiponectin, Leptin, and Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Christian, Lisa M.; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B.; Belury, Martha A.; Emery, Charles F.; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yogas potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P = .008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P = .08; experts average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P = .009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. PMID:22306535

  7. Serum adiponectin is a negative predictor of central arterial stiffness in kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Chun; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Yin, Wen-Yao; Ho, Guan-Jin; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Che

    2016-05-01

    Background The role of adiponectin in arterial stiffness and its relationship to cardiovascular disease is not fully demonstrated and needs further elaboration. In this study, the association between adiponectin level and arterial stiffness is studied among kidney transplant patients. Material and methods Anthropometric data and biochemical data including fasting glucose, lipid profile, renal function and serum adiponectin were determined in 55 kidney transplant patients. Central arterial stiffness was measured and presented by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Results Univariate linear analysis showed that body weight, waist circumference, brachial pulse pressure and body mass index were correlated positively with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in this patient group. However, logarithmically transformed adiponectin level (log-adiponectin) correlated negatively with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. In multivariate regression analysis of factors significantly associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, it showed that both log-adiponectin (β = -0.427; R(2) = 0.205, p = 0.001) and body weight (β = 0.327; R(2 )=( )0.106, p = 0.007) were independently predictive of central arterial stiffness. Conclusion Our study suggests that fasting serum adiponectin is negatively associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, hence arterial stiffness, in kidney transplant patients. PMID:26962760

  8. Adiponectin: a manifold therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary disease?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, being a key component in the interrelationship between adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Central obesity accompanied by insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and future macrovascular complications. Moreover, the remarkable correlation between coronary artery disease (CAD) and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the likelihood that atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may share a common biological background. We summarize here the current knowledge about the influence of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, discussing its forthcoming prospects and potential role as a therapeutic target for MS, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is present in the circulation as a dimer, trimer or protein complex of high molecular weight hexamers, >400 kDa. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are its major receptors in vivo mediating the metabolic actions. Adiponectin stimulates phosphorylation and AMP (adenosin mono phosphate) kinase activation, exerting direct effects on vascular endothelium, diminishing the inflammatory response to mechanical injury and enhancing endothelium protection in cases of apolipoprotein E deficiency. Hypoadiponectinemia is consistently associated with obesity, MS, atherosclerosis, CAD, T2DM. Lifestyle correction helps to favorably modify plasma adiponectin levels. Low adiponectinemia in obese patients is raised via continued weight loss programs in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals and is also accompanied by reductions in pro-inflammatory factors. Diet modifications, like intake of fish, omega-3 supplementation, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and coffee consumption also increase adiponectin levels. Antidiabetic and cardiovascular pharmacological agents, like glitazones, glimepiride, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are also able to improve adiponectin concentration. Fibric acid derivatives, like bezafibrate and fenofibrate, have been reported to enhance adiponectin levels as well. T-cadherin, a membrane-associated adiponectin-binding protein lacking intracellular domain seems to be a main mediator of the antiatherogenic adiponectin actions. The finding of novel pharmacologic agents proficient to improve adiponectin plasma levels should be target of exhaustive research. Interesting future approaches could be the development of adiponectin-targeted drugs chemically designed to induce the activaton of its receptors and/or postreceptor signaling pathways, or the development of specific adiponectin agonists. PMID:24957699

  9. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Ana Barbosa Marcondes; Pinto, Mônica Jordão S; Oliveira, Cristiane; Biz, Carolina; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Oyama, Lila Missae

    2008-01-01

    Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD) rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat) and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression. PMID:18986529

  10. Adiponectin, adiponectin receptors, and epigenetic regulation of adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, T; Yamauchi, T; Waki, H; Iwabu, M; Okada-Iwabu, M; Nakamura, M

    2011-01-01

    We studied the molecular mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance and adipogenesis. Plasma adiponectin and adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) in muscle are down-regulated in obesity. Analysis of muscle-specific AdipoR1 knockout mice revealed the pivotal role of adiponectin/AdipoR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis via AMPK- and SIRT1-mediated PGC-1α activation as well as Ca(2+)-dependent up-regulation of PGC-1α expression. Reduced adiponectin/AdipoR1 signals in muscle in obesity appear to cause PGC-1α inactivation as well as down-regulation and consequently impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin resistance. In the epigenetic analysis of adipogenesis, we demonstrated that adipocyte-specific formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) peaks are associated with genes up-regulated by adipogenesis, whereas preadipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks are associated with genes down-regulated by adipogenesis. Computational motif analyses of adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks confirmed PPARγ and CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) on the top list, consistent with their crucial roles in adipogenic transcription, and also revealed NFIA and NFIB to be important regulators of proper adipocyte differentiation. PMID:22492282

  11. Adiponectin lowers glucose production by increasing SOGA.

    PubMed

    Cowherd, Rachael B; Cowerd, Rachael B; Asmar, Melissa M; Alderman, J McKee; Alderman, Elizabeth A; Garland, Alaina L; Busby, Walker H; Bodnar, Wanda M; Rusyn, Ivan; Medoff, Benjamin D; Tisch, Roland; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Swenberg, James A; Zeisel, Steven H; Combs, Terry P

    2010-10-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone that lowers glucose production by increasing liver insulin sensitivity. Insulin blocks the generation of biochemical intermediates for glucose production by inhibiting autophagy. However, autophagy is stimulated by an essential mediator of adiponectin action, AMPK. This deadlock led to our hypothesis that adiponectin inhibits autophagy through a novel mediator. Mass spectrometry revealed a novel protein that we call suppressor of glucose by autophagy (SOGA) in adiponectin-treated hepatoma cells. Adiponectin increased SOGA in hepatocytes, and siRNA knockdown of SOGA blocked adiponectin inhibition of glucose production. Furthermore, knockdown of SOGA increased late autophagosome and lysosome staining and the secretion of valine, an amino acid that cannot be synthesized or metabolized by liver cells, suggesting that SOGA inhibits autophagy. SOGA decreased in response to AICAR, an activator of AMPK, and LY294002, an inhibitor of the insulin signaling intermediate, PI3K. AICAR reduction of SOGA was blocked by adiponectin; however, adiponectin did not increase SOGA during PI3K inhibition, suggesting that adiponectin increases SOGA through the insulin signaling pathway. SOGA contains an internal signal peptide that enables the secretion of a circulating fragment of SOGA, providing a surrogate marker for intracellular SOGA levels. Circulating SOGA increased in parallel with adiponectin and insulin activity in both humans and mice. These results suggest that adiponectin-mediated increases in SOGA contribute to the inhibition of glucose production. PMID:20813965

  12. Multifaceted roles of Adiponectin in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hebbard, Lionel; Ranscht, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to increased cancer risk. Pathological expansion of adipose tissue impacts adipocyte function and secretion of hormonal factors regulating tissue homeostasis and metabolism. Adiponectin is an adipocytesecreted, circulating hormone with pleiotropic functions in lipid and glucose metabolism, and beneficial roles in cardiovascular functions and inflammation. In obesity, decreased Adiponectin plasma levels correlate with tumor development and progression. The association of Adiponectin with potential tumor-limiting functions has raised significant interest in exploring this adipokine as a target for cancer-diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Recent studies, however, also implicate Adiponectin in supporting malignancy. This review highlights the evidence that links Adiponectin signaling to either cancer-protective or cancer-supporting functions. In this context, we discuss Adiponectin interactions with its receptors and associated signaling pathways. Despite significant advances in understanding Adiponectin functions and signaling mechanisms, its role in cancer remains multifaceted and subject to controversy. PMID:24417946

  13. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experi...

  14. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

  15. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    PubMed

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low blood concentrations of adiponectin and placental transfer of adiponectin to the bovine fetus is unlikely. In conclusion, colostrum intake is essential for the postnatal increase of circulating adiponectin in newborn calves. PMID:26277307

  16. Effect of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) on Tortilla Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tortillas are the most popular non-bread wheat based product. Flour used in tortilla production has been typically optimized for bread making. The flour properties that determine good quality bread do not necessarily provide good quality tortillas. In this study, the influence of high molecular wei...

  17. Association between the level of circulating adiponectin and prediabetes: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Huasheng; Lin, Nie; Xing, Zhenzhen; Weng, Huanhuan; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Adiponectin has been proposed to have an essential role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and metabolism, but previous studies on levels of adiponectin in prediabetes remain inconsistent. The present study aimed to assess the differences of adiponectin levels between prediabetes patients and healthy controls by carrying out a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods We carried out a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and other databases for casecontrol studies and cohort studies measuring adiponectin levels in serum or plasma from prediabetes patients and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the association between adiponectin levels and prediabetes. Results Three cohort studies and 15 casecontrol studies with a total of 41,841 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that circulating adiponectin levels in prediabetes patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (WMD 1.694?g/mL; 95% CI 2.151, 1.237; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed more significant differences between prediabetes patients and healthy controls when the ratio of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was >2.12 (WMD ?2.95?g/mL; 95% CI 4.103, 1.806; P<0.001) and average age was >60years (WMD ?2.20?g/mL; 95% CI 3.207, 1.201; P<0.001). Additionally, WMD in adiponectin showed a trend of direct correlation in subgroups of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio, body mass index and age. Conclusions The present meta-analysis supports adiponectin levels in prediabetes patients being lower than that of healthy controls,indicating that the level of circulating adiponectin decreases before the onset of diabetes. PMID:26221520

  18. L-Cysteine supplementation increases adiponectin synthesis and secretion, and GLUT4 and glucose utilization by upregulating disulfide bond A-like protein expression mediated by MCP-1 inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Achari, Arunkumar Elumalai; Jain, Sushil K

    2016-03-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine; its plasma levels are decreased in obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. An adiponectin-interacting protein named disulfide bond A-like protein (DsbA-L) plays an important role in the assembly of adiponectin. This study examined the hypothesis that L-cysteine (LC) regulates glucose homeostasis through the DsbA-L upregulation and synthesis and secretion of adiponectin in diabetes. 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with LC (250 and 500M, 2h) and high glucose (HG, 25mM, 20h). Results showed that LC supplementation significantly (p<0.05) upregulated the DsbA-L, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 protein expression and glucose utilization in HG-treated adipocytes. LC supplementation significantly (p<0.05) promoted the secretion of total and HMW adiponectin secretion in HG-treated adipocytes. In addition, LC significantly (p<0.05) decreased ROS production and MCP-1 secretion in HG-treated cells. We further investigated whether MCP-1 has any role of LC on DsbA-L expression and adiponectin levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment with LC prevented the decrease in DsbA-L, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 expression in 3T3L1 adipocyte cells exposed to MCP-1. Thus, this study demonstrates that DsbA-L and adiponectin upregulation mediates the beneficial effects of LC on glucose utilization by inhibiting MCP-1 secretion in adipocytes and provides a novel mechanism by which LC supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes. PMID:26897632

  19. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

  20. [Adiponectin, insulin and glucose concentrations in overweight and obese subjects after a complex carbohydrates (fiber) diet].

    PubMed

    Gonzlez Rodrguez, Dora Cristina; Solano R, Liseti; Gonzlez Martnez, Julio Csar

    2009-09-01

    Adiponectin one of the cytokines secreted by the adipose tissue that regulates the energetic metabolism through glucose and insulin interactions, stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids, reduces the plasmatic triglycerides and improves glucose metabolism by increasing insulin sensibility. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin and glucose were assessed in order to establish association to weight loss after a dietary regime based on consumption of complex carbohydrates (fiber) during six weeks. Overweight and obese subjects (n=56) were studied by anthropometry. Adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA and glucose by Colorimetry. Data was analyzed by non parametric tests to compare independent or related samples. 12 men and 44 women, aged 20 to 55 years, 17 overweight and 39 obese were assessed. Adiponectin concentration was significantly low at basal determination in all the subjects (4,47 +/- 1,64); being higher in women (4,62 +/- 1,57 vs 3,93 +/- 1,86 microU/mL in men), while glucose and insulin values were at normal range (82,46 +/-26,51 mg/dL and 14,12 +/- 10,15 microU/mL) respectively with no significant differences for sex. Overweight subjects had significantly higher adiponectin concentrations than obese participants, at all measurements. Dietary regime promoted significant increase in adiponectin concentration at second and sixth week, with a negative correlation to body mass index and gender as they lost body weight. PMID:19886515

  1. Fetuin-A Induces Cytokine Expression and Suppresses Adiponectin Production

    PubMed Central

    Wicke, Corinna; Machicao, Fausto; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG) is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. Methodology and Principal Findings Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05). Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both). Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02) and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and negatively with total- (r = −0.28, p = 0.02) and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = −0.36, p = 0.01). Conclusions and Significance We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. PMID:18335040

  2. Cleavage of human high molecular weight kininogen markedly enhances its coagulant activity. Evidence that this molecule exists as a procofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, C F; Silver, L D; Schapira, M; Colman, R W

    1984-01-01

    High molecular weight kininogen (HMW)-kininogen, the cofactor of contact-activated blood coagulation, accelerates the activation of Factor XII, prekallikrein, and Factor XI on a negatively charged surface. Although prekallikrein and Factor XI circulate as a complex with HMW-kininogen, no physical association has been demonstrated between Factor XII and HMW-kininogen, nor has the order of adsorption to surfaces of these proteins been fully clarified. In this report we explore the requirements for adsorption of HMW-kininogen to a clot-promoting surface (kaolin), in purified systems, as well as in normal plasma and plasma genetically deficient in each of the proteins of the contact system. The fraction of each coagulant protein associated with the kaolin pellet was determined by measuring the difference in coagulant activity between the initial sample and supernatants after incubation with kaolin, or by directly quantifying the amount of 125I-HMW-kininogen that was associated with the kaolin pellet. In normal plasma, the adsorption of HMW-kininogen to kaolin increased as the quantity of kaolin was increased in the incubation mixture. However, the HMW-kininogen in Factor XII-deficient plasma did not absorb appreciably to kaolin. Furthermore, the quantity of HMW-kininogen from prekallikrein-deficient plasma that adsorbed to kaolin was decreased as compared with normal plasma. These observations suggested that HMW-kininogen in plasma must be altered by a reaction involving both Factor XII and prekallikrein in order for HMW-kininogen to adsorb to kaolin, and to express its coagulant activity. Subsequently, the consequence of the inability of HMW-kininogen to associate with a negatively charged surface results in decreased surface activation. This assessment was derived from the further observation of the lack of prekallikrein adsorption and the diminished Factor XI adsorption in both Factor XII-deficient and HMW-kininogen-deficient plasmas, since these two zymogens (prekallikrein and Factor XI) are transported to a negatively charged surface in complex with HMW-kininogen. The percentage of HMW-kininogen coagulant activity that adsorbed to kaolin closely correlated (r = 0.98, slope = 0.97) with the amount of 125I-HMW-kininogen adsorbed, suggesting that adsorption of HMW-kininogen results in the expression of its coagulant activity. Since kallikrein, which is known to cleave HMW-kininogen, is generated when kaolin is added to plasma, we tested the hypothesis that proteolysis by kallikrein was responsible for the enhanced adsorption of HMW-kininogen to kaolin. When purified HMW-kininogen was incubated with purified kallikrein, its ability to absorb to kaolin increased with time of digestion until a maximum was reached. Moreover, (125)I-HMW-kininogen, after cleavage by kallikrein, had markedly increased affinity for kaolin than the uncleaved starting material. Furthermore, fibrinogen, at plasma concentration (3 mg/ml), markedly curtailed the adsorption of a mixture of cleaved and uncleaved HMW-kininogen to kaolin, but was unable to prevent fully cleaved HMW-kininogen from adsorbing to the kaolin. Addition of purified kallikrein to Factor XII-deficient plasma, which bypasses Factor XII-dependent contact-activation amplified the ability of its HMW-kininogen to adsorb to kaolin. These observations indicate that HMW-kininogen is a procofactor that is activated by kallikrein, a product of a reaction which it accelerates. This cleavage, which enhances its association with a clot-promoting surface in a plasma environment, is an event that is necessary for expression of its cofactor activity. These interactions would allow coordination of HMW-kininogen adsorption with the adsorption of Factor XII, which adsorbs independently of cleavage, to the same negatively charged surface. Images PMID:6561202

  3. Effects of specific domains of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits’ on dough properties by an in vitro assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal do...

  4. Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A.; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C.; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

  5. Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, J Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D; Hunt, Steven C; Hopkins, Paul N; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2012-10-01

    Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

  6. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Kakiuchi, Terutaka; Suguro, Toru; Kawai, Shinichi

    2009-01-09

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Adiponectin stimulates glucose uptake in rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Suenje; Santos, Anne Navarrete; Thieme, Ren; Ramin, Nicole; Fischer, Bernd

    2010-11-01

    Since the discovery of adipokines, the adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inactive fat storage. It secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, which regulate body metabolism and energy homeostasis. One of these molecules is the adipokine adiponectin. In different tissues, adiponectin triggers metabolic effects through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (PRKA), which is a master regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism. Recent studies point to a role for adiponectin in reproduction. Adiponectin and its receptors are present in female reproductive tract during pregnancy, and the preimplantation embryo is fully equipped with adiponectin. Here, we show that both receptor isoforms, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, are expressed in 6-day-old rabbit blastocysts. To investigate the signaling pathway of adiponectin in preimplantation embryos, rabbit blastocysts were cultured in vitro and stimulated with adiponectin. Supplementation of adiponectin (1 ?g/ml) enhanced PRKA alpha 1/2 (PRKAA1/2) phosphorylation and decreased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PCK2), a key regulator of gluconeogenesis. Inhibition of PRKAA1/2 by Compound C (10 ?M) restored PCK2 transcription. Adiponectin enhanced embryonic glucose uptake and led to a translocation of solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (SLC2A4), previously known as GLUT4. We conclude that adiponectin influences the glucose metabolism of rabbit blastocysts via the phosphorylation of PRKAA1/2, which in turn results in a decrease of gluconeogenesis and an increase in glycolysis. The regulatory influence of adiponectin on glucose metabolism of blastocysts may be of specific interest in pathophysiological situations, such as obesity during pregnancy. PMID:20686181

  8. Regulation of pituitary cell function by adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Martinez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Tovar, Sulay; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P; Malagon, María M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin is a member of the family of adipose tissue-related hormones known as adipokines, which exerts antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. Adiponectin actions are primarily mediated through binding to two receptors expressed in several tissues, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Likewise, adiponectin expression has been detected in adipocytes as well as in a variety of extra-adipose tissues, including the chicken pituitary. Interestingly, adiponectin secretion and adiponectin receptor expression in adipocytes have been shown to be regulated by pituitary hormones. These observations led us to investigate whether adiponectin, like the adipokine leptin, regulates pituitary hormone production. Specifically, we focused our analysis on somatotrophs and gonadotrophs because of the relationship between the control of energy metabolism, growth and reproduction. To this end, the effects of adiponectin on both GH and LH secretion as well as its interaction with major stimulatory regulators of somatotrophs (ghrelin and GHRH) and gonadotrophs (GnRH) and with their corresponding receptors (GHS-R, GHRH-R, and GnRH-R), were evaluated in rat pituitary cell cultures. Results show that adiponectin inhibits GH and LH release as well as both ghrelin-induced GH release and GnRH-stimulated LH secretion in short-term (4 h) treated cell cultures, wherein the adipokine also increases GHRH-R and GHS-R mRNA content while decreasing that of GnRH-R. Additionally, we demonstrate that the pituitary expresses both adiponectin and adiponectin receptors under the regulation of the adipokine. In sum, our data indicate that adiponectin, either locally produced or from other sources, may play a neuroendocrine role in the control of both somatotrophs and gonadotrophs. PMID:17038552

  9. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. PMID:23635368

  10. Macrophage Adiponectin Expression Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Protects Against Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Nanlan; Liu, Jian; Chung, B. Hong; Yang, Qinglin; Klein, Richard L.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Fu, Yuchang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adiponectin is one of several important metabolically active cytokines secreted from adipose tissue. Epidemiologic studies have associated low-circulating levels of this adipokine with multiple metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To investigate adiponectin-mediated changes in metabolism in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that specifically express the gene coding for human adiponectin in mouse macrophages using the human scavenger receptor A-I gene enhancer/promoter. METHODS AND RESULTS Using this transgenic mouse model, we found that adiponectin expression was associated with reduced whole-animal body and fat-pad weight and an improved lipid accumulation in macrophages when these transgenic mice were fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, these macrophage Ad-TG mice exhibit enhanced whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity with reduced proinflammatory cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF-a (both in the serum and in the metabolic active macrophage), adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle under the high-fat diet condition. Additional studies demonstrated that these macrophage adiponectin transgenic animals exhibit reduced macrophage foam cell formation in the arterial wall when these transgenic mice were crossed with an LDL receptor–deficient mouse model and were fed a high-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that adiponectin expressed in macrophages can physiologically modulate metabolic activities in vivo by improving metabolism in distal tissues. The use of macrophages as carriers for adiponectin, a molecule with antidiabetes, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties, provides a novel and unique strategy for studying the mechanisms of adiponectin-mediated alterations in body metabolism in vivo. PMID:20350970

  11. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids extends the adiponectin deficit during early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiva P; Hussler, Susanne; Heinz, Johanna F L; Saremi, Behnam; Mielenz, Birgit; Rehage, Jrgen; Dnicke, Sven; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-03-01

    Decreasing insulin sensitivity (IS) in peripheral tissues allows for partitioning nutrients towards the mammary gland. In dairy cows, extensive lipid mobilization and continued insulin resistance (IR) are typical for early lactation. Adiponectin, an adipokine, promotes IS. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in rodents and humans reduces fat mass whereby IR and hyperinsulinemia may occur. In dairy cows, CLA reduce milk fat, whereas body fat, serum free fatty acids and leptin are not affected. We aimed to investigate the effects of CLA supplementation on serum and adipose tissue (AT) adiponectin concentrations in dairy cows during the lactation driven and parity modulated changes of metabolism. High yielding cows (n=33) were allocated on day 1 post partum to either 100 g/day of a CLA mixture or a control fat supplement (CON) until day 182 post partum. Blood and subcutaneous (sc) AT (AT) biopsy samples were collected until day 252 post partum to measure adiponectin. Serum adiponectin decreased from day 21 pre partum reaching a nadir at calving and thereafter increased gradually. The distribution of adiponectin molecular weight forms was neither affected by time, parity nor treatment. Cows receiving CLA had decreased serum adiponectin concentrations whereby primiparous cows responded about 4 weeks earlier than multiparous cows. The time course of adiponectin concentrations in sc AT (corrected for residual blood) was similar to serum concentrations, without differences between CLA and CON. CLA supplementation attenuated the post partum increase of circulating adiponectin thus acting towards prolongation of peripartal IR and drain of nutrients towards the mammary gland. PMID:24384531

  12. Adiponectin and cardiovascular health: an update

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Xiaoyan; Lam, Karen SL; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Xu, Aimin

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity is accompanied by an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), in particular stroke and heart attack. Dysfunctional adipose tissue links obesity to CVD by secreting a multitude of bioactive lipids and pro-inflammatory factors (adipokines) with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Adiponectin is one of the few adipokines that possesses multiple salutary effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular health. Clinical investigations have identified adiponectin deficiency (hypoadiponectinaemia) as an independent risk factor for CVD. In animals, elevation of plasma adiponectin by either pharmacological or genetic approaches alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, many therapeutic benefits of the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists, the thiazolidinediones, are mediated by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin protects cardiovascular health through its vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in both cardiac and vascular cells. This review summarizes recent findings in the understanding of the physiological role and clinical relevance of adiponectin in cardiovascular health, and in the identification of the receptor and postreceptor signalling events that mediate the cardiovascular actions of adiponectin. It also discusses adiponectin-targeted drug discovery strategies for treating obesity, diabetes and CVD. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21457225

  13. Adiponectin pathway attenuates malignant mesothelioma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kaijun; Asada, Masanori; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Yamanda, Shinsuke; Ebihara, Takae; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Dongying; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Ebihara, Satoru

    2012-04-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is caused by exposure to asbestos. Because MM has a latency period, short survival time, and has a poor response to current therapeutic regimes, long-term preventive strategies are required to suppress the advance of pathological states after asbestos exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that adiponectin plays a crucial role in the regulation of energy metabolism by increasing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Several studies have indicated that the activation of AMPK decreases cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. Because high COX-2 levels correlated with a worse prognosis and survival rate in MM, we examined whether the adiponectin pathway suppresses MM cell growth through the AMPK/COX-2 pathway. In vivo, dietary fish oil (a potential promoter of adiponectin) decreased the growth rate of MM, which was accompanied by an increase in adiponectin and phospho-AMPK levels, and a decrease in COX-2 level. In vitro, adiponectin significantly impaired the cell proliferation rate of MM cell lines. These effects partly involved induction of growth arrest and apoptosis to MM cells. MM cells expressed both adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and -R2) at mRNA and proteins levels. These receptors were functional, because adiponectin activated AMPK. Adiponectin treatment also significantly down-regulated protein levels of COX-2 and its downstream prostaglandin E(2). Finally, inhibitory analysis of AdipoR1/R2 by small interfering RNA knockdown suggests that adiponectin enhances AMPK activity and impairs the cell proliferation rate of MM cells, mainly via AdipoR1. These findings suggest that the induction or supplementation of adiponectin is an important tactic for developing therapeutic strategies against MM. PMID:22095628

  14. Adiponectin gene expression in human primary adipocyte culture treated with uremic serum.

    PubMed

    Alouffi, Sultan; Howse, Matthew; Sharma, Ajay; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

    2015-11-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is accompanied by an increased rate of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although renal replacement therapy is required at this stage, it is associated with additional complications such as inflammation and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the potential role of uremic mileu on the adiponectin expression in human primary adipocyte culture. A cohort of 18 patients with ESRD (hemo-and peritoneal dialysis) and nine healthy controls were analyzed in a prospective cross-sectional study. Single blood samples were taken pre-and post-hemodialysis and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum concentrations of total adiponectin (7.95 1.44 ?g/mL; 6.73 1.2 ?g/mL; 13.7 3.04 ?g/mL, respectively) and high molecular weight adiponectin (3.03 1.95 ?g/mL; 3.57 2.44 14 ?g/mL; 8.02 5 ?g/mL respectively) were measured. Other biochemical parameters (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) were assessed in all groups of patients. Adiponectin gene expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and was found to be lower in ESRD patients compared with healthy controls with low dose but not with high-dose treatments. Serum concentrations of total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin were significantly higher in the ESRD versus control group. These results provide an initial insight into understanding the putative role of adipose tissue in contributing to the association of CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:26586058

  15. Selective Elevation of Adiponectin Production by the Natural Compounds Derived from a Medicinal Herb Alleviates Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Aimin; Wang, Hongbing; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Sweeney, Gary; Vanhoutte, Paul. M.; Wang, Yu; Wu, Donghai; Chu, Wenjing; Qin, Guowei; Lam, Karen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing hormone with antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic properties. A decreased serum level of adiponectin in obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular complications, suggesting that pharmacological intervention aimed at elevating adiponectin production might hold promise for the treatment and/or prevention of these diseases. Here we report the identification of two structurally related natural compounds (astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I) from the medicinal herb Radix Astragali that possess such an activity. Astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I selectively increased adiponectin secretion in primary adipocytes without any obvious effects on a panel of other adipokines. Furthermore, an additive effect on induction of adiponectin production was observed between these two compounds and rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione class of insulin-sensitizing drugs. Chronic administration of astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I in both dietary and genetic obese mice significantly elevated serum levels of total adiponectin and selectively increased the composition of its high molecular weight oligomeric complex. These changes were associated with an alleviation of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. By contrast, the beneficial effects of these two compounds on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism were diminished in adiponectin knockout mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that pharmacological elevation of circulating adiponectin alone is sufficient to ameliorate insulin resistance and diabetes and support the use of adiponectin as a biomarker for future drug discovery. The two natural compounds might provide the lead as a novel class of therapeutics for obesity-related diseases. PMID:18927219

  16. Adiponectin, Resistin, and Visfatin in Childhood Obesity and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Koutsias, Stilianos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing alarmingly, and a strong association with chronic diseases has been established. Specific adipokines are released from the adipose tissue and relate with chronic diseases even in the pediatric population. Adiponectin levels are lower in obesity and increase with decreasing body weight. A few pediatric studies examining a possible relationship between resistin and obesity do not provide a clear picture. Most studies agree that visfatin levels appear elevated in childhood obesity. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels whereas resistin levels are reduced. The lack of data on the effects of acute and chronic exercise on visfatin levels precludes us from making safe conclusions as to what the effects of exercise (acute or chronic) would be on visfatin levels in children. Clearly, exercise has an impact on the adipose tissue and the release of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. However, other factors affect the secretion rate of these adipokines from the adipose tissue; these factors should also be taken into consideration when examining the effects of exercise on adipokines. Gender, age, body composition, physical activity levels, mode and intensity of exercise are some of the factors that should be looked into in future studies. PMID:25902558

  17. Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism with Adiponectin Levels And Risk for Insulin Resistance Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Mittal, Balraj; Awasthi, Shally; Srivastava, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin is an abundant adipose tissuederived protein with anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease and low adiponectin levels also predict insulin resistance (IR). Methods: Case-control study in which 642 male and female subjects were participated from the North Indian population. Lipid, insulin, leptin and adiponectin level were estimated using standard protocols by commercially available test kits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms +45T>G and +276G>T of the AMP1 (adiponectin) gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Levels of adiponectin, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR index), systolic blood pressure and fat mass showed significant differences between male and female subjects. Serum adiponectin level showed highly significant association with both the +45 and the +276 genotypes. The common haplotype triglyceride (TG) showed a significantly lower adiponectin value than other haplotypes (P = 0.0001). A clear trend of decreasing adiponectin levels per copy of the common haplotype was observed. Nonobese insulin sensitive subjects showed a higher adiponectin value (P = 0.0006) than nonobese insulin resistant subjects. The values of blood pressure, adiponectin, insulin, HOMA-IR, total-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly associated with TG haplotype. Conclusions: We observed the very strong association of the adiponectin 45-276 genotypes and haplotypes with adiponectin levels in healthy north Indian population and TG haplotypes also associated with metabolic parameters of the IR syndrome. PMID:25949781

  18. Analysis of Glu-1 deletion lines reveals the importance of high molecular weight glutenin subunits 7+9 Glu-B1 in wheat flour tortilla making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play a significant role in the functional properties of wheat flour. Wheat lines in which one or more of the HMW-GS alleles were absent from Glu-A1, Glu-B1 or Glu-D1 loci (deletion lines) were compared with non-deletion lines for dough and tortilla ma...

  19. Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. bessarabicum, Lophopyrum elongatum, Aegilops markgrafii, and their addition lines in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GSs) play an important role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality in cultivated wheat, and they are also excellent protein markers for genotype identification. The HMW-GSs in wheat species (Triticum ssp.) and Aegilops tauschii...

  20. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N = 121) were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1 g/20 mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%), insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%), HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%), and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%). The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r = 0.221, P < 0.05), insulin (r = 0.184, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038. PMID:26063948

  1. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  2. Negative Skeletal Effects of Locally Produced Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Marcia J.; Roth, Theresa M.; Ho, Linh; Wang, Liping; OCarroll, Dylan; Nissenson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (34%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg mice had increased numbers of adipocytes in close proximity to trabecular bone in the tibia, associated with increased adiponectin levels in tibial marrow. Treatment of BMSCs with adiponectin after initiation of osteoblastic differentiation resulted in reduced mineralized colony formation and reduced expression of mRNA of osteoblastic genes, osterix (70%), Runx2 (52%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), Col1 (74%), and osteocalcin (81%). Adiponectin treatment of differentiating osteoblasts increased expression of the osteoblast genes PPAR? (32%) and C/ebp? (55%) and increased adipocyte colony formation. These data suggest a model in which locally produced adiponectin plays a negative role in regulating skeletal homeostasis through inhibition of bone formation and by promoting an adipogenic phenotype. PMID:26230337

  3. Recovery of an HMWP/hmwBP (pUL48/pUL47) Complex from Virions of Human Cytomegalovirus: Subunit Interactions, Oligomer Composition, and Deubiquitylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tullman, Jennifer A.; Harmon, Mary-Elizabeth; Delannoy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) high-molecular-weight tegument protein (HMWP, pUL48; 253 kDa) and the HMWP-binding protein (hmwBP, pUL47; 110 kDa) can be recovered as a complex from virions disrupted by treatment with 50 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 0.5 M NaCl, 0.5% NP-40, and 10 mM dithiothreitol [DTT]. The subunit ratio of the complex approximates 1:1, with a shape and structure consistent with an elongated heterodimer. The HMWP/hmwBP complex was corroborated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments using antipeptide antibodies and lysates from both infected cells and disrupted virus particles. An interaction of the amino end of pUL48 (amino acids [aa] 322 to 754) with the carboxyl end of pUL47 (aa 693 to 982) was identified by fragment coimmunoprecipitation experiments, and a head-to-tail self-interaction of hmwBP was also observed. The deubiquitylating activity of pUL48 is retained in the isolated complex, which cleaves K11, K48, and K63 ubiquitin isopeptide linkages. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or human herpesvirus 5 [HHV-5]) is a large DNA-containing virus that belongs to the betaherpesvirus subfamily and is a clinically important pathogen. Defining the constituent elements of its mature form, their organization within the particle, and the assembly process by which it is produced are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of herpesvirus infection and developing drugs and vaccines against them. In this study, we report isolating a complex of two large proteins encoded by HCMV open reading frames (ORFs) UL47 and UL48 and identifying the binding domains responsible for their interaction with each other and of pUL47 with itself. Our calculations indicate that the complex is a rod-shaped heterodimer. Additionally, we determined that the ubiquitin-specific protease activity of the ORF UL48 protein was functional in the complex, cleaving K11-, K48-, and K63-linked ubiquitin dimers. This information builds on and extends our understanding of the HCMV tegument protein network that is required to interface the HCMV envelope and capsid. PMID:24829352

  4. Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi), and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14), by 97?% in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS) for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of the 1Bx14 gene. The established BSMV-VIGS system will be very useful in future research on functional analysis of genes contributing to grain quality and the metabolic networks in developing seeds of wheat. PMID:22882902

  5. Adiponectin induces A20 expression in adipose tissue to confer metabolic benefit.

    PubMed

    Hand, Laura E; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J S; Xu, Lance Y; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S I; Bechtold, David A; Ray, David W

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverb? exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverb?(-/-) mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverb?(-/-) WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

  6. Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Laura E.; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Xu, Lance Y.; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S.; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S. I.; Bechtold, David A.; Ray, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverb? exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverb??/? mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverb??/? WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgeryinduced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

  7. Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Kayo; Kang, Min-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyama, Kana; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Yano, Masamichi; Sasaki, Takao; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2008-02-01

    Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR{gamma} antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR{gamma} activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR{gamma} in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 and suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of HMW Glutenin Subunits from 1Sl Genome of Aegilops longissima Positively Affecting Wheat Breadmaking Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Weigerber, H.; Zeller, Friedrich; Hsam, Sai; Yan, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    A wheat cultivar Chinese Spring chromosome substitution line CS-1Sl(1B), in which the 1B chromosome was substituted by 1Sl from Aegilops longissima, was developed and found to possess superior dough and breadmaking quality. The molecular mechanism of its super quality conformation is studied in the aspects of high molecular glutenin genes, protein accumulation patterns, glutenin polymeric proteins, protein bodies, starch granules, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like protein expressions. Results showed that the introduced HMW-GS 1Sl2.3* and 1Sly16* in the substitution line possesses long repetitive domain, making both be larger than any known x- and y-type subunits from B genome. The introduced subunit genes were also found to have a higher level of mRNA expressions during grain development, resulting in more HMW-GS accumulation in the mature grains. A higher abundance of PDI and PDI-like proteins was observed which possess a known function of assisting disulfide bond formation. Larger HMW-GS deposited in protein bodies were also found in the substitution line. The CS substitution line is expected to be highly valuable in wheat quality improvement since the novel HMW-GS are located on chromosome 1Sl, making it possible to combine with the known superior D5+Dy10 subunits encoded by Glu-D1 for developing high quality bread wheat. PMID:23593125

  9. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C; Hoffmann, Michael M; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1? were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions. PMID:25785965

  10. Myocardial Mitochondrial and Contractile Function Are Preserved in Mice Lacking Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1? were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions. PMID:25785965

  11. Changes of Serum Adiponectin and Testosterone Concentrations Following Twelve Weeks Resistance Training in Obese Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Circulating levels of adiponectin and testosterone decrease in obese men and this increases risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to survey changes of serum adiponectin and testosterone concentrations following twelve weeks resistance training in obese young men. Patients and Methods: In a semi-experimental study, twenty one obese young men were randomly placed in two groups: resistance training (26.5 ± 2.8 years) and control (27.4 ± 2.9 years). General characteristics of subjects and serum levels of adiponectin and testosterone were assessed before and after training. Resistance training protocol consisted of twelve weeks weight training (3 sessions per week, 10 exercises, 3 sets of 8 - 12 repetitions in each exercise, intensity 60% - 80% of one repetition maximum, rest between sets 1 minute and between exercises 2 minutes, duration of main training 20 - 40 minutes per each session). Results: Resistance training had no significant effect on body weight and body mass index (P > 0.05), whereas it decreased body fat percent (P = 0.017). Also, serum adiponectin (8.1 ± 1.8 vs. 10.5 ± 2.3 μg/mL) and testosterone concentrations (6.9 ± 2.4 vs. 8.2 ± 1.7 ng/mL) were increased after resistance training (P = 0.033, P = 0.018 respectively), while there were no significant changes in serum levels of these hormones in control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Twelve weeks of resistance training increased serum concentrations of adiponectin and testosterone in obese young men. With respect to inverse associations between changes of adiponectin and testosterone with BFP and insulin level variations after resistance training, it is recommended that obese young men do resistance training to benefit useful decreasing/preventive effects of this type of training against the risks of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:26715965

  12. A common variant in the CLDN7/ELP5 locus predicts adiponectin change with lifestyle intervention and improved fitness in obese individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Papandonatos, George D; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Peter, Inga; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Erar, Bahar; Allred, Nicholette D; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bowden, Donald W; Brautbar, Ariel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M; Huggins, Gordon S

    2015-06-01

    Overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes have low adiponectin levels, which may improve with lifestyle changes. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with adiponectin levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) would also be related with adiponectin changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), potentially through mechanisms altering the adipose microenvironment via weight loss and/or improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Look AHEAD was a randomized trial comparing the cardiovascular benefits of ILI-induced weight loss and physical activity compared with diabetes support and education among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. In a subsample of Look AHEAD with adiponectin data and genetic consent (n=1,351), we evaluated the effects of 24 genetic variants, demonstrated by GWAS to be cross-sectionally associated with adiponectin, on adiponectin change 1-yr postintervention. We explored via mediational analyses whether any differential effects by treatment arm were occurring through weight loss and/or improved fitness. A variant, rs222857, in the CLDN7 locus, potentially associated with epithelial barrier integrity and tight junction physiology, and a putative cis expression quantitative trail locus for elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 (ELP5), predicted adiponectin increases within ILI (log-adiponectin in overall sample per copy: ?SE=0.050.02, P=0.008; in non-Hispanic whites: 0.060.02, P=0.009). The favorable effects of rs222857 (minor allele frequency 45.5%) appeared to be mediated by mechanisms associated with improved fitness, and not weight loss. This is the first study to identify a genetic variant that modifies adiponectin response to lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. PMID:25759378

  13. Hawthorn leaf flavonoids alleviate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by enhancing the adiponectin/AMPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongping; Xu, Jiaoya; Zheng, Peiyong; Xing, Lianjun; Shen, Hongyi; Yang, Lili; Zhang, Li; Ji, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataeguspinnatifida) belongs to the genus Rosaceae family of plants. The hawthorn leaf, Crataeguspinnatifida Bunge, is used for both condiment and medicinal purposes to prevent and treat metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in traditional Chinese medicine. However, its effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain obscure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of hawthorn leaf flavonoids (HLF), the dominant bioactive extracts of hawthorn leaves, on high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. HLF supplementation significantly lowered body weight, liver weight, liver/body weight ratio, improved serum parameters and liver dysfunction and markedly decreased hepatic lipid accumulation in HFD-fed rats. In addition, HLF intervention dramatically increased circulating adiponectin levels and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin receptors, particularly adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) in the liver. Moreover, adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also activated, as well as AMPK-mediated alteration of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and their downstream targets. Taken together, our data suggest that HLF ameliorates hepatic steatosis by enhancing the adiponectin/AMPK pathway in the liver of HFD-induced NAFLD rats. PMID:26770322

  14. Adipocyte Spliced Form of X-Box–Binding Protein 1 Promotes Adiponectin Multimerization and Systemic Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Haibo; Yang, Liu; Liu, Meilian; Xia, Sheng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Feng; Kersten, Sander; Qi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes, thereby regulating systemic glucose homeostasis. Ectopic expression of XBP1s in adipocytes improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. The beneficial effect of adipocyte XBP1s on glucose homeostasis is associated with elevated serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and, indeed, is adiponectin-dependent. Mechanistically, XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization rather than activating its transcription, likely through a direct regulation of the expression of several ER chaperones involved in adiponectin maturation, including glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6, ER protein 44, and disulfide bond oxidoreductase A–like protein. Thus, we conclude that XBP1s is an important regulator of adiponectin multimerization, which may lead to a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypoadiponectinemia. PMID:24241534

  15. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Adiponectin in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Da; Liu, Jian-Nan; Lin, Li; Wu, Zhi; Li, Hao; Ye, Yu-Ming; Xu, Qiao-Zhen; Lin, Qi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been suggested to be associated with low levels of adiponectin. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA; however, previous studies assessing the effect of CPAP on adiponectin in patients with OSA yielded conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to determine whether CPAP therapy could increase adiponectin levels. Methods Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science before February 2015. Information on characteristics of subjects, study design and pre- and post-CPAP treatment of serum adiponectin was extracted for analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to analyze the summary estimates for CPAP therapy. Results Eleven studies involving 240 patients were included in this meta-analysis, including ten observational studies and one randomized controlled study. The meta-analysis showed that there was no change of adiponectin levels before and after CPAP treatment in OSA patients (SMD = 0.059, 95% confidence interval (CI) = ?0.250 to 0.368, z = 0.37, p = 0.710). Subgroup analyses indicated that the results were not affected by age, baseline body mass index, severity of OSA, CPAP therapy duration, sample size and racial differences. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that CPAP therapy has no impact on adiponectin in OSA patients, without significant changes in body weight. Further large-scale, well-designed long-term interventional investigations are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:26367527

  16. Effects of increasing the dose of pravastatin on serum adiponectin level in Japanese mild hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kai, Tatsuya; Kanamasa, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The plasma level of adiponectin (CAS 1070484-33-1), known as an anti-atherogenic adipocytokine, inversely correlates with the progression of atherosclerosis. The reported effects of statins on the serum level of adiponectin include significant increases in the adiponectin levels caused by pravastatin (CAS 81131-70-6). In this study, increasing the dosage of pravastatin was investigated to determine whether it had a clearly favorable effect on the adiponectin level in hypercholesterolemic patients. A total of 26 mild hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were initially treated with pravastatin 10 mg/day for 6 months or more, and then increased to pravastatin 20 mg/day. Serum adiponectin, cholesterol fractionated components, and lipoprotein components were evaluated after 6 months. Increasing the dose of pravastatin from 10 to 20 mg/day caused the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to decrease (from 130 to 104 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and thereafter the serum adiponectin levels, particularly the high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels significantly increased (from 10.9 to 12.6 microg/mL, p = 0.022; from 6.6 to 7.6 microg/mL, p = 0.022, respectively). Pravastatin increased the serum adiponectin level after increasing the dosage from 10 to 20 mg/day. It remains possible, however, that the difference was due not only to pharmacologic effects, but also to other specific characteristics such as the subject characteristics, viz.; race, body size, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, etc. PMID:19856791

  17. A Comparative Study on the Expression, Purification and Functional Characterization of Human Adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rothan, Hussin A.; Teh, Ser Huy; Haron, Kamariah; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP) as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP) expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL) was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL) and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes. PMID:22489167

  18. A comparative study on the expression, purification and functional characterization of human adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Hussin A; Teh, Ser Huy; Haron, Kamariah; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP) as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP) expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL) was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL) and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes. PMID:22489167

  19. Serum Adiponectin Level and Clinical, Metabolic, and Hormonal Markers in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Yunus; Ozaksit, Gülnur; Serdar Unlu, Bekir; Ozgu, Emre; Energin, Hasan; Kaba, Metin; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin, metabolic and hor- monal parameters, and insulin resistance in patients with non-treated polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 81 patients admitted to out-patient clinic with complaints of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and obesity were enrolled. Serum adiponectin, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and 75 gram oral glu- cose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: We observed inverse correlations between serum adiponectin level and body mass index, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance score, insulin level, fast- ing glucose level, and prolactin level (p=0.001, p=0.02, p=0.04, p=0.02, and p=0.005, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum adiponectin level and age, height, weight, Ferriman-Gallwey score, 2 hours OGTT test value and free tes- tosterone level (p=0.3, p=0.6, p=0.2, p=0.8, p=0.9, and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in polycystic ovary syndrome patients, when serum adiponectin level decreased, degree of insulin resistance increased. Our find- ings indicate that serum adiponectin level is likely to be an adequate marker for deter- mination of the degree of insulin resistance, and may be a predictor of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, which develop on the basis of insulin resistance. PMID:24520503

  20. Influence of exercise intensity on abdominal fat and adiponectin in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Coker, Robert H; Williams, Rick H; Kortebein, Patrick M; Sullivan, Dennis H; Evans, William J

    2009-08-01

    To examine the influence of moderate-intensity (50% of VO(2peak)) exercise training (MI) versus high-intensity (75% of VO(2peak)) exercise training (HI) on regional fat distribution and plasma adiponectin, we randomized 18 overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) elderly (71 +/- 1 years) to HI, MI, or a control group (CON). Subjects enrolled in HI or MI completed a 12-week exercise training protocol designed to expend 1000 kcal/week. Body composition testing was completed prior to and following the exercise training using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and a computed tomography scan. Plasma adiponectin was measured using enzymelinked immunoassay (ELISA). VO(2peak) improved in HI and MI, whereas there was no change in VO(2peak) in CON. No significant change in body weight, BMI, and % fat occurred in MI, HI, or CON. Although there was a significant reduction in visceral fat with HI (-39 cm(2)), there was no change in the MI or CON groups. In addition, there was a significant increase in thigh muscle attenuation in the HI group. There were no changes in thigh muscle attenuation in the MI and CON groups. Also, there was no change in plasma adiponectin in the MI, HI, or CON groups. In summary, our direct comparison of exercise intensity without weight loss promotes the efficacy of HI in the reduction in visceral fat, even without changes in adiponectin. PMID:19196080

  1. Adiponectin and Leptin Trajectories in Mexican-American Children from Birth to 9 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Vitaly; Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Dav, Veronica; Tyler, Kristin; Vedar, Michelle; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines), over childhood. Subjects and Design Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. Results Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 02, 25, and 59-year periods increased for both leptin (r?=?0.06, 0.31 and 0.62) and adiponectin (r?=?0.25, 0.41 and 0.46). Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable]) and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]). While leptin groups were most separated over the 29-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR?=?1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L). Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR?=?1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A). Conclusion Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to be further explored. PMID:24205046

  2. Role of adiponectin in obesity related gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Aliya, Sheik; Alese, Olatunji Boladale

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin is produced in the white adipose tissue and is known to have anti-metabolic and anti-inflammatory properties. Serum/plasma adiponectin levels depend on diet, physical activity, and inheritance. Epidemiologic observations suggest a potential link between obesity and gastrointestinal malignancies. Low levels of adiponectin, which are known to occur in obesity, may contribute to the high incidence of cancer in this population. This review discusses the biochemical and molecular evidence regarding the relationship between adiponectin and gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and provides several future perspectives on the role of adiponectin as a target for prevention and therapy. PMID:25007742

  3. Adiponectin receptor and adiponectin signaling in human tissue among patients with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Cantarin, Maria P.; Keith, Scott W.; Waldman, Scott A.; Falkner, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Background Adiponectin plasma levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two to three times higher than in individuals with normal kidney function. Despite adiponectin's anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, patients with CKD have insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Hence, although adiponectin production is increased by adipose tissue in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), it is unclear if its effects on metabolism remain intact. Methods To determine if there is adiponectin resistance in ESRD, we measured tissue levels of adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin downstream effectors in ESRD patients compared with normal kidney function controls. Blood and tissue samples were obtained from participants at the time of kidney transplantation or kidney donation. A follow-up blood sample was obtained 36 months after transplantation. Results AdipoR1 was higher in muscle and peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from ESRD patients. There was also a nonsignificant increase in AdipoR1 in visceral fat of ESRD compared with controls. Compared with controls, phosphorylation of the adiponectin downstream effector adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was higher in ESRD while acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (ACC-P) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) levels were lower. In vitro, exposure of C2C12 cells to uremic serum resulted in upregulation of AdipoR1 and increased phosphorylation of AMPK but decreased ACC-P and CPT-1 expression. Conclusion Both our in vivo and in vitro observations indicate that uremia results in upregulation of AdipoR1 but adiponectin resistance at the post-receptor level. PMID:25049200

  4. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study could advance our understanding of HMW PAHs biodegradation and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102148), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110091120063).

  5. High-power DPSS Laser hosted on a HMW-THS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchetti, Maurizio

    2007-02-01

    The Hollow Metallic Winglets / HMW-THS, a turbo engine optimised for cooling electronics, handles large flows of energy, gas and air. Its heat exchanging shell, of huge area, tops the pressurised Can; the bottom fits a window. The hosted machine is built around a large inner gas distributor which integrates the main athermal structures. Considering the power levels, the ducting ease of both outer air-flows is as important and cuts noise. Two banks of hybrid mounted Laser Diodes / LDs, side or end feed each lasing Z-slab, thin and exposed to the cooling gas, which flows fast on both sides. The least path to reach the cooling gas minimises dT; to further reduce the thermal lensing effects, the local cooling can be tailored / spoiled to copy the heating density. The simplest optical etc layout is preferable but the current schemes and materials seem suitable; if required, the slab ends etc can be Brewster cut etc. The pumping section can sport a MOPA configuration to eases this function exploiting coherence. The inner pressure can be relevat but affects mildly only the outer window. Compactness and more degrees of symmetry lead to a natural athermal behaviour; the inner structure includes gas ducts dedicated to equalize its temperature. The neuter, clean He sports a top C P and flows easily; speed and pressure increase the heat removal rate and reduce dT; the fast cycle can be important. H II would spoil the HT / HR coatings and the electronics and generates water. Note that He was used to cool the largest AC generators. To improve the heat removal from hot spots or weak elements, a Thermo Electric cooler can yield local, sub-ambient temperature flows. A cycle including dedicated turbo stages, intercoolers and gas expansion suits larger critical sections.

  6. Expression of the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen by pericytes during angiogenesis in tumors and in healing wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Rietveld, F. J.; de Waal, R. M.; Ferrone, S.; Ruiter, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of immunohistochemical characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies recognizing the human high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), a striking reactivity with blood vessels in the tumor stroma was noted. Immunocytochemical analysis by light and electronmicroscopy of a panel of tissues and cell lines showed that the staining of microvessels by anti-HMW-MAA monoclonal antibodies was restricted to pericytes. Correspondingly, anti-HMW-MAA monoclonal antibodies were found to react with cultured pericytes from human brain, but not with endothelial cells in serologic assays, and to immunoprecipitate from biosynthetically labeled pericytes an antigen with the characteristic structural profile of HMW-MAA. At the subcellular level, the expression of HMW-MAA in cultured pericytes was mainly restricted to microspikes that are localized in clusters on the cellular membrane. Staining by anti-HMW-MAA monoclonal antibodies of pericytes was not only found in the tumor stroma, but also in other lesions associated with angiogenesis, such as granulation tissue of wound healing and synovitis. In these lesions, microvascular staining for another marker of pericytes, ie, alpha-smooth muscle actin, also was observed. These results suggest that, in conditions associated with vascular proliferation, 1) pericytes acquire HMW-MAA and 2) the number of pericytes may be increased as compared with normal tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:1694058

  7. The effects of three training methods endurance, resistance and concurrent on adiponectin resting levels in overweighed untrained men.

    PubMed

    Asad, M; Ravasi, A A; Faramarzi, M; Pournemati, P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the impacts of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on adiponectin resting levels of sedentary men. Forty-four sedentary students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: endurance training (ET; 22 0.89 yr, n=12), resistance training (RT, 21 1.57 yr, n=9), concurrent training (CT, 21.38 2.6 yr, n=14) and control group (CG, n=10). After primary measurements, blood samples were drawn with subjects in fasting and resting state for determination of the basic level of adiponectin. The subjects participated in E, R and C training for 8 weeks. The ET group ran 3d/w at 65-85 % of maximum heart rate. The exercise training session for the RT group consisted of 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions of weight training exercise that increase progressively, and repeated 3 sessions per week. The CT group trained exactly the sum of ET and RT groups. Correlated samples t-test and ANOVA were used. The results of the present study showed that after the eight-week training, the adiponectin levels of subjects increased in 3 groups of training but this increase was not significant. The level of adiponectin in CT group increased more than in ET and RT groups. Also, there were no significant differences in content of adiponectin among groups.In general, slight increases in adiponectin levels in training groups especially in CT group may indicate the most potential of CT group in increasing the levels of adiponectin in sedentary men. However more researches are needed to identify the effects of concurrent training (Tab. 4, Ref. 27). PMID:23137206

  8. Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiying; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Muxun; Lu, Huiling; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Hongwei; Cianflone, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid) are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. Methods A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid subjects, 23 hypothyroid subjects and 30 control subjects. Subjects were evaluated for FT4, FT3, TSH, glucose, insulin, complete lipid profile and the adipokines: adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3. Results Hyperthyroidism was associated with a 95% increase in adiponectin (p = 0.0002), a 47% decrease in C3 (p < 0.0001), no change in ASP and increased ASP/C3 ratio (p = 0.0012). Hypothyroidism was associated with a 31% increase in ASP (p = 0.008). Adiponectin and C3 correlated with FT3 (r = 0.383, p = 0.004 and r = -0.277, p = 0.007, respectively) and FT4 (r = 0.464, p = 0.003 and r = -0.225, p = 0.03, respectively). ASP correlated with TSH (r = 0.202, p = 0.04). Adiponectin did not correlate with either ASP or C3, only ASP and C3 correlated (r = -0.197, p = 0.05). Adiponectin was negatively correlated with BMI, total cholesterol and plasma triglyceride, while C3 was positively correlated with BMI and total cholesterol. Surprisingly, adiponectin was positively correlated with insulin (r = 0.293, p = 0.02) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.373, p = 0.003) while C3 was negatively correlated with glucose (r = -0.242, p = 0.022, insulin (r = -0.184, p = 0.05) and HOMA-IR. Conclusion These changes suggest that thyroid disease may be accompanied by changes in adipokines, which may contribute to the phenotype expressed. PMID:16472384

  9. Maternal adiponectin controls milk composition to prevent neonatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zixue; Du, Yang; Schwaid, Adam G; Asterholm, Ingrid W; Scherer, Philipp E; Saghatelian, Alan; Wan, Yihong

    2015-04-01

    Adiponectin is an important adipokine. Increasing evidence suggests that altered adiponectin levels are linked with metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Here we report an important yet previously unrecognized function of adiponectin in lactation by which maternal adiponectin determines the inflammatory status in the nursing neonates. Surprisingly, both maternal adiponectin overexpression in the transgenic mice and maternal adiponectin deletion in the knockout mice lead to systemic inflammation in the pups, manifested as transient hair loss. However, distinct mechanisms are involved. Adiponectin deficiency triggers leukocyte infiltration and production of inflammatory cytokines in the lactating mammary gland. In contrast, adiponectin overabundance increases lipid accumulation in the lactating mammary gland, resulting in excessive long-chain saturated fatty acids in milk. Interestingly, in both cases, the inflammation and alopecia in the pups can be rescued by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/4 deletion because TLR2/4 double-knockout pups are resistant. Mechanistically, long-chain saturated fatty acid activation of inflammatory genes is TLR2/4 dependent and can be potentiated by proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the inflammatory stimuli in both scenarios functionally converge by activating the TLR2/4 signaling. Therefore, our findings reveal adiponectin as a dosage-dependent regulator of lactation homeostasis and milk quality that critically controls inflammation in the nursing neonates. Furthermore, these results suggest that inflammatory infantile disorders may result from maternal adiponectin dysregulation that can be treated by TLR2/4 inhibition. PMID:25590242

  10. Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Catherine; Fiquet, Samuel; Boudet, Julie; Dardevet, Mireille; Vincent, Jonathan; Merlino, Marielle; Michard, Robin; Martre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs) in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs) and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator). In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression. PMID:25429295

  11. Low circulating adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Huang, Xiamei; Zhong, Huizhi; Peng, Qiliu; Chen, Siyuan; Xie, Yantong; Qin, Xue; Qin, Aiping

    2014-05-01

    Adiponectin, as an important adipocytokine, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and metabolism. It has been reported that circulating adiponectin levels were decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results remained inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performed in this study. A comprehensive systematic electronic search was conducted in electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to November 30, 2013. Pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. A meta-analysis technique was used to study 38 trials involving 1,944 PCOS women and 1,654 healthy controls. Overall pooled adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly reduced compared with healthy controls (WMD -2.67, 95% CI -3.22 to -2.13; P?=?0.000), yet with significant heterogeneity across studies (I(2)?=?95.9%, P?=?0.000). In subgroup analysis by HOMA-IR ratio and total testosterone ratio, inconsistent results were presented. No single study was found to affect the overall results by sensitivity testing. Meta-regression suggested that BMI might contribute little to the heterogeneity between including studies. Cumulative meta-analysis demonstrated the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis results. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Our meta-analysis suggested that circulating adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly lower than those in healthy controls, which indicated that circulating adiponectin might play a role in the development of PCOS. PMID:24414393

  12. Associations between perinatal factors and adiponectin and leptin in 9-year-old Mexican-American children

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Vitaly; Harley, Kim G.; Aguilar, Raul S.; Rosas, Lisa G.; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Dav, Veronica; Phan, Nguyet; Lustig, Robert H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine whether perinatal factors (including maternal anthropometry and nutrition and early life growth measures) are associated with adiponectin and leptin levels in 9-year-old children, and 2) assess relationships between adiponectin, leptin and concurrent lipid profile in these children. Methods We measured plasma adiponectin and leptin for 146 mother - 9-year-old child pairs from the ongoing longitudinal birth cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). Data on perinatal factors, including sociodemographics, maternal anthropometry and nutrition, and early life child growth were collected during pregnancy, birth and 6-month visits. Results Greater rate of weight and length gain during the first 6 months of life were associated with lower adiponectin in 9-year-olds (?=?2.0, P=0.04; ?=?8.2, P=0.02, respectively) adjusting for child BMI. We found no associations between child adipokine levels and either maternal calorie, protein, total fat, saturated fat, fiber, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy or childrens concurrent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food intake. Lipid profile in 9-year-old children closely reflected adiponectin but not leptin levels after adjustment for child BMI. Additionally, we report that child adipokine levels were closely related to their mothers levels at the 9-year-visit. Conclusion Overall, our results support the hypothesis that early life factors may contribute to altered adipokine levels in children. PMID:23325579

  13. Role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sewon; Kwak, Hyo-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Under disease conditions including obesity (insulin resistance) and diabetes, dysregulation of adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin contribute to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Unlike other adipokines, adiponectin has been shown to be a therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Circulating levels of adiponectin are markedly reduced in obese, diabetic, hypertensive, and coronary artery disease patients as well as experimental animal models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Recently, the small molecule adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) agonist was discovered and suggested that the agonist is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes linked to obesity in an experimental mouse model. This review will focus on signaling pathways involved in adiponectin and its receptors and the role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease including insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24877038

  14. Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Tamura, Shinji; Kiso, Shinichi Hayashi, Norio

    2009-01-02

    We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

  15. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  16. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=−0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=−0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=−0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  17. Adiponectin inhibits VEGF-A in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiruo; Zheng, Junhua; Yao, Xudong; Peng, Bo

    2015-06-01

    A role of adiponectin in tumorigenesis has recently been appreciated. Although plasma adiponectin levels in subjects with prostate cancer have been found to be significantly lower than in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia or in normal healthy controls, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we not only detected significant decreases in plasma adiponectin levels in prostate cancer patients, but also showed significant decreases in adiponectin receptor I (AdipoR1) levels in the resected prostate cancer specimen. Prostate cancer cell lines examined in the current study had all lower levels of adiponectin and AdipoR1, compared to normal healthy prostate tissue. Moreover, overexpression of adiponectin in prostate cancer cells decreased production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), while adiponectin depletion increased VEGF-A. Furthermore, adiponectin seemed to activate AMPK/TSC2 to inhibit mTor-mediated activation of VEGF-A. Taken together, our data suggest that adiponectin may play an essential role in suppressing growth of prostate cancer cells through inhibition of VEGF-A-mediated cancer neovascularization. PMID:25586350

  18. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. PMID:25653535

  19. Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases AMPK and PPAR activities, respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)s. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9- and 2.4- resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of GPCRs, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may play a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the C-terminal flexible tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

  20. Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-04-16

    Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9 and 2.4 resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of G-protein-coupled receptors, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may have a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather thanthe carboxy-terminal tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

  1. Effects of Sugar-sweetened Beverages on plasma Acylation Stimulating Protein, Leptin & Adiponectin and Metabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Reza; Cianflone, Katherine; McGahan, John P.; Berglund, Lars; Bremer, Andrew A.; Keim, Nancy L.; Griffen, Steven C.; Havel, Peter J.; Stanhope, Kimber L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We determined the effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity. Design and Methods 32 overweight/obese adults consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages (25% energy requirement) with their ad libitum diets for 8 weeks, followed by sweetened beverage consumption for 2 weeks with a standardized, energy-balanced diet. Plasma variables were measured at baseline, 2, 8 and 10 weeks, and body adiposity and insulin sensitivity at baseline and 10 weeks. Results Fasting and postprandial ASP concentrations increased at 2 and/or 8 weeks. ASP increases correlated with changes in late-evening triglyceride concentrations. At 10 weeks, fasting adiponectin levels decreased in both groups, and decreases were inversely associated with baseline intra-abdominal fat volume. Sugar consumption increased fasting leptin concentrations; increases were associated with body weight changes. 24-h leptin profiles increased during glucose consumption and decreased during fructose consumption. These changes correlated with changes of 24-h insulin levels. Conclusions The consumption of fructose and glucose beverages induced changes in plasma concentrations of ASP, adiponectin and leptin. Further study is required to determine if these changes contribute to the metabolic dysfunction observed during fructose consumption. PMID:23512943

  2. Tracing the movement of adiponectin in a parabiosis model of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is exclusively synthesized by adipocytes and exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated in obese individuals with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for hypoadiponectinemia remain unclear. Here, we investigated adiponectin movement using hetero parabiosis model of wild type (WT) and adiponectin-deficient (KO) mice. WT mice were parabiosed with WT mice (WT-WT) or KO mice (WT-KO) and adiponectin levels were measured serially up to 63days after surgery. In the WT-KO parabiosis model, circulating adiponectin levels of the WT partners decreased rapidly, on the other hand, those of KO partners increased, and then these reached comparable levels each other at day 7. Circulating adiponectin levels decreased further to the detection limit of assay, and remained low up to day 63. However, adiponectin protein was detected in the adipose tissues of not only the WT partner but also WT-KO mice. In the diet-induced obesity model, high adiponectin protein levels were detected in adipose stromal vascular fraction of diet-induced obese KO partner, without changes in its binding proteins. The use of parabiosis experiments shed light on movement of native adiponectin among different tissues such as the state of hypoadiponectinemia in obesity. PMID:24918039

  3. Resistance training improves cardiovascular risk factors in obese women despite a significative decrease in serum adiponectin levels.

    PubMed

    Ibez, Javier; Izquierdo, Mikel; Martnez-Labari, Cristina; Ortega, Francisco; Grijalba, Ana; Forga, Luis; Idoate, Fernando; Garca-Unciti, Marisol; Fernndez-Real, Jos M; Gorostiaga, Esteban M

    2010-03-01

    Increased circulating adiponectin and insulin sensitivity are usually observed after body fat loss induced by a weight-loss diet. Progressive resistance training (PRT) without a concomitant weight-loss diet significantly decreases visceral fat, thus improving insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the effects of combined 16-week PRT and weight-loss diet on circulating adiponectin and insulin sensitivity index. Thirty-four obese (BMI: 30-40 kg/m(2)) women, aged 40-60 year, were randomized to three groups: a control group (C; n = 9); a diet group (WL; n = 12) with a caloric restriction of 500 kcal/d; and a diet plus resistance training group (WL+RT; n = 13) with the same caloric restriction as group WL and a 16-week supervised whole body PRT of two sessions/week. Both WL and WL+RT groups showed similar decreases in body mass (-6.3% and -7.7%) and visceral fat (-19.9% and -20.5%). WL resulted in an expected increase in circulating levels of adiponectin (P = 0.07) and insulin sensitivity. However, circulating total adiponectin decreased (P < 0.05) in WL+RT group, whereas an improvement in different cardiovascular risk factors (insulin sensitivity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), etc.) was observed. In conclusion, in obese women a 16-week combined PRT and weight-loss diet is accompanied by significant improvements in different cardiovascular risk factors in spite of a significant decrease of circulating adiponectin. PMID:19713947

  4. Low Serum Adiponectin Predicts Future Risk for Asthma in Women

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, Clifford; Schuyler, Mark; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Steffes, Michael W.; Smith, Lewis J.; Jacobs, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Our previous cross-sectional study showed that serum adiponectin is inversely associated with asthma among women. However, it is not known if serum adiponectin predicts future development of asthma or if asthma affects subsequent serum adiponectin concentrations among women. Objectives: To determine longitudinal association between serum adiponectin and incident asthma among women. Methods: We used data from examinations at Years 10, 15, and 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. In our primary analysis, the association of CARDIA Year 15 serum adiponectin concentration with Year 20 incident asthma was evaluated. In our secondary analysis, the converse direction, that is, the association of CARDIA Year 10 prevalent asthma with Year 15 serum adiponectin, was evaluated, using logistic regression techniques. Measurements and Main Results: Our primary analysis included 1,450 women, mostly premenopausal. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that the lowest tertile of Year 15 serum adiponectin concentration (<7 mg/L) predicted significantly higher risk for incident asthma at Year 20 among women (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 4.10), and particularly among current smokers (interaction P = 0.051). Further, low serum adiponectin was more important than body mass index in predicting the risk for incident asthma among women. We also showed that the converse relationship was not true; that is, Year 10 prevalent asthma did not predict Year 15 serum adiponectin concentrations in women. Conclusions: Serum adiponectin affects future risk for asthma in women and not vice versa. Measures that raise systemic adiponectin concentrations may lead to newer ways to prevent asthma among women, particularly among those who smoke. PMID:22492987

  5. Association of polymorphism in adiponectin (+45 T/G) and leptin (2548 G/A) genes with type 2 diabetes mellitus in male Egyptians

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek; Salman, Tarek; Shaker, Olfat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific protein with insulin-sensitizing properties. Many investigators have explored the association between adiponectin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different ethnic populations from different regions. Leptin is a protein hormone constituting an important signal in the regulation of adipose tissue mass and body weight. The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between SNP +45 T>G of the adiponectin gene and SNP 2548G/A of leptin with T2DM and the effect of SNPs on serum adiponectin and leptin levels. Material and methods From the Egyptian population, we enrolled 110 T2DM patients and 90 non-diabetic controls. Serum lipid profile, blood glucose, serum adiponectin, and leptin were measured. Genotyping for two common SNPs of the adiponectin and leptin genes was performed by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The G allele and TG/GG genotype of SNP 45 occurred more frequently than the T allele and TT genotype in T2DM patients compares to the controls. Subjects with the GG + TG genotype of SNP 45 were at increased risk for T2DM (OR = 6.476; 95% CI: 3.40112.33) and associated with a low serum adiponectin level compared with the TT genotype. The serum leptin concentration of GA + AA genotype carriers was not significantly different from that of the GG genotype in the diabetic group. Conclusions The G allele carriers who have reduced plasma concentrations of adiponectin may have an association with T2DM, while leptin SNP 2548 G/A is not associated with the risk of development of T2DM in the Egyptian population. PMID:26528333

  6. The role of adiponectin in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Edward; Rodríguez-Molina, Daloha; Bolli, Peter; Israili, Zafar H; Faría, Judith; Fidilio, Enzamaría; Bermúdez, Valmore; Velasco, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    It has been two decades since the discovery of adiponectin, and today its role in insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are areas of major interest. Production of adiponectin is reduced in all inflammatory processes and states of insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin regulates carbohydrate metabolism, and may also regulate vascular homeostasis by affecting important signaling pathways in endothelial cells and modulating inflammatory responses in the subendothelial space. Clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between serum adiponectin concentrations and the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing changes in blood pressure. Antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been demonstrated to increase adiponectin levels in 3-6 months. Adiponectin has also been shown to play a role in cardiac injury in modulation of pro-survival reactions, cardiac energy metabolism, and inhibition of hypertrophic remodeling. The effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are believed to be partially mediated by the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways, reducing endothelial cell apoptosis, promoting nitric oxide production, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) activity, and preventing atherosclerotic proliferation and smooth muscle cell migration. Further evaluation of biologically active forms of adiponectin and its receptor should help to clarify how obesity affects the cardiovascular system. PMID:24924994

  7. T-cadherin Is Essential for Adiponectin-mediated Revascularization*

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tigges, Ulrich; Yoshida, Sumiko; Denzel, Martin S.; Ranscht, Barbara; Walsh, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes protein factors that have systemic actions on cardiovascular tissues. Previous studies have shown that ablation of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin leads to endothelial dysfunction, whereas its overexpression promotes wound healing. However, the receptor(s) mediating the protective effects of adiponectin on the vasculature is not known. Here we examined the role of membrane protein T-cadherin, which localizes adiponectin to the vascular endothelium, in the revascularization response to chronic ischemia. T-cadherin-deficient mice were analyzed in a model of hind limb ischemia where blood flow is surgically disrupted in one limb and recovery is monitored over 28 days by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. In this model, T-cadherin-deficient mice phenocopy adiponectin-deficient mice such that both strains display an impaired blood flow recovery compared with wild-type controls. Delivery of exogenous adiponectin rescued the impaired revascularization phenotype in adiponectin-deficient mice but not in T-cadherin-deficient mice. In cultured endothelial cells, T-cadherin deficiency by siRNA knockdown prevented the ability of adiponectin to promote cellular migration and proliferation. These data highlight a previously unrecognized role for T-cadherin in limb revascularization and show that it is essential for mediating the vascular actions of adiponectin. PMID:23824191

  8. Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is produced exclusively by adipose tissue and is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome scan of circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children. The present study included extended families with ...

  9. Intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin regulates locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Ueta, Tomoyo; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing exercise motivation is the best way to prevent obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined whether adiponectin affects locomotion activity in Wister and Spontaneously-Running Tokushima-Shikoku (SPORTS) rats using two types of behavioral assays: home cage and wheel running activity. SPORTS rats were established from an original line from Wister strain that had shown high level of wheel running activity in our laboratory. Injection of adiponectin into the lateral ventricle of Wister rats and SPORTS rats decreased home cage activity, but no change was observed in the food intake and oxygen consumption. This result indicates the possibility that adiponectin can reduce non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity via the central nervous system. In contrast, injection of adiponectin did not change wheel running activity in SPORTS rats. We produced hypothalamus-destructed model rat using monosodium glutamate (MSG) to elucidate the regulation site of adiponectin. Injection of adiponectin into MSG-treated SPORTS rats did not change amount of home cage activity and food intake, suggesting that adiponectin action on home cage activity was in the hypothalamic area. These results suggest that adiponectin regulates locomotion activity through mediobasal hypothalamus. PMID:26399348

  10. The modulation of adiponectin by STAT5-activating hormones.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula A; Maier, Joel; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-15

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted from adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin sensitivity and protects against metabolic syndrome. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) are potent STAT5 activators that regulate the expression of several genes in adipocytes. Studies have shown that the secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue is decreased by treatment with PRL and GH. In this study, we demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GH or PRL exhibit a reduction in adiponectin protein levels. Furthermore, we identified three putative STAT5 binding sites in the murine adiponectin promoter and show that only one of these, located at -3,809, binds nuclear protein in a GH- or PRL-dependent manner. Mutation of the STAT5 binding site reduced PRL-dependent protein binding, and supershift analysis revealed that STAT5A and -5B, but not STAT1 and -3, bind to this site in response to PRL. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) analysis demonstrated that only STAT5A, and not STAT1 and -3, bind to the murine adiponectin promoter in a GH-dependent manner in vivo. Adiponectin promoter/reporter constructs were responsive to GH, and chromatin IP analysis reveals that STAT5 binds the adiponectin promoter in vivo following GH stimulation. Overall, these data strongly suggest that STAT5 activators regulate adiponectin transcription through the binding of STAT5 to the -3,809 site that leads to decreased adiponectin expression and secretion. These mechanistic observations are highly consistent with studies in mice and humans that have high GH or PRL levels that are accompanied by lower circulating levels of adiponectin. PMID:26601851

  11. Reduced-energy diet improves survival of obese KKAy mice with viral myocarditis: induction of cardiac adiponectin expression.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tsugiyasu; Saegusa, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Takashi; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeto; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Iwai, Kunimitsu; Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2007-07-31

    Obesity is an important risk factor for heart disease. Whether weight loss affects the severity of heart failure induced by viral myocarditis is a matter of debate. We hypothesized that weight loss could improve cardiac dysfunction by inducing cardiac expression of a cardioprotective cytokine, adiponectin. We examined the relationship between weight loss by food restriction and heart failure due to viral myocarditis in obese KKAy mice. We intraperitoneally injected encephalomyocarditis virus (500 plaque-forming units/mouse) into KKAy mice fed ad libitum as a control (CF) or 60% restriction of that eaten by ad libitum (RF). The 14-day survival rate was 0% in FF, whereas it was 23% in RF (P<0.01). Heart weight/body weight ratio in RF was lower than that in FF on day 5 after viral inoculation (P<0.05). Histological scores for myocardial necrosis and inflammation on day 5 were significantly lower in RF than in FF (P<0.05). Circulating adiponectin level on day 0 was significantly elevated in RF compared with that in FF (32+9 vs. 22+2 microg/mL, P<0.05). Comparative expression of cardiac adiponectin mRNA in RF was significantly higher than that in FF (5.1+0.3 vs. 1+0.2, P<0.05). Cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA in RF was significantly decreased compared with that in FF on day 5 (P<0.05). Cardiac expression of nuclear factor kappa B was reduced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mRNA was increased in RF in comparison with FF on day 0. Cardiac adiponectin mRNA was negatively correlated with cardiac TNF-alpha mRNA (r=-0.555; P=0.0097). Weight loss improved the survival and myocardial damage in obese mice with viral myocarditis, with cardiac induction of adiponectin. The induction of adiponectin might provide benefit through a cardioprotective effect against acute heart failure due to viral myocarditis in obese subjects. PMID:17275107

  12. Identification of Intact High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits from the Wheat Proteome Using Combined Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Rombouts, Ine; Koehler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes a method for the identification of intact high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), the quality determining proteins from the wheat storage proteome. The method includes isolation of HMW-GS from wheat flour, further separation of HMW-GS by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their subsequent molecular identification with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass analyzer. For HMW-GS isolation, wheat proteins were reduced and extracted from flour with 50% 1-propanol containing 1% dithiothreitol. HMW-GS were then selectively precipitated from the protein mixture by adjusting the 1-propanol concentration to 60%. The composition of the precipitated proteins was first evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Coomassie staining and RP-HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Besides HMW-GS (≥65%), the isolated proteins mainly contained ω5-gliadins. Secondly, the isolated protein fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Optimal chromatographic separation of HMW-GS from the other proteins in the isolated fraction was obtained when the mobile phase contained 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing agent. Individual HMW-GS were then identified by determining their molecular masses from the high-resolution mass spectra and comparing these with theoretical masses calculated from amino acid sequences. Using formic acid instead of trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase increased protein peak intensities in the base peak mass chromatogram. This allowed the detection of even traces of other wheat proteins than HMW-GS in the isolated fraction, but the chromatographic separation was inferior with a major overlap between the elution ranges of HMW-GS and ω-gliadins. Overall, the described method allows a rapid assessment of wheat quality through the direct determination of the HMW-GS composition and offers a basis for further top-down proteomics of individual HMW-GS and the entire wheat glutenin fraction. PMID:23520527

  13. Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio )

    1993-11-05

    The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

  14. Nuclear receptors as targets for drug development: molecular mechanisms for regulation of obesity and insulin resistance by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CREB-binding protein, and adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is defined as increased mass of adipose tissue, conferring a higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and coronary heart disease. To investigate the role of transcriptional factors, which are involved in adipocytes differentiation and adiposity, we have generated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma or CREB-binding protein (CBP)-deficient mice by gene targeting. Heterozygous PPARgamma-deficient mice were protected from the development of insulin resistance due to adipocyte hypertrophy under a high-fat diet. Heterozygous CBP-deficient mice showed increased insulin sensitivity and were completely protected from body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. PPARgamma or CBP deficiency results in increased effects of hormones such as adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin was decreased in obesity and lipoatrophy, and replenishment of adiponectin ameliorated insulin resistance. Moreover, adiponectin-deficient mice showed insulin resistance and atherogenic phenotype. Finally, cDNA encoding adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/R2) have been identified by expression cloning. The expression of AdipoR1/R2 appears to be inversely regulated by insulin in physiological and pathophysiological states such as fasting/refeeding, insulin deficiency, and hyperinsulinemia models, and it is correlated with adiponectin sensitivity. These results facilitate the understanding of molecular mechanisms of adiponectin actions and obesity-linked diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis and propose the molecular targets for anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic drugs. PMID:15725703

  15. Mechanisms of assembly of wheat high molecular weight glutenins inferred from expression of wild-type and mutant subunits in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shani, N; Rosenberg, N; Kasarda, D D; Galili, G

    1994-03-25

    Following sequestration into the endoplasmic reticulum, wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) assemble into polymers through intermolecular disulfide bond formation. These polymers, which also include low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), have a broad distribution of molecular mass reaching up to several million daltons. To study the mechanism of assembly of the HMW-GS, we have expressed x- and y-type HMW-GS in transgenic tobacco plants. Both types, when expressed individually or in combination, were incorporated into polymers. Partial reduction of polymers formed by different subunits resulted in different patterns of release of homodimers, heterodimers, and monomers. This suggested different arrangements of intermolecular disulfide bonds or different peptide conformations in the vicinity of the disulfide bonds linking x-x, y-y, and x-y type HMW-GS. A mutant of the x-type subunit, lacking a conserved cysteine in the C-terminal domain, assembled into oligomers linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds, but not into large polymers. This mutant was deposited, however, in dense protein bodies, similar to those formed by the native HMW-GS, suggesting that polymer formation and packaging into protein bodies may be the result of different types of interactions. Pulse-chase labeling of proteins in wheat endosperm showed that the assembly of the HMW-GS into insoluble polymers occurs by a slow process which apparently continues after the initiation of protein body formation. PMID:8132629

  16. DIFFERENTIATION OF ALLELIC VARIATIONS OF THE HMW GLUTENIN SUBUNITS OF WHEAT FLOURS BY USE OF MIXING PARAMETERS AND POLYMERIC PROTEIN CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk and OK102, each with four different lines of differing HMW-GS composition were analyzed. The mixing parameters from a 10-g mixograph were utilized to discriminate among different cultivars as well as differen...

  17. Differentiation of allelic variations of the HMW glutenin subunits of wheat flours by use of mixing parameters and polymeric protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk (CK) and OK102, each with four lines differing in HMW-GS composition were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis of mixograph parameters. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify signific...

  18. Effect of psoriasis activity on serum adiponectin and leptin levels

    PubMed Central

    Flisiak, Iwona; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Świderska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is an inflammatory and chronic skin disease associated with obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, as bioactive substances secreted from adipose tissue, are involved in various metabolic diseases. Aim To investigate the association between psoriasis severity and serum adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with psoriasis. Material and methods Serum fasting adiponectin and leptin levels were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 49 patients with relapse of plaque-type psoriasis and 16 healthy controls. The results were correlated with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), several inflammatory markers, duration of the disease and present relapse. Results Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly decreased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the control group. There were no correlations between the above measures and PASI scores, patients’ age, duration of the disease, present relapse and hospitalization, neither between white blood cells or platelets counts. Serum adiponectin levels significantly correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Adiponectin was negatively and leptin positively correlated to BMI at statistical significance. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between adiponectin and CRP or PASI concentrations as well as between BMI and leptin concentration. Conclusions The data showed that serum adiponectin levels increase and serum leptin levels decrease with psoriasis severity. Leptin might be useful in assessing severity and the risk of complications of psoriasis. Moreover, these results confirmed the relationship between leptin, obesity and psoriasis. PMID:26015779

  19. Impact of Adiponectin Overexpression on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Verbout, Norah G.; Williams, Alison S.; Kasahara, David I.; Wurmbrand, Allison P.; Halayko, Andrew J.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma. Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that transgenic overexpression of adiponectin would attenuate allergic airways inflammation and mucous hyperplasia in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing adiponectin (Adipo Tg). Adipo Tg mice had marked increases in both serum adiponectin and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid adiponectin. Both acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge protocols were used. In both protocols, OVA-induced increases in total BAL cells were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice. In the acute protocol, OVA-induced increases in several IL-13 dependent genes were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, even though IL-13 per se was not affected. With chronic exposure, though OVA-induced increases in goblet cells numbers per millimeter of basement membrane were greater in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, mRNA abundance of mucous genes in lungs was not different. Also, adiponectin overexpression did not induce M2 polarization in alveolar macrophages. Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia. PMID:23861690

  20. Pathway-Based Genome-wide Association Studies Reveal That the Rac1 Pathway Is Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Dong; Jiao, Hongxiao; Wang, Kai; Yang, Fuhua; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ahima, Rexford; Arlen Price, R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathway-based analysis as an alternative and effective approach to identify disease-related genes or loci has been verified. To decipher the genetic background of plasma adiponectin levels, we performed genome wide pathway-based association studies in extremely obese individuals and normal-weight controls. The modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) was used to perform the pathway-based analyses (the GenGen Program) in 746 European American females, which were collected from our previous GWAS in extremely obese (BMI?>?35?kg/m2) and never-overweight (BMI<25?kg/m2) controls. Rac1 cell motility signaling pathway was associated with plasma adiponectin after false-discovery rate (FDR) correction (empirical P?adiponectin levels and biological functions of adiponectin. PMID:26299439

  1. Association between adiponectin levels and endometrial carcinoma risk: evidence from a doseresponse meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tong; Zhao, Xin; Kong, Wei-min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between adiponectin levels and endometrial carcinoma risk have produced inconsistent results. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between them. Methods Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through January of 2015. A random-effects model was used to combine the data for analysis. Doseresponse relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Results Twelve articles (5 prospective studies and 7 casecontrol studies) involving 1916 endometrial carcinoma cases were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that highest adiponectin levels versus lowest levels were significantly associated with the risk of endometrial carcinoma (summary relative risk (RR)=0.525, 95% CI 0.388 to 0.712, I2=64.2%). The association was also found in postmenopausal women (summary RR=0.646, 95% CI 0.433 to 0.964), but not in premenopausal women. A linear doseresponse relationship was found, with the risk of endometrial carcinoma decreasing by 3% for every 1??g/mL increase in adiponectin levels (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.98). No publication bias was found. Conclusions Our analysis suggested that the higher adiponectin levels might have a protective effect against endometrial carcinoma, especially in postmenopausal women. PMID:26338840

  2. Association Between Adiponectin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Levels at Eight to Fourteen Weeks Gestation and Maternal Glucose Tolerance: The Parity, Inflammation, and Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nae Yuh; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Chang, Yi-Ting; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Inflammation may influence gestational hyperglycemia, but to date, the data from observational studies is largely limited to results from the third trimester of pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate first trimester adipocytokine levels. We sought to determine whether first trimester adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha concentrations were independently associated and predictive of maternal glucose tolerance, as measured by the 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT), after adjustment for maternal lifestyle behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Material and Methods Prospective study of pregnant women (n=211) enrolled in the Parity, Inflammation, and Diabetes Study. Nonfasting serum levels of adiponectin and TNF-r2 were measured at 814 weeks of pregnancy. GCT results were abstracted from electronic prenatal records. Multiple linear regression models were developed to determine the association of adiponectin and TNF-r2 levels with response to the GCT, adjusting for demographics, pregravid dietary intake and physical activity, first trimester BMI, and gestational weight gain. Results At baseline, higher adiponectin concentrations were inversely and statistically significantly associated with maternal response to the GCT [regression coefficient (?) ?0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?1.29, ?0.06). Adjustment for lifestyle factors did not alter the association of adiponectin with the GCT (? ?0.74; 95% CI: ?1.43, ?0.05). After adjustment for first trimester BMI, the association of adiponectin was attenuated and no longer significant (? ?0.46; 95% CI: ?1.15, 0.24). TNF-r2 levels were not associated with the GCT (? ?0.003; 95% CI: ?0.011, 0.005). Conclusions First trimester adiponectin levels are not predictive of the 1-hour GCT response, but may be a marker for the effect of maternal BMI on glucose response to the GCT. PMID:23480316

  3. Adiponectin Levels Are Reduced While Markers of Systemic Inflammation and Aortic Remodelling Are Increased in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Mother-Child Couple

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Silvia; Lapolla, Annunziata; Londero, Ambrogio Pietro; Cosma, Chiara; Dalfrà, Mariagrazia; Camerin, Martina; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Cosmi, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study. To investigate the relationships between the adipocytokine levels, markers of inflammation, and vascular remodelling in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study. One hundred and forty pregnant patients were enrolled. Adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in IUGR, small for gestational age (SGA), and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) mother-child couples at delivery. IUGR and SGA fetuses were defined as fetuses whose estimated fetal weight (EFW) was below 10th percentile for gestational age with and without umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities, respectively. Fetal aorta intima media thickness (aIMT) was evaluated by ultrasound in the same fetal groups. Data were analyzed by R (version 2.15.2). Results. There were 37 IUGR mother-child couples, 33 SGA, and 70 AGA. Leptin, TNFα, IL-6, and CRP serum levels were higher in IUGR pregnant patients (P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in IUGR fetuses compared to SGA and AGA, while leptin, TNFα, and IL-6 levels were higher in IUGR group (P ≤ 0.05). Fetal aIMT was significantly higher in IUGR (P < 0.05) and in this group there was a negative correlation between aIMT and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L ratio) (P < 0.05) and between adiponectin and IL-6 levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In conclusion, compared to SGA and AGA, IUGR fetuses had reduced circulating levels of adiponectin and elevated measures of aIMT and several inflammatory markers. Moreover, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with aIMT in IUGR fetuses suggesting a possible causal link between reduced adiponectin and vessel remodelling. PMID:25045669

  4. The Relationships of Leptin, Adiponectin Levels and Paraoxonase Activity with Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Females Treated with Psychiatric Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ozenoglu, Aliye; Balci, Huriye; Ugurlu, Serdal; Caglar, Erkan; Uzun, Hafize; Sarkis, Cihat; Gunay, Can; Eker E, Engin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 levels in adult females receiving pharmacotherapy for various psychiatric disorders. METHODS The study group consisted of 32 obese females (mean age 40.53 11.00 years, mean body mass index 35.44 5.33 kg/m2) who were receiving treatment for psychiatric disorders, and the control group included 22 obese females (mean age 35.95 9.16 years, mean body mass index 30.78 3.33 kg/m2) who were free of psychiatric disorders. Analyses were performed using a bioelectrical impedance device. Fasting blood samples were obtained for complete blood count and various biochemical tests, including determination of leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 activity. RESULTS Body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance, alanine transaminase, aspartate tarnsaminase, and leptin levels were significantly higher in the study group than in controls. Although body weight was positively correlated with leptin levels in both groups, body weight was negatively correlated with adiponectin levels in the control group and positively correlated with adiponectin levels in the study group. In the study group, body mass index and hip circumference correlated positively with leptin levels, hip circumference correlated positively with adiponectin levels, and waist to hip ratio correlated positively with paraoxonase levels. In the control group, body mass index as well as waist and hip circumferences were positively correlated with leptin levels. Weight, body mass index, and hip circumference were also negatively correlated with the adiponectin/leptin ratio in the control group. CONCLUSION This study indicates a higher risk for obesity-related disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in patients treated with psychiatric drugs. PMID:18925326

  5. Mendelian Randomization Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A.; Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Warren, Liling L.; Stanckov, Alena; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Lyytikinen, Leo-Pekka; Henneman, Peter; Wu, Ying; Cheung, Chloe Y.Y.; Pankow, James S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Xie, Weijia; Bergman, Richard N.; Boehnke, Michael; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Collins, Francis S.; Dunn, Sandra H.; Dupuis, Josee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gillson, Christopher; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hong, Jaeyoung; Khnen, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kronenberg, Florian; Doria, Alessandro; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Ferrannini, Ele; Hansen, Torben; Hao, Ke; Hring, Hans; Knowles, Joshua W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Nolan, John J.; Paananen, Jussi; Pedersen, Oluf; Quertermous, Thomas; Smith, Ulf; Lehtimki, Terho; Liu, Ching-Ti; Loos, Ruth J.F.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Morris, Andrew D.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Spector, Tim D.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Viikari, Jorma S.; Zhu, Na; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Semple, Robert K.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Walker, Mark; Lam, Karen S.L.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Mohlke, Karen L.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Raitakari, Olli T.; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Wareham, Nick J.; Laakso, Markku; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Meigs, James B.; Richards, J. Brent; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants at the ADIPOQ gene as instruments to calculate a regression slope between adiponectin levels and metabolic traits (up to 31,000 individuals) and a combination of instrumental variables and summary statisticsbased genetic risk scores to test the associations with gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (2,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 case subjects and 64,731 control subjects). In conventional regression analyses, a 1-SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31-SD (95% CI 0.260.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34-SD (0.300.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity, and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 (1.472.13). The instrumental variable analysis revealed no evidence of a causal association between genetically lower circulating adiponectin and higher fasting insulin (0.02 SD; 95% CI ?0.07 to 0.11; N = 29,771), nominal evidence of a causal relationship with lower insulin sensitivity (?0.20 SD; 95% CI ?0.38 to ?0.02; N = 1,860), and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.751.19; N = 2,777 case subjects and 13,011 control subjects). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores, we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin-lowering alleles and insulin sensitivity (effect per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: ?0.03 SD; 95% CI ?0.07 to 0.01; N = 2,969) or type 2 diabetes (OR per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: 0.99; 95% CI 0.951.04; 15,960 case subjects vs. 64,731 control subjects). These results do not provide any consistent evidence that interventions aimed at increasing adiponectin levels will improve insulin sensitivity or risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23835345

  6. The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  7. The adjuvant effects of high-molecule-weight polysaccharides purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on dendritic cell function and DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  8. Systemic Adiponectin Malfunction as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wayne Bond; Tao, Ling; Wang, Yajing; Li, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin (Ad) is an abundant protein hormone regulatory of numerous metabolic processes. The 30?kDa protein originates from adipose tissue, with full-length and globular domain circulatory forms. A collagenous domain within Ad leads to spontaneous self-assemblage into various oligomeric isoforms, including trimers, hexamers, and high-molecular-weight multimers. Two membrane-spanning receptors for Ad have been identified, with differing concentration distribution in various body tissues. The major intracellular pathway activated by Ad includes phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which is responsible for many of Ad's metabolic regulatory, anti-inflammatory, vascular protective, and anti-ischemic properties. Additionally, several AMP-activated protein kinase-independent mechanisms responsible for Ad's anti-inflammatory and anti-ischemic (resulting in cardioprotective) effects have also been discovered. Since its 1995 discovery, Ad has garnered considerable attention for its role in diabetic and cardiovascular pathology. Clinical observations have demonstrated the association of hypoadiponectinemia in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. In this review, we elaborate currently known information about Ad malfunction and deficiency pertaining to cardiovascular disease risk (including atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiac injury), as well as review evidence supporting Ad resistance as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular injury, providing insight about the future of Ad research and the protein's potential therapeutic benefits. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 18631873. PMID:21091079

  9. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases. PMID:26124928

  10. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases. PMID:26124928

  11. Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Risheng; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2013-01-01

    Almost 20 years have passed since the first laboratory evidence emerged that an abundant message encoding a protein with homology to the C1q superfamily is highly specifically expressed in adipocytes. At this stage, we refer to this protein as adiponectin. Despite more than 10,000 reports in the literature since its initial description, we seem to have written only the first chapter in the textbook on adiponectin physiology. With every new aspect we learn about adiponectin, a host of new questions arise with respect to the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we aim to summarize recent findings in the field and bring the rodent studies that suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin levels in plasma and systemic insulin sensitivity in perspective with the currently available data on the clinical side. PMID:24049728

  12. Regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes upon exposure to HIV-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of HIV-related lipodystrophy. The precise mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. In HIV-infected patients, we previously demonstrated a strong relationship between lipodystrophy and levels of adiponectin, an adipose...

  13. Role of adiponectin in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade in mice with diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Godlewski, Grzegorz; Earley, Brian J.; Zhou, Liang; Jourdan, Tony; Szanda, Gergö; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George

    2013-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin promotes fatty acid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity and thus plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Chronic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blockade also increases lipid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals or animals, resulting in reduced cardiometabolic risk. Chronic CB1 blockade reverses the obesity-related decline in serum adiponectin levels, which has been proposed to account for the metabolic effects of CB1 antagonists. Here, we investigated the metabolic actions of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese adiponectin knockout (Adipo−/−) mice and their wild-type littermate controls (Adipo+/+). HFD-induced obesity and its hormonal/metabolic consequences were indistinguishable in the two strains. Daily treatment of obese mice with rimonabant for 7 days resulted in significant and comparable reductions in body weight, serum leptin, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the two strains. Rimonabant treatment improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity to the same extent in Adipo+/+ and Adipo−/− mice, whereas it reversed the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular damage only in the former. The adiponectin-dependent, antisteatotic effect of rimonabant was mediated by reduced uptake and increased β-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. We conclude that reversal of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by chronic CB1 blockade, but not the parallel reduction in adiposity and improved glycemic control, is mediated by adiponectin. PMID:24381003

  14. Role of adiponectin in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Joseph; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Earley, Brian J; Zhou, Liang; Jourdan, Tony; Szanda, Gerg; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George

    2014-02-15

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin promotes fatty acid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity and thus plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Chronic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blockade also increases lipid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals or animals, resulting in reduced cardiometabolic risk. Chronic CB1 blockade reverses the obesity-related decline in serum adiponectin levels, which has been proposed to account for the metabolic effects of CB1 antagonists. Here, we investigated the metabolic actions of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese adiponectin knockout (Adipo(-/-)) mice and their wild-type littermate controls (Adipo(+/+)). HFD-induced obesity and its hormonal/metabolic consequences were indistinguishable in the two strains. Daily treatment of obese mice with rimonabant for 7 days resulted in significant and comparable reductions in body weight, serum leptin, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the two strains. Rimonabant treatment improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity to the same extent in Adipo(+/+) and Adipo(-/-) mice, whereas it reversed the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular damage only in the former. The adiponectin-dependent, antisteatotic effect of rimonabant was mediated by reduced uptake and increased ?-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. We conclude that reversal of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by chronic CB1 blockade, but not the parallel reduction in adiposity and improved glycemic control, is mediated by adiponectin. PMID:24381003

  15. Levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist are associated with the relative change in body mass index between childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Saltevo, Juha; Vanhala, Mauno; Kautiainen, Hannu; Laakso, Markku

    2007-12-01

    Obesity has been related to subclinical inflammation and decreased levels of adiponectin. We examined the relationship between inflammatory markers and adiponectin and the change in body mass index (BMI) between childhood and adulthood. Our study included 368 subjects (176 men and 192 women) from a population-based cohort whose weight and height had been recorded at the age of seven years. They participated in this study as adults (with a mean age of 46 years); levels of adiponectin, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. The relative change of BMI from childhood to adulthood was significantly associated with levels of IL-1 Ra (men: r=0.27 [95% CI: 0.12 to 0.40] and women: 0.64 [0.55 to 0.72]), hs-CRP (r=0.15 and 0.52, respectively) and adiponectin (r=-0.13 and -0.29, respectively) in both genders. Decreased levels of adiponectin and elevated levels of IL-1 Ra and hs-CRP at adulthood appear to be related to the change in BMI between childhood and adulthood. PMID:18158703

  16. Comparison of metabolic profile and adiponectin level with pioglitazone versus voglibose in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujitaka, Keisuke; Otani, Hajime; Jo, Fusakazu; Jo, Hiromi; Nomura, Emiko; Iwasaki, Masayoshi; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a high risk of cardiovascular disease. We compared the effect of early intervention with pioglitazone versus voglibose on physical and metabolic profiles and serum adiponectin level in patients with T2DM associated with MetS. Sixty patients who were diagnosed for the first time as T2DM associated with MetS were analyzed for insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, serum adiponectin and systemic inflammation. Those patients were randomly assigned to oral pioglitazone group (n = 30) or voglibose group (n = 30) in addition to conventional diet and exercise training. Body mass index and waist circumference did not change in the pioglitazone group, whereas these physical parameters significantly decreased in the voglibose group during a 6-month follow-up period. However, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, and HOMA-IR more significantly decreased in the pioglitazone group. The level of serum adiponectin especially high-molecular weight adiponectin markedly increased in the pioglitazone group. Moreover, high sensitive CRP significantly decreased only in the pioglitazone group. These results suggest that voglibose is superior in improving obesity, while pioglitazone is superior in ameliorating insulin sensitivity and increasing serum adiponectin in patients with an early stage of T2DM associated with MetS. PMID:21498915

  17. Adiponectin-derived active peptide ADP355 exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities in thioacetamide-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Zimu; Huang, Biao; Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Dan; la Gahu, Zha; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Li, Daiqing; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Fei; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating protein with beneficial effects on injured livers. Adiponectin-deficient (adipo(-/-)) mice develop enhanced liver fibrosis, suggesting that adiponectin could be a therapeutic target for liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of ADP355, an adiponectin-based active short peptide, in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute injury and chronic liver fibrosis in mice. ADP355 remarkably reduced TAA-induced necroinflammation and liver fibrosis. ADP355 treatment increased liver glycogen, decreased serum alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and promoted body weight gain, hyper-proliferation and hypo-apoptosis. In addition, ADP355 administration suppressed the TAA-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells and macrophages in the liver. These were associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/SMAD2 signaling and the promotion of AMPK and STAT3 signaling. Sensitivity of adipo(-/-) mice to chronic liver injury was decreased with ADP355. In conclusion, ADP355 could mimic adiponectin's action and may be suitable for the preclinical or clinical therapy of chronic liver injury. PMID:26777428

  18. Adiponectin Enhances the Responsiveness of the Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Diana; Heidel, Christian; Breer, Heinz; Strotmann, Jrg

    2013-01-01

    The peptide hormone adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and the circulating concentration is reversely correlated with body fat mass; it is considered as starvation signal. The observation that mature sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium express the adiponectin receptor 1 has led to the concept that adiponectin may affect the responsiveness of the olfactory system. In fact, electroolfactogram recordings from olfactory epithelium incubated with exogenous adiponectin resulted in large amplitudes upon odor stimulation. To determine whether the responsiveness of the olfactory sensory neurons was enhanced, we have monitored the odorant-induced expression of the immediate early gene Egr1. It was found that in an olfactory epithelium incubated with nasally applied adiponectin the number of Egr1 positive cells was significantly higher compared to controls, suggesting that adiponectin rendered the olfactory neurons more responsive to an odorant stimulus. To analyze whether the augmented responsiveness of sensory neurons was strong enough to elicit a higher neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the number of activated periglomerular cells of a distinct glomerulus was determined by monitoring the stimulus-induced expression of c-fos. The studies were performed using the transgenic mOR256-17-IRES-tauGFP mice which allowed to visualize the corresponding glomerulus and to stimulate with a known ligand. The data indicate that upon exposure to 2,3-hexanedione in adiponectin-treated mice the number of activated periglomerular neurons was significantly increased compared to controls. The results of this study indicate that adiponectin increases the responsiveness of the olfactory system, probably due to a higher responsiveness of olfactory sensory neurons. PMID:24130737

  19. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Elderly Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Si Eun; Kang, Yea Eun; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background The significance of adiponectin levels in elderly individuals with prediabetes has yet to be determined. Thus, the present study was performed to evaluate the relationships between adiponectin levels and anthropometric variables, body composition parameters, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles in elderly prediabetic patients. Methods The present study included 120 subjects with prediabetes who were >65 years of age and were selected from among 1,993 subjects enrolled in the Korea Rural Genomic Cohort Study. All subjects underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and tests for measurement of insulin sensitivity. All diagnoses of prediabetes satisfied the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Results Plasma adiponectin levels were lower in elderly prediabetic subjects than elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance (P<0.01) as well as in elderly prediabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) than in those without MetS (P<0.02). When the subjects were categorized into two groups according to plasma adiponectin levels, the waist-to-hip ratio and 2-hour insulin levels were significantly lower in individuals with high plasma adiponectin levels than in those with low plasma adiponectin levels. Additionally, the plasma adiponectin levels of elderly prediabetic subject were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, visceral fat, visceral fat ratio, and 2-hour insulin levels. Conclusion The present findings demonstrated that the major factors correlated with adiponectin levels in elderly prediabetic subjects were BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, visceral fat, visceral fat ratio, and 2-hour insulin levels. PMID:26248857

  20. Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Kakali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25685286

  1. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna; Rechler, Matthew M.; Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  2. Adiponectin and migraine: systematic review of clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Meschi, Tiziana; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Borghi, Loris; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-08-01

    Although the pathogenesis of migraine is very complex and has not been thoughtfully elucidated, general consensus exists to date that this condition should be considered a primary neurovascular disorder with an important inflammatory component. Owing to epidemiological evidence of increased risk of migraine in overweight and obese subjects and to the inverse relationship that exists between serum adiponectin concentration and obesity, we performed an electronic search on Medline, Scopus and Web of Science, using the keywords "migraine" and "adiponectin" with no language or date restriction to explore the existence of an association between serum adiponectin and migraine. According to our search criteria, five studies were finally included in this systematic review, four cross-sectional (totaling 300 patients with migraine and 177 controls) and one interventional. Collectively, the results of our analysis suggest that a link between serum adiponectin and migraine remains elusive, at the best. The four cross-sectional studies failed to find any significant association, whereas the outcome of the single interventional study reported a rather modest variation of serum adiponectin concentration in a very limited sample size. Further larger studies are needed to firmly establish the existence of a relationship between adiponectin metabolism and migraine. PMID:24648004

  3. Serum adiponectin, insulin resistance, and uveal melanoma: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Duygu G; Kiratli, Hayyam

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the status of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and serum adiponectin levels in patients with uveal melanoma and choroidal nevus were investigated. Our study included 86 patients with uveal melanoma, 38 patients with choroidal nevus, and 86 controls. Uveal melanomas were classified as small, medium, and large on the basis of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) criteria. Patients with uveal melanoma had significantly higher homeostatic model assessment scores compared with patients with choroidal nevus (P<0.001). Patients with uveal melanoma and choroidal nevus had significantly lower levels of serum adiponectin compared with controls (P<0.001). Patients with uveal melanoma who developed systemic metastases had significantly lower levels of serum adiponectin levels compared with patients with nonmetastases during follow-up (P=0.018). When the largest tumors (COMS III) were compared, ciliary body melanomas were associated with significantly lower levels of serum adiponectin than choroidal melanomas. In patients who were treated with enucleation, epitheloid predominant and mixed cell-type tumors were associated with lower levels of serum adiponectin compared with tumors with spindle cell type, but this did not reach statistical significance. By providing an antiapoptotic and proangiogenic environment, low serum adiponectin levels and insulin resistance may play a role in promoting the growth of uveal melanocytic tumors and may contribute toward a more aggressive clinical course, adversely affecting the prognosis. PMID:26630661

  4. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dobek, Aleksandra; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

  5. Isoleucine epimerization in the high-molecular-weight fraction of pleistocene Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Sejrup, Hans-Petter

    The extent of amino acid racemization, as traditionally determined in the entire (total acid hydrolysate) pool of amino acids comprising the organic remains of fossils, is a function of the integrated effects of a complex diagenetic reaction network. We investigated the possibility that some of the complications involved in protein diagenesis might be circumvented by isolating one component of the reaction network and studying the extent of racemization in that fraction alone. We used gel-filtration to extract the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction of proteinaceous matter from fossil and modem molluscan shells. This fraction contains the largest (ca. > 15,000 MW), most-pristine macromolecules and has been less affected by diagenesis than the more-degraded, lower molecular-weight fractions. Variations in the extent of racemization (isoleucine epimerization; alle/Ile) measured in the HMW fraction of subsamples taken along cross sections of Arctica shells from two interglacial sites, B and Fjsanger, southwestern Norway, are within the range of analytical uncertainty [coefficient of variation (cv) = 5-8%], despite the strong gradient (cv = 20-24%) in alle/Ile of the total amino acid population. Because there is no age difference across a shell, this finding supports the idea that the HMW fraction contains more geochronologically reliable proteinaceous matter than the total amino acid pool. Weighted mean alle/Ile ratios in the HMW fraction of aliquots of powdered sample from the two shells overlap at 1?, despite significantly different alle/Ile ratios in the total amino acid population of some shells from the two sites. The difference in alle/Ile ratios in the total population is attributed to a greater proportion of low-molecular-weight (ca. 300 MW), and hence, extensively epimerized molecules measured in gel-filtered samples from the Fjsanger shell. Because the rate of epimerization in the HMW fraction is much lower than in the total population, the temporal resolution of the HMW technique is limited, particularly at these high-latitude sites. Therefore, we cannot use the aIle/Ile HMW data to exclude the possibility that the two sites are significantly different ages. Analyses of shells ranging in age from late Pliocene to Holocene indicate that reaction rate in the HMW fraction is about one-fifth the rate in the total amino acid population, although the difference is expected to decrease with increasing aIle/Ile.

  6. Flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed cake: a potential source of high molecular weight arabinoxylans?

    PubMed

    Warrand, J; Michaud, P; Picton, L; Muller, G; Courtois, B; Ralainirina, R; Courtois, J

    2005-03-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from flaxseed cake and analyzed. Two groups were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The first one (nonretained) was the major fraction (83%) and possessed a high molecular weight (HMW) arabinoxylan (56%) with an Ara/Xyl ratio of 0.32 and an M(w) of 846 000. This polymer was accompanied by a smaller galactoglucan (44%), with an M(w) of 6.5 x 10(4). The latter group (17%), retained by the gel, was further described as a HMW pectin heterogeneous group, with, respectively, 3.1 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(5). Despite the presence of HMW arabinoxylans, the investigation of rheological flow sweep at the concentration of 2% (w/v) has shown a slight shear thinning behavior with a small zero-rate viscosity at 9.6 Pa.s. PMID:15740022

  7. Marker-assisted selection for recognizing wheat mutant genotypes carrying HMW glutenin alleles related to baking quality.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

  8. Variant high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits arising from biolistic transformation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation via the biolistic method has been used to introduce genes encoding natural and novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into wheat. The appearance of new seed proteins of sizes not predicted by the transgene coding sequences has been noted in some of these exper...

  9. Fatty acids increase adiponectin secretion through both classical and exosome pathways.

    PubMed

    DeClercq, Vanessa; d'Eon, Brandon; McLeod, Roger S

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effects of fatty acids on adiponectin oligomer assembly and trafficking. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different fatty acids on adiponectin transport and secretion in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the majority of cellular adiponectin was located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adiponectin secretion was increased by treatment with fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and several fatty acids changed the cellular localization of adiponectin. Adiponectin secretion has been shown to be altered by ER stress and interactions with ER chaperone proteins. However these mechanisms were not influenced by fatty acids, suggesting that alternative mechanisms must be responsible for the increased secretion of adiponectin observed with fatty acid treatment. Secretion of adiponectin was blocked by Brefeldin A, but we identified a minor pool of adiponectin that could be secreted from beyond the Brefeldin A block. Exosomes appeared to contribute to a minor amount of adiponectin secreted from the cell, and exosome release was increased by treatment with DHA. These data suggest that the ER is an important site of adiponectin accumulation and that treatment with long chain omega-3 fatty acids increases adiponectin release. Furthermore, the secretory pathway of adiponectin is complex, involving both the classical ER-Golgi pathway as well as unconventional secretory mechanisms such as an exosome-mediated pathway. PMID:25900100

  10. Association between Asthma and Serum Adiponectin Concentration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay; Cui, Xichun; Qualls, Clifford; Beckett, William S.; Gross, Myron D.; Steffes, Michael W.; Smith, Lewis J.; Jacobs, David R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The association of murine asthma with adiposity may be mediated by adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine with reduced serum concentrations in the obese. We studied whether serum adiponectin concentration was associated with human asthma and explained the association between adiposity and asthma, particularly in women and in pre-menopausal women. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of 2,890 eligible subjects at year 15 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort and its YALTA ancillary study, and had either current asthma or never asthma at that evaluation, was performed. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with dependent variable current asthma status. RESULTS Women, but not men, with current asthma had lower mean unadjusted serum adiponectin concentration than those with never asthma (p < 0.001; p for sex interaction < 0.001). Similarly, current asthma was related to obese status only in women (OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.00, 5.46, p for sex interaction 0.004); this association was little affected by adjusting for serum adiponectin. Prevalence of current asthma in pre-menopausal women was reduced in the highest vs. lowest tertile of serum adiponectin concentration (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26, 0.84, p 0.03), after adjusting for BMI. However, the interaction between serum adiponectin concentration and BMI category on current asthma status was not significant in pre-menopausal women or women overall. DISCUSSION High serum adiponectin concentration may protect against current asthma in pre-menopausal women, but does not explain the association between asthma and adiposity. PMID:18390629

  11. The liposuction-induced effects on adiponectin and selected cytokines are not affected by exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fbio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF- ? , IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training. PMID:24527033

  12. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O; Andersen, Ulrik B; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jrgen L; Edvinsson, Lars; Skovsted, Gry F

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional invivo study and in an experimental invitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI)?30.0kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP)?130/80mmHg (ObeseHT) and 40 had 24-hr ABP<130/80mmHg (ObeseNT). As controls, we studied 27 men with BMI between 20.0 and 24.9kg/m(2) and 24-hr ABP<130/80mmHg (LeanNT). Serum concentrations of adiponectin and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were determined. In vitro, the direct vasomotor response of adiponectin was tested on subcutaneous resistance arteries from human abdominal adipose tissue. The two obese groups had lower adiponectin concentrations compared with LeanNT (p<0.01) [median (interquartile range)]: ObeseHT 6.5 (5.1-8.3)mg/L; ObeseNT 6.6 (5.2-7.8)mg/L; and LeanNT 9.4 (6.7-12.4)mg/L, with no significant difference in adiponectin concentrations (or body composition) between ObeseHT and ObeseNT (p=0.67). In vitro, adiponectin did not have any direct vasodilatory effect and adiponectin did not affect angiotensin II-stimulated vasoconstriction. In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the invitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension. PMID:26272341

  13. Adiponectin Action: A Combination of Endocrine and Autocrine/Paracrine Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadson, Keith; Liu, Ying; Sweeney, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and works in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin level and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectin’s beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways, and its principal physiological effects (i.e., metabolic and cardiovascular). The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed. PMID:22649379

  14. Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle; Bussiere, Marianne; Dos Santos, Esther; Leneveu, Marie-Christine; Giudicelli, Yves . E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene

    2006-06-23

    It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

  15. Carboxylated and intact osteocalcin predict adiponectin concentration in hemodialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Kuźniewski, Marek; Fedak, Danuta; Dumnicka, Paulina; Kapusta, Maria; Stępień, Ewa; Chowaniec, Eve; Krzanowska, Katarzyna; Krzanowski, Marcin; Chmiel, Grzegorz; Solnica, Bogdan; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2016-04-01

    Purpose Disrupted bone metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with elevated concentrations of biochemical bone markers. Recently, animal studies show the role of osteocalcin in energy metabolism, which is partially confirmed in humans. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between serum concentrations of bone markers and indices of energy metabolism in CKD patients on maintenance hemodialysis; in particular, the relationship between various forms of osteocalcin and adiponectin. Patients and methods The cross-sectional study included 155 hemodialyzed stage 5 CKD patients. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), carboxylated (cOC), undercarboxylated (ucOC), and intact osteocalcin (OC) were determined. Results In total cohort, bALP, TRAP, cOC, and ucOC negatively correlated with BMI. All analyzed bone markers positively correlated with adiponectin in total cohort and in men. In multiple linear regression analysis including all patients, log(cOC) and log(intact OC) were the only bone markers that predicted log(adiponectin) (beta = 0.22; p = 0.016 and beta = 0.26; p = 0.010) independently of sex, dialysis vintage, CRP, insulin, iPTH concentrations, BMI, and age. Conclusions Our data confirm the positive association between cOC, intact OC, and adiponectin concentrations in CKD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:26822199

  16. Circadian expression of adiponectin and its receptors in human adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is one of the most clinically relevant cytokines associated with obesity. However, circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin in human adipose tissue (AT) has not been analyzed. To assess whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) might show daily circadian ...

  17. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. II. Hydrodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    van Swieten, Eric; Friesen, Robert R; de Kruif, Cees G; Robillard, George T

    2003-07-01

    This study describes the hydrodynamic properties of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat proteins, which complement the small-angle scattering (SANS) experiments performed in the first paper of this series. The sedimentation coefficients, s(0), and diffusion coefficients, D(0), were obtained from the homologous HMW proteins dB1 and dB4 that were cloned from the gluten protein HMW Dx5, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Monodisperse conditions for accurate determination of s(0) and D(0), were obtained by screening a series of buffers using dynamic light scattering. For the first time, hydrodynamic parameters were obtained on monodisperse samples that enabled the determination of the monomeric size and shape. The hydrodynamic values determined on dB1 and dB4 were used to test the worm-like chain (WLC) model that was proposed in the SANS studies. The successful matching of two separately obtained hydrodynamic parameters of dB1 and dB4 using the WLC model provides further evidence for the WLC model. The small discrepancy between the hydrodynamic and scattering data, possibly coming from the excluded volume effect, was compensated by a solvation layer of 1-2 water molecules thick around the protein in the WLC model. The solvation of the central domain is much higher than those of the terminal domains of the HMW subunits. This difference emphasizes the dual role of HMW wheat gluten proteins in water-binding and aggregation. PMID:12833259

  18. Adiponectin and skeletal muscle: pathophysiological implications in metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Jortay, Julie; Senou, Maximin; Abou-Samra, Michel; Noel, Laurence; Robert, Annie; Many, Marie-Christine; Brichard, Sonia M

    2012-07-01

    Upregulation of muscular adiponectin could act as a local protective mechanism to counteract cellular damage in obesity by weakening inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, adiponectin-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a Western diet (WD). WT mice under WD conditions displayed 63% higher adiponectin expression in myocytes than those under standard laboratory diet (SLD) conditions (P = 0.011). WD-fed KO mice exhibited approximately threefold larger myocyte degeneration than WT mice (P = 0.003). Even under SLD conditions, myotubes of KO mice displayed already moderate immunolabeling for markers of oxidative stress (peroxiredoxin-3/5) and for a lipid peroxidation product (hydroxynonenal). Expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and caspase-6, a marker of apoptosis, was also present. After WD challenge, immunoreactivity for these markers was strong in muscle of KO mice, although it was detected to a lesser extent in WT mice. Activation of NF-?B and caspase-6 doubled in myocytes of WD-fed KO mice when compared to WT mice (P < 0.001). Furthermore, muscle electrotransfer of the adiponectin gene prevented these abnormalities in WD-fed KO mice. Finally, gene abrogation of the adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) by siRNA recapitulated a pro-inflammatory state in C2C12 myotubes. Thus, upregulation of muscular adiponectin may be triggered by obesity and be crucial locally to counteract oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. These effects operate in an autocrine/paracrine manner via AdipoR1 and down-regulation of NF-?B signaling. PMID:22658482

  19. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  20. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    PubMed Central

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim D.; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John D.; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM—low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10–1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions. PMID:25368867

  1. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

  2. Metabolic profiling of transgenic wheat over-expressing the high-molecular weight Dx5 glutenin subunit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aim of this work was to evaluate potential changes in the metabolic network of transgenic wheat grain due to over-expression of the gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin Dx5-subunit. We used GC-MS and multivariate analyses to compare the metabolite profiles of developing...

  3. Determinants of Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Biolo, Andreia; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Sonoda, Mina; Walsh, Kenneth; Sam, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocytokine, is secreted by adipocytes and mediates anti-hypertrophic and anti-inflammatory effects in the heart. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin are decreased in obesity, insulin resistance and obesity-associated conditions such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. However, a paradoxical increase in adiponectin levels is observed in human systolic heart failure (HF). We sought to investigate the determinants of adiponectin levels in patients with chronic systolic HF. Total adiponectin levels were measured in 99 patients with stable HF and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) <40%. Determinants of adiponectin levels by univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. At baseline patients were 62% black, 63% male, mean age of 6013 years, LVEF of 219% and a body mass index (BMI) of 30.66.7kg/m2. Mean adiponectin levels were 15.815g/ml. Beta-blocker use, BMI, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significant determinants of adiponectin levels by multivariate analysis. LV mass, structure, and LVEF were not related to adiponectin levels by multivariate analysis. Interestingly, the effect of beta-blocker therapy was most marked in non-obese patients with BMI < 30kg/m2. In conclusion, in chronic systolic HF patients, beta-blocker therapy is correlated with lower adiponectin levels, especially in non-obese patients. This relation should be taken into account when studying the complex role of adiponectin in chronic systolic HF. PMID:20381668

  4. Adiponectin Expression in the Porcine Ovary during the Oestrous Cycle and Its Effect on Ovarian Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Anna; Smolinska, Nina; Nitkiewicz, Anna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szwaczek, Hubert; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and is also involved in the control of the reproductive system. The goal of the present study was to investigate changes in adiponectin gene and protein expression in porcine ovarian structures during the oestrous cycle and to examine the effects of in vitro administration of adiponectin on basal and gonadotrophin- and/or insulin-induced secretion of ovarian steroid hormones. Both gene and protein expression of adiponectin were enhanced during the luteal phase of the cycle. Adiponectin affected basal secretion of progesterone by luteal cells, oestradiol by granulosa cells, and testosterone by theca interna cells. The gonadotrophin/insulin-induced release of progesterone from granulosa and theca interna cells and the release of oestradiol and androstenedione from theca cells was also modified by adiponectin. In conclusion, the presence of adiponectin mRNA and protein in the porcine ovary coupled with our previous results indicating adiponectin receptors expression suggest that adiponectin may locally affect ovarian functions. The changes in adiponectin expression throughout the oestrous cycle seem to be dependent on the hormonal status of pigs related to the stage of the oestrous cycle. The effect of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis suggests that this adipokine influences reproductive functions in pigs. PMID:24790602

  5. Modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis by adiponectin during delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate role of adiponectin in ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. This study showed significantly low circulating adiponectin level and a decline in expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in the ovary during the period of delayed embryonic development as compared with the normal development. The adiponectin treatment in vivo during the period of delayed development caused significantly increased in circulating progesterone and estradiol levels together with increased expression of AdipoR1 in the ovary. The in vitro study confirmed the stimulatory effect of adiponectin on progesterone synthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that the effects of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis were mediated through increased expression of luteinizing hormone-receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3?-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase enzyme. The adiponectin treatment may also promote progesterone synthesis by modulating ovarian angiogenesis, cell survival and rate of apoptosis. PMID:24787661

  6. Adiponectin downregulation is associated with volume overload-induced myocyte dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-li; Miller, Dori; Wanders, Desiree; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Amin, Rajesh; Judd, Robert; Morrison, Edward E; Zhong, Ju-ming

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Adiponectin has been reported to exert protective effects during pathological ventricular remodeling, but the role of adiponectin in volume overload-induced heart failure remains unclear. In this study we investigated the effect of adiponectin on cardiac myocyte contractile dysfunction following volume overload in rats. Methods: Volume overload was surgically induced in rats by infrarenal aorta-vena cava fistula. The rats were intravenously administered adenoviral adiponectin at 2-, 6- and 9-weeks following fistula. The protein expression of adiponectin, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/R2 and T-cadherin) and AMPK activity were measured using Western blot analyses. Isolated ventricular myocytes were prepared at 12 weeks post-fistula to examine the contractile performance of myocytes and intracellular Ca2+ transient. Results: A-V fistula resulted in significant reductions in serum and myocardial adiponectin levels, myocardial adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1/R2 and T-cadherin) levels, as well as myocardial AMPK activity. Consistent with these changes, the isolated myocytes exhibited significant depression in cell shortening and intracellular Ca2+ transient. Administration of adenoviral adiponectin significantly increased serum adiponectin levels and prevented myocyte contractile dysfunction in fistula rats. Furthermore, pretreatment of isolated myocytes with recombinant adiponectin (2.5 μg/mL) significantly improved their contractile performance in fistula rats, but had no effects in control or adenoviral adiponectin-administered rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a positive correlation between adiponectin downregulation and volume overload-induced ventricular remodeling. Adiponectin plays a protective role in volume overload-induced heart failure. PMID:26616727

  7. Adiponectin-derived active peptide ADP355 exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities in thioacetamide-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Zimu; Huang, Biao; Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Dan; la Gahu, Zha; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Li, Daiqing; Yao, Zhi; Gao, Fei; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating protein with beneficial effects on injured livers. Adiponectin-deficient (adipo(−/−)) mice develop enhanced liver fibrosis, suggesting that adiponectin could be a therapeutic target for liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of ADP355, an adiponectin-based active short peptide, in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute injury and chronic liver fibrosis in mice. ADP355 remarkably reduced TAA-induced necroinflammation and liver fibrosis. ADP355 treatment increased liver glycogen, decreased serum alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and promoted body weight gain, hyper-proliferation and hypo-apoptosis. In addition, ADP355 administration suppressed the TAA-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells and macrophages in the liver. These were associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/SMAD2 signaling and the promotion of AMPK and STAT3 signaling. Sensitivity of adipo(−/−) mice to chronic liver injury was decreased with ADP355. In conclusion, ADP355 could mimic adiponectin’s action and may be suitable for the preclinical or clinical therapy of chronic liver injury. PMID:26777428

  8. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ghantous, C. M.; Azrak, Z.; Hanache, S.; Abou-Kheir, W.; Zeidan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin's generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26064110

  9. Signaling pathway for adiponectin expression in adipocytes by osteocalcin.

    PubMed

    Otani, Takahito; Mizokami, Akiko; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Gao, Jing; Mori, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Seiji; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2015-03-01

    In addition to providing skeletal support, the bone is an endocrine organ that produces osteocalcin, whose uncarboxylated form (GluOC) increases insulin secretion either directly or indirectly by promoting incretin secretion. We have now investigated the signaling pathway by which GluOC increases expression of adiponectin in adipocytes. Activation of its putative receptor GPRC6A by GluOC induced the intracellular accumulation of cAMP and consequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It also induced phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element binding protein), but this effect appeared to be mediated indirectly by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) rather than directly by PKA, given that it was attenuated by the ERK signaling inhibitor U0126. Activated PKA also induced activation of the tyrosine kinase Src, the small GTPase Rap1, an upstream of ERK and CREB phosphorylation. Activated CREB up-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which in turn led to induction of adiponectin expression. Finally, intermittent oral administration of GluOC in mice reduced the size of gonadal white adipocytes as well as increased the expression of PPARγ and adiponectin in these cells. Our results have thus revealed the signaling pathway by which GluOC induces adiponectin expression in adipocytes. PMID:25562427

  10. Adiponectin Depolarizes Parvocellular Paraventricular Nucleus Neurons Controlling Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Function

    PubMed Central

    Hoyda, Ted Donald; Samson, Willis Kendrick; Ferguson, Alastair Victor

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in the control of energy homeostasis and autonomic function through peripheral and central nervous system actions. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a primary site of neuroendocrine (NE) and autonomic integration, and, thus, a potential target for adiponectin actions. Here, we investigate actions of adiponectin on parvocellular PVN neurons. Adiponectin influenced the majority (65%) of parvocellular PVN neurons, depolarizing 47%, whereas hyperpolarizing 18% of neurons tested. Post hoc identification (single-cell RT-PCR) after recordings revealed that adiponectin depolarizes NE-CRH neurons, whereas intracerebroventricular injections of adiponectin in vivo caused increased plasma ACTH concentrations. Adiponectin also depolarized the majority of TRH neurons, however, NE-TRH neurons were unaffected, in accordance with in vivo experiments showing that intracerebroventricular adiponectin was without effect on plasma TSH. In addition, bath administration of adiponectin also depolarized both preautonomic TRH and oxytocin neurons. These results show that adiponectin acts in the central nervous system to coordinate NE and autonomic function through actions on specific functional groups of PVN neurons. PMID:18948398

  11. Adiponectin modulates focal adhesion disassembly in activated hepatic stellate cells: implication for reversing hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Mells, Jamie E; Thorn, Natalie E; Saxena, Neeraj K; Anania, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Previous evidence indicates that adiponectin possesses antifibrogenic activity in inhibiting liver fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies, however, are limited by adiponectin quaternary structure and effective concentrations in circulation. Here we postulate a novel molecular mechanism, whereby adiponectin targets focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity and disrupts key features of the fibrogenic response. Adiponectin-null (Ad(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were exposed to either saline or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6 wk. CCl4-gavaged mice were also injected with attenuated adenoviral adiponectin (Ad-Adn) or Ad-LacZ for 2 wk. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were treated with or without adiponectin to elucidate signal transduction mechanisms. In vivo delivery of Ad-Adn markedly attenuates CCl4-induced expression of key integrin proteins and markers of HSC activation: αv, β3, β1, α2(I) collagen, and α-smooth muscle actin. Confocal experiments of liver tissues demonstrated that adiponectin delivery also suppressed vinculin and p-FAK activity in activated HSCs. In vitro, adiponectin induced dephosphorylation of FAK, mediated by a physical association with activated tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2. Conversely, Shp2 knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuated adiponectin-induced FAK deactivation, and expression of TIMP1 and α2(I) collagen was abolished in the presence of adiponectin and si-FAK. Finally, we documented that either adiponectin or the synthetic peptide with adiponectin properties, ADP355, suppressed p-FAK in synthetic matrices with stiffness measurements of 9 and 15 kPa, assessed by immunofluorescent imaging and quantitation. The in vivo and in vitro data presented indicate that disassembly of focal adhesion complexes in HSCs is pivotal for hepatic fibrosis therapy, now that small adiponectin-like peptides are available. PMID:25154876

  12. Adiponectin Reduces Hepatic Stellate Cell Migration by Promoting Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani-Moghadam, Mehdi; Wang, Jianhua; Ho, Vikki; Iseli, Tristan J.; Alzahrani, Badr; Xu, Aimin; Van der Poorten, David; Qiao, Liang; George, Jacob; Hebbard, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are central players in liver fibrosis that when activated, proliferate, migrate to sites of liver injury, and secrete extracellular matrix. Obesity, a known risk factor for liver fibrosis is associated with reduced levels of adiponectin, a protein that inhibits liver fibrosis in vivo and limits HSC proliferation and migration in vitro. Adiponectin-mediated activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits HSC proliferation, but the mechanism by which it limits HSC migration to sites of injury is unknown. Here we sought to elucidate how adiponectin regulates HSC motility. Primary rat HSCs were isolated and treated with adiponectin in migration assays. The in vivo actions of adiponectin were examined by treating mice with carbon tetrachloride for 12 weeks and then injecting them with adiponectin. Cell and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression, signaling, and histology. Serum from patients with liver fibrosis was examined for adiponectin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein. Adiponectin administration into mice increased TIMP-1 gene and protein expression. In cultured HSCs, adiponectin promoted TIMP-1 expression and through binding of TIMP-1 to the CD63/β1-integrin complex reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase to limit HSC migration. In mice with liver fibrosis, adiponectin had similar effects and limited focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Finally, in patients with advanced fibrosis, there was a positive correlation between serum adiponectin and TIMP-1 levels. In sum, these data show that adiponectin stimulates TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs to retard their migration and contributes to the anti-fibrotic effects of adiponectin. PMID:25575598

  13. Induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) does not enhance adiponectin production in human adipocytes: Evidence against a direct HO-1 - Adiponectin axis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengliu; Kimura, Masaki; Ng, Choaping; He, Jingjing; Keshvari, Sahar; Rose, Felicity J; Barclay, Johanna L; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2015-09-15

    Adiponectin is a salutary adipokine and hypoadiponectinemia is implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related inflammation and cardiometabolic disease making therapeutic strategies to increase adiponectin attractive. Emerging evidence, predominantly from preclinical studies, suggests induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increases adiponectin production and reduces inflammatory tone. Here, we aimed to test whether induction of HO-1 enhanced adiponectin production from mature adipocytes. Treatment of human adipocytes with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or hemin for 24-48 h increased HO-1 expression and activity without affecting adiponectin expression and secretion. Treatment of adipocytes with TNF? reduced adiponectin secretion and increased expression and secretion of additional pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and MCP-1, as well as expression of sXBP-1, a marker of ER stress. HO-1 induction failed to reverse these effects. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 does not directly enhance adiponectin production or ameliorate the pro-inflammatory effects of TNF? and argue against a direct HO-1 - adiponectin axis. PMID:26143632

  14. Advances in the field of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, Robert A.; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Summary Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in?depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR?1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four? and five?ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation. PMID:21255317

  15. Effects of Improving Glycemic Control with Insulin on Leptin, Adiponectin, Ghrelin and Neuropeptidey Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna; Didangelos, Triantafillos P; Yovos, John G; Karamitsos, Dimitrios T

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Insulin therapy is associated with weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several peptides are implicated in appetite control. We evaluated the effects of insulin-induced improved glycaemic control on leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels and patient characteristics. Method: Consecutive T2DM patients (n = 90) were divided into 2 groups: Group A: 45 insulin-naïve uncontrolled (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; HbA1c >7%) patients on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) who converted to insulin monotherapy. Group B: 45 well-controlled (HbA1c <7%) patients on OHAs. Both groups were monitored at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Males and females were analyzed separately because some hormone levels differ between genders. Results: In both genders, insulin therapy (Group A) was associated with significant (p = 0.003 to <0.001) increases in weight, body mass index and leptin levels and significant decreases in glucose, HbA1c and NPY levels. In male insulin-treated patients a significant increase in adiponectin levels (p = 0.008) was observed. There were significant correlations (p = 0.016 to <0.001) between leptin levels, waist circumference and body fat in all patient groups, except group B males. Conclusion: Changes in leptin, adiponectin and NPY levels may occur after insulin-induced improved glycaemic control. These changes may be influenced by gender, weight, body fat and HbA1c. PMID:21760856

  16. Essential Role of Caveolin-3 in Adiponectin Signalsome Formation and Adiponectin Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Xiaoliang; Jasmin, Jean-Franois; Lau, Wayne Bond; Li, Rong; Yuan, Yuexin; Yi, Wei; Chuprun, Kurt; Lisanti, Michael P.; Koch, Walter J.; Gao, Erhe; Ma, Xin-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Adiponectin (APN) system malfunction is causatively related to increased cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular mechanisms responsible for APN transmembrane signaling and cardioprotection. Methods and Results Compared to wild type (WT), Cav-3 knockout (Cav-3KO) mice exhibited modestly increased myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (increased infarct size, apoptosis, and poorer cardiac function recovery, P<0.05). Although the expression level of key APN signaling molecules were normal in Cav-3KO, the cardioprotective effects of APN observed in WT were either markedly reduced or completely lost in Cav-3KO. Molecular and cellular experiments revealed that AdipoR1 co-localizes with Cav-3, forming AdipoR1/Cav-3 complex via specific Cav-3 scaffolding domain binding motifs. AdipoR1/Cav-3 interaction is required for APN-initiated AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent intracellular cardioprotective signalings. More importantly, APPL1 and adenylate cyclase (AC), two immediately downstream molecules respectively required for AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent signaling, form a protein complex with AdipoR1 in a Cav-3 dependent fashion. Finally, pharmacological activation of both AMPK plus PKA significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function in Cav-3KO animals. Conclusion Taken together, these results demonstrated for the first time that Cav-3 plays an essential role in APN transmembrane signaling and APN anti-ischemic/cardioprotective actions. PMID:22328772

  17. What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of insulin resistance or obesity. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine. There is evidence that adiponectin decreases hepatic and systematic insulin resistance, and attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Adiponectin generally predicts steatosis grade and the severity of NAFLD; however, to what extent this is a direct effect or related to the presence of more severe insulin resistance or obesity remains to be addressed. Although there is no proven pharmacotherapy for the treatment of NAFLD, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the indirect upregulation of adiponectin through the administration of various therapeutic agents and/or lifestyle modifications. In this adiponectin-focused review, the pathogenetic role and the potential therapeutic benefits of adiponectin in NAFLD are analyzed systematically. PMID:23430039

  18. Adiponectin levels and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ito, Teizo

    2005-04-01

    Several cardiovascular risk factors correlate with adiponectin levels. It is not known whether total homocysteine, folate and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels correlate with adiponectin. We cross-sectionally analyzed the association between adiponectin and these cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. One hundred and two male inpatients with type 2 diabetes without overt nephropathy or insulin use were studied. In a regression analysis of the quartiles of adiponectin, plasma levels of adiponectin were associated positively with HDL-cholesterol and age, and inversely with body mass index and HbA1c, but not with total homocysteine, folate or gamma-glutamyl transferase. Non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as homocysteine and folate levels were not associated with adiponectin levels in male type 2 diabetic patients who are not subject to insulin therapy. PMID:15863955

  19. An asparagines residue at the N-terminus affects the maturation process of low molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) glutenin polymers are of two main types, high- (HMW-GS) and low- (LMW-GS) molecular weight subunits. The most common are the latter, based on the first amino acid of the mature sequence, are known as LMW-m and LMW-s types. They differ as a result of three extra amino acids (MET...

  20. DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography
    (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of
    complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds
    which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC
    columns. The combination of this technique wit...

  1. MOLAR FRACTIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT GLUTENINS SUBUNITS ARE STABLE WHEN WHEAT IS GROWN UNDER VARIOUS MINERAL NUTRITION AND TEMPERATURE REGIMENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molar ratios of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were determined for flour from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Butte86) produced under 13 different combinations of temperature, water and mineral nutrition. Despite great differences in duration of grain fill, total protein ...

  2. TRANSGENIC WHEATS WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF DX5 AND/OR DY10 HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS YIELD DOUGHS WITH INCREASED MIXING STRENGTH AND TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to test the effects of independently increasing the in vivo levels of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) Dx5 and Dy10 on wheat flour properties, we increased the copy numbers of their corresponding genes by genetic transformation. Thirteen transformants with increases in one o...

  3. Effects of polymer molecular weight on relative oral bioavailability of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yin-Meng; Chang-Liao, Wan-Ling; Chien, Chao-Feng; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Background Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles have been used to increase the relative oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds and polyphenols in recent years, but the effects of the molecular weight of PLGA on bioavailability are still unknown. This study investigated the influence of polymer molecular weight on the relative oral bioavailability of curcumin, and explored the possible mechanism accounting for the outcome. Methods Curcumin encapsulated in low (500015,000) and high (40,00075,000) molecular weight PLGA (LMw-NPC and HMw-NPC, respectively) were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Curcumin alone and in the nanoformulations was administered orally to freely mobile rats, and blood samples were collected to evaluate the bioavailability of curcumin, LMw-NPC, and HMw-NPC. An ex vivo experimental gut absorption model was used to investigate the effects of different molecular weights of PLGA formulation on absorption of curcumin. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used for quantification of curcumin in biosamples. Results There were no significant differences in particle properties between LMw-NPC and HMw-NPC, but the relative bioavailability of HMw-NPC was 1.67-fold and 40-fold higher than that of LMw-NPC and conventional curcumin, respectively. In addition, the mean peak concentration (Cmax) of conventional curcumin, LMw-NPC, and HMw-NPC was 0.028, 0.042, and 0.057 ?g/mL, respectively. The gut absorption study further revealed that the HMw-PLGA formulation markedly increased the absorption rate of curcumin in the duodenum and resulted in excellent bioavailability compared with conventional curcumin and LMw-NPC. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that different molecular weights of PLGA have varying bioavailability, contributing to changes in the absorption rate at the duodenum. The results of this study provide the rationale for design of a nanomedicine delivery system to enhance the bioavailability of water-insoluble pharmaceutical compounds and functional foods. PMID:22745556

  4. Pharmacological ceramide reduction alleviates alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Correnti, Jason M.; Juskeviciute, Egle; Swarup, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatosteatosis, the ectopic accumulation of lipid in the liver, is one of the earliest clinical signs of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Alcohol-dependent deregulation of liver ceramide levels as well as inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) activity are thought to contribute to hepatosteatosis development. Adiponectin can regulate lipid handling in the liver and has been shown to reduce ceramide levels and activate AMPK and PPAR-?. However, the mechanisms by which adiponectin prevents alcoholic hepatosteatosis remain incompletely characterized. To address this question, we assessed ALD progression in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or isocaloric control diet. Adiponectin KO mice relative to WT had increased alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly, similar modest increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced liver TNF. Restoring circulating adiponectin levels using recombinant adiponectin ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin KO mice. Alcohol-fed WT and adiponectin KO animals had equivalent reductions in AMPK protein and PPAR-? DNA binding activity compared with control-fed animals. No difference in P-AMPK/AMPK ratio was detected, suggesting that alcohol-dependent deregulation of AMPK and PPAR-? in the absence of adiponectin are not primary causes of the observed increase in hepatosteatosis in these animals. By contrast, alcohol treatment increased liver ceramide levels in adiponectin KO but not WT mice. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis in adiponectin KO mice abrogated alcohol-mediated increases in liver ceramides, steatosis, and hepatomegaly. These data suggest that adiponectin reduces alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly through regulation of liver ceramides, but its absence does not exacerbate alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID:24742988

  5. The Rab11 Effector Protein FIP1 Regulates Adiponectin Trafficking and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Mora, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs) in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNFα. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release. PMID:24040321

  6. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

  7. Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. ); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. ); Cabral, J.A. )

    1999-07-15

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

  8. Adipokines influencing metabolic and cardiovascular disease are differentially regulated in maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmeier, Michaela; Bachmann, Anette; Seeger, Jeannette; Lossner, Ulrike; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Fasshauer, Mathias

    2008-10-01

    Adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and interleukin (IL)-6 significantly influence energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular health. In the current study, we investigated serum levels of these adipokines in diabetic and nondiabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MD) as compared with controls with a glomerular filtration rate greater than 50 mL/min. Serum leptin, adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and IL-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in control (n = 60) and MD (n = 60) patients and correlated to clinical and biochemical measures of renal function, glucose, and lipid metabolism, as well as inflammation. Adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and IL-6 were significantly elevated in MD patients as compared with controls. In multivariate analyses, sex and body mass index were independently correlated with serum leptin levels in both controls and MD patients. Furthermore, insulin resistance was independently and negatively associated with adiponectin and HMW adiponectin in both groups. Moreover, circulating resistin levels were independently correlated with serum visfatin concentrations in control and MD patients. However, various independent associations were only found in either controls or patients on MD. Thus, serum IL-6 levels were strongly and independently associated with C reactive protein and resistin in MD patients but not control subjects. We show that levels of various adipokines are significantly increased in MD patients. Furthermore, regulation of adipokines in vivo strongly depends on renal function. Regulation of HMW adiponectin is similar as compared with total adiponectin in the patients studied. PMID:18803947

  9. Relationship between adiponectin receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Shu, Zunhua; Liang, Xuemei; Mi, Rui; Yang, Lei; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous study suggested adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2) genetic polymorphisms were associated with the risk of ischemic stroke. However, the relation between adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) gene polymorphism and stroke remains unclear. Methods: In the present study, we utilized the polymerase chain reaction-sequencing method to detect rs2275737 and s1342387 genotypes of ADIPOR1 gene in 300 cases of ischemic stroke patients and 300 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Results: For rs2275737, we found A allele carriers have increased risk to ischemic stroke (OR=2.570, 95% CI: 1.999-3.305); also, we found rs1342387 A allele was associated with the risk for stroke (OR=1.351, 95% CI: 1.074-1.699). After adjusted for confounders such as hypertension, diabetes, and smoking, we found the association remains significant. Conclusion: ADIPOR1 genetic polymorphism may increase the risk of ischemic stroke. PMID:26629210

  10. Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serotonin (5-hydroytryptamine or 5HT) is associated with numerous behavioral and psychological factors and is a biochemical marker of mood. 5HT is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy consumption. 5HT controls appetite in the central nerve system (CNS) and stimulates intestinal mobility. There are few studies looking at the role of 5HT and the relationship between peripheral circulating serotonin and obesity. The aim of this study was to find any differences in leptin, adiponectin, and 5HT between lean and obese dogs and to identify correlations among these factors. Results Leptin, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were higher in the obese group (all p < 0.01). Adiponectin and 5HT levels were higher in the lean group compared to the obese group (p < 0.01). Leptin (r = 0.628, p < 0.01), TG (r = 0.491, p < 0.01) and cholesterol (r = 0.419, p < 0.01) were positively correlated with body condition score (BCS), and adiponectin (r = -0.446, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.490, p < 0.01) were negatively correlated with BCS. Leptin was negatively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.294, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.343, p < 0.01). 5HT was negatively correlated with leptin (r = -0.343, p < 0.01), TG (r = -0.268, p < 0.05) and cholesterol (r = -0.357, p < 0.05). Conclusions 5HT is an important appetite control neurotransmitter, but there are limited studies for 5HT levels related to obesity in dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate peripheral 5HT levels in obese dogs. From this research, we can assume that 5HT may be correlated with canine obesity. Further studies will be needed to further elucidate the role of low serum 5HT levels in canine obesity. PMID:24886049

  11. Adiponectin inhibits Wnt co-receptor, Lrp6, phosphorylation and ?-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Lauren; Lam, Anna P; Flozak, Annette S; Varga, John; Gottardi, Cara J

    2016-02-12

    Adiponectin is a pleiotropic adipokine implicated in obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have identified adiponectin as a negative regulator of tissue fibrosis. Wnt/?-catenin signaling has also been implicated in metabolic syndrome and can promote tissue fibrosis, but the extent to which adiponectin cross-regulates Wnt/?-catenin signaling is unknown. Using primary human dermal fibroblasts and recombinant purified proteins, we show that adiponectin can limit ?-catenin accumulation and downstream gene activation by inhibiting Lrp6 phosphorylation, a key activation step in canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition of Wnt3a-mediated Lrp6 phospho-activation is relatively rapid (e.g., by 30min), and is not dependent on established adiponectin G-protein coupled receptors, AdipoR1 and R2, suggesting a more direct relationship to Lrp6 signaling. In contrast, the ability of adiponectin to limit Wnt-induced and baseline collagen production in fibroblasts requires AdipoR1/R2. These results suggest the possibility that the pleiotropic effects of adiponectin may be mediated through distinct cell surface receptor complexes. Accordingly, we propose that the anti-fibrotic activity of adiponectin may be mediated through AdipoR1/R2 receptors, while the ability of adiponectin to inhibit Lrp6 phospho-activation may be relevant to other recently established roles for Lrp6 signaling in glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26797284

  12. Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  13. The multimerization and secretion of adiponectin are regulated by TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    He, Yiduo; Lu, Linfang; Wei, Xuan; Jin, Dan; Qian, Tao; Yu, An; Sun, Jun; Cui, Jiesheng; Yang, Zaiqing

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is often associated with insulin resistance, mild systemic inflammation, and decreased blood adiponectin. However, some adipokines are increased in the adipose tissue of obese individuals, and whether these adipokines are directly related to the reductions in serum adiponectin levels in an autocrine or paracrine manner remains unknown. This study indicates that the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) suppresses the multimerization and secretion of adiponectin both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, TNF-? remarkably suppressed the expression of the ER-resident chaperone proteins ERO1-La, DsbA-L, and ERp44. Overexpression of the transcription factor PPAR? antagonized the suppressive effect of TNF-? on ERO1-La and DsbA-L expressions. Further study revealed that PPAR? enhanced the transcription of ERO1-La and DsbA-L by directly binding to the PPRE element of ERO1-La and DsbA-L promoters. TNF-? treatment decreased this binding activity. Furthermore, TNF-? treatment enhanced the interaction between adiponectin and ERp44. In this study, we show that TNF-? impairs adiponectin multimerization and consequently decreases adiponectin secretion by altering disulfide bond modification in the endoplasmic reticulum. Altered adiponectin multimerization could explain declined adiponectin levels and altered distribution of adiponectin complexes in the plasma of obese insulin-resistant individuals. PMID:26407855

  14. Fat, fire and muscle--the role of adiponectin in pulmonary vascular inflammation and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Benjamin D

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening condition that results from a heterogeneous group of diseases, many of which demonstrate characteristic pathologic changes of pulmonary vascular inflammation and remodeling. Recent clinical studies indicate obesity to be a risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension; however, the mechanisms leading to this association are unknown. Adipocytes secrete multiple bioactive mediators that can influence inflammation and tissue remodeling, suggesting that adipose tissue may directly influence the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. One of these mediators is adiponectin, a protein with a wide range of metabolic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. Paradoxically, adiponectin is present in high concentration in the serum of lean healthy individuals, but decreases in obesity. Studies suggest that relative adiponectin-deficiency may contribute to the development of inflammatory diseases in obesity, and recent animal studies implicate adiponectin in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Most notably, experimental studies show that adiponectin can reduce lung vascular remodeling in response to inflammation and hypoxia. Moreover, mice deficient in adiponectin develop a spontaneous lung vascular phenotype characterized by age-dependent increases in peri-vascular inflammatory cells and elevated pulmonary artery pressures. Emerging evidence indicates adiponectin's effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions on cells in the lung. This review aims to synthesize the existing data related to adiponectin's effects on the pulmonary vasculature and to discuss how changes in adiponectin levels might contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22750271

  15. Chemopreventive and hepatoprotective roles of adiponectin (SULF2 inhibitor) in hepatocelluar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H; Abbas, Ahmed; Hamdan, Ahmed M

    2016-03-01

    Sulfatase 2 (SULF2) is an extracellular enzyme that catalyzes the removal of 6-O-sulfate groups from the heparan sulfate (HS). As elevated SULF2 activity has been correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this study was conducted to evaluate the chemoprotective and the hepatoprotective roles of adiponectin, as a SULF2 inhibitor, against hepatocellular carcinoma both in vivo and in vitro. HCC was induced in rats using thioacetamide (200 mg/kg). Treated rats received adiponectin (5 μg/kg) once a week. Moreover, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line was used as an in-vitro model. In both in-vivo and in-vitro models, adiponectin completely blocked HCC-induced SULF2 elevation. The antitumor activity of adiponectin was confirmed by 80% increased the survival rate, 73% reduction in the average number of nodules per nodule-bearing liver and 46% reduction in serum AFP. In addition, adiponectin ameliorated HCC-induced expression of tumor invasion markers, MMP9, syndecan-1 and FGF-2. Moreover, adiponectin attenuated HCC-induced elevation of nfκb and TNF-α levels. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cell line with adiponectin showed dose-dependent reduction of HepG2 cell viability and elevation of cellular cytotoxicity. Besides, Adiponectin yielded the same results in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Adiponectin achieved both hepatoprotective and chemoprotective effects against HCC through blocking of SULF2. PMID:26733159

  16. Chrysanthemum promotes adipocyte differentiation, adiponectin secretion and glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Yamane, Takumi; Oishi, Yuichi; Shimizu, Makoto; Tadaishi, Miki; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, and its endocrine function is closely related to type 2 diabetes. Edible Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (ECM) possesses several biological properties; however, its effect on adipocytes remains unclear. We investigated the effect of the hot water extract of ECM (HW-ECM) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. HW-ECM enhanced adipocyte differentiation, adiponectin secretion, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. It also increased the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, adiponectin transcription, and GLUT4 expression. In addition, HW-ECM increased the mRNA levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-delta (C/EBP?), which induces PPAR? expression, but not C/EBP?, during early adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that HW-ECM enhances adipocyte differentiation, adiponectin secretion, and glucose uptake through C/EBP?-induced PPAR? expression. These effects of HW-ECM on adipocytes suggest that HW-ECM is potentially beneficial for type 2 diabetes. PMID:25779645

  17. Myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction in mice lacking adiponectin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Koentges, Christoph; Knig, Alexandra; Pfeil, Katharina; Hlscher, Maximilian E; Schnick, Tilman; Wende, Adam R; Schrepper, Andrea; Cimolai, Maria C; Kersting, Sophia; Hoffmann, Michael M; Asal, Judith; Osterholt, Moritz; Odening, Katja E; Doenst, Torsten; Hein, Lutz; Abel, E Dale; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, impairs mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, and has been linked to the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. In models of Type 2 diabetes, myocardial mitochondrial function is impaired, which is improved by increasing serum adiponectin levels. We aimed to define the roles of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) in adiponectin-evoked regulation of mitochondrial function in the heart. In isolated working hearts in mice lacking AdipoR1, myocardial oxygen consumption was increased without a concomitant increase in cardiac work, resulting in reduced cardiac efficiency. Activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes were reduced, accompanied by reduced OXPHOS protein levels, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1 activity, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) signaling. Decreased ATP/O ratios suggested myocardial mitochondrial uncoupling in AdipoR1-deficient mice, which was normalized by lowering increased mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal levels following treatment with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin. Lack of AdipoR2 did not impair mitochondrial function and coupling in the heart. Thus, lack of AdipoR1 impairs myocardial mitochondrial function and coupling, suggesting that impaired AdipoR1 signaling may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial uncoupling in Type 2 diabetic hearts. PMID:25982881

  18. Association of Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jue; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Xiao-Lin; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and the genetic susceptibility of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: 357 NAFLD patients from January 2005 to December 2013 and 357 cases of healthy controls among the Han population were collected; polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to detect three tagSNPs (Rs2241767, rsl501299 and rs3774261) of Adiponectin. Risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and haplotype analysis was performed using SHEsis software. Results: Rs2241767, rsl501299 and rs3774261 polymorphisms were associated with the risk of NAFLD. Haplotype analysis showed that, A-T-A haplotype was a protective factor of NAFLD (OR: 0.154, 95% CI: 0.011-0.576, P = 0.004) and G-G-A (OR: 4.012, 95% CI: 2.118-10.324, P < 0.001) and G-T-G (OR: 5.219, 95% CI: 2.751-12.651, P < 0.001) haplotype was risk factors of NAFLD. Conclusion: There was an association between Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and the genetic susceptibility of NAFLD. PMID:26629202

  19. Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, a fat tissue-derived adipokine, exhibits beneficial effects against insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Circulating adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature correlates with increased risk of developing several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Thus, pharmacological replacement of adiponectin might prove clinically beneficial, especially for the obese patient population. At present, adiponectin-based therapeutics are not available, partly due to yet unclear structure/function relationships of the cytokine and difficulties in converting the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug. Results We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and clinical development as a cancer therapeutic. Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254), we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. Three-dimensional modeling of the active site and functional screening of additional 330 peptide analogs covering this region resulted in the development of a lead peptidomimetic, ADP 355 (H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2). In several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, ADP 355 restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 100 nM-10 ?M concentrations (exceeding the effects of 50 ng/mL globular adiponectin). Furthermore, ADP 355 modulated several key signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2) in an adiponectin-like manner. siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that ADP 355 effects can be transmitted through both adiponectin receptors, with a greater contribution of AdipoR1. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg/day ADP 355 for 28 days suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts by ~31%. The peptide displayed excellent stability (at least 30 min) in mouse blood or serum and did not induce gross toxic effects at 5-50 mg/kg bolus doses in normal CBA/J mice. Conclusions ADP 355 is a first-in-class adiponectin receptor agonist. Its biological activity, superior stability in biological fluids as well as acceptable toxicity profile indicate that the peptidomimetic represents a true lead compound for pharmaceutical development to replace low adiponectin levels in cancer and other malignancies. PMID:21974986

  20. Causal Relationship between Adiponectin and Metabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Study in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Mente, Andrew; Meyre, David; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Davis, A. Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Gerstein, Hertzel; Hegele, Robert A.; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, a secretagogue exclusively produced by adipocytes, has been associated with metabolic features, but its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. Objectives We investigated the association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic traits, using both observational and genetic epidemiologic approaches in a multiethnic population assembled in Canada. Methods Clinical data and serum adiponectin level were collected in 1,157 participants of the SHARE/SHARE-AP studies. Participants were genotyped for the functional rs266729 and rs1260326 SNPs in ADIPOQ and GCKR genes. Results Adiponectin level was positively associated with HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic pressure (all P<0.002). The rs266729 minor G allele was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HOMA-IR (P?=?0.004 and 0.003, respectively). The association between rs266729 SNP and HOMA-IR was no longer significant after adjustment for adiponectin concentration (P?=?0.10). The rs266729 SNP was associated with HOMA-IR to an extent that exceeded its effect on adiponectin level (0.15 SD 95% C.I. [0.06, 0.24], P<0.001). There was no significant interaction between rs266729 SNP and ethnicity on adiponectin or HOMA-IR. In contrast, the SNP rs1260326 in GCKR was associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.001), but not with adiponectin level (P?=?0.67). Conclusion The association of the functional promoter polymorphism rs266729 with lower serum adiponectin and increased insulin resistance in diverse ethnic groups may suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin level and insulin resistance. PMID:23826141

  1. Anthocyanin increases adiponectin secretion and protects against diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yuhua; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2014-04-15

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-secreted adipokine with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study, we evaluated a potential role for adiponectin in the protective effects of anthocyanin on diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction. We treated db/db mice on a normal diet with anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G; 2 g/kg diet) for 8 wk. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations of the aorta were then evaluated. Adiponectin expression and secretion were also measured. C3G treatment restores endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in db/db mice, whereas diabetic mice treated with an anti-adiponectin antibody do not respond. C3G treatment induces adiponectin expression and secretion in cultured 3T3 adipocytes through transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1). Silencing Foxo1 expression prevented C3G-stimulated induction of adiponectin expression. In contrast, overexpression of Foxo1-ADA promoted adiponectin expression in adipocytes. C3G activates Foxo1 by increasing its deacetylation via silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1). Furthermore, purified anthocyanin supplementation significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Changes in adiponectin concentrations positively correlated with FMD in the anthocyanin group. Mechanistically, adiponectin activates cAMP-PKA-eNOS signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells, increasing endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. These results demonstrate that adipocyte-derived adiponectin is required for anthocyanin C3G-mediated improvement of endothelial function in diabetes. PMID:24595303

  2. Protective role of adiponectin in a rat model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu-Hui; Yang, Yue-Wu; Dai, Hai-Tao; Cai, Song-Wang; Chen, Rui-Han; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the potential protective role of adiponectin in intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: A rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established. The serum level of adiponectin in rats with intestinal I/R injury was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were also measured by ELISA. Apoptosis of intestinal cells was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and villous injury scores were also measured. RESULTS: Adiponectin was downregulated in the serum of rats with intestinal I/R injury compared with sham rats. No significant changes in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 were found between sham and I/R rats. Pre-treatment with recombinant adiponectin attenuated intestinal I/R injury. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?, in rats with intestinal I/R injury was reduced by adiponectin pre-treatment. The production of MDA was inhibited, and the release of SOD was restored by adiponectin pre-treatment in rats with intestinal I/R injury. Adiponectin pre-treatment also inhibited cell apoptosis in these rats. Treatment with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway inhibitor, compound C, or the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, Snpp, attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin against intestinal I/R injury. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin exhibits protective effects against intestinal I/R injury, which may involve the AMPK/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26715807

  3. Antidiabetic treatment restores adiponectin serum levels and APPL1 expression, but does not improve adiponectin-induced vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is able to induce NO-dependent vasodilation in Zucker lean (ZL) rats, but this effect is clearly alleviated in their diabetic littermates, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. ZDF rats also exhibit hypoadiponectinemia and a suppressed expression of APPL1, an adaptor protein of the adiponectin receptors, in mesenteric resistance arteries. Whether an antidiabetic treatment can restore the vasodilatory effect of adiponectin and improve endothelial function in diabetes mellitus type 2 is not known. Methods During our animal experiment from week 11 to 22 in each case seven ZDF rats received an antidiabetic treatment with either insulin (ZDF+I) or metformin (ZDF+M). Six normoglycemic ZL and six untreated ZDF rats served as controls. Blood glucose was measured at least weekly and serum adiponectin levels were quantified via ELISA in week 11 and 22. The direct vasodilatory response of their isolated mesenteric resistance arteries to adiponectin as well as the endothelium-dependent and -independent function was evaluated in a small vessel myograph. Additionally, the expression of different components of the adiponectin signaling pathway in the resistance arteries was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Results In ZDF rats a sufficient blood glucose control could only be reached by treatment with insulin, but both treatments restored the serum levels of adiponectin and the expression of APPL1 in small resistance arteries. Nevertheless, both therapies were not able to improve the vasodilatory response to adiponectin as well as endothelial function in ZDF rats. Concurrently, a downregulation of the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 as well as endothelial NO-synthase expression was detected in insulin-treated ZDF rats. Metformin-treated ZDF rats showed a reduced expression of adiponectin receptor 2. Conclusions An antidiabetic treatment with either insulin or metformin in ZDF rats inhibits the development of hypoadiponectinemia and downregulation of APPL1 in mesenteric resistance arteries, but is not able to improve adiponectin induced vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction. This is possibly due to alterations in the expression of adiponectin receptors and eNOS. PMID:23497197

  4. TYPES AND RATES OF SEQUENCE EVOLUTION AT HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS IN HEXAPLOID WHEAT AND ITS ANCESTRAL GENOMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Glu-1 locus, encoding the High Molecular Weight-glutenin protein subunits, controls bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and represents a recently evolved region unique to Triticeae genomes. To understand the molecular evolution of this locus region, three orthologous Glu...

  5. Adiponectin promotes pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting apoptosis via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1? signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Meiyu; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhi; Li, Min; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine with pleiotropic actions. Clinical evidence has shown that serum adiponectin levels are increased and that adiponectin can protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis, which suggests that adiponectin may play an anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on PC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Adiponectin deficiency markedly attenuated pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. We found that adiponectin significantly inhibited the apoptosis of both human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells via adipoR1, but not adipoR2. Furthermore, adiponectin can increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) of PC cells. Knockdown of AMPK or Sirt1 can increase the apoptosis in PC cells. AMPK up-regulated Sirt1, and Sirt1 can inversely phosphorylate AMPK. Further studies have shown that Sirt1 can deacetylate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), which can increase the expression levels of mitochondrial genes. Thus, adiponectin exerts potent anti-apoptotic effects on PC cells via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? signaling. Finally, adiponectin can elevate ?-catenin levels. Taken together, these novel findings reveal an unconventional role of adiponectin in promoting pancreatic cancers, and suggest that the effects of adiponectin on tumorigenesis are highly tissue-dependent. PMID:25051362

  6. Obesity-induced DNA hypermethylation of the adiponectin gene mediates insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A. Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Pan, Xuebo; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Kwak, Soo-Heon; Bassas, Abdulelah F.; Sallam, Reem M.; Park, Kyong Soo; Alfadda, Assim A.; Xu, Aimin; Kim, Jae Bum

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular region of the adiponectin promoter suppresses adiponectin expression through epigenetic control and, in turn, exacerbates metabolic diseases in obesity. Obesity-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote DNMT1 expression and its enzymatic activity. Activated DNMT1 selectively methylates and stimulates compact chromatin structure in the adiponectin promoter, impeding adiponectin expression. Suppressing DNMT1 activity with a DNMT inhibitor resulted in the amelioration of obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in an adiponectin-dependent manner. These findings suggest a critical role of adiponectin gene epigenetic control by DNMT1 in governing energy homeostasis, implying that modulating DNMT1 activity represents a new strategy for the treatment of obesity-related diseases. PMID:26139044

  7. The Role of Adiponectin in Cardiometabolic Diseases: Effects of Nutritional Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-02-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone abundantly present in plasma that exerts its effects through the activation of 3 receptors. Its concentrations are negatively regulated by the accumulation of visceral fat, and clinical studies implicate hypoadiponectinemia in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy. In contrast, high concentrations of adiponectin are associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, with an improvement in the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes, and with increased endothelial nitric oxide production. Therefore, adiponectin appears to be an important molecule involved in limiting the pathogenesis of obesity-linked disorders, and it may have potential benefits in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Caloric restriction, moderate alcohol consumption, and consuming a Mediterranean diet increase adiponectin concentrations, and current evidence suggests a positive, dose-dependent relation between ω-3 (n-3) fatty acid intake and circulating concentrations of adiponectin. Recently, it was reported that the administration of aged garlic extract and a single food intervention with pistachios can increase adiponectin concentrations in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet is associated with higher adiponectin concentrations. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of increasing adiponectin by nutritional interventions in the treatment and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:26764331

  8. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  9. Adiponectin exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis via enhancing Th17 response and prompting RANKL expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoxuan; Feng, Xiaoke; Tan, Wenfeng; Lin, Na; Hua, Minhui; Wei, Yu; Wang, Fang; Li, Ningli; Zhang, Miaojia

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported adiponectin (AD) is highly expressed in the inflamed synovial joint tissue and correlates closely with progressive bone erosion in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Here, we investigate the role of adiponectin in regulating Th17 response and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) in mice with CIA mice by intraarticularly injection of adiponectin into knee joints on day 17, day 20 and day 23 post first collagen immunization. The increased adiponectin expression was found in inflamed joint tissue of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Adiponectin injection resulted in an earlier onset of arthritis, an aggravated arthritic progression, more severe synovial hyperplasia, bone erosion and osteoporosis in CIA mice. CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells, IL-17?mRNA and RANKL mRNA expression were markedly increased in the joint tissue of adiponectin treated CIA mice. Moreover, adiponectin treatment markedly enhanced Th17 cell generation from naive CD4+ T cells in vitro, which accompanied by the high expression of Th17 transcription factor ROR-?t, and Th17 cytokine genes included IL-22 and IL-23. This study reveals a novel effect of adiponectin in exacerbating CIA progression by enhancing Th17 cell response and RANKL expression. PMID:26063682

  10. Regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis by adiponectin: effects on hepatocytes, pancreatic ? cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Caroline; Sifuentes, Angelica; Holland, William L

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has received considerable attention for its potential anti-diabetic actions. The adipokine exerts control of glucose and lipid homeostasis via critical effects within the liver, adipose, and pancreas. By stimulating adipogenesis, opposing inflammation, and influencing rates of lipid oxidation and lipolysis, adiponectin critically governs lipid spillover into non-adipose tissues. Ceramide, a cytotoxic and insulin desensitizing lipid metabolite formed when peripheral tissues are exposed to excessive lipid deposition, is potently opposed by adiponectin. Via adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, adiponectin stimulates the deacylation of ceramide- yielding sphingosine for conversion to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase. The resulting conversion from ceramide to S1P promotes survival of functional beta cell mass, allowing for insulin production to meet insulin demands. Alleviation of ceramide burden on the liver allows for improvements in hepatic insulin action. Here, we summarize how adiponectin-induced changes in these tissues lead to improvements in glucose metabolism, highlighting the sphingolipid signaling mechanisms linking adiponectin to each action. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: We review the anti-diabetic actions of adiponectin. PMID:24417945

  11. Adiponectin Induces Oncostatin M Expression in Osteoblasts through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chen-Ming; Lee, Wei-Lin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Lu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Li-Hong; Xu, Guo-Hong; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune disorder, is associated with a chronic inflammatory response and unbalanced bone metabolism within the articular microenvironment. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by adipocytes, is involved in multiple functions, including lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory activity. However, the mechanism of adiponectin performance within arthritic inflammation remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effect of adiponectin on the expression of oncostatin M (OSM), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in human osteoblastic cells. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB reduced the adiponectin-induced OSM expression in osteoblasts. Stimulation of the cells with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and p65. Adiponectin treatment of osteoblasts increased OSM-luciferase activity and p65 binding to NF-κB on the OSM promoter. Our results indicate that adiponectin increased OSM expression via the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that adiponectin is a novel target for arthritis treatment. PMID:26712749

  12. Association of adiponectin protein and ADIPOQ gene variants with lumbar disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    KHABOUR, OMAR F.; ABU-RUMEH, LAMA; AL-JARRAH, MUHAMMED; JAMOUS, MOHAMMED; ALHASHIMI, FARAH

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is a widespread public health problem that may lead to disability and loss of productivity. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue and has been shown to be involved in cartilage homeostasis. In the present study, the association between the rs266729 (?11377C/G) and rs2241766 (45T/G) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and LDD was investigated. In addition, the correlation between the plasma adiponectin level and LDD was examined. A total of 289 subjects, 168 patients with LDD and 122 healthy individuals, were recruited in the study. All subjects were genotyped for rs266729 and rs2241766 SNPs using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Circulating levels of adiponectin protein were measured using the ELISA technique. A strong association was found between adiponectin level and LDD (P<0.01), where high levels of adiponectin were found in patients compared with healthy controls. The increase in adiponectin level was not affected by gender. However, no significant differences were found in the genotype distribution or allelic frequency of the two examined polymorphisms between patients with LDD and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, adiponectin appears to be elevated in patients with LDD. The rs266729 and rs2241766 SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene are not associated with LDD. PMID:25187851

  13. Quality trait variations in [??Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.

    PubMed

    Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

  14. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Real, José-Manuel; Pugeat, Michel; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bornet, Hubert; Ricart, Wifredo

    2005-05-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene--Apm1--encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin resistance, we studied whether CBG could explain cortisol-to-adiponectin relationship. One hundred twenty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Plasma CBG and serum cortisol concentration were measured by radioimmunoassay. The cortisol-to-CBG ratio was used to calculate free cortisol. An RIA kit (Linco Research, St Louis, MO) was used to measure adiponectin levels. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostatis model of assessment (HOMA) value. Circulating adiponectin was associated with serum CBG ( r = 0.38, P < .00001), both in men ( r = 0.26, P = .03, n = 79) and women ( r = 0.48, P = .003, n = 43), and with insulin resistance (HOMA index) ( r = -0.30, P < .0001) in both. Free cortisol correlated negatively with adiponectin only in women ( r = -0.32, P = .04), but not in men ( r = 0.01, P = .89). Serum CBG concentration was significantly lower among men in the lowest quartile of adiponectin when compared with the remaining subjects (37.3 +/- 5.7 vs 40.6 +/- 5.1, P = .016), whereas men in the highest quartile of adiponectin showed significantly increased free cortisol index (14.2 +/- 3.3 vs 12.2 +/- 3.1, P = .039). Women in the lowest quartile of adiponectin also displayed significantly lower CBG concentration than that present in the remaining subjects (38.6 +/- 6.9 vs 44.4 +/- 5.5, P = .016), whereas free cortisol index was not significantly different across adiponectin quartiles ( P = .1). In a stepwise regression analysis, body mass index ( P = .0011), CBG ( P = .0047), and sex ( P = .04) contributed to 15%, 8%, and 3%, respectively, of adiponectin variance. Using CBG as dependent variable, both adiponectin ( P = .0002) and fasting cortisol ( P = .019) contributed to 14% and 4%, respectively, of CBG variance. In summary, circulating adiponectin, CBG concentration, and fasting cortisol were significantly interrelated in healthy subjects. A significant sexual dimorphism exists in this association. PMID:15877287

  15. Dietary regulation of adiponectin by direct and indirect lipid activators of nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Rühl, R; Landrier, J F

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine mainly secreted by adipocytes that presents antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic functions. Therefore, modulation of adiponectin expression represents a promising target for prevention or treatment of several diseases including insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Pharmacological agents such as the nuclear hormone receptor synthetic agonists like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonists are of particular interest in therapeutic strategies due to their ability to increase the plasma adiponectin concentration. Nutritional approaches are also of particular interest, especially in primary prevention, since some active compounds of our diet (notably vitamins, carotenoids, or other essential nutrients) are direct or indirect lipid-activators of nuclear hormone receptors and are modifiers of adiponectin expression and secretion. The aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge about the nutritional regulation of adiponectin by derivatives of active compounds naturally present in the diet acting as indirect or direct activators of nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:26610729

  16. Effect of repeated US stimulation on adiponectin secretion by adipocytes of obese human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Irie, Takasuke; Itoh, Kouichi

    2006-05-01

    To clarify the effect of the repeated sonication on the adiponectin secretion by adipocytes obtained from obese subjects. Using 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound at an intensity of 0.50 or 2.1 W/cm2, we sonicated culture flasks of subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from obese human subjects, in a series of 3 sessions of US stimulation applied for a daily total of 15 min. For the measurement of adiponectin secretion, 50 ?l of the culture medium was collected from each flask every 24 h after the 1st stimulation. Quantification of adiponectin protein levels in cell culture supernatants was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit recommended by the manufacturer. The adiponectin concentrations in the culture medium of the US stimulation groups rose significantly (p<0.05). Repeated US stimulation may accelerate adiponectin secretion in obese human adipocytes.

  17. Gene expression pattern of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in dominant and atretic follicles and oocytes screened based on brilliant cresyl blue staining.

    PubMed

    Tabandeh, M R; Golestani, N; Kafi, M; Hosseini, A; Saeb, M; Sarkoohi, P

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to control male and female fertility. The aim of this study was to determine whether adiponectin and its receptors gene expression levels differ between dominant follicle (DF) and atretic follicle (AF) and also between oocytes which were stained positively and negatively with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB(+) and BCB(-)). Based on estradiol/progesterone ratio, follicles from ovaries were classified as AFs and DFs. The stages of estrous cycle (follicular or luteal phases) were defined by macroscopic observation of the ovaries and the uterus. Oocytes were stained with BCB for 90 min. The relative expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA in theca and cumulus cells and oocytes of different follicles were determined by quantitative real time PCR. Adiponectin and its receptors genes were clearly expressed higher (P<0.05) in theca and cumulus cells and oocytes of DFs than those of AFs during the follicular and luteal phases. BCB(+) oocytes showed a higher (P<0.05) expression of adiponectin and its receptors compared with their BCB(-) counterparts. Positive correlation (r>0.725, P<0.001) was observed between adiponectin mRNA level in ovarian cells of DFs and follicular fluid E2 concentration in follicular phase. Adiponectin mRNA abundance in ovarian cells of AFs showed a significant negative correlation with follicular fluid progesterone concentration in follicular and luteal phases (r<-0.731, P<0.001). This work has revealed the novel association of adiponectin and its receptors genes with follicular dominance and oocyte competence, thereby opening several new avenues of research into the mechanisms of dominance and competence in animal and human. PMID:22391295

  18. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Graham, Annette; Dolan, Sharron

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10-5000 ng) on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema) and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation. PMID:26352808

  19. Role of adiponectin in regulating ovarian theca and granulosa cell function.

    PubMed

    Lagaly, Dana V; Aad, Pauline Y; Grado-Ahuir, Juan A; Hulsey, Laura B; Spicer, Leon J

    2008-03-12

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that has been implicated in insulin resistance, a condition associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome in humans, but whether adiponectin can directly affect ovarian theca or granulosa cell function is unknown. Therefore, to determine the effects of adiponectin on proliferation, steroidogenesis and gene expression of large-follicle theca and granulosa cells, experiments were conducted using bovine ovarian cell cultures. RT-PCR was used to elucidate the effects of adiponectin on gene expression of CYP11A1 and LH receptor (LHR) in large-follicle theca and granulosa cells, as well as expression of CYP17A1 in theca cells and CYP19A1 in granulosa cells. Adiponectin decreased (P<0.05) insulin-induced progesterone and androstenedione production as well as attenuated IGF-I-induced LHR, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 gene expression in theca cells. In contrast, adiponectin decreased (P<0.05) LHR mRNA abundance in granulosa cells but did not affect steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in granulosa cells. Adiponectin had no effect (P>0.10) on proliferation of large-follicle theca cells. RT-PCR also revealed that abundance of mRNA for the adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR2) was greater (P<0.05) in large-follicle than in small-follicle theca cells and did not significantly differ between small- and large-follicle granulosa cells. In cultured theca cells, LH increased (P<0.05) and IGF-I decreased (P<0.05) ADIPOR2 mRNA abundance. These results indicate that the inhibitory effects of adiponectin on steroidogenesis are primarily localized to theca cells and that the response of theca cells to adiponectin (i.e., ADIPOR2) may be regulated by LH and IGF-I. PMID:18289773

  20. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Graham, Annette; Dolan, Sharron

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10–5000 ng) on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema) and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation. PMID:26352808

  1. 4-Hydroxynonenal differentially regulates adiponectin gene expression and secretion via activating PPARγ and accelerating ubiquitin–proteasome degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wanga, Zhigang; Dou, Xiaobing; Gu, Dongfang; Shen, Chen; Yao, Tong; Nguyen, Van; Braunschweig, Carol; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Although well-established, the underlying mechanisms involved in obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline remain elusive. Oxidative stress is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and considered to contribute to the progression toward obesity-related metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), the most abundant lipid peroxidation end product, on adiponectin production and its potential implication in obesity-related adiponectin decrease. Long-term high-fat diet feeding led to obesity in mouse, accompanied by decreased plasma adiponectin and increased adipose tissue 4-HNE content. Exposure of adipocytes to exogenous 4-HNE resulted in decreased adiponectin secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent with significantly decreased intracellular adiponectin protein abundance. In contrast, adiponectin gene expression was significantly elevated by 4-HNE treatment, which was concomitant with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and transactivity. The effect was abolished by T0070907, a PPAR-γ antagonist, suggesting that PPAR-γ activation plays a critical role in this process. To gain insight into mechanisms involved in adiponectin protein decrease, we examined the effects of 4-HNE on adiponectin protein degradation. Cycloheximide (CHX)-chase assay revealed that 4-HNE exposure accelerated adiponectin protein degradation, which was prevented by MG132, a potent proteasome inhibitor. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that 4-HNE exposure increased ubiquitinated adiponectin protein levels. These data altogether indicated that 4-HNE enhanced adiponectin protein degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome system. Finally, we demonstrated that supplementation of HF diet with betaine, an antioxidant and methyl donor, alleviated high-fat-induced adipose tissue 4-HNE increase and attenuated plasma adiponectin decline. Taken together, our findings suggest that the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE can differentially regulates adiponectin gene expression and protein abundance and may play a mechanistic role in obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline. PMID:22085560

  2. Therapeutic window of globular adiponectin against cerebral ischemia in diabetic mice: the role of dynamic alteration of adiponectin/adiponectin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenying; Guo, Fan; Zhong, Haixing; Liu, Lixin; Yang, Rui; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that adiponectin (APN) attenuates cerebral ischemic/reperfusion via globular adiponectin (gAD). However, the therapeutic role of gAD in cerebral ischemic injury in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains unclear. Our results showed that gAD improved neurological scores and reduced the infarct volumes in the 8-week T1DM (T1DM-8W) mice, but not in the 2-week T1DM (T1DM-2W) mice. Moreover, the ischemic penumbra APN levels increased and peaked in T1DM-2W mice, and reduced to normal in T1DM-8W mice, while the APN receptor 1 (AdipoR1) expression change was the opposite. Administration of rosiglitazone in T1DM-2W mice up-regulated the expression of AdipoR1 and restored the neuroprotection of gAD, while intracerebroventricular injection of AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in T1DM-8W mice reversed it. Furthermore, the expression of p-PERK, p-IRE1 and GRP78 were increased whereas the expressions of CHOP and cleaved caspase-12 as well as the number of apoptotic neurons were decreased after gAD treatment in T1DM-8W mice. These beneficial effects of gAD were reversed by pretreatment with AdipoR1 siRNA. These results demonstrated a dynamic dysfunction of APN/AdipoR1 accompanying T1DM progression. Interventions bolstering AdipoR1 expression during early stages and gAD supplementation during advanced stages may potentially reduce the cerebral ischemic injury in diabetic patients. PMID:26611106

  3. A high-molecular-weight fraction of smooth lipopolysaccharide in Klebsiella serotype O1:K20 contains a unique O-antigen epitope and determines resistance to nonspecific serum killing.

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, K L; Schoenhals, G; Laakso, D; Clarke, B; Whitfield, C

    1989-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen side chains of Klebsiella serotype O1 have been studied by using mutants selected by resistance to a Klebsiella bacteriophage designated O1-A. Two classes of LPS mutants were identified. The major group (90%) synthesized rough LPS. The remaining 10% of the mutants produced a novel LPS profile that lacked the highest-molecular-weight O-substituted molecules (HMW-LPS) but still produced lower-molecular-weight O-substituted species (LMW-LPS). By using antisera raised against mutant Klebsiella strains and antiserum specific for Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 4, it was demonstrated that HMW-LPS and LMW-LPS contain shared epitopes. HMW-LPS also contained an epitope absent in LMW-LPS. This unique epitope was recognized by a monoclonal antibody (O1-52.6) and appears to be responsible for the serological cross-reaction between the O antigens of Klebsiella O1 and Escherichia coli O19. This HMW-LPS epitope was present in eight other Klebsiella O1 isolates which were examined. Electron microscopy demonstrated that HMW-LPS excluded overlying capsular polysaccharide for a distance of 25 to 40 nm. The distance was reduced to 10 to 18 nm in strains which synthesized only LMW-LPS and to zero in rough LPS strains. The HMW-LPS of Klebsiella O1 was shown to be an important virulence determinant, since this molecule was responsible for the resistance of the bacterium to nonspecific, complement-mediated serum killing. Images PMID:2478478

  4. Dexamethasone treatment alters insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels in male mice as observed in DIO but does not lead to alterations of metabolic phenotypes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bnisch, Clemens; Irmler, Martin; Brachthuser, Laura; Neff, Frauke; Bamberger, Mareike T; Marschall, Susan; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Epigenetic inheritance (EI) of metabolic phenotypes via the paternal lineage has been shown in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO). However, the factors involved in soma-to-germline information transfer remain elusive. Here, we address the role of alterations in insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels for EI of metabolic phenotypes by treating C57BL/6NTac male mice (F0) with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and generating offspring (F1) either by in vitro fertilization or by natural fecundation. Dexamethasone treatment slightly alters F0 body composition by increasing fat mass and decreasing lean mass, and significantly improves glucose tolerance. Moreover, it increases insulin and leptin levels and reduces adiponectin levels in F0 fathers as observed in mouse models of DIO. However, these paternal changes of metabolic hormones do not alter metabolic parameters, such as body weight, body composition and glucose homeostasis in male and female F1 mice even when these are challenged with a high-fat diet. Accordingly, sperm transcriptomes are not altered by dexamethasone treatment. Our results suggest that neither increased glucocorticoid, insulin, and leptin levels, nor decreased adiponectin levels in fathers are sufficient to confer soma-to-germline information transfer in EI of obesity via the paternal lineage. PMID:26662513

  5. Adiponectin resistance and proinflammatory changes in the visceral adipose tissue induced by fructose consumption via ketohexokinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Marek, George; Pannu, Varinderpal; Shanmugham, Prashanth; Pancione, Brianna; Mascia, Dominic; Crosson, Sean; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y

    2015-02-01

    An epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is linked with the increase in consumption of fructose-containing sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. In mammalian cells, fructose is metabolized predominantly via phosphorylation to fructose-1 phosphate by ketohexokinase (KHK) or by alternative pathways. Here we demonstrate that a KHK-dependent pathway mediates insulin resistance and inflammatory changes in the visceral fat in response to high fructose. We used mice (males, C57BL/6 background) including littermate wild-type control and mice lacking both isoforms of KHK (KHK-null). Fructose diet induced metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, proinflammatory changes in the visceral fat (production of proinflammatory adipokines and macrophage infiltration), the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, and decrease of the high-molecular weight adiponectin followed by decrease in the downstream signaling. KHK-KO mice consuming the same high-fructose diet remained lean, with normal insulin sensitivity and healthy visceral adipose tissue with normal adiponectin function not distinguishable from the control by any of the tested parameters. This study demonstrates that blocking KHK and redirecting fructose metabolism to alternative pathways is an effective way to prevent visceral obesity and insulin resistance induced by high fructose, a widespread component of Western diets. PMID:25187370

  6. Association between intrauterine mild hyperglycemia and post-natal high-fat diet with adiponectin and AMPK pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Xin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Huixia

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of maternal-fetal interactions in the setting of gestational diabetes mellitus. We investigated the long-term effects of intrauterine mild hyperglycemia and a postnatal high-fat diet on the glucose metabolism of adult offspring, and explored the role of adiponectin on hepatic gluconeogenesis. Twenty-one pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into an intrauterine hyperglycemia group (group D, n?=?14) and a control group (group C, n?=?7). Offspring were divided into four groups according to intrauterine blood glucose level and post-weaning dietary patterns (high-fat diet groups: DF and CF or normal diet groups: DN and CN, n?=?8 per group). The average birth weights of group D offspring were higher than for group C. In the DF rats, low adiponectin mRNA expression in perirenal and epididymal fat was significantly positively correlated with low hepatic AdipoR1 mRNA expression and significantly correlated with high hepatic PEPCK, G-6-Pase, and PGC-1? mRNA levels. In DF rats, hepatic P-AMPK was cytoplasmically located and its level was decreased; in these rats, hepatic CRTC2 was expressed in the nucleus and its level was significantly increased. Our study shows that the dietary structure of offspring has a large influence on the incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance. PMID:26416799

  7. Exenatide Activates the APPL1-AMPK-PPAR? Axis to Prevent Diabetic Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    XiaoTian, Lei; QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; WuQuan, Deng; Bing, Chen; ZiWen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect and mechanism of the exenatide on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods. Rats were divided into control group, diabetes group (D), diabetes treated with insulin (DI) group, and diabetes treat with exenatide (DE) group. We detected apoptosis rate by TUNEL, the adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) by ELISA, and the expression of APPL1, p-AMPK/T-AMPK, PPAR?, and NF-?B by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results. Compared with the D group, the apoptosis in the Control and DE groups was decreased (P < 0.05); the adiponectin and HMW-adiponectin were increased (P < 0.05); the APPL1, p-AMPK/T-AMPK, PPAR?, and LV -dP/dt were increased (P < 0.05); and the NF-?B, GRP78, and LVEDP were decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with DE group, the glucose levels in the DI group were similar (P < 0.05); the apoptosis and LVEDP were increased; the APPL1, p-AMPK/T-AMPK, PPAR?, and LV -dP/dt were decreased (P < 0.05); the NF-?B and GRP78 were increased (P < 0.05); the adiponectin and HMW-adiponectin were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our model of diabetic cardiomyopathy was constructed successfully. After being treated with exenatide, the adiponectin and HMW-adiponectin and the APPL1-AMPK-PPAR? axis were increased, the NF-?B and the apoptosis were decreased, the cardiac function of the diabetic rats was improved, and these effects were independent of glucose control. PMID:26759813

  8. Exenatide Activates the APPL1-AMPK-PPARα Axis to Prevent Diabetic Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    XiaoTian, Lei; QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; WuQuan, Deng; Bing, Chen; ZiWen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect and mechanism of the exenatide on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods. Rats were divided into control group, diabetes group (D), diabetes treated with insulin (DI) group, and diabetes treat with exenatide (DE) group. We detected apoptosis rate by TUNEL, the adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) by ELISA, and the expression of APPL1, p-AMPK/T-AMPK, PPARα, and NF-κB by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results. Compared with the D group, the apoptosis in the Control and DE groups was decreased (P < 0.05); the adiponectin and HMW-adiponectin were increased (P < 0.05); the APPL1, p-AMPK/T-AMPK, PPARα, and LV −dP/dt were increased (P < 0.05); and the NF-κB, GRP78, and LVEDP were decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with DE group, the glucose levels in the DI group were similar (P < 0.05); the apoptosis and LVEDP were increased; the APPL1, p-AMPK/T-AMPK, PPARα, and LV −dP/dt were decreased (P < 0.05); the NF-κB and GRP78 were increased (P < 0.05); the adiponectin and HMW-adiponectin were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our model of diabetic cardiomyopathy was constructed successfully. After being treated with exenatide, the adiponectin and HMW-adiponectin and the APPL1-AMPK-PPARα axis were increased, the NF-κB and the apoptosis were decreased, the cardiac function of the diabetic rats was improved, and these effects were independent of glucose control. PMID:26759813

  9. Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent samples of Caucasian women: the Chingford Study (n = 808, mean age 62.8 +/- 5.9 years) and Twins UK (n = 2,718, mean age 47.4 +/- 12.6 years). In the Chingford cohort, -11391 G/A, -10066 G/A (rs182052), -7734 C/A (rs16861209), +276 G/T (rs1501299) and +3228 C/T (rs1063537) were significantly associated with fasting serum adiponectin (Ps = 1.00 x 10(-4) to 1.40 x 10(-2)). Associations with all except +3228 C/T were replicated in the Twins UK cohort (Ps = 3.19 x 10(-9) to 6.00 x 10(-3)). In Chingford subjects, the 12 most common 8-SNP haplotypes (frequency 1.90%) explained 2.85% (p = 5.00 x 10(-2)) and in Twins UK subjects, the four most common 5-SNP haplotypes (frequency > 5.00%) explained 1.66% of the variance (p = 5.83 x 10(-7)). To investigate effects of -11391 G/A (rs17300539) and -11377 C/G (rs266729) on promoter activity, 1.2 kb of the ADIPOQ promoter region was cloned in a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the four haplotypes were transfected in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. No significant allelic effects on promoter activity were found. PMID:18523726

  10. Evidence that an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment triggers the release of a cell-associated high-molecular-weight amylase in Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980.

    PubMed Central

    Egelseer, E M; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

    1996-01-01

    During growth on starch medium, the S-layer-carrying Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and an S-layer-deficient variant each secreted three amylases, with identical molecular weights of 58,000, 122,000, and 184,000, into the culture fluid. Only the high-molecular-weight amylase (hmwA) was also identified as cell associated. Extraction and reassociation experiments showed that the hmwA had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and to the S-layer surface, but the interactions with the peptidoglycan-containing layer were stronger than those with the S-layer surface. For the S-layer-deficient variant, no changes in the amount of cell-associated and free hmwA could be observed during growth on starch medium, while for the S-layer-carrying strain, cell association of the hmwA strongly depended on the growth phase of the cells. The maximum amount of cell-associated hmwA was observed 3 h after inoculation, which corresponded to early exponential growth. The steady decrease in cell-associated hmwA during continued growth correlated with the appearance and the increasing intensity of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This protein had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and was identified as an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment which did not result from proteolytic cleavage of the whole S-layer protein but seems to be a truncated copy of the S-layer protein which is coexpressed with the hmwA under certain culture conditions. During growth on starch medium, the N-terminal S-layer protein fragment was integrated into the S-layer lattice, which led to the loss of its regular structure over a wide range and to the loss of amylase binding sites. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein is responsible for the anchoring of the subunits to the peptidoglycan-containing layer, while the surface-located C-terminal half could function as a binding site for the hmwA. PMID:8824603

  11. Induction of human adiponectin gene transcription by telmisartan, angiotensin receptor blocker, independently on PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Moriuchi, Akie ||. E-mail: f1195@cc.nagasaki-u-ac.jp; Shimamura, Mika; Kita, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Hironaga; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Fujishima, Keiichiro; Fukushima, Keiko |; Hayakawa, Takao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Yuji; Kawasaki, Eiji

    2007-05-18

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, has been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and inhibit the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, several reports have stated that angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), increase adiponectin plasma level, and ameliorate insulin resistance. Telmisartan, a subclass of ARBs, has been shown to be a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}, and to increase the plasma adiponectin level. However, the transcriptional regulation of the human adiponectin gene by telmisartan has not been determined yet. To elucidate the effect of telmisartan on adiponectin, the stimulatory regulation of human adiponectin gene by telmisartan was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, utilizing adenovirus-mediated luciferase reporter gene-transferring technique. This study indicates that telmisartan may stimulate adiponectin transcription independent of PPAR-{gamma}.

  12. Adiponectin Receptor Signaling on Dendritic Cells Blunts Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Peng H.; Tyrrell, Helen E.J.; Gao, Liquan; Xu, Danmei; Quan, Jianchao; Gill, Dipender; Rai, Lena; Ding, Yunchuan; Plant, Gareth; Chen, Yuan; Xue, John Z.; Handa, Ashok I.; Greenall, Michael J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Xue, Shao-An

    2015-01-01

    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) that interact with T cells represent a crucial site for the development of tolerance to tumor antigens, but there remains incomplete knowledge about how DC-tolerizing signals evolve during tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are sufficient to blunt antitumor immunity. Mechanistic investigations of ligandreceptor interactions on DCs revealed novel signaling pathways for each receptor. AdipoR1 stimulated IL10 production by activating the AMPK and MAPKp38 pathways, whereas AdipoR2 modified inflammatory processes by activating the COX-2 and PPAR? pathways. Stimulation of these pathways was sufficient to block activation of NF-?B in DC, thereby attenuating their ability to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into how DC-tolerizing signals evolve in cancer to promote immune escape. Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly applicable strategies for immunometabolic therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:25261236

  13. Treatment-Induced Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Do Not Reduce Urinary Albumin Excretion in the Diabetes Prevention Program Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Kieren J.; Pan, Qing; Knowler, William C.; Funahashi, Tohru; Bray, George A.; Arakaki, Richard; Falkner, Bonita; Sharma, Kumar; Goldstein, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Molecular data suggests that adiponectin may directly regulate urinary albumin excretion. In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) we measured adiponectin and albuminuria before and after intervention, and we previously reported increases in adiponectin with interventions. Here we have used the DPP dataset to test the hypothesis that treatment-related increases in adiponectin may reduce albuminuria in obesity. Design, Setting, Participants and Methods We evaluated cross-sectional correlations between plasma adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion at baseline, and the relationship of treatment-related changes in adiponectin and albuminuria. Baseline and follow-up urine albumin to creatinine ratios (ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio)) and plasma adiponectin concentration were available in 2553 subjects. Results Adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, we observed a statistically significant but weak inverse relationship between adiponectin and ACR at baseline (conditional Spearmans rho = (-) 0.04, p = 0.04). Although DPP treatments significantly increased plasma adiponectin, there were no treatment effects on ACR and no differences in ACR across treatment groups. There was a weak direct (not inverse) association between change in adiponectin and change in albuminuria (adjusted Spearmans rho = (+) 0.04, p = 0.03). Conclusions In a large, well-characterized cohort of obese dysglycemic subjects we observed a weak inverse association between circulating adiponectin concentrations and urinary albumin excretion at baseline. Contrary to the hypothesized effect, treatment-related increases in plasma adiponectin were not associated with a reduction in ACR. The association of change in adiponectin with change in ACR should be assessed in populations with overt albuminuria before excluding a beneficial effect of increasing adiponectin to reduce ACR in obesity. PMID:26312480

  14. Anthropometric, dietary, and hormonal correlates of serum adiponectin in Asian American women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Pike, Malcolm C

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that adiponectin has a critical role in the development of breast cancer, but factors that influence adiponectin concentrations have not been well studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Asian-American controls who participated in a population-based case-control study of breast cancer. Participants were interviewed in-person and donated a blood specimen. Using multivariate models, we investigated the relationships between serum adiponectin concentrations and lifestyle factors (including adiposity and dietary factors) and serum sex-hormones and growth factors among postmenopausal women who were nonhormone-users at blood draw (n = 196). Adiponectin concentrations were significantly positively associated with green tea intake (P trend = 0.03); levels were 31% higher among those who drank green tea 4 or more times per wk (14.5 1.10 ?g/mL) compared with nongreen-tea-drinkers (11.0 1.09 ?g/mL); this association remained after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio (WHR), both of which were significantly and inversely associated with adiponectin. Adiponectin concentrations were positively associated with sex-hormone-binding globulin (P trend < 0.0001) and the ratios of total testosterone (T)/total estradiol (E2) (P trend <0.004) after adjustment for BMI and WHR. Confirmation of our findings on green tea and adiponectin is needed. PMID:21547847

  15. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 M NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  16. The Pleiotropic Actions of Adiponectin are Initiated via Receptor-Mediated Activation of Ceramidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Holland, William L.; Miller, Russell A.; Wang, Zhao V.; Sun, Kai; Barth, Brian M.; Bui, Hai H.; Davis, Kathryn E.; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Halberg, Nils; Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Wade, Mark R.; Tenorio, Vincent M.; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Brozinick, Joseph T.; Zhang, Bei B.; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Summers, Scott A.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2010-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived secretory factor adiponectin promotes insulin sensitivity, decreases inflammation and promotes cell survival. To date, no unifying mechanism explains how adiponectin can exert such a variety of beneficial systemic effects. Here, we show that adiponectin potently stimulates a ceramidase activity associated with its two receptors, adipoR1 and adipoR2, and enhances ceramide catabolism and formation of its anti-apoptotic metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), independently of AMPK. Using models of inducible apoptosis in pancreatic ?-cells and cardiomyocytes, we show that transgenic overproduction of adiponectin decreases caspase-8 mediated death, while genetic adiponectin ablation enhances apoptosis in vivo through a sphingolipid-mediated pathway. Ceramidase activity is impaired in cells lacking both adiponectin receptor isoforms, leading to elevated ceramide levels and enhanced susceptibility to palmitate-induced cell death. Combined, our observations suggest a novel unifying mechanism of action for the beneficial systemic effects exerted by adiponectin, with sphingolipid metabolism as its core upstream component. PMID:21186369

  17. Genetic Analysis of Adiponectin Variation and its Association with Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    An, S. Sandy; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Hanley, Anthony J. G.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Brown, W. Mark; Freedman, Barry I.; Register, Thomas C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has been implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders, including T2D and cardiovascular disease. Studies evaluating genetic variants in ADIPOQ have been contradictory when testing association with T2D in different ethnic groups. Design and Methods In this study, 18 SNPs in ADIPOQ were tested for association with plasma adiponectin levels and diabetes status. SNPs were examined in two independent African-American cohorts (nmax=1116) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) and the African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS). Results Five polymorphisms were nominally associated with plasma adiponectin levels in the meta-analysis (p=0.0351.02x10?6) including a low frequency arginine to cysteine mutation (R55C) which reduced plasma adiponectin levels to <15% of the mean. Variants were then tested for association with T2D in a meta-analysis of these and the Wake Forest T2D Case-Control study (n=3233 T2D, 2645 non-T2D). Association with T2D was not observed (p?0.08), suggesting limited influence of ADIPOQ variants on T2D risk. Conclusions Despite identification of variants associated with adiponectin levels, a detailed genetic analysis of ADIPOQ revealed no association with T2D risk. This puts into question the role of adiponectin in T2D pathogenesis: whether low adiponectin levels are truly causal for or rather a consequence. PMID:23512866

  18. Expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in Paneth cells is modulated by gut Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaomin; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yugang; Yun, Huan; Zeng, Benhua; Wang, Enlin; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Feifei; Che, Yongzhe; Zhang, Zhiqian; Yang, Rongcun

    2015-01-01

    We here found that intestinal epithelial Paneth cells secrete FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in both mice and human. Deletion of Paneth cell results in the decrease of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin not only in intestinal crypt cells but also in sera, suggesting that they may influence the state of the whole body. We also demonstrate that expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin may be modulated by specific gut microbiota. In germ-free (GF) mice, the expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin were lower or difficult to be detected. Feces transplantation promoted the expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in gut epithelial Paneth cells. We have found that Lactobacillus NK6 colony, which has the highest similarity with Lactobacillus taiwanensis strain BCRC 17755, may induce the expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin through TRAF2 and TRAF6 ubiquitination mediated NF-κB signaling. Taken together, our findings set up a novel mechanism for FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin through gut microbiota mediating expression in gut Paneth cells. PMID:26687459

  19. Regulation of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis by Adiponectin: Effects on Hepatocytes, Pancreatic ? Cells and Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Caroline; Sifuentes, Angelica; Holland, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has received considerable attention for its potential anti-diabetic actions. The adipokine exerts control of glucose and lipid homeostasis via critical effects within the liver, adipose, and pancreas. By stimulating adipogenesis, opposing inflammation, and influencing rates of lipid oxidation and lipolysis, adiponectin critically governs lipid spillover into non-adipose tissues. Ceramide, a cytotoxic and insulin desensitizing lipid metabolite formed when peripheral tissues are exposed to excessive lipid deposition, is potently opposed by adiponectin. Via adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, adiponectin stimulates the deacylation of ceramide- yielding sphingosine for conversion to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase. The resulting conversion from ceramide to S1P promotes survival of functional beta cell mass, allowing for insulin production to meet insulin demands. Alleviation of ceramide burden on the liver allows for improvements in hepatic insulin action. Here, we summarize how adiponectin-induced changes in these tissues lead to improvements in glucose metabolism, highlighting the sphingolipid signaling mechanisms linking adiponectin to each action. PMID:24417945

  20. Adiponectin is Not Associated With Blood Pressure in Normotensives and Untreated Hypertensives With Normal Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Ivkovi?, Vanja; Jelakovi?, Mislav; Laganovi?, Mario; Pe?in, Ivan; Vrdoljak, Ana; Karanovi?, Sandra; Fu?ek, Mirjana; Boina, Tamara; Kos, Jelena; eljkovi? Vrki?, Tajana; Premui?, Vedran; ivko, Marijana; Jelakovi?, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The role of adiponectin in hypertension is still a matter of debate. Obtained conflicting results could be mostly explained with diversity of subjects included in different studies. Our aim was to analyze association of adiponectin with blood pressure (BP) in a group of normotensive and untreated hypertensive subjects. Participants (N?=?257) were selected from a random sample of 2487 subjects enrolled in an observational cross-sectional study. Subjects with diabetes and chronic kidney diseases were excluded. BP was measured using Omron M6 device following ESH/ESC guidelines. Adiponectin concentration was determined by ELISA. There were no differences in adiponectin values (mg/L) between hypertensives and normotensives (median 9.75; iqr: 7.4417.88 vs 11.35; iqr: 7.4312.63; P?=?0.17). On univariate linear regression adiponectin was not associated with systolic or diastolic BP (P?>?0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analysis did not show significant contribution of log-transformed adiponectin either to systolic (??=??0.040; P?=?0.43) or diastolic BP (??=?0.066; P?=?0.33). In our group of normotensives and untreated hypertensives with normal kidney function adiponectin was not associated with BP even after adjustment for other risk factors. Our results and conclusions should not be extrapolated to subjects with other characteristics. PMID:25526448

  1. Serum Adiponectin is Associated with Adverse Outcomes of Asthma in Men but Not in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay; Dominic, Elizabeth; Qualls, Clifford; Steffes, Michael W.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Smith, Lewis J.; Lewis, Cora E.; Jacobs, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Murine studies suggest a beneficial effect of systemic adiponectin on asthma. Our objective was to determine the association between serum adiponectin concentrations and asthma control/severity outcomes in men and women separately. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data from years 10, 15, and 20 examinations of the prospective coronary artery risk development in young adults study in the United States were performed. Asthma was defined by self-reported provider diagnosis at or prior to year 15 examination. Outcomes included presence of active disease, number of respiratory symptoms, and number of asthma medications; as well as longitudinal decline in absolute FEV1. Year 15 serum adiponectin concentration was the predictor variable. Results: In a multivariable analysis of 411 eligible subjects, after adjusting for body mass index and covariates, higher serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with more frequent active disease (including more frequent use of any asthma medication), and greater number of respiratory symptoms and asthma medications among men but not among women with asthma (p for interactions between sex and adiponectin for all analyses?adiponectin concentrations may be independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes of asthma in men but not in women. If biological effect is confirmed in future studies, modification of systemic adiponectin concentrations may open up newer ways to treat asthma in men. PMID:22007173

  2. 11?-HSD1 reduces metabolic efficacy and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun Hee; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kim, Hyunshik; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Hye-Sun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Hyuk-Joong; Kim, Bum Joong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Oh, Jin Sun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Jang, Jung Eun; Leem, Jaechan; Cho, Myung Hwan; Lee, Ki-Up

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophic adipocytes can reduce adiponectin synthesis. We investigated whether 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) expression is increased in hypertrophic adipocytes and whether this is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced adiponectin synthesis. Differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes were cultured for up to 21 days. The effect of AZD6925, a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, on metabolism was examined. db/db mice were administered 600?mg/kg AZD6925 daily for 4 weeks via gastric lavage. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mRNA expression levels of 11 ? -H sd1 and mitochondrial biogenesis factors, adiponectin synthesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), oxygen consumption rate and glycolysis were measured. Adipocyte hypertrophy in 3T3L1 cells exposed to a long duration of culture was associated with increased 11 ? -Hsd1 mRNA expression and reduced mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis factor expression and adiponectin synthesis. These cells displayed reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis. Treatment of these cells with AZD6925 increased adiponectin synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. Inhibition of FAO by etomoxir blocked the AZD6925-induced increase in adiponectin synthesis, indicating that 11?-HSD1-mediated reductions in FAO are responsible for the reduction in adiponectin synthesis. The expression level of 11 ? -Hsd1 was higher in adipose tissues of db/db mice. Administration of AZD6925 to db/db mice increased the plasma adiponectin level and adipose tissue FAO. In conclusion, increased 11?-HSD1 expression contributes to reduced mitochondrial respiration and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes. PMID:25869616

  3. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dadson, Keith; Turdi, Subat; Boo, Stellar; Hinz, Boris; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO). Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) and wild-type (WT) mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Massons trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1?1 and collagen 1?3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1? only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects. PMID:25910275

  4. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Regulating Circulating Levels of Adiponectin: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of alcohol intake in influencing longitudinal trajectories of adiponectin is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between alcohol intake and changes in the circulating levels of adiponectin over repeat measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 2855 men and women (74% men with a mean age of 50 y at baseline) drawn from the Whitehall II study. Data from study phases 3 (19911993), 5 (19971999), and 7 (20022004) were used. Main Outcome Measure: Adiponectin serum concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) were measured, and alcohol intake was defined in terms of number of UK units (1 U = 8 g ethanol) consumed in the previous 7 days on three occasions. Cross-sectional associations between alcohol and adiponectin levels were calculated using linear regression. A bivariate dual-change score model was used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake on upcoming change in adiponectin. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results: Alcohol consumption was cross-sectionally associated with (log transformed) adiponectin levels (? ranging from .001 to .004, depending on phase and level of adjustment) but was not associated with changes in adiponectin levels over time [? = ?0.002 (SE 0.002), P = 0.246]. Conclusion: Alcohol intake is not associated with changes in circulating adiponectin levels in this cohort. This finding provides evidence that adiponectin levels are unlikely to mediate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. It is important to consider dynamic longitudinal relationships rather than cross-sectional associations. PMID:26000546

  5. Adiponectin Enhances Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Promotes Monocyte Adhesion in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Shih, James Meng-Kun; Chen, Yen-Jen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes and is involved in energy homeostasis. Adiponectin expression is significantly high in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important adhesion molecule that mediates monocyte adhesion and infiltration during OA pathogenesis. Adiponectin-induced expression of ICAM-1 in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) was examined by using qPCR, flow cytometry and western blotting. The intracellular signaling pathways were investigated by pretreated with inhibitors or transfection with siRNA. The monocyte THP-1 cell line was used for an adhesion assay with OASFs. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors (AraA and compound C) or transfection with siRNA against AMPK?1 and two AMPK upstream activator- liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) diminished the adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of LKB1, CaMKII, AMPK, and c-Jun, resulting in c-Jun binding to AP-1 element of ICAM-1 promoter. In addition, adiponectin-induced activation of the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, and AP-1 pathway increased the adhesion of monocytes to the OASF monolayer. Our results suggest that adiponectin increases ICAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. Adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression promoted the adhesion of monocytes to human OASFs. These findings may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and can utilize this knowledge to design a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24667577

  6. Adiponectin selectively inhibits oxytocin neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Hoyda, Ted D; Fry, Mark; Ahima, Rexford S; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte derived hormone which acts in the brain to modulate energy homeostasis and autonomic function. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) which plays a key role in controlling pituitary hormone secretion has been suggested to be a central target for adiponectin actions. A number of hormones produced by PVN neurons have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis including oxytocin, corticotropin releasing hormone and thyrotropin releasing hormone. In the present study we investigated the role of adiponectin in controlling the excitability of magnocellular (MNC – oxytocin or vasopressin secreting) neurons within the PVN. Using RT-PCR techniques we have shown expression of both adiponectin receptors in the PVN. Patch clamp recordings from MNC neurons in hypothalamic slices have also identified mixed (27% hyperpolarization, 42% depolarization) effects of adiponectin in modulating the excitability of the majority of MNC neurons tested. These effects are maintained when cells are placed in synaptic isolation using tetrodotoxin. Additionally we combined electrophysiological recordings with single cell RT-PCR to examine the actions of adiponectin on MNC neurons which expressed oxytocin only, vasopressin only, or both oxytocin and vasopressin mRNA and assess the profile of receptor expression in these subgroups. Adiponectin was found to hyperpolarize 100% of oxytocin neurons tested (n = 6), while vasopressin cells, while all affected (n = 6), showed mixed responses. Further analysis indicates oxytocin neurons express both receptors (6/7) while vasopressin neurons express either both receptors (3/8) or one receptor (5/8). In contrast 6/6 oxytocin/vasopressin neurons were unaffected by adiponectin. Co-expressing oxytocin and vasopressin neurons express neither receptor (4/6). The results presented in this study suggest that adiponectin plays specific roles in controlling the excitability oxytocin secreting neurons, actions which correlate with the current literature showing increased oxytocin secretion in the obese population. PMID:17947308

  7. Sex-Specific Effects of Adiponectin on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Jonas; Strawbridge, Rona J; McLeod, Olga; Gertow, Karl; Silveira, Angela; Baldassarre, Damiano; Van Zuydam, Natalie; Shah, Sonia; Fava, Cristiano; Gustafsson, Stefan; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sennblad, Bengt; Larsson, Malin; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Tabak, Adam; Kivimaki, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Humphries, Steve E; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle; Kumari, Meena; Hingorani, Aroon; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Lundman, Pia; hrvik, John; Sderberg, Stefan; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma adiponectin levels have previously been inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we used a sex-stratified Mendelian randomization approach to investigate whether adiponectin has a causal protective influence on IMT. Methods and Results Baseline plasma adiponectin concentration was tested for association with baseline IMT, IMT progression over 30months, and occurrence of cardiovascular events within 3years in 3430 participants (women, n =1777; men, n =1653) with high cardiovascular risk but no prevalent disease. Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely associated with baseline mean bifurcation IMT after adjustment for established risk factors (? =?0.018, P<0.001) in men but not in women (? =?0.006, P =0.185; P for interaction =0.061). Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with progression of mean common carotid IMT in men (? =?0.0022, P =0.047), whereas no association was seen in women (0.0007, P =0.475; P for interaction =0.018). Moreover, we observed that adiponectin levels were inversely associated with coronary events in women (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.87) but not in men (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.25). A gene score of adiponectin-raising alleles in 6 loci, reported recently in a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis, was inversely associated with baseline mean bifurcation IMT in men (? =?0.0008, P =0.004) but not in women (? =?0.0003, P =0.522; P for interaction =0.007). Conclusions This report provides some evidence for adiponectin protecting against atherosclerosis, with effects being confined to men; however, compared with established cardiovascular risk factors, the effect of plasma adiponectin was modest. Further investigation involving mechanistic studies is warranted. PMID:26276317

  8. Adiponectin as a biomarker linking obesity and adiposopathy to hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dalamaga, Maria; Christodoulatos, Gerasimos S

    2015-07-01

    Higher body mass index and adiposopathy have been associated with increased risk of hematologic malignancies such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Adiponectin is a multimeric protein of the white adipose tissue presenting anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, cardioprotective, and anti-neoplastic properties. Its anti-neoplastic actions are manifested via two mechanisms: (i) direct action on tumor cells by enhancing receptor-mediated signaling pathways and (ii) indirect action by regulating inflammatory responses, influencing cancer angiogenesis, and modulating insulin sensitivity at the target tissue site. In the bone marrow milieu, adiponectin and its main receptors are expressed by the majority of bone marrow stromal cell populations influencing hematopoietic stem cells function. Adiponectin may represent a molecular mediator relating adiposopathy with leukemogenesis and myelomagenesis. Several epidemiological studies conducted to date relate hypoadiponectinemia to the risk of myeloid-derived hematopoietic cancer and multiple myeloma. Adiponectin may be a promising biomarker with potential diagnostic and prognostic utility in determining the likelihood of myeloma and leukemia progression in certain cohorts of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients and in myeloid hematologic malignancies, respectively. This review summarizes experimental and epidemiologic data regarding the role of adiponectin in hematologic malignancies in the context of adiposopathy. Enhancement of endogenous adiponectin, adiponectin replacement, or manipulation of adiponectin receptor sensitivity may be an attractive goal for prevention and an effective therapeutic strategy against hematopoietic cancer, specifically in overweight/obese individuals. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of the bone marrow microenvironment adiponectin in complex interactions involved in preleukemic and leukemic states. PMID:26057219

  9. Stellar Rotation and Variability in IC 348 and Indication of a 4.75 Year Period for the Unique, Apparently Eclipsing Pre-Main Sequence Star HMW 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhagen, S. C. J.; Rhode, K. L.; Herbst, W.; Williams, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past two years of a seven-year photometric variability study of the young stellar cluster IC 348, numerous periodically variable T Tauri stars were discovered, bringing the total number of identified periodic variables in IC 348 to 69, or about 45 % of all cluster stars observed by us. This includes data from Herbst, Maley & Williams (2000, AJ 120, 394), Cohen, Herbst & Williams (2004, AJ 127, 1602) and Littlefair et al. (2005 MNRAS 358, 341). In addition to these photometric data, spectra of 30 cluster members were obtained with the WIYN 3.5m telescope and used to calculate radial velocities and v sin i rotation measurements, offering a generally complementary view of stellar rotation in IC 348. A mean heliocentric radial velocity for the cluster has been determined, and two radial velocity outliers discovered, which are possible spectroscopic binaries. The distribution of rotation periods, their relationship to v sin i measurements and the implications of these results for the rotation and radii of pre-main sequence stars in IC 348 will be presented. In addition, we discuss the recent behavior of the peculiar variable HMW 15 (Cohen, Herbst & Williams 2003 ApJ 596, L243), which now appears to be undergoing a periodic eclipse on a time scale of 4.75 years. We discuss possible origins for this extraordinarily long periodicity. S. Nordhagen was an undergraduate summer student at Wesleyan University, sponsored by the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. Their REU program is supported by NSF grant AST-0353997.

  10. Characterization of a new wheat-Aegilops biuncialis addition line conferring quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Yao, C H; Yang, E N; Yin, M Q; Liu, C; Ren, Z L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new disomic addition line, 12-5-2, with 44 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. 12-5-2 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and C-banding revealed that 12-5-2 was a 1U(b) disomic addition line (ADL1U(b)). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-2 presented all high molecular weight glutenin subunits (7 + 8 and 2 + 12) of CN19 and 2 new subunits that were designated Ux and Uy. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness of 12-5-2 were significantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1U(b)-specific polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1041, TNAC1071, TNAC1-01, and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new ADL1U(b) 12-5-2 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end-product quality and resistance to disease. PMID:24615031

  11. Stripe rust resistance and dough quality of new wheat - Dasypyrum villosum translocation lines T1DL1V#3S and T1DS1V#3L and the location of HMW-GS genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W C; Gao, X; Dong, J; Zhao, Z J; Chen, Q G; Chen, L G; Shi, Y G; Li, X Y

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of agronomically useful genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat is one of the most effective approaches to improvement of wheat varieties. To evaluate the transfer of genes from Dasypyrum villosum into Triticum aestivum, wheat quality and disease resistance was evaluated in two new translocation lines, T1DL1V#3S and T1DS1V#3L. We examined the levels of stripe rust resistance and dough quality in the two lines, and identified and located the stripe rust resistant genes and high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes Glu-V1 of D. villosum. Compared to the Chinese Spring (CS) variety, T1DL1V#3S plants showed moderate resistance to moderate susceptibility to the stripe rust races CYR33 and Su11-4. However, T1DS1V#3L plants showed high resistance or immunity to these stripe rusts. The genes for resistance to stripe rust were located on 1VL of D. villosum. In comparison to CS, the dough from T1DS1V#3L had a significantly shorter developing time (1.45 min) and stable time (1.0 min), a higher weakness in gluten strength (208.5 FU), and a lower farinograph quality index (18). T1DL1V#3S had a significantly longer developing time (4.2 min) and stable time (5.25 min), a lower weakness in gluten strength (53 FU) and a higher farinograph quality index (78.5). We also found that T1DS1V#3L had reduced gluten strength and dough quality compared to CS, but T1DL1V#3S had increased gluten strength and dough quality. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that Glu-V1 of D. villosum was located on short arm 1VS and long arm 1VL. These results prove that the new translocation lines, T1DS1V#3L and T1DS1V#3L, have valuable stripe rust resistance and dough quality traits that will be important for improving wheat quality and resistance in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:26214490

  12. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphism 45TG with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed on the new IADPSG criteria, plasma adiponectin levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Zheng, Yan-li; Fan, Yu-ping; Liu, Man-hua; Lu, Xiao-yan; Tao, Qian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the association of adiponectin gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 45TG with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed on the new International Diabetes in Pregnancy Consensus Group (IADPSG) criteria, plasma adiponectin levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Han women of Nantong area in China. This cross-sectional study included 128 pregnant women with GDM (GDM group) and 140 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT group) according to oral glucose tolerance test results based on the new IADPSG criteria. The GDM pregnant women were treated by diet control or diet control and insulin injection. All pregnant women attended antenatal cares and were recorded until delivery. Adiponectin gene was amplified through PCR, and SNP was detected using restriction enzyme SmaI. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured by ELISA. The G allele and TG+GG genotype were significantly more frequent than the T allele in the GDM group than in the NGT group (p < 0.05). Plasma adiponectin concentrations of TG+GG genotype carriers were significantly lower than those of TT genotype in both groups (p < 0.01). After adjustment for confounding factors, plasma adiponectin level remained significantly lower in pregnant women with TG+GG genotype than those with TT genotype (p < 0.05). Compared with the NGT group, the GDM group with glycemic control still had significantly higher incidences of macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia and asphyxia (p < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that the incidences of macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia were significantly higher in pregnant women with TG+GG genotype than those with TT genotype after adjustment for potential confounders in affecting pregnancy outcomes (p < 0.05). Even though pregnant women are diagnosed as GDM according to the new IADPSG criteria, the adiponectin SNP45 may be closely correlated with the prevalence of GDM in Han women of Nantong area in China, and the allele +45G in adiponectin gene might be associated with reduced plasma adiponectin levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24664457

  13. Globular adiponectin enhances invasion in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    FALK LIBBY, EMILY; LIU, JIANZHONG; LI, YI; LEWIS, MONICA J.; DEMARK-WAHNEFRIED, WENDY; HURST, DOUGLAS R.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, a large number of women succumb to metastatic breast cancer due to a lack of curative approaches for this disease. Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is the most abundant of the adipocyte-secreted adipokines. In recent years, there has been an interest in the use of AdipoQ and AdipoQ receptor agonists as therapeutic agents for the treatment of breast cancer. However, while multiple epidemiological studies have previously indicated that low levels of circulating plasma AdipoQ portend poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, recent studies have reported that elevated expression levels of AdipoQ in breast tissue are correlated with advanced stages of the disease. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanism by which AdipoQ in breast tissue acts directly on tumor cells to regulate the early steps of breast cancer metastasis. In the present study, the effects of different AdipoQ isoforms on the metastatic potential of human breast cancer cells were investigated. The results revealed that globular adiponectin (gAd) promoted invasive cell morphology and significantly increased the migration and invasion abilities of breast cancer cells, whereas full-length adiponectin (fAd) had no effect on these cells. Additionally, gAd, but not fAd, increased the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (LC3B)-II and intracellular LC3B puncta, which are indicators of autophagosome formation, thus suggesting autophagic induction by gAd. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagic function by autophagy-related protein 7 knockdown attenuated the gAd-induced increase in invasiveness in breast cancer cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that a specific AdipoQ isoform may enhance breast cancer invasion, possibly via autophagic induction. Understanding the roles of the different AdipoQ isoforms as microenvironmental regulatory molecules may aid the development of effective AdipoQ-based treatments for breast cancer. PMID:26870258

  14. Adiponectin corrects high-fat diet-induced disturbances in muscle metabolomic profile and whole-body glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Turdi, Subat; Park, Taesik; Morris, Nicholas J; Deshaies, Yves; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We provide here a detailed and comprehensive analysis of skeletal muscle metabolomic profiles in response to adiponectin in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) mice after high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed that adiponectin administration corrected HFD-induced defects in post/basal insulin stimulated R(d) and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Lipidomic profiling of skeletal muscle from HFD-fed mice indicated elevated triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species (16:0-18:1, 18:1, and 18:0-18:2) as well as acetyl coA, all of which were mitigated by adiponectin. HFD induced elevated levels of various ceramides, but these were not significantly altered by adiponectin. Adiponectin corrected the altered branched-chain amino acid metabolism caused by HFD and corrected increases across a range of glycerolipids, fatty acids, and various lysolipids. Adiponectin also reversed induction of the pentose phosphate pathway by HFD. Analysis of muscle mitochondrial structure indicated that adiponectin treatment corrected HFD-induced pathological changes. In summary, we show an unbiased comprehensive metabolomic profile of skeletal muscle from AdKO mice subjected to HFD with or without adiponectin and relate these to changes in whole-body glucose handling, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial structure and function. Our data revealed a key signature of relatively normalized muscle metabolism across multiple metabolic pathways with adiponectin supplementation under the HFD condition. PMID:23238294

  15. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 3.3 vs. 10.7 4.2 g/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors. PMID:26703682

  16. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rocio I.; Low Wang, Cecilia C.; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P.; Long, Carlin S.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors. PMID:26703682

  17. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Reduces Cell Growth, Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chia-Rou; Lee, Sea-Ming; Popovich, David G.

    2011-01-01

    An American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) extract (GE) that contained a quantifiable amount of ginsenosides was investigated for the potential to inhibit proliferation, affect the cell cycle, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Six fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the respective molecular weights were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. The extract contained Rg1 (347.3 ± 99.7 μg g−1, dry weight), Re (8280.4 ± 792.3 μg g−1), Rb1 (1585.8 ± 86.8 μg g−1), Rc (32.9 ± 8 μg g−1), Rb2 (62.6 ± 10.6 μg g−1) and Rd (90.4 ± 3.2 μg g−1). The GE had a dose-dependent effect on 3T3-L1 cell growth, the LC50 value was determined to be 40.3 ± 5 μg ml−1. Cell cycle analysis showed modest changes in the cell cycle. No significant changes observed in both G1 and G2/M phases, however there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the S phase after 24 and 48 h treatment. Apoptotic cells were modest but significantly (P < .05) increased after 48 h (3.2 ± 1.0%) compared to untreated control cells (1.5 ± 0.1%). Lipid acquisition was significantly reduced (P < .05) by 13 and 22% when treated at concentrations of 20.2 and 40.3 μg ml−1 compared to untreated control cells. In relation to adiponectin activation, western blot analysis showed that the protein expression was significantly (P < .05) increased at concentrations tested. A quantified GE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated the accumulation of lipid and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model. PMID:21799682

  18. Adiponectin Expression Protects against Angiotensin II-Mediated Inflammation and Accelerated Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    van Stijn, Caroline M. W.; Kim, Jason; Barish, Grant D.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipocytokine produced by adipose tissue, exerts pleiotropic actions regulating inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. APN levels are inversely correlated with obesity, type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation in these interrelated metabolic syndrome components increases angiotensin II (AngII) levels leading to vascular damage, it is unknown whether APN under these conditions provides atheroprotection. We investigated whether increasing plasma APN provides atheroprotection in a hypertensive and accelerated atherosclerosis model. Using adenoviral gene transfer, sustained APN expression increased plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight APN, leading to a significant elevation of plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Elevated APN levels were strongly atheroprotective, yet had no impact on blood pressure. Notably, gene expression analyses revealed that APN significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and atherogenic genes while it increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 and the cholesterol efflux transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the artery wall. These findings suggest that increasing APN levels may be an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis associated with RAS activation in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24466075

  19. Adiponectin Inhibits Insulin Function in Primary Trophoblasts by PPARα-Mediated Ceramide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPARα. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPARα, because activation of PPARα with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPARα-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPARα and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability. PMID:24606127

  20. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with the Adiponectin to Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu-Song; Guo, Shu-Xia; Ma, Ru-Lin; Li, Shu-Gang; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-Ming; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Liu, Lie-Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the adiponectin to HOMA-IR (A/H) ratio is associated with MetS and MetS components and comparing the diagnostic efficacy of adiponectin, HOMA-IR, and the A/H ratio in healthy, middle-aged participants. MetS was assessed in 1628 Kazakh participants (men, 768; women, 860). The associations between adiponectin, HOMA-IR, and the A/H ratio with the components of MetS and MetS were examined using logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that A/H ratio may be a better diagnostic marker for MetS than either HOMA-IR or adiponectin alone, and it may serve as an important biomarker to determine an increased risk for MetS in healthy middle-aged population. PMID:26556958

  1. Effects of febuxostat on platelet-derived microparticles and adiponectin in patients with hyperuricema

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Tohru; Taniura, Takehito; Nomura, Shosaku

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs) and adiponectin play an important role in the development of atherothrombosis. We investigated the effect of febuxostat on circulating PDMP levels and adiponectin in hyperuricemic patients. Levels of PDMP and biomarkers were measured using an ELISA at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Plasma levels of PDMPs and biomarkers were higher, while those of adiponectin were lower in hyperuricemic patients than in normouricemic controls. Uric acid and interleukin (IL)-6 levels decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after 2 months of febuxostat treatment. However, PDMP and biomarkers decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after only 6 months of febuxostat treatment and adiponectin increased significantly. These results suggest that the effects of febuxostat for PDMPs seen may be the effect on xanthine oxidase but not the decrease of uric acid, and febuxostat may be beneficial for primary prevention of atherothrombosis in hyperuricemic patients. PMID:26164850

  2. Effect of Serum Leptin on Weight Gain Induced by Olanzapine in Female Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tsuneyama, Nobuto; Suzuki, Yutaro; Sawamura, Kazushi; Sugai, Takuro; Fukui, Naoki; Watanabe, Junzo; Ono, Shin; Saito, Mami; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Olanzapine (OLZ) treatment is associated with a high risk of weight gain, and may cause abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism. Therefore, the underlying mechanism of OLZ-related weight gain is needed to clarify but not yet been adequately determined. In recent years, adipocytokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which play important roles in energy homeostasis, have been suggested as biomarkers of weight gain. Here, we determined if baseline plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-α predict weight gain following OLZ treatment. Methods We recruited 31 schizophrenia outpatients (12 men and 19 women, 28.8 ± 10.2 years old) that were unmedicated or on another antipsychotic monotherapy medication. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-α were obtained. All patients started or were switched to OLZ monotherapy for a maximum of 1 year. BMI was also obtained at the endpoint. Results Mean BMI change following OLZ treatment was 2.1 ± 2.7 kg/m2. BMI change from baseline to endpoint negatively-correlated with baseline leptin levels in female patients (r = −0.514, P = 0.024), but not male patients. Baseline adiponectin or TNF-α levels were not correlated with BMI change. Conclusion Baseline plasma leptin can have an effect on subsequent weight gain following OLZ treatment in female patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26930407

  3. Association between serum levels of adiponectin and polychlorinated biphenyls in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung-eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2015-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In humans, little is known about their potential role on obesity. Adiponectin augments the effects of insulin on glucose homeostasis. The expression of adiponectin is reduced in obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to reveal whether accumulation of the POPs, especially polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with serum levels of adiponectin in Koreans. This cross-sectional study includes 98 Koreans (49 men and 49 women). Serum levels of marker PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured by Agilent 7890GC-micro-ECD (Gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector). Total adiponectin levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We defined high (?Median) and low (adiponectin levels (?-coefficients=-0.00741 for PCB28; -0.00438 for PCB138; -0.00406 for PCB153). When we divided subjects by sex, PCB28 and PCB153 were inversely associated with adiponectin in women. In the high BMI group (?Median), PCB153 showed the significant negative associations with adiponectin levels (P<0.05). However, these associations were not seen in the low BMI group. In conclusion, we found negative associations between PCBs and adiponectin. This cross-sectional study could provide support for the hypothesis that POPs exposure might contribute to type 2 diabetes as well as obesity. PMID:24664360

  4. Second-generation antipsychotics and adiponectin levels in schizophrenia: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Clerici, Massimo; Carr, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    People with schizophrenia treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have lower plasma adiponectin levels, as compared with general population, that may lead to metabolic abnormalities. However, the contribution of different SGAs on adiponectin dysregulation is still unclear. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate differences in adiponectin levels among people with schizophrenia treated with different SGAs. We systematically searched for observational studies published up to March 2015 in main electronic databases. Different SGAs were included if data on adiponectin were available from at least three different samples involving as a minimum five participants per treatment arm. Standardized mean differences with relevant 95% confidence intervals were generated. I(2) was used to test heterogeneity among studies. Eight studies were included with data suitable for carrying out four different comparisons: Clozapine vs. Olanzapine (including n=877 individuals with schizophrenia); Clozapine vs. Risperidone (n=660); Olanzapine vs. Risperidone (n=738); Quetiapine vs. Risperidone (n=186). There were no differences on adiponectin levels between people taking Clozapine and those taking Olanzapine (p=0.86), but high heterogeneity was detected (I(2)=82%). Both individuals taking Clozapine (p<0.001; I(2)=0%) and those taking Olanzapine (p=0.02; I(2)=9%), but not subjects treated with Quetiapine (p=0.47; I(2)=0%), had adiponectin levels significantly lower than people taking Risperidone. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence showing greater metabolic abnormalities attributable to Clozapine and Olanzapine, as compared with other SGAs. Although mechanisms whereby both these SGAs influence adiponectin remain unexplained, its reduction might mediate relevant abnormalities. Prospective evaluations of long-term effects of different SGAs on adiponectin are needed. PMID:26164075

  5. Mutual Regulation of Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Myocardial Redox State by PPAR-γ/Adiponectin Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Alexios S.; Margaritis, Marios; Verheule, Sander; Recalde, Alice; Sanna, Fabio; Herdman, Laura; Psarros, Costas; Nasrallah, Hussein; Coutinho, Patricia; Akoumianakis, Ioannis; Brewer, Alison C.; Sayeed, Rana; Krasopoulos, George; Petrou, Mario; Tarun, Akansha; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Shah, Ajay M.; Casadei, Barbara; Channon, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models, but its role in the regulation of myocardial redox state in humans is unknown. Although adiponectin is released from epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT), it is unclear whether it exerts any paracrine effects on the human myocardium. Objective: To explore the cross talk between EpAT-derived adiponectin and myocardial redox state in the human heart. Methods and Results: EpAT and atrial myocardium were obtained from 306 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Functional genetic polymorphisms that increase ADIPOQ expression (encoding adiponectin) led to reduced myocardial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase–derived O2−, whereas circulating adiponectin and ADIPOQ expression in EpAT were associated with elevated myocardial O2−. In human atrial tissue, we demonstrated that adiponectin suppresses myocardial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, by preventing AMP kinase–mediated translocation of Rac1 and p47phox from the cytosol to the membranes. Induction of O2− production in H9C2 cardiac myocytes led to the release of a transferable factor able to induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ–mediated upregulation of ADIPOQ expression in cocultured EpAT. Using a NOX2 transgenic mouse and a pig model of rapid atrial pacing, we found that oxidation products (such as 4-hydroxynonenal) released from the heart trigger peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ–mediated upregulation of ADIPOQ in EpAT. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time in humans that adiponectin directly decreases myocardial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity via endocrine or paracrine effects. Adiponectin expression in EpAT is controlled by paracrine effects of oxidation products released from the heart. These effects constitute a novel defense mechanism of the heart against myocardial oxidative stress. PMID:26838789

  6. Baseline Adiponectin Levels Do Not Influence the Response to Pioglitazone in ACT NOW

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C.; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Henry, Robert R.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E.; Stentz, Frankie B.; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. We examined whether plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and after pioglitazone treatment in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were associated with improved insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose tolerance status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 602 high-risk IGT subjects in ACT NOW were randomized to receive pioglitazone or placebo with a median follow-up of 2.4 years. RESULTS Pioglitazone reduced IGT conversion to diabetes by 72% in association with improved ?-cell function by 64% (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) and increased tissue sensitivity by 88% (Matsuda index). In pioglitazone-treated subjects, plasma adiponectin concentration increased threefold from 13 0.5 to 38 2.5 ?g/mL (P < 0.001) and was strongly correlated with the improvement in SI (r = 0.436, P < 0.001) and modestly correlated with glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r = 0.238, P < 0.005) and insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (r = 0.306, P < 0.005). The increase in adiponectin was a strong predictor of reversion to normal glucose tolerance and prevention of T2DM. In the placebo group, plasma adiponectin did not change and was not correlated with changes in glucose levels. There was an inverse association between baseline plasma adiponectin concentration and progression to diabetes in the placebo group but not in the pioglitazone group. CONCLUSIONS Baseline adiponectin does not predict the response to pioglitazone. The increase in plasma adiponectin concentration after pioglitazone therapy in IGT subjects is strongly related to improved glucose tolerance status and enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. PMID:24705615

  7. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Klegeris, Andis; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  8. Leptin and Adiponectin Modulate the Self-renewal of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Esper, Raymond M; Dame, Michael; McClintock, Shannon; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Wicha, Max S; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms are likely to account for the link between obesity and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are of particular interest due to their opposing biologic functions and associations with breast cancer risk. In the current study, we investigated the effects of leptin and adiponectin on normal breast epithelial stem cells. Levels of leptin in human adipose explant-derived conditioned media positively correlated with the size of the normal breast stem cell pool. In contrast, an inverse relationship was found for adiponectin. Moreover, a strong linear relationship was observed between the leptin/adiponectin ratio in adipose conditioned media and breast stem cell self-renewal. Consistent with these findings, exogenous leptin stimulated whereas adiponectin suppressed breast stem cell self-renewal. In addition to local in-breast effects, circulating factors, including leptin and adiponectin, may contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer. Increased levels of leptin and reduced amounts of adiponectin were found in serum from obese compared with age-matched lean postmenopausal women. Interestingly, serum from obese women increased stem cell self-renewal by 30% compared with only 7% for lean control serum. Taken together, these data suggest a plausible explanation for the obesity-driven increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Leptin and adiponectin may function as both endocrine and paracrine/juxtacrine factors to modulate the size of the normal stem cell pool. Interventions that disrupt this axis and thereby normalize breast stem cell self-renewal could reduce the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 8(12); 1174-83. 2015 AACR. PMID:26487401

  9. Regulatory Role of Autophagy in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Saroj; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, exhibits diverse biological responses, including metabolism of glucose and lipid, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Recently, adiponectin has been shown to modulate autophagy as well. While emerging evidence has demonstrated that autophagy plays a role in the modulation of proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, the role of autophagy in apoptosis of cancer cell caused by adiponectin has not been explored. In the present study, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induces both apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), as evidenced by increase in caspase-3 activity, Bax, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3 II) protein levels, and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, gene silencing of LC3B, an autophagy marker, significantly enhanced gAcrp-induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, whereas induction of autophagy by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, significantly prevented gAcrp-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells HepG2. Furthermore, modulation of autophagy produced similar effects on gAcrp-induced Bax expression in HepG2 cells. These results implicate that induction of autophagy plays a regulatory role in adiponectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and thus inhibition of autophagy would be a novel promising target to enhance the efficiency of cancer cell apoptosis by adiponectin. PMID:25414767

  10. Possible new therapeutic approach for obesity-related diseases: Role of adiponectin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hung, Yi-Jen

    2015-05-01

    Adiponectin is a major adipokine that seems to have a crucial role in the protection from many metabolic abnormalities. There have been several reports that suggest a strong inverse relationship between plasma levels of adiponectin and the severity of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Restoring adiponectin levels has salient benefits in many of the obesity-related diseases, which provides a strong rationale for adiponectin-based therapeutics for treating metabolic abnormalities. A Japanese team of researchers has screened and identified an orally active compound that binds to and activates the adiponectin receptor1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2 receptors that are named AdipRon. This molecule ameliorates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese animal models, and also extends the shortened lifespan of diabetic obese mice. If this work can be extended to humans, the improved safety and efficacy of these orally active adiponectin agonists could offer a promising new approach to treating obesity-related diseases. PMID:25969709

  11. Obesity and pulmonary arterial hypertension: Is adiponectin the molecular link between these conditions?

    PubMed

    Summer, Ross; Walsh, Kenneth; Medoff, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition of unknown etiology whose pathological features include increased vascular resistance, perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. Although risk factors for PAH are poorly defined, recent studies indicate that obesity may be an important risk factor for this condition. The mechanisms leading to this association are largely unknown, but bioactive mediators secreted from adipose tissue have been implicated in this process. One of the most important mediators released from adipose tissue is the adipokine adiponectin. Adiponectin is highly abundant in the circulation of lean healthy individuals, and possesses well-described metabolic and antiinflammatory actions. Levels of adiponectin decrease with increasing body mass, and low levels are directly linked to the development of PAH in mice. Moreover, overexpression of adiponectin has been shown to protect mice from developing PAH in response to inflammation and hypoxia. Based on the findings from these studies, it is suggested that the effects of adiponectin are mediated, in part, through its antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. In this review, we discuss the emerging evidence demonstrating a role for adiponectin in lung vascular homeostasis and discuss how deficiency in this adipocyte-derived hormone might explain the recent association between obesity and PAH. PMID:22530098

  12. Relationship of Serum Adiponectin Levels and Metformin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Su, J-R; Lu, Z-H; Su, Y; Zhao, N; Dong, C-L; Sun, L; Zhao, S-F; Li, Y

    2016-02-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to investigate and determine the role of metformin on serum adiponectin levels in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were thoroughly searched. Eligible human studies assessing the association between serum adiponectin levels and metformin in patients were included, and data were extracted and then analyzed with STATA 12.0 statistical software. Eighteen cohort studies conducted among Asians and Caucasians from 2004 to 2013 were recruited. Post-treatment serum adiponectin level (mmol/l) was higher than pre-treatment levels in T2DM patients (SMD=0.19, 95% CI=0.09-0.30, p<0.001). Country-subgroup analysis showed that serum adiponectin levels in T2DM patients increased after the treatment of metformin in Italy (SMD=0.34, 95% CI=0.09-0.59, p=0.008). Further detection method and follow-up time subgroup analyses implied a positive association of metformin with serum adiponectin level in T2DM patients by using all ELISA, PETIA, and RIA in both<12 weeks and?12 weeks subgroups (all p<0.05). The present meta-analysis provides compelling evidence that metformin may increase serum adiponectin levels when treating T2DM. Further studies should be promoted to explore the combined efficacy of metformin with other antidiabetic drugs, or developing new predictors with antidiabetic efficacy. PMID:26808583

  13. Interaction between resistin and adiponectin in the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kudoh, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the effect between resistin and adiponectin on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We confirmed that resistin significantly increases the number of rat VSMCs as well as thymidine incorporation with them, whereas adiponectin diminishes resistin-induced cell proliferation. Resistin significantly increased p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation within rat VSMCs, whereas adiponectin inhibited resistin-induced MAPK phosphorylation. Moreover, resistin significantly increased c-fos expression, whereas adiponectin suppressed resistin-induced c-fos expression. Cell cycle progression is a tightly controlled event that is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) such as p53, p21, and p27. Resistin significantly decreased the expression of these CDKIs, whereas adiponectin restored the resistin-induced decrease in CDKIs expression. These effects were abolished in the MAPK inhibitors. In conclusion, resistin plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis, whereas adiponectin may be an important in its prevention in insulin-resistant patients. PMID:23267839

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Fatih; Kendirci, Mustafa; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The mean 25(OH)D levels in the obese and nonobese groups were 22.5 5.7 and 32.3 5.8?ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.0001). The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (P < 0.0001). Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents. PMID:23983686

  15. Differential Associations between CDH13 Genotypes, Adiponectin Levels, and Circulating Levels of Cellular Adhesive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsu, Lung-An; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    CDH13 gene variants with lower adiponectin levels are paradoxically associated with a more favorable metabolic profile. We investigated the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels by examining 12 circulating inflammation marker levels and adiposity status in 530 Han Chinese people in Taiwan. After adjustments for clinical covariates, adiponectin levels were positively associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM1) levels and negatively associated with adiposity status and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1). In addition, minor alleles of the CDH13 rs12051272 polymorphism were found to have lower adiponectin levels and higher CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM1, and sVCAM1 levels as well as higher body mass indices and waist circumferences in participants (all P < 0.05). In a subgroup analysis stratified by sex, significant associations between CDH13 genotypes and sE-selectin levels occurred only in men (P = 3.9 10?4 and interaction P = 0.005). CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels are associated with circulating levels of cellular adhesion molecules and adiposity status in a differential manner that interacts with sex. These results provide further evidence for the crucial role of adiponectin levels and CDH13 gene variants in immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26600672

  16. An APPL1-AMPK signaling axis mediates beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangping; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Cresser, Justin; Schram, Kristin; Ganguly, Riya; Thong, Farah S. L.; Tuinei, Joseph; Xu, Aimin; Abel, E. Dale

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin promotes cardioprotection by various mechanisms, and this study used primary cardiomyocytes and the isolated working perfused heart to investigate cardiometabolic effects. We show in adult cardiomyocytes that adiponectin increased CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake as well as insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Akt phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that adiponectin enhanced association of AdipoR1 with APPL1, subsequent binding of APPL1 with AMPK?2, which led to phosphorylation and inhibition of ACC and increased fatty acid oxidation. Using siRNA to effectively knockdown APPL1 in neonatal cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated an essential role for APPL1 in mediating increased fatty acid uptake and oxidation by adiponectin. Importantly, enhanced fatty acid oxidation in conjunction with AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was also observed in the isolated working heart. Despite increasing fatty acid oxidation and myocardial oxygen consumption, adiponectin increased hydraulic work and maintained cardiac efficiency. In summary, the present study documents several beneficial metabolic effects mediated by adiponectin in the heart and provides novel insight into the mechanisms behind these effects, in particular the importance of APPL1. PMID:20739511

  17. An APPL1-AMPK signaling axis mediates beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin in the heart.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangping; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Cresser, Justin; Schram, Kristin; Ganguly, Riya; Thong, Farah S L; Tuinei, Joseph; Xu, Aimin; Abel, E Dale; Sweeney, Gary

    2010-11-01

    Adiponectin promotes cardioprotection by various mechanisms, and this study used primary cardiomyocytes and the isolated working perfused heart to investigate cardiometabolic effects. We show in adult cardiomyocytes that adiponectin increased CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake as well as insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Akt phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that adiponectin enhanced association of AdipoR1 with APPL1, subsequent binding of APPL1 with AMPK?2, which led to phosphorylation and inhibition of ACC and increased fatty acid oxidation. Using siRNA to effectively knockdown APPL1 in neonatal cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated an essential role for APPL1 in mediating increased fatty acid uptake and oxidation by adiponectin. Importantly, enhanced fatty acid oxidation in conjunction with AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was also observed in the isolated working heart. Despite increasing fatty acid oxidation and myocardial oxygen consumption, adiponectin increased hydraulic work and maintained cardiac efficiency. In summary, the present study documents several beneficial metabolic effects mediated by adiponectin in the heart and provides novel insight into the mechanisms behind these effects, in particular the importance of APPL1. PMID:20739511

  18. Circulating adiponectin, leptin and adiponectin-leptin ratio and endometrial cancer risk: Evidence from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Wang, Yong-Lai; Ma, Xiao-Xin

    2015-10-15

    We performed this meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to investigate the associations between circulating adiponectin, leptin and adiponectin-leptin (A/L) ratio and endometrial cancer risk. Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases as well as by manual searching the references cited in retrieved manuscripts. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary odds ratio (SOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aforementioned associations. Fourteen manuscripts with 13 studies (five nested case-control and eight case-control studies) cumulatively involving a total of 1,963 endometrial cancer cases and 3,503 noncases were included in the analyses. Overall, comparing persons with circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin and A/L ratio in the top tertile with persons with concentrations of these biomarkers in the bottom tertile yielded SORs of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.34-0.65; I(2) ?=?63.7%; n?=?13), 2.19 (95% CI: 1.44-3.31; I(2) ?=?64.2%; n?=?7),and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.24-0.86; I(2) ?=?90.1%; n?=?5), respectively. Notably, there was an 18% reduction in risk for per each 5 ?g/mL increment in circulating adiponectin concentrations (SOR?=?0.82; 95% CI: 0.74-0.90; I(2) ?=?49%; n?=?8). Stratifying by study characteristics and whether these studies considered or adjusted for potential confounders, the findings were robust in the analyses of circulating adiponectin and leptin. No evidence of publication bias was detected. In conclusion, the findings from this meta-analysis suggest that increased circulating adiponectin and A/L ratio or decreased leptin concentrations were associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer. Further prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:25899043

  19. Comparison of the effect of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on serum adiponectin levels in patients with mild hypertension and dyslipidemia: Kinki Adiponectin Interventional (KAI) Study.

    PubMed

    Kai, Tatsuya; Arima, Shuji; Taniyama, Yoshihiro; Nakabou, Mari; Kanamasa, Ken

    2008-10-01

    The plasma level of adiponectin, which is known as an anti-atherogenic adipocytokine, correlates inversely with the progression of atherosclerosis. An increase in the serum adiponectin level has been reported after the administration of hydrophilic pravastatin, but not after the administration of lipophilic statins thus far. We investigated whether hydrophilic pravastatin acts distinctly from simvastatin, which has the highest lipophilicity, on the favorable effect on adiponectin in dyslipidemic patients. A total of 27 dyslipidemic patients with mild hypertension were enrolled in this study. The patients were initially treated with simvastatin 10 mg/day for six months or more (mean 7.1 months), and then were switched to pravastatin 20 mg/day. The serum adiponectin, cholesterol fractionated components, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated after six-month intervals. Switching from simvastatin to pravastatin caused little change in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (103 mg/dl to 104 mg/dl, p = 0.782) and blood pressure (133/70 mmHg to 132/69 mmHg), while the serum adiponectin level significantly increased (11.9 mug/ml to 13.1 mug/ml, p = 0.009, respectively), and the serum CRP significantly decreased (0.078 mg/dl to 0.062 mg/dl, p = 0.040, respectively). Hydrophilic pravastatin increased the serum adiponectin level and decreased the CRP after switching from lipophilic simvastatin in the absence of any difference in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and blood pressure. It remains possible, however, that this difference was due not only to pharmacologic lipophilicity, but also to some other specific characteristics such as the formula of statins, the subject characteristics, race, body size, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, etc. PMID:18855257

  20. Curcumin Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Metastasis through the Adiponectin/NF-κb/MMPs Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ involved in metabolic and inflammatory reactions. Adiponectin, a 244–amino acid peptide hormone, is associated with insulin resistance and carcinogenesis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, turmeric. Curcumin possesses antitumor effects, including the inhibition of neovascularization and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the effects of adiponectin and curcumin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adiponectin in paired tumors and normal lung tissues from 77 patients with NSCLC using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low adiponectin expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.015). Curcumin inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells via the inhibition of adiponectin expression by blocking the adiponectin receptor 1. Curcumin treatment also inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of A549 cells and adiponectin expression. These results suggest that adiponectin can be a prognostic indicator of NSCLC. The effect of curcumin in decreasing the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells by inhibiting adiponectin expression is probably mediated through NF-κB/MMP pathways. Curcumin could be an important potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26656720

  1. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan a possible new treatment for sepsis-induced lung injury: a preclinical study in mechanically ventilated rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yung-Yang; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Dedaj, Rejmon; Zhao, Hang; Mrabat, Hicham; Sheidlin, Aviva; Syrkina, Olga; Huang, Pei-Ming; Garg, Hari G; Hales, Charles A; Quinn, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation with even moderate-sized tidal volumes synergistically increases lung injury in sepsis and has been associated with proinflammatory low-molecular-weight hyaluronan production. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW HA), in contrast, has been found to be anti-inflammatory. We hypothesized that HMW HA would inhibit lung injury associated with sepsis and mechanical ventilation. Methods SpragueDawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: nonventilated control rats; mechanical ventilation plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion as a model of sepsis; mechanical ventilation plus LPS with HMW HA (1,600 kDa) pretreatment; and mechanical ventilation plus LPS with low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (35 kDa) pretreatment. Rats were mechanically ventilated with low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes. LPS (1 or 3 mg/kg) or normal saline was infused 1 hour prior to mechanical ventilation. Animals received HMW HA or low-molecular-weight hyaluronan via the intraperitoneal route 18 hours prior to the study or received HMW HA (0.025%, 0.05% or 0.1%) intravenously 1 hour after injection of LPS. After 4 hours of ventilation, animals were sacrificed and the lung neutrophil and monocyte infiltration, the cytokine production, and the lung pathology score were measured. Results LPS induced lung neutrophil infiltration, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and TNF? mRNA and protein, which were decreased in the presence of both 1,600 kDa and 35 kDa hyaluronan pretreatment. Only 1,600 kDa hyaluronan completely blocked both monocyte and neutrophil infiltration and decreased the lung injury. When infused intravenously 1 hour after LPS, 1,600 kDa hyaluronan inhibited lung neutrophil infiltration, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 mRNA expression and lung injury in a dose-dependent manner. The beneficial effects of hyaluronan were partially dependent on the positive charge of the compound. Conclusions HMW HA may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for sepsis-induced lung injury with mechanical ventilation. PMID:18691420

  2. Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic progenitor cells overexpressing high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Rumpel, R; Hohmann, M; Klein, A; Wesemann, M; Baumgrtner, W; Ratzka, A; Grothe, C

    2015-02-12

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent neurotrophic factor promoting survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. FGF-2 is expressed in different isoforms representing distinct translation products from a single mRNA. For this study, we focused on the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, which, after non-viral plasmid-based overexpression in embryonic day 12 (E12) rat ventral mesencephalon (VM)-derived cells, revealed increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in a 'colayer' cell culture model. To determine the therapeutic potential of VM cells producing FGF-2-HMW as their 'own' neurotrophic factor, we transplanted cell suspensions obtained from such in vitro modified and differentiated cell cultures into the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemiparkinsonian rat model. Animals, having received either non-transfected cells, empty-control transfected, or FGF-2-HMW-plasmid transfected cells, were analyzed in two different transplantation paradigms each using 172,000 or 520,000 cells, respectively. The behavioral performances in the amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotational test as well as in the cylinder test were evaluated for up to thirteen weeks post transplantation (postTX). Finally, the integration of the grafted cells into the host striatum was analyzed by immunohistochemical measurements. Those analyses revealed improvements of behavioral deficits in all five groups receiving DA neuron grafts, except for amphetamine-induced rotation of the FGF-2-HMW small graft group. Altogether, genetic modification with the FGF-2-HMW-plasmid did not further improve functional recovery compared to the control groups and had no influence on either the number of surviving DA neurons or on the density of outgrowing TH(+) fibers. PMID:25499314

  3. Formation of high-molecular-weight compounds via the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous C8-C10 n-aldehydes in the presence of atmospheric aerosol components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuemei; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Qingcai; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-02-01

    A laboratory study on the heterogeneous reactions of straight-chain aldehydes was performed by exposing n-octanal, nonanal, and decanal vapors to ambient aerosol particles. The aerosol and blank filters were extracted using methanol. The extracts were nebulized and the resulting compositions were examined using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The mass spectral analysis showed that the exposures of the aldehydes to aerosol samples increased the peak intensities in the high mass range. The peaks in the mass spectra of the aerosol samples after exposure to different aldehydes were characterized by a homologous series of peak shifts due to the addition of multiple CH2 units. This result is explained by the formation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds that contain single or multiple aldehyde moieties. The HMW fragment peaks for the blank filters exposed to n-aldehydes were relatively weak, indicating an important contribution from the ambient aerosol components to the formation of the HMW compounds. Among the factors affecting the overall interaction of aldehydes with atmospheric aerosol components, gas phase diffusion possibly limited the reactions under the studied conditions; therefore, their occurrence to a similar degree in the atmosphere is not ruled out, at least for the reactions involving n-nonanal and decanal. The major formation pathways for the observed HMW products may be the self-reactions of n-aldehydes mediated by atmospheric aerosol components and the reactions of n-aldehydes with organic aerosol components. The observed formation of HMW compounds encourages further investigations into their effects on the aerosol properties as well as the organic aerosol mass in the atmosphere.

  4. Neuronal uptake and propagation of a rare phosphorylated high-molecular-weight tau derived from Alzheimer's disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuko; Wegmann, Susanne; Cho, Hansang; DeVos, Sarah L.; Commins, Caitlin; Roe, Allyson D.; Nicholls, Samantha B.; Carlson, George A.; Pitstick, Rose; Nobuhara, Chloe K.; Costantino, Isabel; Frosch, Matthew P.; Müller, Daniel J.; Irimia, Daniel; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Tau pathology is known to spread in a hierarchical pattern in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain during disease progression, likely by trans-synaptic tau transfer between neurons. However, the tau species involved in inter-neuron propagation remains unclear. To identify tau species responsible for propagation, we examined uptake and propagation properties of different tau species derived from postmortem cortical extracts and brain interstitial fluid of tau-transgenic mice, as well as human AD cortices. Here we show that PBS-soluble phosphorylated high-molecular-weight (HMW) tau, though very low in abundance, is taken up, axonally transported, and passed on to synaptically connected neurons. Our findings suggest that a rare species of soluble phosphorylated HMW tau is the endogenous form of tau involved in propagation and could be a target for therapeutic intervention and biomarker development. PMID:26458742

  5. Neuronal uptake and propagation of a rare phosphorylated high-molecular-weight tau derived from Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuko; Wegmann, Susanne; Cho, Hansang; DeVos, Sarah L; Commins, Caitlin; Roe, Allyson D; Nicholls, Samantha B; Carlson, George A; Pitstick, Rose; Nobuhara, Chloe K; Costantino, Isabel; Frosch, Matthew P; Mller, Daniel J; Irimia, Daniel; Hyman, Bradley T

    2015-01-01

    Tau pathology is known to spread in a hierarchical pattern in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain during disease progression, likely by trans-synaptic tau transfer between neurons. However, the tau species involved in inter-neuron propagation remains unclear. To identify tau species responsible for propagation, we examined uptake and propagation properties of different tau species derived from postmortem cortical extracts and brain interstitial fluid of tau-transgenic mice, as well as human AD cortices. Here we show that PBS-soluble phosphorylated high-molecular-weight (HMW) tau, though very low in abundance, is taken up, axonally transported, and passed on to synaptically connected neurons. Our findings suggest that a rare species of soluble phosphorylated HMW tau is the endogenous form of tau involved in propagation and could be a target for therapeutic intervention and biomarker development. PMID:26458742

  6. Estrogen receptor-? drives adiponectin effects on cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Loredana; Pellegrino, Michele; Giordano, Francesca; Ricchio, Emilia; Rizza, Pietro; De Amicis, Francesca; Catalano, Stefania; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Panno, Maria Luisa; And, Sebastiano

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, largely due to altered expression of various adipocytokines. As it concerns adiponectin, there are not univocal results regarding its role in breast cancer occurrence and progression. Here, we demonstrate that in animals injected with human estrogen receptor (ER)-?-negative MDA-MB-231 cells pretreated with adiponectin (1 and 5 g/ml), a significant reduction (60 and 40%, respectively) in tumor volume is observed, whereas an increased tumor growth (54 and 109%, respectively) is evidenced in the animals receiving human ER-?-positive MCF-7 cells. Moreover, cyclin D1 (CD1) mRNA and protein levels are decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas they are up-regulated in ER-?-positive cells by adiponectin. These findings fit with the opposite effects of adiponectin on CD1 promoter: 0.44- and 0.34-fold decrease in MDA-MB-231 cells and 0.63- and 0.95-fold increase in MCF-7 cells, treated with 1 and 5 g/ml, respectively. Functional studies indicate that these effects are mediated by the specific protein 1 motif located in the CD1 promoter. In the absence of ER-?, the adiponectin-mediated down-regulation of CD1 involves the recruitment of corepressors. In the presence of ER-?, the adiponectin-induced expression of CD1 requires the involvement of an activator complex. In conclusion, we propose that a possible mechanism through which adiponectin differently affects breast cancer growth is the opposite modulation of CD1 levels accordingly to ER-? expression. PMID:25657113

  7. Niacin Increases Adiponectin and Decreases Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Desiree; Graff, Emily C.; White, B. Douglas; Judd, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. Materials and Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD) and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2?/? (niacin receptor?/?) mice. Results Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2?/? mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPAR? C/EBP? or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription) in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-L?, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion). However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1? in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. Conclusions Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner. PMID:23967184

  8. Circulating adiponectin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a meta-analysis in order to investigate whether circulating adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes, is associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library. The summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated by pooling the different study-specific estimates using the random effect models. Meta-regression, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out to investigate between-study heterogeneity and to test publication bias. Results: Data from 15 observational studies, published between 2003 and April 2013 for a total of 4249 breast cancer cases, were analysed. The SRR for the highest vs lowest adiponectin levels indicated a 34% reduction in breast cancer risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 13%50%]. Between-study heterogeneity was not substantial (I2?=?53%). Ten studies were included in the dose-response analysis: the SRR for an increase of 3?g/ml of adiponectin corresponded to a 5% risk reduction (95% CI: 1%9%). The comparison between highest and lowest levels of adiponectin showed an inverse association in postmenopausal women (SRR?=?0.80; 95% CI: 0.631.01) and an indication of an inverse relationship in premenopausal women (SRR?=?0.72, 95% CI: 0.301.72). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions: Low circulating adiponectin levels are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. However, properly designed studies are needed to confirm the role of adiponectin as breast cancer biomarker, and clinical trials should be performed to identify those interventions that may be effective in modulating adiponectin levels and reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:24737805

  9. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR?=?0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.010.66, P?=?0.021). Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  10. Effect of Chronic and Intermittent Calorie Restriction on Serum Adiponectin and Leptin and Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogozina, Olga P.; Bonorden, Melissa J.L.; Seppanen, Christine N.; Grande, Joseph P.; Cleary, Margot P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of chronic (CCR) and intermittent (ICR) caloric restriction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels was investigated in relation to mammary tumorigenesis. 10-wks old MMTV-TGF-? female mice were assigned to ad libitum-fed (AL) (AIN-93M diet), ICR (3-wks 50% caloric restriction, AIN-93Mmod diet, 2x protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals followed by 3-wks 100% AL consumption of AIN-93M), and CCR (calorie and nutrient intake matched for each 6-wks ICR cycle, ?75% of AL) groups. Mice were sacrificed at 79 (end of restriction) or 82 (end of refeeding) wks of age. Serum was obtained in cycles 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 and terminal. Mammary tumor incidence was 71.0%, 35.4%, and 9.1% for AL, CCR and ICR mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin levels were similar among groups with no impact of either CCR or ICR. Serum leptin level rose in AL mice with increasing age but was significantly reduced by long-term CCR and ICR. The ICR protocol was also associated with an elevated adiponectin:leptin ratio. In addition, ICR-Restricted mice had increased mammary tissue AdipoR1 expression and decreased leptin and ObRb expression compared to AL mice. Mammary fat pads from tumor-free ICR-mice had higher adiponectin expression than AL and CCR mice while all tumor-bearing mice had weak adiponectin signal in mammary fat pad. Although we did not demonstrate an association of either adiponectin or leptin with individual mice in relation to mammary tumorigenesis, we did find that reduced serum leptin and elevated adiponectin:leptin ratio were associated with the protective effect of intermittent calorie restriction. PMID:21257708

  11. Glucose and Inflammatory Cells Decrease Adiponectin in Epicardial Adipose Tissue Cells: Paracrine Consequences on Vascular Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Guerola-Segura, Raquel; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Álvarez, Ezequiel; García-Acuña, José María; Fernández, Ángel Luis; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Eiras, Sonia

    2016-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a source of energy for heart that expresses the insulin-sensitizer, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic protein, adiponectin. But, in coronary artery disease, adiponectin production declines. Our objective was to determine its regulation by glucose and inflammation in stromal cells from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and its paracrine effect on endothelial cells. Stromal cells of EAT and SAT were obtained from patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Adipogenesis was induced at 117, 200, or 295 mg/dl glucose, with or without macrophage-conditioned medium (MCM). Expression of adiponectin, GLUT-4 and the insulin receptor was analyzed by real-time PCR. The paracrine effect of stromal cells was determined in co-cultures with endothelial cells, by exposing them to high glucose and/or MCM, and, additionally, to leukocyte-conditioned medium from patients with myocardial infarction. The endothelial response was determined by analyzing vascular adhesion molecule expression. Our results showed a U-shaped dose-response curve of glucose on adiponectin in EAT, but not in SAT stromal cells. Conversely, MCM reduced the adipogenesis-induced adiponectin expression of EAT stromal cells. The presence of EAT stromal increased the inflammatory molecules of endothelial cells. This deleterious effect was emphasized in the presence of inflammatory cell-conditioned medium from patients with myocardial infarction. Thus, high glucose and inflammatory cells reduced adipogenesis-induced adiponectin expression of EAT stromal cells, which induced an inflammatory paracrine process in endothelial cells. This inflammatory effect was lower in presence of mature adipocytes, producers of adiponectin. These results contribute to understanding the role of EAT dysfunction on coronary atherosclerosis progression. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1015-1023, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26406271

  12. The prevention and treatment of hypoadiponectinemia-associated human diseases by up-regulation of plasma adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Murad; Mukheem, Abdul; Kamarul, Tunku

    2015-08-15

    Hypoadiponectinemia is characterized by low plasma adiponectin levels that can be caused by genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the adiponectin gene or by visceral fat deposition/obesity. Reports have suggested that hypoadiponectinemia is associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have highlighted several potential strategies to up-regulate adiponectin secretion and function, including visceral fat reduction through diet therapy and exercise, administration of exogenous adiponectin, treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists (e.g., thiazolidinediones (TZDs)) and ligands (e.g., bezafibrate and fenofibrate) or the blocking of the renin-angiotensin system. Likewise, the up-regulation of the expression and stimulation of adiponectin receptors by using adiponectin receptor agonists would be an effective method to treat obesity-related conditions. Notably, adiponectin is an abundantly expressed bioactive protein that also exhibits a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as insulin-sensitizing, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. Although targeting adiponectin and its receptors has been useful for treating diabetes and other metabolic-related diseases in experimental studies, current drug development based on adiponectin/adiponectin receptors for clinical applications is scarce, and there is a lack of available clinical trial data. This comprehensive review discusses the strategies that are presently being pursued to harness the potential of adiponectin up-regulation. In addition, we examined the current status of drug development and its potential for clinical applications. PMID:25818192

  13. Dual roles of adiponectin/Acrp30 in vivo as an anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Hara, Kazuo; Kubota, Naoto; Terauchi, Yasuo; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Froguel, Philippe; Nagai, Ryozo; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Genome-wide scanning is a powerful tool to identify susceptible chromosome loci, however, individual chromosomal regions still have many candidate genes. Although cDNA microarray analysis provides valuable information for identifying genes involved in pathogenesis, expression levels of many genes are changed. A novel approach for identification of therapeutic targets is the combination of genome-wide scanning and the use of DNA chips, as shown in Fig. (1). Using DNA chips, we screened for secreted molecules, the expressions of which were changed in adipose tissues from mice rendered insulin resistance. Decreased expression of one of these molecules, adiponectin/Acrp30, correlates strongly with insulin resistance. Interestingly, recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where adiponectin gene is located. Decreasing serum adiponectin levels are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, adiponectin was decreased in insulin resistant rodent models both of obesity and lipoatrophy, and replenishment of adiponectin ameliorated their insulin resistance. Moreover, adiponectin transgenic mice ameliorated insulin resistance and diabetes Adiponectin knockout mice showed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In muscle and liver, adiponectin activated AMP kinase and PPARalpha pathways thereby increasing beta-oxidation of lipids, leading to decreased TG content, which ameliorated insulin resistance under a high-fat diet. Despite similar plasma glucose and lipid levels on an apoE deficient background, adiponectin transgenic apoE deficient mice showed amelioration of atherosclerosis, which was associated with decreased expressions of class A scavenger receptor and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Finally, cDNA encoding adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and R2) have been identified by expression cloning, which facilitates the understanding of molecular mechanisms of adiponectin actions and obesity-linked diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis and the designing of novel antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic drugs with AdipoR1 and R2 as molecular targets. PMID:14683455

  14. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI. PMID:24763046

  15. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ)

    PubMed Central

    An, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Hui-Tong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yu-Zhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5) of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2) were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3) and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5) and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A) putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg). In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits. PMID:26610572

  16. Adiponectin in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2013-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin (APN) are reduced in obesity and associated comorbidities, with inflammation playing an important role in downregulating APN production. In contrast to obesity and metabolic disease, elevated systemic and local levels of APN are present in patients with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune and pulmonary conditions, heart and kidney failure, viral hepatitis, organ transplantation and perhaps critical illness. A positive association between inflammation and APN is usually reported in inflammatory/immune pathologies, in contrast with the negative correlation typical of metabolic disease. This review discusses the role of APN in modulation of inflammation and immunity and the potential mechanisms leading to increased levels of APN in inflammatory/immune diseases, including modification of adipose tissue physiology; relative contribution of different tissues and adipose depots; hormonal, pharmacological, nutritional and life style factors; the potential contribution of the microbiota as well as the role of altered APN clearance and release from T-cadherin-associated tissue reservoirs. Potential reasons for some of the apparently contradictory findings on the role of APN as a modulator of immunity and inflammation are also discussed, including a comparison of types of recombinant APN used for in vitro studies and strain-dependent differences in the phenotype of APN KO mice. PMID:23850004

  17. Adiponectin receptors: a review of their structure, function and how they work.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Iwabu, Masato; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of adiponectin and subsequently the receptors it acts upon have lead to a great surge forward in the understanding of the development of insulin resistance and obesity-linked diseases. Adiponectin is a hormone that is derived from adipose tissue and is reduced in obesity-linked diseases including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Adiponectin exerts its effects by binding to adiponectin receptors, two of which, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have been cloned. This has enabled researchers to carry out detailed studies elucidating the role played by these receptors and the metabolic pathways that are involved following their activation. Such studies have clearly shown that the stimulation of these receptors is associated with glucose homeostasis and ongoing research into their role will clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of adiponectin. Such knowledge can then be used to provide therapeutic targets aimed at managing obesity-linked diseases including type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. PMID:24417942

  18. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all treated groups. FBS level in all treated groups, decreased significantly and reach to normoglycemic level (P<0.05). Except Jujube, other plant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (P<0.05) with no effect on total cholesterol and LDL-C. Serum adiponectin level increased in all treated groups. These beneficial effects of C. sativus, B. vulgaris and Z. jujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level. PMID:26639503

  19. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection and therapeutic profile

    PubMed Central

    Peta, Valentina; Torti, Carlo; Milic, Natasa; Foc, Alfredo; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closely associated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis is more common in genotype 3 infection owing to a direct cytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype 3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely to be the result of the alterations in host metabolism; metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype 1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormones involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has been demonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as the decreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrix protein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, are associated with liver steatosis. Various studies have shown that steatosis is strongly correlated negatively with adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection. The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus induced steatosis is still not completely understood, but the relationship between adiponectin low levels and liver steatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectin to protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulation by increasing ?-oxidation of free fatty acid and thus decreasing de novo free fatty acid production. PMID:25624996

  20. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection and therapeutic profile.

    PubMed

    Peta, Valentina; Torti, Carlo; Milic, Natasa; Foc, Alfredo; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-01-27

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closely associated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis is more common in genotype 3 infection owing to a direct cytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype 3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely to be the result of the alterations in host metabolism; metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype 1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormones involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has been demonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as the decreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrix protein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, are associated with liver steatosis. Various studies have shown that steatosis is strongly correlated negatively with adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection. The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus induced steatosis is still not completely understood, but the relationship between adiponectin low levels and liver steatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectin to protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulation by increasing ?-oxidation of free fatty acid and thus decreasing de novo free fatty acid production. PMID:25624996

  1. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men.

    PubMed

    Tureck, Luciane Viater; Leite, Neiva; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Alle, Lupe Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G>T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT) showed high levels of adiponectin (p=0.018), while the rare homozygous genotype (TT) gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p=0.004 and p=0.005) and total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.010 and p=0.005) compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively), the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p=0.008 and p=0.044). We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G>T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study. PMID:26137445

  2. The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, T.; Digby, J.E.; Chen, J.; Desai, K.M.; Randeva, H.S. . E-mail: H.Randeva@warwick.ac.uk

    2006-09-29

    Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and plasma levels of the adipokine, adiponectin, are low in the former but high in the latter. Adiponectin has been shown to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, suggesting that adiponectin and its receptors (Adipo-R1, Adipo-R2) may provide a molecular association between obesity and prostate carcinogenesis. We show for First time, the protein distribution of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 in LNCaP and PC3 cells, and in human prostate tissue. Using real-time RT-PCR we provide novel data demonstrating the differential regulation of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 mRNA expression by testosterone, 5-{alpha} dihydrotestosterone, {beta}-estradiol, tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that adiponectin and its receptors may contribute to the molecular association between obesity and prostate cancer through a complex interaction with other hormones and cytokines that also play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and prostate cancer.

  3. An FGF21-Adiponectin-Ceramide Axis Controls Energy Expenditure and Insulin Action in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holland, William L.; Adams, Andrew C.; Brozinick, Joseph T.; Bui, Hai H.; Miyauchi, Yukiko; Kusminski, Christine M.; Bauer, Steven M.; Wade, Mark; Singhal, Esha; Cheng, Christine C.; Volk, Katherine; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Gordillo, Ruth; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily has recently emerged as a novel regulator of metabolism and energy utilization. However, the exact mechanism(s) whereby FGF21 mediates its actions have not been elucidated. There is considerable evidence that insulin resistance may arise from aberrant accumulation of intracellular lipids in insulin responsive tissues due to lipotoxicity. In particular the sphingolipid ceramide has been implicated in this process. Here, we show that FGF21 rapidly and robustly stimulates adiponectin secretion in rodents, while diminishing accumulation of ceramides in obese animals. Importantly, adiponectin knockout mice are refractory to changes in energy expenditure and ceramide-lowering effects evoked by FGF21 administration. Moreover, FGF21 lowers blood glucose levels and enhances insulin sensitivity in diabetic Lepob/ob mice and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, only when adiponectin is functionally present. Collectively, these data suggest that FGF21 is a potent regulator of adiponectin secretion, and that FGF21 critically depends on adiponectin to exert its glycemic and insulin sensitizing effects. PMID:23663742

  4. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men

    PubMed Central

    Tureck, Luciane Viater; Leite, Neiva; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Alle, Lupe Furtado

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT) showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018), while the rare homozygous genotype (TT) gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005) and total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005) compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively), the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044). We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study. PMID:26137445

  5. Association analysis of genetic variants of adiponectin gene and risk of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Ping; Li, Xin; Wang, Feng; Gao, Ming; Li, Sheng-Lei; Chen, Kui-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a cytokine exclusively secreted from adipocyte, and could perform direct or indirect effects on anti-inflammation and anti-tumor. Previous researches have studied the correlation between plasma adiponectin levels and the risk of pancreatic cancer. So we aimed at investigating the association of genetic variants of adiponectin gene and the risk of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we genotyped 6 SNPs of adiponectin gene in a case-control study of recruited 172 patients of pancreatic cancer and 181 healthy people in Chinese Han population. The results indicated that two of the SNPs had significant associations with pancreatic cancer. Of which, the SNP rs1501299C>A decreased the risk of PC (P=0.016, OR=0.662 95% CI 0.472-0.928), while rs1065358T>C increased the risk of PC (P=0.027, OR=1.421 95% CI 1.040-1.941). Furthermore, in the clinical correlation analysis, we found rs1501299 was correlated with tumor size (P=0.026), cigarette smoking (P=0.022) and alcohol consumption (P=0.001) and rs1063538 was correlated with alcohol consumption (P=0.026). In conclusion, we provided evidences that the variants in adiponectin gene might influence the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26221375

  6. Long-term Angiotensin II AT1 receptor inhibition produces adipose tissue hypotrophy accompanied by increased expression of adiponectin and PPAR?.

    PubMed Central

    Zorad, Stefan; Dou, Jing-tao; Benicky, Julius; Hutanu, Daniel; Tybitanclova, Katarina; Zhou, Jin; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of the effects of angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists on adipose tissue, we treated 8 week-old male Wistar Kyoto rats with the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist Candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg/day) for 18 weeks. Candesartan cilexetil reduced body weight gain, decreased fat tissue mass due to hypotrophy of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and decreased adipocyte size without changing the number of adipocytes. Candesartan cilexetil decreased serum leptin levels and epididymal leptin mRNA, increased serum adiponectin levels and epididymal adiponectin mRNA, decreased epididymal tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) mRNA, and increased fatty acid synthase mRNA. Considered free of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist activity, Candesartan cilexetil increased epididymal expression of PPAR? mRNA. The effects of Candesartan cilexetil on adipokine production and release may be attributable to PPAR? activation and/or decrease in adipocyte cell size. In addition, Candesartan cilexetil treatment increased the expression of epididymal angiotensin II AT2 receptor mRNA and protein and decreased the expression of renin receptor mRNA. These results suggest that Candesartan cilexetil influences lipid metabolism in adipose tissue by promoting adipose tissue rearrangement and modulating adipokine expression and release. These effects are probably consequences of local angiotensin II AT1 receptor inhibition, angiotensin II AT2 receptor stimulation, and perhaps additional angiotensin II -independent mechanisms. Our results indicate that the activity of local renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in adipose tissue metabolism The decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF? and the increase in the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin indicate that Candesartan cilexetil may exert significant anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:17064684

  7. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 2681 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  8. Geneenvironment interaction between adiponectin gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on the risk of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Wu, Qun Hong; Jiao, Ming Li; Fan, Xiao Hong; Hu, Quan; Hao, Yan Hua; Liu, Ruo Hong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yu; Han, Li Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To evaluate whether the adiponectin gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk and interaction with environmental factors modifies the DR risk, and to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and DR. Materials and Methods Four adiponectin polymorphisms were evaluated in 372 DR cases and 145 controls. Differences in environmental factors between cases and controls were evaluated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. The model-free multifactor dimensionality reduction method and traditional multiple regression models were applied to explore interactions between the polymorphisms and environmental factors. Results Using the Bonferroni method, we found no significant associations between four adiponectin polymorphisms and DR susceptibility. Multivariate logistic regression found that physical activity played a protective role in the progress of DR, whereas family history of diabetes (odds ratio 1.75) and insulin therapy (odds ratio 1.78) were associated with an increased risk for DR. The interaction between the C-11377G (rs266729) polymorphism and insulin therapy might be associated with DR risk. Family history of diabetes combined with insulin therapy also increased the risk of DR. No adiponectin gene polymorphisms influenced the serum adiponectin levels. Serum adiponectin levels did not differ between the DR group and non-DR group. Conclusions No significant association was identified between four adiponectin polymorphisms and DR susceptibility after stringent Bonferroni correction. The interaction between C-11377G (rs266729) polymorphism and insulin therapy, as well as the interaction between family history of diabetes and insulin therapy, might be associated with DR susceptibility. PMID:25621134

  9. Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes β-cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Risheng; Holland, William L; Gordillo, Ruth; Wang, Miao; Wang, Qiong A; Shao, Mengle; Morley, Thomas S; Gupta, Rana K; Stahl, Andreas; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-01-01

    As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute β-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential role of adiponectin under insulinopenic conditions to maintain minimal lipid homeostasis. When insulin levels are marginal, adiponectin is critical for insulin signaling, endocytosis, and lipid uptake in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. In the absence of both insulin and adiponectin, severe lipoatrophy and hyperlipidemia lead to lethality. In contrast, elevated adiponectin levels improve systemic lipid metabolism in the near absence of insulin. Moreover, adiponectin is sufficient to mitigate local lipotoxicity in pancreatic islets, and it promotes reconstitution of β-cell mass, eventually reinstating glycemic control. We uncovered an essential new role for adiponectin, with major implications for type 1 diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03851.001 PMID:25339419

  10. Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role f...

  11. Combined delivery of the adiponectin gene and rosiglitazone using cationic lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Davaa, Enkhzaya; Kang, Bong-Seok; Han, Joo-Hui; Lee, Sang-Eun; Ng, Choon Lian; Myung, Chang-Seon; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2015-04-10

    For the combined delivery of an insulin-sensitizing adipokine; i.e., the ADN gene, and the potent PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, cationic lipid emulsions were formulated using the cationic lipid DOTAP, helper lipid DOPE, castor oil, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The effect of drug loading on the physicochemical characteristics of the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes was investigated. Complex formation between the cationic emulsion and negatively charged plasmid DNA was confirmed and protection from DNase was observed. The in vitro transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were evaluated in HepG2 cells. The particle sizes of the cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 230-540 nm and those of the rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 220-340 nm. Gel retardation of the complexes was observed when the complexation weight ratios of the cationic lipid to plasmid DNA exceeded 4:1 for both the drug-free and rosiglitazone-loaded complexes. Both complexes stabilized plasmid DNA against DNase. The ADN expression level increased dose-dependently when cells were transfected with the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes. The rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complexes showed higher cellular uptake in HepG2 cells depending on the rosiglitazone loading, but not depending on the type of plasmid DNA type such as pVAX/ADN, pCAG/ADN, or pVAX. The drug-loaded cationic emulsion/plasmid DNA complexes were less cytotoxic than free rosiglitazone. Therefore, a cationic emulsion could potentially serve as a co-delivery system for rosiglitazone and the adiponectin gene. PMID:25681724

  12. Adiponectin/Acrp30, an adipocyte-specific secretory factor: physiological relevance during development.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Puneeth; Scherer, Philipp E

    2003-03-01

    Adiponectin/Acrp30 is a fat cell-specific secretory product. The convergence of results from epidemiological, pharmacological and genetic studies over the last 2 yr has highlighted the important role that this multimeric protein complex plays in the context of insulin sensitivity. While the exact mechanism of action has not been elucidated, it is clear that adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing effects on both liver and muscle. The important role that adipose tissue plays in energy homeostasis as a storage compartment for triglycerides has been appreciated for a long time. The identification of leptin as a key hormone involved in central control of energy metabolism suggested that adipocytes also use polypeptide hormones to influence metabolic processes at distant sites. The recent progress made towards the characterization of the physiological role of adiponectin highlights the important role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ and its central role in the fine-tuning of hepatic and muscle insulin responsiveness. PMID:14655522

  13. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patients than controls. In MCI subjects, adiponectin level was negatively correlated with leptin, IL-1 β levels and BMI. Leptin concentration was correlated with IL-1 β level. Univariate logistic regression models revealed that the factors which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with T2DM were higher levels of HbA1c, leptin, IL-1 β and triglycerides, as well as lower levels of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol. Similarly, previous CVD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, hypoglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, increased number of co-morbidities, older age, fewer years of formal education were found to be associated with MCI. The multivariable model indicated fewer years of formal education, previous CVD, hypertension, increased number of co-morbidities, higher HbA1c and IL-1 β levels and lower adiponectin level. Elderly diabetic patients with MCI have higher levels of leptin and IL-1 β and lower levels of adiponectin. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these markers in the progression to dementia. PMID:26432692

  14. Disturbed adiponectin AMPK system in skeletal muscle of patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Berendoncks, An M; Stensvold, Dorthe; Garnier, Anne; Fortin, Dominique; Sente, Tahnee; Vrints, Christiaan J; Arild, Slrdahl Stig; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Wislff, Ulrik; Conraads, Viviane M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with metabolic syndrome are characterized by low circulating adiponectin levels and reduced adiponectin sensitivity in skeletal muscles. Through binding on its main skeletal muscle receptor AdipoR1, adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key player in energy homeostasis. Fourteen metabolic syndrome patients and seven healthy control subjects were included. Blood samples were taken to determine insulin resistance, adiponectin, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were obtained to assess mRNA expression of AdipoR1 and both AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 subunits, as well as downstream targets in lipid and glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of AMPK?1 and AMPK?2 was lower in metabolic syndrome patients (100??6 vs. 122??8 AU, p?=?0.030 and 64??4 vs. 85??9 AU, p?=?0.044, respectively), whereas the expression of AdipoR1 was upregulated (138??9 vs. 105??7, p?=?0.012). AMPK?1 and AdipoR1 correlated positively in both the control (r?=?0.964, p?adiponectin on AMPK activation has been shown in metabolic syndrome patients. The present data suggest that the disturbed interaction of adiponectin with AMPK is located downstream of the AdipoR1 receptor. PMID:24104889

  15. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with the average accelerometer daily steps counts in healthy elderly females.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Kums, Tatjana; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-07-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate whether circulating adiponectin concentration is associated with physical activity (PA) level in healthy older females. To date, daily PA in older adults (> or = 65 years) has primarily relied on self-report. This study used accelerometry, which objectively measured minute-by-minute movement to assess PA volume and intensity performed by elderly females. In addition, body composition, leptin and insulin resistance values were measured to assess the influence of these parameters on the possible relationship between adiponectin and PA levels in this specific age group of older women. On 49 women (mean age: 73.6 +/- 4.2 years), adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance, body composition and 7-day PA parameters were measured. Average daily accelerometer step counts and time spent in different PA levels were obtained from 7-day PA measurement. Average daily accelerometer step-count was 7,722 +/- 3,069 steps day(-1) and the recommended 150 min weekly of at least moderate/vigorous PA in bouts of at least 10 min was achieved by 71.4% (35/49) of the participants. Correlation analysis showed that plasma adiponectin concentration (16.0 +/- 6.1 microg ml(-1) ) was related (P < 0.001) to steps per day (r = 0.438) and leptin (r = -0.443) values. Multivariate regression analysis further revealed that only steps per day and leptin were independent predictors of circulating adiponectin concentration in healthy elderly females. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that being physically active is associated with better adiponectin concentration and a reduced risk of having metabolic disease risk in the specific group of healthy elderly females. PMID:20229020

  16. Endometria from Obese PCOS Women with Hyperinsulinemia Exhibit Altered Adiponectin Signaling.

    PubMed

    García, V; Oróstica, L; Poblete, C; Rosas, C; Astorga, I; Romero, C; Vega, M

    2015-11-01

    Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity affect 60-70% of patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), who exhibit an altered endometrial insulin signaling. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinism, and obesity present in PCOS patients impair the endometrial adiponectin signaling pathway. The ex vivo study was conducted on 27 samples from lean (n=9), obese (n=9), and obese-PCOS (n=9) patients. The in vitro assays were performed in immortalized human endometrial stromal cells stimulated with testosterone, insulin, or testosterone plus insulin. Serum steroid-hormones, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin; body mass index, free androgen index, ISI-Composite, and HOMA were evaluated in the 3 groups. Ex vivo and in vitro gene expression and protein content of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and APPL1 were determined. Adiponectin serum levels were decreased in obese-PCOS patients compared to lean (78%) and obese (54%) controls (p<0.05). AdipoR1 protein and gene expression were increased in obese group vs. obese-PCOS and lean groups (2-fold, p<0.05). In turn, AdipoR2 protein and mRNA content was similar between the 3 groups. APPL1 protein levels were reduced in endometria from both obese groups, compared to lean group (6-fold, p<0.05). Testosterone plus insulin stimulation of T-HESC and St-T1b leads to a reduction of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and APPL1 protein content in both endometrial cell lines (p<0.05), whereas, in the presence of testosterone or insulin alone, protein levels were similar to basal. Therefore, endometrial adiponectin-signaling pathway is impaired in hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic obese-PCOS patients, corroborated in the in vitro model, which could affect endometrial function and potentially the implantation process. PMID:26197851

  17. Lipopolysaccharide induces a downregulation of adiponectin receptors in-vitro and in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alison; Leuwer, Martin; Trayhurn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory response through production of cytokines, recruitment of macrophages and modulation of the adiponectin system. Previous studies have identified a down-regulation of adiponectin in pathologies characterised by acute (sepsis and endotoxaemia) and chronic inflammation (obesity and type-II diabetes mellitus). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that LPS would reduce adiponectin receptor expression in a murine model of endotoxaemia and in adipoocyte and myocyte cell cultures. Methods. 25 mg/kg LPS was injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6J mice, equivalent volumes of normal saline were used in control animals. Mice were killed at 4 or 24 h post injection and tissues harvested. Murine adipocytes (3T3-L1) and myocytes (C2C12) were grown in standard culture, treated with LPS (0.1 g/ml10 g/ml) and harvested at 4 and 24 h. RNA was extracted and qPCR was conducted according to standard protocols and relative expression was calculated. Results. After LPS treatment there was a significant reduction after 4 h in gene expression of adipo R1 in muscle and peri-renal fat and of adipo R2 in liver, peri-renal fat and abdominal wall subcutaneous fat. After 24 h, significant reductions were limited to muscle. Cell culture extracts showed varied changes with reduction in adiponectin and adipo R2 gene expression only in adipocytes. Conclusions. LPS reduced adiponectin receptor gene expression in several tissues including adipocytes. This reflects a down-regulation of this anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising pathway in response to LPS. The trend towards base line after 24 h in tissue depots may reflect counter-regulatory mechanisms. Adiponectin receptor regulation differs in the tissues investigated. PMID:26618091

  18. High-intensity endurance training improves adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein that reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known whether exercise-induced change in AT, increases the adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations in middle-aged men after 12 weeks high-intensity exercise training and after a week detraining. Sixteen sedentary overweight and obese middle-aged men (age 41.18 ± 6.1 years; ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to training group (n = 8) or control group (n = 8). The training group performed endurance training 4 days a week for 12 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 75-80% individual maximum oxygen consumption for 45 min. After 12 weeks of training, subjects underwent a week of detraining. The results showed that the BMI as well as central and peripheral AT volume were decreased in the training group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). After 12 weeks, the training group resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the adiponectin gene expression in abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous AT when compared with the control group. The results showed that plasma adiponectin concentrations increased and insulin resistance decreased after training compared to the control group (P < 0.05). After a week of detraining, the variables were not changed significantly in the training group. In conclusion, high-intensity endurance training caused an increase adiponectin mRNA in obese middle-aged men. PMID:21769734

  19. Adiponectin is released via a unique regulated exocytosis pathway from a pre-formed vesicle pool on insulin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun-Yan; Hong, Wanjin; Han, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone secreted from adipocytes and released at a high rate into the circulation, plays a pivotal role in maintaining insulin sensitivity at the whole-body level. Despite the importance of this adipokine in metabolic homoeostasis, the mechanism of its secretion from adipocytes remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular localization of adiponectin, and its secretion regulation in 3T3-L1-differentiated adipocytes, using biochemical methods and fluorescence microscopic imaging. We show that adiponectin is localized in vesicular compartments with no apparent overlap with the Golgi apparatus or endosomes. Moreover, adiponectin-containing vesicles are enriched in two distinct pools: one at the plasma membrane (PM) and the other co-fractionating with endoplasmic reticulum membranes. When viewed under a total internal refection fluorescence microscope, a subset of adiponectin-Venus vesicles is readily observed in proximity to PMs, and could be released in response to insulin. Insulin-stimulated adiponectin release appears to be from a pre-existing pool of vesicles, and is not dependent on new protein synthesis, because adiponectin mRNA levels remain unchanged over a 6-h period of insulin treatment, and inhibition of protein synthesis has no effect on adiponectin release. Disruption of insulin signalling by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B (Akt)-1/2 abrogates the stimulated release of adiponectin. Taken together, our results show that adiponectin is stored in a unique vesicular compartment, and released through a regulated exocytosis pathway that is dependent on insulin signalling. PMID:26330614

  20. Relationships between serum soluble leptin receptor level and serum leptin and adiponectin levels, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takeo; Hirose, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Nishikai, Kanako; Miyashita, Kiichi; Nakamura, Haruo; Saito, Ikuo; Saruta, Takao

    2004-07-01

    Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of body weight and is known to circulate in both free and bound forms. One of the leptin receptor isoforms exists in a circulating soluble form that can bind leptin. Clinical studies have shown that soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels are lower in obese individuals. In the present study, we measured the serum sOB-R level in 419 healthy Japanese subjects (198 men and 221 women, aged 30 to 65 years, body mass index [BMI] 21.7 +/- 2.6 [SD] kg/m2) and in 150 type 2 diabetic patients (96 men and 54 women, BMI 24.3 +/- 3.8 kg/m2). We investigated the relationships between serum sOB-R level and BMI, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), serum leptin and adiponectin levels, lipid profile, and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg polymorphisms. Serum leptin and sOB-R levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The serum sOB-R level in men was significantly higher than that in women. The serum sOB-R level was negatively correlated with BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum leptin level and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and serum adiponectin levels. The correlations between serum sOB-R level and fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum leptin, adiponectin, and HDL-cholesterol levels were significant even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI in healthy subjects. There was no association between serum sOB-R level and the LEPR polymorphisms examined. These findings suggest that the serum sOB-R level is negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and serum leptin level and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol level and serum adiponectin level, independent of age, sex, and BMI, in the Japanese population. PMID:15254881

  1. Association Between Adiponectin Polymorphisms and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xin; Liu, Jiaqi; You, Liuping; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the association between adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene rs2241766 and rs1501299 polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer, and to analyze the role of the interaction between these two loci and environmental factors in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Methods: The casecontrol study was performed with a 1:1 match. A self-designed questionnaire was used to perform a face-to-face survey with 600 new primary colorectal cancer cases confirmed by histopathology as well as 600 cases of people receiving a physical examination at the same time. The general information, lifestyle, and diet habits, etc. were collected from two groups of study subjects. Polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs1501299 genotypes. Results: After adjusting for factors such as colorectal cancer family history, bodymass index (BMI), daily sedentary time, weekly red meat intake frequency, as well regular tea drinking, conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that rs2241766 TG+GG carriers had a higher risk of colorectal cancer than TT carriers (OR=1.433, 95% CI: 1.0141.985); rs1501299 GT+TT carriers had a lower risk of colorectal cancer than GG carriers (OR=0.723, 95% CI: 0.5310.902). Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed that ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs1501299 could have interaction with red meat intake (p=0.001). Conclusion: ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs1501299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be associated with colorectal pathogenesis and could have interactions with red meat intake. Both factors impact colorectal cancer occurrence. PMID:25489716

  2. Adiponectin-coated nanoparticles for enhanced imaging of atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Almer, Gunter; Wernig, Karin; Saba-Lepek, Matthias; Haj-Yahya, Samih; Rattenberger, Johannes; Wagner, Julian; Gradauer, Kerstin; Frascione, Daniela; Pabst, Georg; Leitinger, Gerd; Mangge, Harald; Zimmer, Andreas; Prassl, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, and plaque diagnosis is still a challenge in cardiovascular medicine. The main focus of this study was to make atherosclerotic plaques visible using targeted nanoparticles for improved imaging. Today various biomarkers are known to be involved in the pathophysiologic scenario of atherosclerotic plaques. One promising new candidate is the globular domain of the adipocytokine adiponectin (gAd), which was used as a targeting sequence in this study. Methods: gAd was coupled to two different types of nanoparticles, namely protamine-oligonucleotide nanoparticles, known as proticles, and sterically stabilized liposomes. Both gAd-targeted nanoparticles were investigated for their potency to characterize critical scenarios within early and advanced atherosclerotic plaque lesions using an atherosclerotic mouse model. Aortic tissue from wild type and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, both fed a high-fat diet, were stained with either fluorescent-labeled gAd or gAd-coupled nanoparticles. Ex vivo imaging was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: gAd-targeted sterically stabilized liposomes generated a strong signal by accumulating at the surface of atherosclerotic plaques, while gAd-targeted proticles became internalized and showed more spotted plaque staining. Conclusion: Our results offer a promising perspective for enhanced in vivo imaging using gAd-targeted nanoparticles. By means of nanoparticles, a higher payload of signal emitting molecules could be transported to atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, the opportunity is opened up to visualize different regions in the plaque scenario, depending on the nature of the nanoparticle used. PMID:21753879

  3. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by ∼60%. However, supplementing gAd fully rescued insulin's microvascular action and significantly improved the metabolic responses to insulin in HFD male rats and these actions were abolished by inhibition of either AMPK or nitric oxide production. We conclude that HFD induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but gAd administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in male rats. PMID:26108677

  4. Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-05-12

    Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

  5. A low-glycemic load diet reduces serum C-reactive protein and modestly increases adiponectin in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Chiachi; Breymeyer, Kara; Coronado, Gloria; Wang, Chin-Yun; Noar, Karen; Song, Xiaoling; Lampe, Johanna W

    2012-02-01

    Low-glycemic load (GL) diets improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes. Less is known about whether low-GL diets, independent of weight loss, improve the health profile for persons without diabetes or other preexisting conditions. We conducted a randomized, cross-over feeding study testing low- compared to High-GL diets on biomarkers of inflammation and adiposity in healthy adults. Eighty participants (n = 40 with BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m; n = 40 with BMI 28.0-40.0 kg/m) completed two 28-d feeding periods in random order where one period was a high-GL diet (mean GL/d = 250) and the other a low-GL diet (mean GL/d = 125). Diets were isocaloric with identical macronutrient content (as percent energy). All food was provided and participants maintained weight and usual physical activity. Height, weight, and DXA were measured at study entry and weight assessed again thrice per week. Blood was drawn from fasting participants at the beginning and end of each feeding period and serum concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP, serum amyloid A, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on the biomarkers; models were adjusted for baseline biomarker concentrations, diet sequence, feeding period, age, sex, and body fat mass. Among participants with high-body fat mass (>32.0% for males and >25.0% for females), the low-GL diet reduced CRP (P = 0.02) and marginally increased adiponectin (P = 0.06). In conclusion, carbohydrate quality, independent of energy, is important. Dietary patterns emphasizing low-GL foods may improve the inflammatory and adipokine profiles of overweight and obese individuals. PMID:22190020

  6. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of the N-terminal domain of wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunit 10

    PubMed Central

    Cazalis, Roland; Aussenac, Thierry; Rhazi, Larbi; Marin, Antoine; Gibrat, Jean-Franois

    2003-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are of a particular interest because of their biomechanical properties, which are important in many food systems such as breadmaking. Using fold-recognition techniques, we identified a fold compatible with the N-terminal domain of HMW-GS Dy10. This fold corresponds to the one adopted by proteins belonging to the cereal inhibitor family. Starting from three known protein structures of this family as templates, we built three models for the N-terminal domain of HMW-GS Dy10. We analyzed these models, and we propose a number of hypotheses regarding the N-terminal domain properties that can be tested experimentally. In particular, we discuss two possible ways of interaction between the N-terminal domains of the y-type HMW glutenin subunits. The first way consists in the creation of interchain disulfide bridges. According to our models, we propose two plausible scenarios: (1) the existence of an intrachain disulfide bridge between cysteines 22 and 44, leaving the three other cysteines free of engaging in intermolecular bonds; and (2) the creation of two intrachain disulfide bridges (involving cysteines 2244 and cysteines 1055), leaving a single cysteine (45) for creating an intermolecular disulfide bridge. We discuss these scenarios in relation to contradictory experimental results. The second way, although less likely, is nevertheless worth considering. There might exist a possibility for the N-terminal domain of Dy10, Nt-Dy10, to create oligomers, because homologous cereal inhibitor proteins are known to exist as monomers, homodimers, and heterooligomers. We also discuss, in relation to the function of the cereal inhibitor proteins, the possibility that this N-terminal domain has retained similar inhibitory functions. PMID:12493826

  7. Charge-based characterisation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from common wheat by capillary isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Franaszek, S?awomir

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) method for the separation and charge characterisation of the heterogeneity of high molecular-weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using linear polyacrylamide (LPA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated capillaries was developed. Particularly good repeatability and well-resolved charge isoform profiles were obtained by introducing a mixture of carrier ampholytes (pH 3-10 and pH 5-8), a high concentration of urea (6M) and SB3-12 as detergent in a sample solution during separation in a PVA-coated capillary. One major and one or two minor isoforms were observed for the individual HMW-GS. These isoforms were satisfactorily separated using a pH gradient into two groups: y-type isoforms and x-type isoforms encoded by the Glu-B1 locus with shorter migration times and remaining x-type isoforms with longer times. The method produced from eight to twelve isoforms of wheat HMW-GS with pI points in the range of 4.72-6.98. Generally, the minor isoforms were more acidic compared with the major isoform. The y-type subunits had an approximately neutral character (pI 6.70-6.98); however, x-types showed a weakly acidic character (pI 4.72-5.23), with the exception of subunits encoded by the Glu-B1 locus. The isoelectric point peak profiles were compared with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) electropherograms. Generally, the number of detected isoforms for the particular HMW-GS detected using both methods were similar. PMID:25127558

  8. Metaproteomic characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in surface seawaters in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hong-Po; Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Dai, Min-Han; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important reservoir of carbon and energy in the marine environment and plays a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle. This study characterized proteins of high-molecular-weight DOM (size between 5 kDa and <0.2 μm, HMW-DOM) collected from the surface seawaters in the South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach in combination with the global ocean sampling combined assembly protein database. A total of 367 protein groups matched by 993 unique peptides from 1991 spectra were identified from four surface HMW-DOM samples. Proteins with unknown taxonomic classification and function dominated the dissolved protein pool (43-53%) while the remaining proteins presented close similarity in biological origin among the four sampling sites. Rhodospirillaceae, Prochlorococcus, SAR11 clade and viruses were the major contributors to dissolved proteins in the HMW-DOM from surface seawaters while very few proteins were from the eukaryotic phytoplankton and no archaeal proteins were detected. Transporters with substrate specificities for nitrogen- and carbon-containing compounds (1.5% of the total spectra for each) were highly detected while no phosphate transporters were found, suggesting that carbon and nitrogen might be more limiting than phosphorus in the surface seawater. Viral proteins were assigned into three families: Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae, and the Myoviridae proteins were the most abundant. Among them, structure proteins were the most abundant viral proteins. This study indicated that the dissolved proteins of HMW-DOM presented compositional and biologically original homogeneity in the surface seawaters of the South China Sea, and bacteria and viruses dominated the dissolved protein pool.

  9. Molecular mechanism for adiponectin-dependent M2 macrophage polarization: link between the metabolic and innate immune activity of full-length adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Palash; Pratt, Brian T; Barnes, Mark; McMullen, Megan R; Nagy, Laura E

    2011-04-15

    The anti-inflammatory effects of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) are mediated by IL-10/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)-dependent pathways. Although full-length (flAcrp) adiponectin also suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling, its signaling mechanisms are not yet understood. The aim of this study was to examine the differential mechanisms by which gAcrp and flAcrp suppress pro-inflammatory signaling in macrophages. Chronic ethanol feeding increased LPS-stimulated TNF-? expression by Kupffer cells, associated with a shift to an M1 macrophage polarization. Both gAcrp and flAcrp suppressed TNF-? expression in Kupffer cells; however, only the effect of gAcrp was dependent on IL-10. Similarly, inhibition of HO-1 activity or siRNA knockdown of HO-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages only partially attenuated the suppressive effects of flAcrp on MyD88-dependent and -independent cytokine signatures. Instead, flAcrp, acting via the adiponectin R2 receptor, potently shifted the polarization of Kupffer cells and RAW264.7 macrophages to an M2 phenotype. gAcrp, acting via the adiponectin R1 receptor, was much less effective at eliciting an M2 pattern of gene expression. M2 polarization was also partially dependent on AMP-activated kinase. flAcrp polarized RAW264.7 macrophages to an M2 phenotype in an IL-4/STAT6-dependent mechanism. flAcrp also increased the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in RAW264.7 macrophages, similar to the effect of flAcrp on hepatocytes. In summary, these data demonstrate that gAcrp and flAcrp utilize differential signaling strategies to decrease the sensitivity of macrophages to activation by TLR4 ligands, with flAcrp utilizing an IL-4/STAT6-dependent mechanism to shift macrophage polarization to the M2/anti-inflammatory phenotype. PMID:21357416

  10. In vivo, Argonaute-bound microRNAs exist predominantly in a reservoir of low molecular weight complexes not associated with mRNA

    PubMed Central

    La Rocca, Gaspare; Olejniczak, Scott H.; Gonzlez, Alvaro J.; Briskin, Daniel; Vidigal, Joana A.; Spraggon, Lee; DeMatteo, Raymond G.; Radler, Megan R.; Lindsten, Tullia; Ventura, Andrea; Tuschl, Thomas; Leslie, Christina S.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs repress mRNA translation by guiding Argonaute proteins to partially complementary binding sites, primarily within the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs. In cell lines, Argonaute-bound microRNAs exist mainly in high molecular weight RNA-induced silencing complexes (HMW-RISC) associated with target mRNA. Here we demonstrate that most adult tissues contain reservoirs of microRNAs in low molecular weight RISC (LMW-RISC) not bound to mRNA, suggesting that these microRNAs are not actively engaged in target repression. Consistent with this observation, the majority of individual microRNAs in primary T cells were enriched in LMW-RISC. During T-cell activation, signal transduction through the phosphoinositide-3 kinaseRAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinasemechanistic target of rapamycin pathway increased the assembly of microRNAs into HMW-RISC, enhanced expression of the glycine-tryptophan protein of 182 kDa, an essential component of HMW-RISC, and improved the ability of microRNAs to repress partially complementary reporters, even when expression of targeting microRNAs did not increase. Overall, data presented here demonstrate that microRNA-mediated target repression in nontransformed cells depends not only on abundance of specific microRNAs, but also on regulation of RISC assembly by intracellular signaling. PMID:25568082

  11. Adiponectin attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jun-Kun; Wang, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Yi; Tang, Zhi-Yong; Tan, Pan; Huang, Wu; Liu, You-Shuo

    2014-05-01

    Vascular calcification is common in patients with peripheral artery diseases and coronary artery diseases. The osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes significantly to vascular calcification. Adiponectin has been demonstrated to exert a protective effect in osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through regulating mTOR activity. However, the upstream and downstream signaling molecules of adiponectin-regulated mTOR signaling have not been identified in VSMCs with osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, the VSMC differentiation model was established by beta-glycerophosphate (?-GP) induction. The mineralization was identified by Alizarin Red S staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation were detected by Western blot or immunofluorescence. Adiponectin attenuated osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of ?-GP-treated VSMCs. Adiponectin inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through increasing the level of p-AMPK?. Pretreatment of VSMCs with AMPK inhibitor blocked while AMPK activator enhanced the effect of adiponectin on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs. Adiponectin upregulated TSC2 expression and downregulated mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation in ?-GP-treated VSMCs. Adiponectin treatment significantly attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs through modulation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-S6K1 signal pathway. PMID:24607448

  12. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Georgoulidou, Anastasia; Roumeliotis, Athanasios; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; Giannakopoulou, Efstathia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Passadakis, Ploumis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Vargemezis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.002), on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P < 0.001). cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P = 0.022). Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (? = ?5.45, P = 0.023), independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought. PMID:26064982

  13. Adiponectin Modulates Oxidative Stress-Induced Autophagy in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Essick, Eric E.; Wilson, Richard M.; Pimentel, David R.; Shimano, Masayuki; Baid, Simoni; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Sam, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic heart failure (HF) i.e., HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-preserved EF) accounts for up to 50% of all HF presentations; however there have been no therapeutic advances. This stems in part from an incomplete understanding about HF-preserved EF. Hypertension is the major cause of HF-preserved EF whilst HF-preserved EF is also highly associated with obesity. Similarly, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., oxidative stress occurs in hypertension and obesity, sensitizing the heart to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inducing autophagic type-II programmed cell death and accelerating the propensity to adverse cardiac remodeling, diastolic dysfunction and HF. Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine, mediates cardioprotective actions but it is unknown if APN modulates cardiomyocyte autophagy. We tested the hypothesis that APN ameliorates oxidative stress-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were pretreated with recombinant APN (30g/mL) followed by 1mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. Wild type (WT) and APN-deficient (APN-KO) mice were infused with angiotensin (Ang)-II (3.2mg/kg/d) for 14 days to induced oxidative stress. Autophagy-related proteins, mTOR, AMPK and ERK expression were measured. H2O2 induced LC3I to LC3II conversion by a factor of 3.41.0 which was abrogated by pre-treatment with APN by 44.510%. However, neither H2O2 nor APN affected ATG5, ATG7, or Beclin-1 expression. H2O2 increased phospho-AMPK by 496.0%, whilst pretreatment with APN decreased phospho-AMPK by 264%. H2O2 decreased phospho-mTOR by 3613%, which was restored by APN. ERK inhibition demonstrated that the ERK-mTOR pathway is involved in H2O2-induced autophagy. Chronic Ang-II infusion significantly increased myocardial LC3II/I protein expression ratio in APN-KO vs. WT mice. These data suggest that excessive ROS caused cardiomyocyte autophagy which was ameliorated by APN by inhibiting an H2O2-induced AMPK/mTOR/ERK-dependent mechanism. These findings demonstrate the anti-oxidant potential of APN in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension-induced HF-preserved EF. PMID:23894332

  14. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  15. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

  16. Cross-Talk between Adiponectin and IGF-IR in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Loredana; Naimo, Giuseppina Daniela; Ricchio, Emilia; Panno, Maria Luisa; And, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. It is characterized by an enlarged mass of adipose tissue caused by a combination of size increase of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and de novo adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia). Obesity is related to many metabolic disorders like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, and it is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in different tissues including breast. Adipose tissue is now regarded as not just a storage reservoir for excess energy, but rather as an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive molecules called adipokines. Among these, adiponectin represents the most abundant adipose tissue-excreted protein, which exhibits insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. The serum concentrations of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body mass index. Recently, low levels of plasma adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk for obesity-related cancers and development of more aggressive phenotype, concomitantly with alterations in the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the cross-talk between adiponectin/AdipoR1 and IGF-I/IGF-IR in breast cancer. PMID:26236690

  17. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutirrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Ins; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodrguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847853. PMID:24001137

  18. Adiponectin and Leptin Induce VCAM-1 Expression in Human and Murine Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Lpez, Vernica; Gmez, Rodolfo; Lago, Francisca; Pino, Jess; Gmez-Reino, Juan Jess; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common rheumatic diseases, are characterized by irreversible degeneration of the joint tissues. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and adhesion molecules. Objective Up to now, the relationship between adipokines and adhesion molecules at cartilage level was not explored. Thus, the aim of this article was to study the effect of leptin and adiponectin on the expression of VCAM-1 in human and murine chondrocytes. For completeness, intracellular signal transduction pathway was also explored. Methods VCAM-1 expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis upon treatment with leptin, adiponectin and other pertinent reagents in cultured human primary chondrocytes. Signal transduction pathways have been explored by using specific pharmacological inhibitors in the adipokine-stimulated human primary chondrocytes and ATDC5 murine chondrocyte cell line. Results Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that leptin and adiponectin increase VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes. In addition, both adipokines have additive effect with IL-1?. Finally, we demonstrate that several kinases, including JAK2, PI3K and AMPK are at a play in the intracellular signalling of VCAM-1 induction. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that leptin and adiponectin could perpetuate cartilage-degrading processes by inducing also factors responsible of leukocyte and monocyte infiltration at inflamed joints. PMID:23285079

  19. Visfatin and adiponectin levels in children: relationships with physical activity and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing throughout the world and increases in adipose tissue are related to insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases and metablic syndrome. Adipose tissue is not simply a storage depot for surplus energy but rather, is an active organ that modulates various biological functions and synthesizes and secretes multiple cytokines into the circulation. Adiponectin and visfatin are two cytokines which are considered to be possible links between obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In turn, concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin are mainly influenced by the overall body fat mass which is one of the main determinants of insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, physical activity and exercise are negatively related to body fat mass and also have an influence on cytokine concentrations in the blood. It is of particular interest whether physical activity or lifestyle interventions have a positive effect on adiponectin and visfatin concentrations in the blood. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the contribution of vistafin and adiponectin to various metabolic parameters and their relationship with different physical activity patterns in children and adolescents. PMID:20956860

  20. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

  1. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    PubMed

    Gutirrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Ins; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodrguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Garca-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. PMID:24001137

  2. New insight into adiponectin role in obesity and obesity-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined "adipocytokines," protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs ("adiponectin system"), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

  3. Osmotin: a plant sentinel and a possible agonist of mammalian adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, S.; Hima Kumari, P.; Shravan Kumar, G.; Mohanalatha, C.; Kavi Kishor, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Osmotin is a stress responsive antifungal protein belonging to the pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 family that confers tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Protective efforts of osmotin in plants range from high temperature to cold and salt to drought. It lyses the plasma membrane of the pathogens. It is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. It is a differentially expressed and developmentally regulated protein that protects the cells from osmotic stress and invading pathogens as well, by structural or metabolic alterations. During stress conditions, osmotin helps in the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, which quenches reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Osmotin expression results in the accumulation of storage reserves and increases the shelf-life of fruits. It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. Adiponectin, produced in adipose tissues of mammals, is an insulin-sensitizing hormone. Strangely, osmotin acts like the mammalian hormone adiponectin in various in vitro and in vivo models. Adiponectin and osmotin, the two receptor binding proteins do not share sequence similarity at the amino acid level, but interestingly they have a similar structural and functional properties. In experimental mice, adiponectin inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration, primary tumor growth, and reduces atherosclerosis. This retrospective work examines the vital role of osmotin in plant defense and as a potential targeted therapeutic drug for humans. PMID:25852715

  4. Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Jennifer K.; Otvos, Laszlo; Surmacz, Eva; Gupta, Sunita; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (PI) are fundamental to combination antiretroviral therapy, which has revolutionized HIV clinical care and produced significant reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. However, PI administration is frequently associated with severe metabolic impairment, including lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance; all of which can contribute to cardiovascular and neurologic co-morbidities. Experimental and epidemiological data support a potentially important role for the adipokine adiponectin in both metabolic and neurologic physiology. This study examined if ADP355, a novel, peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist, could neutralize the detrimental effects of PI treatment in experimental animal models. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a clinically relevant, 4- week regimen of lopinavir/ritonavir, with daily injections of ADP355 administered only during the final 2 weeks of PI exposure. Comprehensive metabolic, neurobehavioral, and biochemical analyses revealed that ADP355 administration partially reversed PI-induced loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue, attenuated PI-induced hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoadiponectinemia, and prevented PI-induced cognitive impairment and brain injury. Collectively, these data reinforce the link between metabolic co-morbidities and cognitive impairment and suggest that pharmacological reactivation of adiponectin pathways could remediate key aspects of PI-induced metabolic syndrome in clinical settings. Furthermore, therapeutic targeting of adiponectin receptors could show utility in reducing the prevalence and/or severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:24562631

  5. The Impact of Gender and Left Atrial Blood Stasis on Adiponectin levels in Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Cohoon, Kevin P.; Mazur, Matylda; McBane, Robert D.; Ketha, Siva; Ammash, Naser; Wysokinski, Waldemar E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a risk factor for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Adiponectin, a unique biomarker of adipose tissue, has antiinflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, and antiatherogenic properties and is known to be higher in women. The relationship between adiponectin, gender, and thromboembolic risk in atrial fibrillation however is unknown. Methods The relationship between gender, adiponectin levels, and echocardiographic measures of blood stagnation and left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) was assessed in 209 patients with NVAF (55 women and 154 men; mean age 63±14 years) compared to 70 normal sinus rhythm controls (29 women and 41 men; mean age 64±14 years). Total adiponectin was measured by solid-phase ELISA. Demographic and clinical variables of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc were collected, and spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC), left atrial appendage emptying velocity (LAAEV) and left atrium volume index (LAVI) were measured prospectively. Results Elevated adiponectin was associated with advanced cardiovascular pathology and permanent arrhythmia but only in men with NVAF. In NVAF men, a step-wise increase in adiponectin levels was noted relative to increasing intensity of SEC and decreasing LAAEV. Adiponectin level >16657 ng/ml predicted LAAT (OR: 3.66; 95%Cl: 1.21-11.48); p=0.022) after adjustment for CHADS2 score in men but not in women with NVAF. Conclusions There is a direct correlation between elevated adiponectin level and the degree of left atrial blood stasis in men but not women with NVAF. High adiponectin levels can be used as an important variable in the prediction of LAAT. PMID:25528313

  6. Effect of 12 Weeks of Periodized Resistance Training Upon Total Plasma Adiponectin Concentration in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Greggory R; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Nelson, Arnold G

    2015-11-01

    The effects of resistance training on adiponectin have thus far yielded equivocal results. However, the effect of periodized resistance training on plasma adiponectin in offspring of type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic (ND) parents (first-degree family history) has yet to be determined. Untrained healthy young men with and without a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes were assigned to an exercise intervention group (E) or an active control group (C). The E group performed a 12-week periodized resistance training program, whereas the C group did not participate in any structured exercise program. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and posttraining. Total plasma adiponectin changed significantly in the E group (33.7 14.7%, p = 0.025) but not in the C group (10.8 19.2%). Offspring of type 2 diabetic parents subjects had significantly greater improvements in plasma adiponectin (69.3 34.8%) compared with ND subjects (-3.2 29.9%, p = 0.046). Regular aerobic exercise was significantly correlated with average plasma adiponectin (r = 0.32), whereas first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes (r = -0.58) and decreases in body fat percentage (r = -0.77) were inversely correlated with average plasma adiponectin. Periodized high-intensity resistance training seems to increase plasma adiponectin, particularly in individuals with a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes or those who experience a significant loss of fat mass. The direct correlation between regular aerobic exercise and adiponectin further suggests that a combination of aerobic and resistance training yields greater improvements in plasma adiponectin compared with resistance training alone. PMID:26274372

  7. Serum adiponectin is positively associated with lung function in young adults, independent of obesity: The CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Adipose tissue produces adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory protein. Adiponectin deficiency in mice is associated with abnormal post-natal alveolar development. Objective We hypothesized that lower serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with lower lung function in humans, independent of obesity. We explored mediation of this association by insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Methods and Measurements Spirometry testing was conducted at years 10 and 20 follow-up evaluation visits in 2,056 eligible young adult participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Body mass index, serum adiponectin, serum C-reactive protein (a marker of systemic inflammation), and insulin resistance were assessed at year 15. Main Results After controlling for body mass index, years 10 and 20 forced vital capacity (FVC) were 81 ml and 82 ml lower respectively (p = 0.004 and 0.01 respectively) in the lowest vs. highest adiponectin quartiles. Similarly, years 10 and 20 forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were 50 ml and 38 ml lower (p = 0.01 and 0.09, respectively) in the lowest vs. highest adiponectin quartiles. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for insulin resistance and C-reactive protein. Serum adiponectin was not associated with FEV1/FVC or peak FEV1. Conclusions Independent of obesity, lower serum adiponectin concentrations are associated with lower lung function. The attenuation of this association after adjustment for insulin resistance and systemic inflammation suggests that these covariates are on a causal pathway linking adiponectin and lung function. PMID:21143922

  8. Serum Adiponectin Helps to Differentiate Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Young Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Abhijit, Shiny; Ranjani, Harish; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjith; Miranda, Priya; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study assessed whether serum adiponectin could be used as a biochemical marker to differentiate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among young Asian Indians. Research Design and Methods We recruited age- and sex-matched individuals with physician-diagnosed T1DM (n=70) and T2DM (n=72). All were 12–27 years of age with a duration of diabetes of >2 years, at a large tertiary-care diabetes center in Chennai, southern India. Age- and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=68) were selected from an ongoing population study. NGT was defined using World Health Organization criteria. Serum total adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify adiponectin cut points for discriminating T1DM from T2DM. Results Adiponectin levels were higher in T1DM and lower in T2DM compared with the NGT group (9.89, 3.88, and 6.84 μg/mL, respectively; P<0.001). In standardized polytomous regression models, adiponectin was associated with T1DM (odds ratio [OR]=1.131 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025–1.249) and T2DM (OR=0.628 per SD; 95% CI, 0.504–0.721) controlled for age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, family history of T2DM, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Using ROC analysis, an adiponectin cut point of 5.1 μg/mL had a C statistic of 0.886 (95% CI, 0.836–0.953), sensitivity of 80.6%, and specificity of 80.6% to differentiate T1DM from T2DM. Using the 5.1 μg/mL cut point, 80.6% of T1DM and 81.8% of T2DM would be correctly classified. Conclusions Serum adiponectin is a useful biochemical marker for differentiating T1DM and T2DM among young Asian Indians. PMID:23902401

  9. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  10. Tumor-Specific Urinary MMP Fingerprinting: Identification of High Molecular Weight Urinary MMP Species

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Roopali; Louis, Gwendolyn; Loughlin, Kevin R.; Wiederschain, Dmitri; Kilroy, Susan M.; Lamb, Carolyn C.; Zurakowski, David; Moses, Marsha A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We have previously reported that MMP-2, MMP-9 and the complex MMP-9/NGAL can be detected in urine of patients with a variety of cancers including prostate and bladder carcinoma. In addition, we also detected several unidentified urinary gelatinase activities with molecular weights >125kDa. The objective of the current study was to identify these high molecular weight (HMW) species, determine their potential as predictors of disease status and ask whether a tumor-specific pattern existed based on urinary MMP (uMMP) analysis. Experimental Design Chromatography, zymography and mass spectrometry was used to identify HMW gelatinase species of ?140, 190 and >220kDa in urine of cancer patients. To determine whether a tumor-specific pattern of appearance existed among the MMPs detected, we analyzed the urine of 189 patients with prostate or bladder cancer and controls. Results The ?140, >220kDa and ?190 HMW gelatinase species were identified as MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, MMP-9 dimer and ADAMTS-7 respectively. The frequency of detection of any MMP species was significantly higher in urine from prostate and bladder cancer groups than controls. MMP-9 dimer and MMP-9 were independent predictors for distinguishing between patients with prostate or bladder cancer (P<0.001 for each) by multivariable analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to identify a tumor-specific uMMP fingerprint that may noninvasively facilitate identification of cancer presence and type. This information may be of diagnostic and prognostic value in the detection and/or clinical monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic efficacy in patients with bladder or prostate cancer. PMID:18927302

  11. The influence of adiponectin on the transcriptomic profile of porcine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Szeszko, Karol; Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2016-03-01

    Reproductive functions are closely related to nutritional status. Recent studies suggest that adiponectin may be a hormonal link between them. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine, abundantly expressed in adipose tissues. It plays a dominant role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by stimulating fatty acid oxidation, decreasing plasma triglycerides, and increasing cells' sensitivity to insulin and has direct antiatherosclerotic effects. The hormone is also postulated to play a modulatory role in the regulation of the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DE-genes) in response to adiponectin treatment of porcine luteal ovarian cells. The global expression of genes in the porcine ovary was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4??44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that 701 genes were differentially expressed and 389 genes showed a fold change greater than 1.2 (p?adiponectin interacts with genes involved in important processes in luteal cells. These results provide a basis for future work describing the detailed interactions and relationships explaining local regulation of adiponectin actions in the ovary of pigs. PMID:26715409

  12. Adiponectin receptor 2 is negatively associated with lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsuno, Nelson H.; Otani, Kensuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Shuno, Yasutaka; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Hongo, Kumiko; Kaneko, Manabu; Sunami, Eiji; Takahashi, Koki; Nagawa, Hirokazu; Kitayama, Joji

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and has a variety of functions including the inhibition of tumor growth. The expression and function of the two major adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in malignant tissue have not been well characterized. In the present study, we evaluated the mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in 48 surgically resected colorectal cancer specimens, as well as normal colonic mucosa, by quantitative RT-PCR. The values obtained were standardized by ?-actin mRNA, and the correlation between their relative expression levels and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients was examined. The relative expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly reduced in cancer tissue compared with normal tissue (AdipoR1: 0.970.39 vs. 1.370.41, P<0.0001; AdipoR2: 0.920.31 vs. 1.600.46, P<0.0001). AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 levels were further reduced in tumors with nodal metastases and the difference was statistically significant in the case of AdipoR2 (0.790.27 vs. 1.020.30, P=0.012). The results of this study demonstrated that the expression levels of adiponectin receptors are reduced in cancer specimens compared to normal tissue, indicating a downregulation in the course of the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Since adiponectin is abundantly present in the whole body and has inhibitory effects on cancer cells, this downregulation of the receptors may be an escape mechanism of malignant cells from the suppressive effects of adiponectin. PMID:22740988

  13. Pioglitazone, but not metformin, reduces liver fat in Type-2 diabetes mellitus independent of weight changes?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Alok K.; Bray, George A.; Greenway, Frank L.; Martin, Corby K.; Johnson, William D.; Smith, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone (Pio) treatment induces weight gain in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which could worsen hepatic lipid accumulation, and alter adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Objective To compare changes in hepatic lipid, serum adiponectin and hs-CRP in diabetics treated with Pio (with and without weight gain) against metformin (Met) treatment, which produces weight loss. Design Fifty-one men and women with T2DM, naive to thiazolidinediones, entered a 16-week, open-label, parallel arm study, where participants were randomized to one of three groups: (1) Pio plus the American Diabetes Association diet (Pio+ADA); (2) Pio plus a portion control weight loss diet (Pio+PC), or (3) metformin plus ADA diet (Met+ADA). Methods Hepatic lipid was assessed with abdominal computed tomography (CT) and the serum adiponectin and hs-CRP by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline and study end. Results Forty-eight subjects completed the study. The Pio+ADA group gained (meanS.E.M.) 2.151.09 kg, while Pio+PC and Met+ADA group lost ?2.591.25 and ?3.210.7 kg, respectively. Pio-treated groups (Pio+ADA and Pio+PC) significantly decreased hepatic fat as indicated by increased liver density on CTscan [10.12.4: 11.41.0 Hounsfield units (HU)], compared with Met+ADA group (?2.43.1 HU). The Pio groups demonstrated significantly increased serum adiponectin, (8.61.5; 7.41.6 ?g/ml) independent of weight change, compared to Met+ADA (?0.140.6 ?gm/ml) group which lost weight. Serum hs-CRP decreased in groups showing weight loss (Pio+PC, ?3.11.7 mg/l; Met+ADA, ?1.51.2 mg/l) compared to Pio+ADA (1.83.0 mg/l) group that gained weight. Conclusions Pio treatment in T2DM significantly reduced hepatic lipid and increased adiponectin independent of weight change, while decreasing hs-CRP with weight loss. PMID:19577936

  14. Adiponectin levels predict prediabetes risk: the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunna; Owei, Ibiye; Wan, Jim; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Adiponectin levels display ethnic disparities, and are inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the association of adiponectin with prediabetes risk in diverse populations has not been well-studied. Here, we assessed baseline adiponectin levels in relation to incident prediabetes in a longitudinal biracial cohort. Research design and methods The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study followed non-diabetic offspring of parents with T2DM for the occurrence of prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Assessments at enrollment and during follow-up included a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, biochemistries (including fasting insulin and adiponectin levels), insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the contribution of adiponectin to risk of progression to prediabetes. Results Among the 333 study participants (mean (SD) age 44.2 (10.6) year), 151(45.3%) were white and 182 (54.8%) were black. During approximately 5.5 (mean 2.62) years of follow-up, 110 participants (33%) progressed to prediabetes (N=100) or T2DM (N=10), and 223 participants (67%) were non-progressors. The mean cohort adiponectin level was 9.41+5.30 μg/mL (range 3.1–45.8 μg/mL); values were higher in women than men (10.3+5.67 μg/mL vs 7.27+3.41 μg/mL, p<0.0001) and in white than black offspring (10.7+5.44 μg/mL vs 8.34+4.95 μg/mL, p<0.0001). Adiponectin levels correlated inversely with adiposity and glycemia, and positively with insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Baseline adiponectin strongly predicted incident prediabetes: the HR for prediabetes per 1 SD (approximately 5 μg/mL) higher baseline adiponectin was 0.48 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.86, p=0.013). Conclusions Among healthy white and black adults with parental history of T2DM, adiponectin level is a powerful risk marker of incident prediabetes. Thus, the well-known association of adiponectin with diabetes risk is evident at a much earlier stage in pathogenesis, during transition from normoglycemia to prediabetes.

  15. Troglitazone and ?2Troglitazone Enhance Adiponectin Expression in Monocytes/Macrophages through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (?2troglitazone, (?2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-dependent pathway whereas ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and ?2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-?-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and ?2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and ?2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis. PMID:25328285

  16. Relation of Adiponectin to All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Dallas Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Witberg, Guy; Ayers, Colby R; Turer, Aslan T; Lev, Eli; Kornowski, Ran; de Lemos, James; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-02-15

    Adiponectin is a key component in multiple metabolic pathways. Studies evaluating associations of adiponectin with clinical outcomes in older adults have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association of adiponectin with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in a young, multiethnic adult population. We analyzed data from participants in the Dallas Heart Study without baseline CVD who underwent assessment of total adiponectin from 2000 to 2002. The primary outcome of all-cause mortality was assessed over median 10.4years of follow-up using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Secondary outcomes included CVD mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and heart failure (HF). The study cohort included 3,263 participants, mean age 43.4years, 44% women, and 50% black. There were 184 deaths (63 CVD), 207 MACCE, and 46 HF events. In multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C, hyperlipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and body mass index, increasing adiponectin quartiles were positively associated with all-cause mortality Q4 versus Q1 (hazard ratio [HR]= 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47, 3.50); CVD mortality Q4 versus Q1 (HR= 2.43; 95% CI 1.15, 5.15); MACCE Q4 versus Q1 (HR= 1.71; 95% CI 1.13, 2.60); and HF Q4 versus Q1 (HR= 2.95; 95% CI 1.14, 7.67). Findings were similar with adiponectin as a continuous variable and consistent across subgroups defined by age, gender, race, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In conclusion, higher adiponectin was associated with increased mortality and CVD morbidity in a young, multiethnic population. These findings may have implications for strategies aimed at lowering adiponectin to prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:26800774

  17. Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2014-01-01

    Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported. PMID:24240086

  18. High Molecular Weight Barley β-Glucan Alters Gut Microbiota Toward Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Ames, Nancy P; Tun, Hein M; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological cholesterol-lowering benefits of β-glucan have been well documented, however, whether modulation of gut microbiota by β-glucan is associated with these physiological effects remains unknown. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the impact of β-glucan on the composition of gut microbiota in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals and to identify if the altered microbiota are associated with bioactivity of β-glucan in improving risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using a randomized, controlled crossover study design, individuals received for 5-week either a treatment breakfast containing 3 g high molecular weight (HMW), 3 g low molecular weight (LMW), 5 g LMW barley β-glucan, or wheat and rice. The American Heart Association (AHA) diet served as the background diet for all treatment groups. Phases were separated by 4-week washout periods. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each intervention phase and subjected to Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results revealed that at the phylum level, supplementation of 3 g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes abundances compared to control (P < 0.001). At the genus level, consumption of 3 g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroides (P < 0.003), tended to increase Prevotella (P < 0.1) but decreased Dorea (P < 0.1), whereas diets containing 5 g LMW β-glucan and 3 g LMW β-glucan failed to alter the gut microbiota composition. Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dorea composition correlated (P < 0.05) with shifts of CVD risk factors, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, as well as triglyceride levels. Our data suggest that consumption of HMW β-glucan favorably alters the composition of gut microbiota and this altered microbiota profile associates with a reduction of CVD risk markers. Together, our study suggests that β-glucan induced shifts in gut microbiota in a MW-dependent manner and that might be one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the physiological benefits of β-glucan. PMID:26904005

  19. High Molecular Weight Barley β-Glucan Alters Gut Microbiota Toward Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Ames, Nancy P.; Tun, Hein M.; Tosh, Susan M.; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological cholesterol-lowering benefits of β-glucan have been well documented, however, whether modulation of gut microbiota by β-glucan is associated with these physiological effects remains unknown. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the impact of β-glucan on the composition of gut microbiota in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals and to identify if the altered microbiota are associated with bioactivity of β-glucan in improving risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using a randomized, controlled crossover study design, individuals received for 5-week either a treatment breakfast containing 3 g high molecular weight (HMW), 3 g low molecular weight (LMW), 5 g LMW barley β-glucan, or wheat and rice. The American Heart Association (AHA) diet served as the background diet for all treatment groups. Phases were separated by 4-week washout periods. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each intervention phase and subjected to Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results revealed that at the phylum level, supplementation of 3 g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes abundances compared to control (P < 0.001). At the genus level, consumption of 3 g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroides (P < 0.003), tended to increase Prevotella (P < 0.1) but decreased Dorea (P < 0.1), whereas diets containing 5 g LMW β-glucan and 3 g LMW β-glucan failed to alter the gut microbiota composition. Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dorea composition correlated (P < 0.05) with shifts of CVD risk factors, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, as well as triglyceride levels. Our data suggest that consumption of HMW β-glucan favorably alters the composition of gut microbiota and this altered microbiota profile associates with a reduction of CVD risk markers. Together, our study suggests that β-glucan induced shifts in gut microbiota in a MW-dependent manner and that might be one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the physiological benefits of β-glucan. PMID:26904005

  20. Adiponectin and AdipoR1 regulate PGC-1alpha and mitochondria by Ca(2+) and AMPK/SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Iwabu, Masato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Sato, Koji; Nakagawa, Tatsuro; Funata, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Mamiko; Namiki, Shigeyuki; Nakayama, Ryo; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Ogata, Hitomi; Kubota, Naoto; Takamoto, Iseki; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Yamauchi, Naoko; Waki, Hironori; Fukayama, Masashi; Nishino, Ichizo; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Ueki, Kohjiro; Oike, Yuichi; Ishii, Satoshi; Hirose, Kenzo; Shimizu, Takao; Touhara, Kazushige; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2010-04-29

    Adiponectin is an anti-diabetic adipokine. Its receptors possess a seven-transmembrane topology with the amino terminus located intracellularly, which is the opposite of G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we provide evidence that adiponectin induces extracellular Ca(2+) influx by adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), which was necessary for subsequent activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta (CaMKKbeta), AMPK and SIRT1, increased expression and decreased acetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), and increased mitochondria in myocytes. Moreover, muscle-specific disruption of AdipoR1 suppressed the adiponectin-mediated increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and decreased the activation of CaMKK, AMPK and SIRT1 by adiponectin. Suppression of AdipoR1 also resulted in decreased PGC-1alpha expression and deacetylation, decreased mitochondrial content and enzymes, decreased oxidative type I myofibres, and decreased oxidative stress-detoxifying enzymes in skeletal muscle, which were associated with insulin resistance and decreased exercise endurance. Decreased levels of adiponectin and AdipoR1 in obesity may have causal roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance seen in diabetes. PMID:20357764

  1. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  2. Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 1865?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35??6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

  3. Competitive stereocomplexation, homocrystallization, and polymorphic crystalline transition in poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(D-lactic acid) racemic blends: molecular weight effects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pengju; Han, Lili; Bao, Jianna; Xie, Qing; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong

    2015-05-28

    Competitive crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and transition of poly(l-lactic acid)/poly(d-lactic acid) (PLLA/PDLA) racemic blends with a wide range of molecular weights (MWs) were symmetrically investigated. Stereocomplex (sc) crystallites are exclusively formed in the low-MW racemic blends. However, stereocomplexation is remarkably depressed, and homocrystallization becomes prevailing with increasing MWs of PLLA and PDLA. Suppressed stereocomplexation in high-MW (HMW) racemic blends is proposed to be due to the low chain diffusion ability and restricted intermolecular crystal nucleation/growth. Equilibrium melting point of sc crystallites first increases and then decreases as MW increases. Crystallinity and relative fraction of sc crystallites in racemic blends enhance with crystallization temperature (Tc), and the sc crystallites are merely formed at Tc > 170 C because of their higher thermodynamic stability. In situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis reveals that the stereocomplexation and homocrystallization are successive rather than completely simultaneous, and the stereocomplexation is preceding homocrystallization in isothermal crystallization of HMW racemic blends. Both initial crystalline structure of homocrystallites (hc) and MW influence the heating-induced hc-to-sc transition of HMW racemic blend drastically; the hc-to-sc transition becomes easier with decreasing Tc and MW. After crystallization at the same temperature, sc crystallites show smaller long period than their hc counterparts. PMID:25940864

  4. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard A.; Robeson, Michael S.; Shakya, Migun; Moberly, James G.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Gu, Baohua; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.222.33 g DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.460.25 g DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio). Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1V3 region) pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ?80% and ?400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU) recovered. PMID:25033199

  5. Improved yield of high molecular weight DNA coincides with increased microbial diversity access from iron oxide cemented sub-surface clay environments.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard A; Robeson, Michael S; Shakya, Migun; Moberly, James G; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Gu, Baohua; Elias, Dwayne A

    2014-01-01

    Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.222.33 g DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.460.25 g DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio). Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1-V3 region) pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ?80% and ?400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU) recovered. PMID:25033199

  6. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

  7. Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2013-10-01

    In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, ?13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

  8. Weight Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods Eating smaller portions Drinking water instead of sugary ...

  9. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280??M) or 10x (700??M) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them. PMID:25978545

  10. Serum Adiponectin and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ortega Moreno, Lorena; Lamacchia, Olga; Copetti, Massimiliano; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Cignarelli, Mauro; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Menzaghi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    High serum adiponectin has been increased in several conditions of kidney disease. Only sparse and conflicting results have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a subgroup of individuals who are at high risk for renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to fill up this gap of knowledge by investigating such association in a large sample of Italian diabetic patients. The association between serum adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration CKD-EPI equation) was investigated in 1,243 patients with T2D from two cross-sectional Italian studies: 878 from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR) and 365 from Foggia (FG). Serum adiponectin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [? (standard error, SE) for 1 standard deviation (SD) of adiponectin = -3.26 (0.64)] and in FG [?(SE)=-5.70(1.28)] sample, as well as in the two studies combined [?(SE)=-3.99(0.59)];(p<0.0001 for all). In this combined analysis, the association was still significant after adjusting for sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatments [? (SE)= -2.19 (0.59), p = 0.0001]. A stronger association between each SD adiponectin increment and low eGFR was observed among patients with micro-/macro-albuminuria, as compared to those with normo-albuminuria [adjusted ?(SE)=-4.42(1.16) ml/min/1.73m2 vs. -1.50 (0.67) ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; p for adiponectin-by-albuminuric status = 0.022]. For each adiponectin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 increased by 41% (odds ratio, OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.21-1.64) in SGR sample, 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.21-1.94) in FG sample, and 44% (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.27-1.64) in the two studies considered together (p<0.0001 for all). In the combined sample, further adjustment for the above mentioned covariates did not change the observed association (OR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.16-1.60; p<0.0001). Our study, so far the largest addressing the relationship between serum adiponectin and GFR in T2D, strongly suggests that the paradoxical inverse association, previously reported in different clinical sets, is also observed in diabetic patients. Further studies are needed to unravel the biology underlying this counterintuitive relationship. PMID:26465607

  11. Deficiency of adiponectin receptor 2 reduces diet-induced insulin resistance but promotes type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfang; Michael, M Dodson; Kash, Shera; Bensch, William R; Monia, Brett P; Murray, Susan F; Otto, Keith A; Syed, Samreen K; Bhanot, Sanjay; Sloop, Kyle W; Sullivan, John M; Reifel-Miller, Anne

    2007-02-01

    Adiponectin/adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) are involved in energy homeostasis and inflammatory pathways. To investigate the role of AdipoR2 in metabolic control, we studied the lipid and glucose metabolic phenotypes in AdipoR2-deficient mice. AdipoR2 deletion diminished high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance yet deteriorated glucose homeostasis as high-fat feeding continued, which resulted from the failure of pancreatic beta-cells to adequately compensate for the moderate insulin resistance. A defect in the AdipoR2 gene may represent a mechanism underlying the etiology of certain subgroups of type 2 diabetic patients who eventually develop overt diabetes, whereas other obese patients do not. PMID:17068142

  12. Serum Adiponectin and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Moreno, Lorena; Lamacchia, Olga; Copetti, Massimiliano; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Cignarelli, Mauro; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Menzaghi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    High serum adiponectin has been increased in several conditions of kidney disease. Only sparse and conflicting results have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a subgroup of individuals who are at high risk for renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to fill up this gap of knowledge by investigating such association in a large sample of Italian diabetic patients. The association between serum adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration CKD-EPI equation) was investigated in 1,243 patients with T2D from two cross-sectional Italian studies: 878 from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR) and 365 from Foggia (FG). Serum adiponectin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [? (standard error, SE) for 1 standard deviation (SD) of adiponectin = -3.26 (0.64)] and in FG [?(SE)=-5.70(1.28)] sample, as well as in the two studies combined [?(SE)=-3.99(0.59)];(p<0.0001 for all). In this combined analysis, the association was still significant after adjusting for sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatments [? (SE)= -2.19 (0.59), p = 0.0001]. A stronger association between each SD adiponectin increment and low eGFR was observed among patients with micro-/macro-albuminuria, as compared to those with normo-albuminuria [adjusted ?(SE)=-4.42(1.16) ml/min/1.73m2 vs. -1.50 (0.67) ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; p for adiponectin-by-albuminuric status = 0.022]. For each adiponectin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 increased by 41% (odds ratio, OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.211.64) in SGR sample, 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.211.94) in FG sample, and 44% (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.271.64) in the two studies considered together (p<0.0001 for all). In the combined sample, further adjustment for the above mentioned covariates did not change the observed association (OR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.161.60; p<0.0001). Our study, so far the largest addressing the relationship between serum adiponectin and GFR in T2D, strongly suggests that the paradoxical inverse association, previously reported in different clinical sets, is also observed in diabetic patients. Further studies are needed to unravel the biology underlying this counterintuitive relationship. PMID:26465607

  13. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPAR? signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  14. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Rosario, Fredrick J.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPAR? signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  15. High serum C1q-binding adiponectin levels in male patients with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The complement system is part of the immune system in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in blood, and serum C1q binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We investigated the comparative evaluation of serum C1q-APN levels in males with ACS, stable angina pectoris (SAP) versus controls. Methods The study subjects were 138 Japanese patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. Blood total adiponectin (Total-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into three groups according to the clinical condition: ACS (n?=?78), SAP (n?=?41) or normal coronary (NC, n?=?19) groups. Results Serum C1q levels were significantly higher in the ACS group (54.91.2 ?g/mL) than in the NC group (48.02.5 ?g/mL). Although serum Total-APN levels were significantly lower in the SAP and ACS groups, compared with the NC group (7.00.5, 7.20.3, 10.62.0 ?g/mL, respectively), serum C1q-APN levels were significantly higher in the ACS group than in the NC and SAP groups (112.14.1, 66.34.4, 65.72.9 units/mL, respectively). Conclusions Patients with ACS had higher serum C1q-APN levels. Trial Registration UMIN000002997 PMID:24400991

  16. Retinol Binding Protein-4 and Adiponectin Levels in Thyroid Overt and Subclinical Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, S; Papazoglou, D; Zisimopoulos, A; Papanas, N; Tiaka, E; Antonoglou, C; Maltezos, E

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is accompanied by numerous changes in intermediary metabolism. Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and adiponectin are 2 adipocytokines that have multiple metabolic functions. The aim of our study was to examine serum RBP4 and adiponectin levels in clinical (before and after therapy) and subclinical hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls.150 patients with thyroid dysfunction were recruited (65 hyperthyroid and 85 hypothyroid) while 28 euthyroid subjects served as a control group. We measured anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal (free T4, free T3, TSH, insulin) parameters in all participants. RBP-4 and adiponectin were measured using commercial ELISA kits.Mean baseline levels of RBP-4 were higher in patients with clinical hypothyroidism (29.010.2?ng/ml, 25.112.6?ng/ml, 38.816.5?ng/ml, 31.913.2?ng/ml, 20.48.2?ng/ml in patients with hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthryrodism, hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and controls respectively, F=4.86, P<0.001) and decreased significantly in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after normalization of thyroid hormones' levels (from 29.010.2 to 24.98.4?ng/ml, p=0.003 and from 38.816.5 to 29.010.8?ng/ml, p=0.001 respectively). We did not observe analogous changes in adiponectin levels in any of the studied groups.RBP-4 levels are higher in patients with clinical hypothyroidism and exhibit a marked decrease after normalization of thyroid function in both hyper and hypothyroid patients. We suggest that RBP-4 may play a role in the metabolic disturbances which accompany thyroid dysfunction. PMID:26575118

  17. Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Susceptibility and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ahasic, Amy M.; Zhao, Yang; Su, Li; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined for relationships with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and to circulating adipokine levels, but many gaps in knowledge remain. The current study aims to assess the association between potentially functional polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) risk and mortality. Methods Consecutive patients with risk factors for ARDS admitted to the ICU were enrolled and followed prospectively for development of ARDS. ARDS cases were followed through day 60 for all-cause mortality. 2067 patients were successfully genotyped using the Illumina CVD BeadChip high-density platform. Of these, 567 patients developed ARDS. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 9 SNPs were hypothesized to be functional based on their location (promoter, exon, or 3? untranslated region). These 9 SNPs were analyzed for association with ARDS case status and mortality among ARDS cases. Results After multivariable analysis and adjustment for multiple comparisons, no SNPs were significantly associated with ARDS case status. Among ARDS cases, homozygotes for the minor allele of rs2082940 (ADIPOQ) had increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.365.00, p?=?0.0039) after adjustment for significant covariates. The significance of this association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR_q?=?0.029). Conclusions A common and potentially functional polymorphism in ADIPOQ may impact survival in ARDS. Further studies are required to replicate these results and to correlate genotype with circulating adiponectin levels. PMID:24586568

  18. Adiponectin is related to CD146, a novel marker of endothelial cell activation/injury in chronic renal failure and peritoneally dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Malyszko, Jacek S; Brzosko, Szymon; Wolczynski, Slawomir; Mysliwiec, Michal

    2004-09-01

    Adiponectin has antiatherogenic properties and attenuates endothelial inflammatory responses. CD146 is a novel cell adhesion molecule localized at the endothelial junction. In renal failure, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis are almost universal. We studied possible correlations between adiponectin, CD146, and other markers of endothelial cell injury in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on conservative treatment and patients with and without diabetic nephropathy maintained on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We assessed adiponectin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and endothelial function/injury markers: von Willebrand factor, thrombomodulin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule, and CD146. Adiponectin was elevated in patients with CRF and on CAPD. It correlated significantly, with PAI-1, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, intercellular adhesion molecule, VCAM, and CD146 in nondiabetics on CAPD. In diabetics, CAPD adiponectin correlated positively with C146 and VCAM and negatively with PAI and TFPI. In multivariate regression analysis, only CD146 remained a positive predictor of adiponectin in all CAPD patients. In CRF, adiponectin correlated with CD146. In healthy volunteers, adiponectin correlated with TFPI and CD146. Elevated adiponectin related to CD146 may be the expression of a counterregulatory response aimed at mitigating the consequences in endothelial damage and increased cardiovascular risk in renal failure. PMID:15356072

  19. Rutin Stimulates Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Chung, Choon Hee; Choi, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Rutin is aflavonoid, which is found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce blood glucose and increase insulin levels in diabetic rats. In the present study, the authors aimed to elucidate the molecular basis for the observed antidiabetic activity using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures. The treatment of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with rutin at concentrations of 3, 10, 30 and 100 M significantly increased lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein. Furthermore, rutin at concentrations of 10, 30 and 100 M increased adiponectin mRNA expression together with stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. These results indicate that the stimulatory effect of rutin on adipocyte differentiation likely occurs through up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and downstream adipocyte-specific gene expression. Such effects of rutin on adiponectin secretion and adipocyte activity may account for, at least in part, the antidiabetic effects of consumption of food containing rutin. PMID:26387381

  20. Adiponectin deficiency blunts hypoxia-induced mobilization and homing of circulating angiogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Bert R; Nijenhuis, Vincent J; Reith, Florence C M; Hoymans, Vicky Y; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the effects of adiponectin deficiency on circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) mobilization, homing, and neovascularization in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods & Results. AMI was induced in wild-type (WT) (n = 10) and adiponectin knockout (Adipoq (-/-)) mice (n = 7). One week after AMI, bone marrow (BM) concentration and mobilization of Sca-1(+) and Lin(-)Sca-1(+) progenitor cells (PCs) were markedly attenuated under Adipoq (-/-) conditions, as assessed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of HIF-1-dependent chemotactic factors, such as Cxcl12 (P = 0.005) and Ccl5 (P = 0.025), and vascular adhesion molecules, such as Icam1 (P = 0.010), and Vcam1 (P = 0.014), was significantly lower in the infarction border zone of Adipoq (-/-) mice. Histologically, Adipoq (-/-) mice evidenced a decrease in neovascularization capacity in the infarction border zone (P < 0.001). Overall, capillary density was positively correlated with Sca-1(+) PC numbers in BM (P = 0.01) and peripheral blood (PB) (P = 0.005) and with the expression of the homing factors Cxcl12 (P = 0.013), Icam1 (P = 0.034) and Vcam1 (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Adiponectin deficiency reduced the BM reserve and mobilization capacity of CACs, attenuated the expression of hypoxia-induced chemokines and vascular adhesion molecules, and impaired the neovascularization capacity one week after AMI. PMID:24288546

  1. Adiponectin Deficiency Blunts Hypoxia-Induced Mobilization and Homing of Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Everaert, Bert R.; Nijenhuis, Vincent J.; Reith, Florence C. M.; Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the effects of adiponectin deficiency on circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) mobilization, homing, and neovascularization in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods & Results. AMI was induced in wild-type (WT) (n = 10) and adiponectin knockout (Adipoq?/?) mice (n = 7). One week after AMI, bone marrow (BM) concentration and mobilization of Sca-1+ and Lin?Sca-1+ progenitor cells (PCs) were markedly attenuated under Adipoq?/? conditions, as assessed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of HIF-1-dependent chemotactic factors, such as Cxcl12 (P = 0.005) and Ccl5 (P = 0.025), and vascular adhesion molecules, such as Icam1 (P = 0.010), and Vcam1 (P = 0.014), was significantly lower in the infarction border zone of Adipoq?/? mice. Histologically, Adipoq?/? mice evidenced a decrease in neovascularization capacity in the infarction border zone (P < 0.001). Overall, capillary density was positively correlated with Sca-1+ PC numbers in BM (P = 0.01) and peripheral blood (PB) (P = 0.005) and with the expression of the homing factors Cxcl12 (P = 0.013), Icam1 (P = 0.034) and Vcam1 (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Adiponectin deficiency reduced the BM reserve and mobilization capacity of CACs, attenuated the expression of hypoxia-induced chemokines and vascular adhesion molecules, and impaired the neovascularization capacity one week after AMI. PMID:24288546

  2. Activation of autophagy by globular adiponectin is required for muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gamberi, Tania; Modesti, Alessandra; Magherini, Francesca; D'Souza, Donna M; Hawke, Thomas; Fiaschi, Tania

    2016-04-01

    Regulated autophagy is a critical component for a healthy skeletal muscle mass, such that dysregulation of the autophagic processes correlates with severe myopathies. Thus, defining the biological molecules involved in the autophagic processes within skeletal muscle is of great importance. Here we demonstrate that globular adiponectin (gAd) activates autophagy in skeletal muscle myoblasts via an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Activation of autophagy through gAd promotes myoblast survival and apoptosis inhibition during serum starvation and the gAd-activated autophagy orchestrates the myogenic properties of the hormone. Consistent with this conclusion, inhibition of gAd-activated autophagy by both a pharmacological (chloroquine) or siRNA approach greatly inhibited muscle differentiation, as demonstrated by reductions in myosin heavy chain expression and myotube formation. Further support for the role of adiponectin in autophagy comes from the skeletal muscles of adiponectin KO mice which display decreased LC3 II expression and a myopathic phenotype (heterogeneous fiber sizes, numerous central nuclei). Overall, these findings demonstrate that gAd activates autophagy in myoblasts and that gAd-activated autophagy drives the myogenic properties of this hormone. PMID:26826036

  3. Serum Levels of Resistin, Adiponectin, and Apelin in Gastroesophageal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Markocka-M?czka, Krystyna; Szelachowski, Piotr; Grabowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Material and Methods. Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients. Results. Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed. Conclusions. Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:25049439

  4. Relationship of Caffeine with Adiponectin and Blood Sugar Levels in Subjects with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhaktha, Geetha; Mayya, Shreemathi; Shantaram, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coffee though not usually thought of as healthy food but can be treated as one of the beneficial drink. Many researchers have found strong evidence that coffee reduces the risk of several serious ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, etc. The long term beneficial effect of coffee on diabetes is now understood to be more influential and obliging. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 220 healthy subjects of which 143 consumed coffee and 77 did not. These were matched with 90 diabetic subjects. Among the 90 diabetics, 48 consumed coffee and 42 did not consume coffee. Results: The mean adiponectin value was significantly higher in coffee consumed normal and diabetic subjects than the subjects who did not consume coffee. The decrease in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c values were also observed in normal a