Sample records for weight hmw adiponectin

  1. Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10?8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

  2. Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer,

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform

  3. Changes of adiponectin oligomer composition by moderate weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Thomas; Rochlitz, Helmut; Wegewitz, Uta; Akpulat, Suzan; Mai, Knut; Weickert, Martin O; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    Adiponectin affects lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers that may also have distinct biological functions. We aimed to analyze the role of these oligomers in obesity and lipid metabolism after weight reduction. A total of 17 obese volunteers (15 women and 2 men) participated in a weight reduction program. Individuals were characterized before and after 6 months of a balanced diet. Adiponectin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and oligomers were detected by nondenaturating Western blot. BMI decreased (35.1 +/- 1.2 to 32.8 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2), P < 0.001), which was associated with an improved metabolite profile. Total adiponectin increased from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 6.1 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (P = 0.076). High (HMW) and medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin oligomers significantly increased during weight reduction (HMW: 0.37 +/- 0.07 to 0.4 +/- 0.08 microg/ml, P = 0.042; MMW: 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.3 microg/ml, P = 0.007), while low molecular weight (LMW) did not significantly change. Body weight inversely correlated with HMW (r = -0.695, P = 0.002) and positively with LMW (r = 0.579, P = 0.015). Interestingly, HDL cholesterol and HMW were strongly correlated (r = 0.665, P = 0.007). Indeed, HMW and free fatty acids before weight reduction predicted approximately 60% of HDL changes during intervention. In conclusion, weight reduction results in a relative increase of HMW/MMW adiponectin and a reduction of LMW adiponectin. Total adiponectin and especially HMW adiponectin are related to circulating HDL cholesterol. PMID:16123361

  4. Selective Suppression of Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by the High Molecular Weight Form of Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Walsh, Kenneth; Kumada, Masahiro; Abe, Yuki; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, antiatherogenic protein that is present in serum as three isoforms. Total adiponectin levels are decreased in obese or diabetic humans or animal models. This study was designed to elucidate the relative isoform distribution of adiponectin in human disease states and identify the active form of adiponectin toward vascular endothelial cells. The percentage of high molecular weight form (HMW) per total adiponectin was significantly lower in patients with coronary artery disease than control subjects, whereas the hexamer form was similar and the trimer form was significantly higher. During weight reduction in obese subjects, the HMW form increased and the trimer and hexamer forms decreased. Recombinant adiponectin dose-dependently suppressed apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transduction with dominant-negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) abolished the suppressive effect of adiponectin on HUVECs. Gel filtration chromatography was used to separate the adiponectin isoforms, and the antiapoptotic effect toward HUVECs was only observed with the HMW form. These data suggest that HMW adiponectin specifically confers the vascular-protective activities of this adipocytokine. PMID:14752031

  5. Inherent insulin sensitivity is a major determinant of multimeric adiponectin responsiveness to short-term weight loss in extreme obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Stefania; Walker, Gillian E.; Brunani, Amelia; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Grossi, Glenda; Oldani, Alberto; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Scacchi, Massimo; Marzullo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    High molecular weight (HMW-A) adiponectin levels mirror alterations in glucose homeostasis better than medium (MMW-A) and low molecular weight (LMW-A) components. In 25 patients with wide-range extreme obesity (BMI 40-77?kg/m2), we aimed to explore if improvements of multimeric adiponectin following 4-wk weight loss reflect baseline OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (ISIOGTT) and disposition index (DIOGTT). Compared to 40 lean controls, adiponectin oligomers were lower in extreme obesity (p < 0.001) and, within this group, HMW-A levels were higher in insulin-sensitive (p < 0.05) than -resistant patients. In obese patients, short-term weight loss did not change total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance, while the distribution pattern of adiponectin oligomers changed due to significant increment of HMW-A (p < 0.01) and reduction of MMW-A (p < 0.05). By multivariate analysis, final HMW-A levels were significantly related to baseline ISIOGTT and final body weight (adjusted R2 = 0.41). Our data suggest that HMW adiponectin may reflect baseline insulin sensitivity appropriately in the context of extreme obesity. Especially, we documented that HMW-A is promptly responsive to short-term weight loss prior to changes in insulin resistance, by a magnitude that is proportioned to whole body insulin sensitivity. This may suggest an insulin sensitivity-dependent control operated by HMW-A on metabolic dynamics of patients with extreme obesity. PMID:25056918

  6. Effects of Body Fat on the Associations of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danxia Yu; Zhijie Yu; Qi Sun; Liang Sun; Huaixing Li; Jun Song; Ming Mi; Hongyu Wu; Ling Lu; Chen Liu; Geng Zhang; Frank B. Hu; Xu Lin; Cuilin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundLittle is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW-) adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations.MethodsPlasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women (35?54 yrs). Whole body and trunk fat mass were determined by

  7. Adiponectin Multimers in Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    MAZAKI-TOVI, S.; ROMERO, R.; KUSANOVIC, J.P.; EREZ, O.; VAISBUCH, E.; GOTSCH, F.; MITTAL, P.; THAN, N. G.; NHAN-CHANG, C.L.; CHAIWORAPONGSA, T.; EDWIN, S.; CAMACHO, N.; GOMEZ, R.; NIEN, J.K.; HASSAN, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Adiponectin is an anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic adipokine that circulates in oligomeric complexes including: low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in adiponectin multimers in pregnancy and as a function of maternal weight. Study design In this cross-sectional study, serum concentrations of total, HMW, MMW and LMW adiponectin were determined in women included in three groups: 1) normal pregnant women of normal body mass index (BMI) (n=466); 2) overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI ?25; n=257); and 3) non-pregnant women of normal weight (n=40). Blood samples were collected once from each pregnant woman between 11 and 42 weeks of gestation. Serum adiponectin multimers concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) The median HMW adiponectin concentration and the median HMW/Total adiponectin ratio were significantly higher and the median LMW adiponectin concentration was significantly lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women; 2) among pregnant women, the median serum concentration of total, HMW and MMW adiponectin was significantly higher in normal weight women than in overweight/obese patients; 3) HMW adiponectin was the most prevalent multimer in maternal serum regardless of gestational age or BMI status; 4) there were no significant differences in the median concentration of total, MMW, LMW adiponectin, and their relative distribution with advancing gestation. Conclusion Human pregnancy is characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in adiponectin multimers, especially of the most active isoform, HMW adiponectin. PMID:19031276

  8. High molecular weight adiponectin correlates positively with myeloperoxidase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, P; Rauch, U; Stratmann, B; Goldin-Lang, P; Antoniak, S; Bobbert, T; Schultheiss, H P; Tschoepe, D

    2008-11-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is present in human plasma as a low molecular weight (LMW), a middle molecular weight (MMW) and a high molecular weight form (HMW). As a support to determine properties such as anti-atherogenic or atherogenic effects, recent clinical studies suppose to determine the ratio of each APN multimer to total APN but not the absolute plasma concentration of APN. In the present study, the correlation of APN and its multimers with myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme with pro-inflammatory properties, was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. MPO and APN serum levels were assessed in 49 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the beginning and at the end of an anti-diabetic treatment. After treatment a significant increase in the ratio of HMW to total APN (from 0.43+/-0.16 to 0.59+/-0.14, p<0.05) was found. Before treatment, HMW-APN was correlated positively with MPO (r=0.314, p<0.05). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the increased HMW ratio and MPO during treatment (r=0.304, p<0.05). HMW-APN correlates positively with MPO in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, HMW-APN may exert possible pro-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetes. PMID:18778866

  9. Adiponectin profiles are affected by chronic and acute changes in carbohydrate intake in healthy cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heok Yit Tan; Jacquie S. Rand; John M. Morton; Linda M. Fleeman; P. Jane Armstrong; Marcia Coradini; Katsumi Ishioka; Kurt R. Verkest; Ayanthi A. Richards; John M. Rawlings; Felicity J. Rose; Jonathan P. Whitehead

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is a key adipokine that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It circulates in stable low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) forms. The aims of this study were to characterize baseline adiponectin profiles (total, LMW and HMW multimers) in healthy cats and to assess the effects of varying dietary carbohydrate content on adiponectin profiles. Cats were maintained on a

  10. Relations of plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin to new-onset heart failure in adults ?65 years of age (from the Cardiovascular Health study).

    PubMed

    Karas, Maria G; Benkeser, David; Arnold, Alice M; Bartz, Traci M; Djousse, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ix, Joachim H; Zieman, Susan J; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P; Mantzoros, Christos S; Gottdiener, John S; deFilippi, Christopher R; Kizer, Jorge R

    2014-01-15

    Adiponectin exhibits cardioprotective properties in experimental studies, but elevated levels have been linked to increased mortality in older adults and patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The adipokine's association with new-onset HF remains less well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with incident HF (n = 780) and, in a subset, echocardiographic parameters in a community-based cohort of adults aged ?65 years. Total and HMW adiponectin were measured in 3,228 subjects without prevalent HF, atrial fibrillation or CVD. The relations of total and HMW adiponectin with HF were nonlinear, with significant associations observed only for concentrations greater than the median (12.4 and 6.2 mg/L, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios per SD increment in total adiponectin were 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.21) for concentrations less than the median and 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.38) higher than the median. There was a suggestion of effect modification by body mass index, whereby the association appeared strongest in participants with lower body mass indexes. Consistent with the HF findings, higher adiponectin tended to be associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and left atrial enlargement. Results were similar for HMW adiponectin. In conclusion, total and HMW adiponectin showed comparable relations with incident HF in this older cohort, with a threshold effect of increasing risk occurring at their median concentrations. High levels of adiponectin may mark or mediate age-related processes that lead to HF in older adults. PMID:24169012

  11. Adiponectin Multimers and Metabolic Syndrome Traits: Relative Adiponectin Resistance in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Doud, Erin C.; Tapia, Patrick C.; Munoz, Andres J.; Fernandez, Jose R.; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barbara A.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2009-01-01

    African Americans (AAs) tend to have lower total adiponectin levels compared to European Americans (EA); however, it is not known whether race affects adiponectin multimer distribution and their relationships to metabolic traits. We measured total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW), low molecular weight (LMW) (i.e., hexamer), and trimer adiponectin in 132 normoglycemic premenopausal women (75 AAs, 57 EAs), together with measures of total and abdominal fat, plasma lipids, insulin sensitivity (Si), and genetic admixture estimates. We found that lower total adiponectin in AAs was explained by reduced LMW, and trimer forms because levels of HMW did not differ between races. In EAs, HMW was highly correlated with multiple metabolic syndrome traits. In contrast, the LMW and trimer forms were most highly correlated with metabolic traits in AAs, including abdominal adiposity, lipids, and Si. At similar levels of visceral adiposity, AAs exhibited significantly lower LMW adiponectin than EAs. Similarly, at comparable levels of HMW and LMW adiponectin, AAs were more insulin resistant than their EA counterparts. In conclusion, (i) serum adiponectin is lower in AAs predominantly as a result of reduced concentrations of LMW and trimers multimeric forms; (ii) LMW and trimer, not HMW, are most broadly correlated with metabolic traits in AAs. Thus, HMW adiponectin may exert less bioactivity in explaining the metabolic syndrome trait cluster in populations of predominant African genetic background. PMID:18820653

  12. Independent associations of total and high molecular weight adiponectin with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whether adiponectin levels associate with atherogenesis in RA is uncertain. We examined the independent relationships of total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with RA. Methods We determined total and HMW adiponectin concentrations and those of endothelial activation molecules including soluble E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in 210 (119 black and 91 white) RA patients. Associations were determined in potential confounder and mediator adjusted mixed regression models. Results Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations related similarly to metabolic risk factors and endothelial activation. In all patients, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated paradoxically with high systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (partial R = 0.155 to 0.241, P ?0.03). Ethnic origin did not impact on these relationships (interaction P ?0.09). Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated with those of glucose in white and black patients respectively (partial R = -0.304, P = 0.006 and -0.246, P = 0.01). In black but not white participants, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations also related favorably to lipid profiles (partial R = 0.292 to 0.360, P ?0.003 for HDL cholesterol concentrations, -0.269 to -0.299, P ?0.006 for triglyceride concentrations and -0.302 to -0.390, P ?0.002 for total-HDL cholesterol ratio) and the number of metabolic risk factors (partial R = -0.210 to -0.238, P ?0.03). In white but not black patients, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated paradoxically with overall endothelial activation as estimated by a standard z-score of endothelial activation molecule concentrations (partial R = 0.262, P = 0.01 and 0.252, P = 0.02); in the respective models, the extent of effect of total and HMW adiponectin concentrations on endothelial activation was larger in white compared to black participants (standardized ? (SE) = 0.260 (0.107) versus -0.106 (0.107), P = 0.01 and 0.260 (0.120) versus -0.100 (0.111), P = 0.02). The HMW-total adiponectin ratio related inconsistently to metabolic risk factors and not to endothelial activation. Conclusion In this study, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated with increased blood pressure parameters, and in white patients additionally with endothelial activation. The potential mechanism(s) underlying these paradoxical relationships between adiponectin concentrations and cardiovascular risk in RA merit further investigation. PMID:24286214

  13. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50–60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25435686

  14. Effect of dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations in overweight to moderately obese men and women123

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Swarbrick, Michael M; Callahan, Holly S; Matthys, Colleen C; Havel, Peter J; Weigle, David S

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicated that dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increase circulating adiponectin concentrations in rodents. Objective We aimed to investigate whether a diet rich in n–3 PUFAs increased plasma concentrations of total or high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in healthy overweight-to-moderately obese men and women. Design Sixteen women and 10 men with a body mass index (in kg/m2) between 28 and 33 were randomly assigned to consume a diet rich in n–3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake) from both plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n–3 PUFAs). For the first 2 wk, these diets were consumed under isocaloric conditions; then followed a 12-wk period of ad libitum consumption that was associated with a moderate loss of ?3.5% of body weight in both groups. Total and HMW adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured before and after each diet phase. Results Plasma fasting adiponectin concentrations did not change during the isocaloric period, but they increased modestly (?10%) during the ad libitum period when subjects lost weight [P = 0.009 for time in repeated-measures analysis of variance] and to a similar extent in subjects consuming the control (x? ± SD: 0.42 ± 0.69 ?g/mL) and n–3 PUFA (0.45 ± 0.85 ?g/mL) diets (P = 0.920 for time × treatment interaction). Plasma concentrations of HMW adiponectin did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion Dietary n–3 PUFAs consumed at levels of 3.5% of energy intake do not significantly increase plasma or HMW adiponectin concentrations in overweight-to-moderately obese healthy men and women over the course of 14 wk. PMID:18258624

  15. Adiponectin multimer distribution in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Tim B; van Tits, Lambertus J H; Holewijn, Suzanne; Lemmers, Heidi L M; den Heijer, Martin; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2008-11-01

    Adiponectin is secreted from adipocytes in different multimers, of which the high molecular weight (HMW) form is supposed to mediate favorable metabolic and anti-atherogenic effects. We determined adiponectin multimers in 29 female and 22 male patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) and 51 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched controls in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We observed a clear sexual dimorphism of total adiponectin and its multimers. Female, but not male, FCH patients had significant lower total adiponectin and both HMW and low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin than controls. The adiponectin sensitivity index (ASI), reflected by HMW/total adiponectin, and the LMW/HMW adiponectin ratio did not differ significantly between FCH females and control females. However, FCH females with CVD exhibited significantly lower ASI (34.2+/-10.1% vs 46.0+/-7.1%) and higher LMW/HMW ratio (1.5+/-0.8 vs 0.7+/-0.3) compared to FCH females without CVD, reflecting a more atherogenic adiponectin multimer distribution. PMID:18762168

  16. Extracellular conversion of adiponectin hexamers into trimers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-a; Nuńez, Martha; Briggs, David B.; Laskowski, Bethany L.; Chhun, Jimmy J.; Eleid, Joseph K.; Quon, Michael J.; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that exists as trimers, hexamers and larger species collectively referred to as HMW (high-molecular-weight) adiponectin. Whether hexamers or HMW adiponectin serve as precursors for trimers outside the circulation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that adiponectin trimers can be generated from larger oligomers secreted from primary rat adipose cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Purified hexameric, but not HMW, adiponectin converted into trimers in conditioned media separated from 3T3-L1 adipocytes or, more efficiently, when enclosed in the dialysis membrane in the presence of adipocytes. Several lines of evidence indicate that the conversion is mediated by an extracellular redox system. First, N-terminal epitope-tagged hexamers converted into trimers without proteolytic removal of the tag. Secondly, appearance of trimers was associated with conversion of disulfide-bonded dimers into monomers. Thirdly, thiol-reactive agents inhibited conversion into trimers. Consistent with a redox-based mechanism, purified hexamers reductively converted into trimers in defined glutathione redox buffer with reduction potential typically found in the extracellular environment while the HMW adiponectin remained stable. In addition, conversion of hexamers into trimers was enhanced by NADPH, but not by NADP+. Collectively, these data strongly suggest the presence of an extracellular redox system capable of converting adiponectin oligomers. PMID:22973892

  17. Adiponectin profiles are affected by chronic and acute changes in carbohydrate intake in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Heok Yit; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M; Fleeman, Linda M; Armstrong, P Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Ishioka, Katsumi; Verkest, Kurt R; Richards, Ayanthi A; Rawlings, John M; Rose, Felicity J; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2011-07-01

    Adiponectin is a key adipokine that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It circulates in stable low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) forms. The aims of this study were to characterize baseline adiponectin profiles (total, LMW and HMW multimers) in healthy cats and to assess the effects of varying dietary carbohydrate content on adiponectin profiles. Cats were maintained on a diet with moderate carbohydrate content (37% metabolisable energy [ME]) for 4 weeks and then randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate (19% ME) or high carbohydrate (52% ME) diet for 4 weeks. Fasting and postprandial plasma adiponectin profiles were measured by ELISA and sucrose gradient/Western blot. After consuming the moderate carbohydrate diet for 4 weeks, fasting total, HMW and LMW plasma adiponectin concentrations were 5.0±0.6, 2.5±0.5 and 2.6±0.2 ?g/mL, respectively. After changing to the low carbohydrate diet, fasting total adiponectin was unchanged but HMW adiponectin increased and LMW adiponectin decreased. No significant postprandial changes were observed. Cats consuming the high carbohydrate diet had increased fasting total and LMW adiponectin with no change in HMW adiponectin. In the postprandial state total adiponectin was reduced and there was a trend towards a decrease in HMW (p=0.086) but not LMW multimers. These data indicate that feline adiponectin multimer profiles are similar to those reported in other species and demonstrate that changes in plasma adiponectin occur in response to chronic and acute carbohydrate intake and these reflect differential changes in adiponectin multimers. PMID:21530529

  18. Adipose tissue depot and cell size dependency of adiponectin synthesis and secretion in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Lauren K; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Henry, Robert R; Wittgrove, Alan C; Phillips, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing fat cell (FC) hormone whose levels are related to adipose tissue (AT) mass and depot distribution. We hypothesized that the nature of AT expansion (hypertrophy vs. hyperplasia) contributes to obesity-related reductions in serum adiponectin and that this effect is influenced by the regional distribution of AT to subcutaneous (S) and visceral (V) depots. Thirteen obese subjects provided paired AT biopsies. Serum total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. Secretion was quantified following 24-h explant culture. FC size, number, % large, and % small FC were determined by microscopic analysis. Secretion of total adiponectin was highest by SAT (P = 0.008) and correlated more strongly with serum adiponectin (total: P = 0.015, r = 0.77; HMW: P = 0.005, r = 0.83) than did secretion by VAT (P = 0.05, r = 0.66 for both). FC size was greatest in SAT and correlated negatively with both serum (total: P = 0.01, r = ?0.74; HMW: P = 0.03, r = ?0.69) and secreted (total: P = 0.05, r = ?0.72; HMW: P = 0.02, r = ?0.87) adiponectin. The % small FC in SAT correlated positively with both serum (total: P = 0.006, r = 0.87; HMW: P = 0.009, r = 0.79) and secreted (total: P = 0.03, r = 0.75; HMW: P = 0.01, r = 0.92) adiponectin. VAT FC size correlated negatively with serum HMW adiponectin (P = 0.01, r = ?0.76) but not with any measure of secretion. VAT had the greatest % small FC, which related positively to serum HMW (P = 0.004, r = 0.81) and to secreted total adiponectin (P = 0.02, r = 0.78). These studies indicate that differences in fat cell size and depot distribution of AT expansion are important influences on adiponectin in obesity. PMID:24052897

  19. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI. PMID:22956782

  20. CRP and Adiponectin and Its Oligomers in the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Swarbrick, Michael M.; Singh, Uma; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Havel, Peter J.; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers an increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations are higher and adiponectin concentrations lower in MetS, there is no reliable biochemical measure that can capture its various features. We evaluated whether hsCRP, adiponectin, or the ratio of adiponectin or its oligomers, especially the high-molecular-weight (HMW) oligomer, to hsCRP predict MetS in 123 subjects with MetS compared with that in 91 healthy control subjects. MetS subjects had significantly higher hsCRP levels and lower total adiponectin and oligomer levels relative to control subjects (P < .0001). The HMW/total adiponectin and adiponectin/CRP ratios were significantly lower in MetS subjects than control subjects (P < .005). The odds ratio (OR) of MetS using the 75th percentile cutoff for CRP was 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–6.8) and equivalent to low total adiponectin (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3–4.5), its oligomers, or the adiponectin/hsCRP ratio (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5, 4.8). Thus, measurements of CRP, adiponectin, or its oligomers provide robust biomarkers for predicting MetS. PMID:18426744

  1. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Beulens, J. W. J.; van Loon, L. J. C.; Kok, F. J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18–25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ?27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml whisky (?32 g alcohol) or water daily for 4 weeks in a randomised, controlled, crossover trial. After each treatment period, muscle biopsies and fasting blood samples were collected. Results Adiponectin concentrations increased (p?HMW adiponectin by 57% (p?=?0.07) and medium molecular weight adiponectin by 12.5% (p?=?0.07), but not low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase and ?-3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (?-HAD) activity were not changed after moderate alcohol consumption, but an interaction between alcohol consumption and BMI was observed for cytochrome c oxidase (p?=?0.072) and citrate synthase (p?=?0.102) activity. Among lean men, moderate alcohol consumption tended to increase cytochrome c oxidase (p?=?0.08) and citrate synthase activity (p?=?0.12) by 23 and 26%, respectively, but not among overweight men. In particular, plasma HMW adiponectin correlated positively with activities of skeletal muscle citrate synthase (r?=?0.64, p?=?0.009), cytochrome c oxidase (p?=?0.59, p?=?0.009) and ?-HAD (r?=?0.46, p?=?0.056), while such correlation was not present for LMW adiponectin. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content were not affected by moderate alcohol consumption. Conclusions/interpretation Moderate alcohol consumption increases adiponectin concentrations, and in particular HMW adiponectin. Concentrations of HMW adiponectin in particular were positively associated with skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. PMID:17492425

  2. Cilnidipine regulates glucose metabolism and levels of high-molecular adiponectin in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Masaki, Takayuki; Gotoh, Koto; Chiba, Seiichi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of the antihypertensive drug cilnidipine on glucose metabolism and adipocytokines, including adiponectin, in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The effects of cilnidipine on insulin sensitivity and the levels of adiponectin in DIO mice were examined after the mice had been treated with cilnidipine dissolved in water at a dose of 0.2?g?l(-1) for 14 days. As expected, treatment with cilnidipine decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in DIO mice, compared with control mice (P<0.05 for each parameter). Cilnidipine treatment improved glucose and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. In addition, cilnidipine treatment dramatically increased the level of adiponectin in white adipose tissue (P<0.05) and the circulating levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in DIO mice (P<0.01 for each parameter). Furthermore, the secretion of HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW adiponectin/total adiponectin were both increased after cilnidipine treatment. Finally, the secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes was increased after cilnidipine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that cilnidipine improves insulin tolerance and adiponectin levels, especially high-molecular type adiponectin, in DIO mice. PMID:23051658

  3. Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Benjamin A.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Arthur, John M.; McFee, Wayne E.; Janech, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload) have higher levels of 2?h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n?=?4) and without (n?=?5) iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2?h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean?±?SD) at 763?±?298 and 727?±?291?pmol/ml, respectively (p?=?0.91); however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared to controls (30.0?±?6.3 versus 17.0?±?6.6%, respectively; p?=?0.016). Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r?=?0.999, p? adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with metabolic disorders. PMID:24065958

  4. Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with increased circulating total and high molecular weight adiponectin and decreased resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Fargnoli, Jessica L.; Fung, Teresa T.; Olenczuk, Deanna M.; Chamberland, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), is associated with a lower risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Whether these benefits are mediated by changes in plasma adipokine concentrations remains to be elucidated. Objective To determine whether adherence to the AHEI is associated with higher plasma total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations and lower concentrations of resistin, as well as biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Design Evaluation of 1922 women from the Nurses’ Health Study, 62% of whom were overweight, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, plasma biomarker concentrations measured in 1990 and data on dietary intake from SFFQs administered in 1984, 1986, and 1990, averaged to account for long-term dietary exposure and reduce within subject variability. Results After adjustment for age and energy intake, women with the highest average adherence to the AHEI had 24% higher median total adiponectin and 32% higher median HMW adiponectin concentrations, as well as 16% lower resistin, 41% lower CRP, 19% lower sE-selectin, 24% lower ferritin concentrations (P<0.01 for all). These associations remained significant after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, and smoking status. Inverse associations between the AHEI and sTNF-?RII, IL-6, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, c-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c were evident, but were not significant after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions The preventive effects of healthier dietary patterns on risk for diabetes and atherosclerosis may be mediated by improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines or other biomarkers of risk for diabetes and CVD. PMID:18996855

  5. THE ASSOCIATION OF SNP276G>T AT ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CIRCULATING ADIPONECTIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN RESPONSE TO MILD WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and the features of insulin resistance in response to a weight loss intervention. 294 nondiabetic/overweight-obese Koreans ...

  6. T-cadherin is a receptor for hexameric and high-molecular-weight forms of Acrp30/adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Hug, Christopher; Wang, Jin; Ahmad, Naina Shehzeen; Bogan, Jonathan S; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen; Lodish, Harvey F

    2004-07-13

    Acrp30/adiponectin is reduced in the serum of obese and diabetic individuals, and the genetic locus of adiponectin is linked to the metabolic syndrome. Recombinant adiponectin, administered to diet-induced obese mice, induced weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. In muscle and liver, adiponectin stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase activation and fatty acid oxidation. To expression-clone molecules capable of binding adiponectin, we transduced a C2C12 myoblast cDNA retroviral expression library into Ba/F3 cells and panned infected cells on recombinant adiponectin linked to magnetic beads. We identified T-cadherin as a receptor for the hexameric and high-molecular-weight species of adiponectin but not for the trimeric or globular species. Only eukaryotically expressed adiponectin bound to T-cadherin, implying that posttranslational modifications of adiponectin are critical for binding. An adiponectin mutant lacking a conserved N-terminal cysteine residue required for formation of hexamer and high-molecular-weight species did not bind T-cadherin in coimmunoprecipitation studies. Although lacking known cellular functions, T-cadherin is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, where it is positioned to interact with adiponectin. Because T-cadherin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored extracellular protein, it may act as a coreceptor for an as-yet-unidentified signaling receptor through which adiponectin transmits metabolic signals. PMID:15210937

  7. Influence of androgens on circulating adiponectin in male and female rodents.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Beggs, Luke A; Conover, Christine F; McCoy, Sean C; Beck, Darren T; Borst, Stephen E

    2012-01-01

    Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5? reducible androgen 17?-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM), gonadectomy (GX), or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05). GX increased total adiponectin by 29-34% in both sexes (p<0.05), while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46-53% below respective SHAMs (p?0.001) and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r = -0.746 and females: r = -0.742, p?0.001); however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p?0.001) in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p?0.001). Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05). In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05). Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r = 0.596, p?0.001) and adult animals (r = 0.657, p?0.001). Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW adiponectin. This change is directionally similar to the androgen-induced lipolytic effects on visceral adiposity and equal in magnitude between TE and TREN, suggesting that neither the aromatization nor the 5? reduction of androgens is required for this effect. PMID:23071783

  8. Influence of Androgens on Circulating Adiponectin in Male and Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yarrow, Joshua F.; Beggs, Luke A.; Conover, Christine F.; McCoy, Sean C.; Beck, Darren T.; Borst, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5? reducible androgen 17?-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM), gonadectomy (GX), or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05). GX increased total adiponectin by 29–34% in both sexes (p<0.05), while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46–53% below respective SHAMs (p?0.001) and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r?=??0.746 and females: r?=??0.742, p?0.001); however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p?0.001) in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p?0.001). Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05). In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05). Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r?=?0.596, p?0.001) and adult animals (r?=?0.657, p?0.001). Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW adiponectin. This change is directionally similar to the androgen-induced lipolytic effects on visceral adiposity and equal in magnitude between TE and TREN, suggesting that neither the aromatization nor the 5? reduction of androgens is required for this effect. PMID:23071783

  9. Obesity and sex influence insulin resistance and total and multimer adiponectin levels in adult neutered domestic shorthair client-owned cats.

    PubMed

    Bjornvad, C R; Rand, J S; Tan, H Y; Jensen, K S; Rose, F J; Armstrong, P J; Whitehead, J P

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we estimated insulin sensitivity and determined plasma concentrations of total-, low-molecular-weight (LMW), and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin in 72 domestic shorthair, neutered, client-owned cats. Glucose tolerance was assessed with an intravenous glucose tolerance test and body fat percentage (BF%) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total adiponectin was measured with 2 different ELISAs. Low-molecular-weight and HMW adiponectin plasma concentrations were determined by Western blot analysis after sucrose-gradient velocity centrifugation, and the adiponectin multimer ratio [SA = HMW/(HMW + LMW)] was calculated. Differences in glucose tolerance, leptin, total adiponectin, and multimer ratio among lean (BF% <35; n = 26), overweight (35 45; n = 18) cats as well as between male (n = 34) and female (n = 38) neutered cats were evaluated by linear regression and 2-way ANOVA. Sex and age were included as covariates for analysis of BF%, whereas BF%, fat mass, and lean body mass were covariates for analysis of sex differences. Increased BF% was negatively correlated with multimer ratio (SA, r = -45; P < 0.002), whereas no differences were found in total adiponectin concentrations among BF% groups (P > 0.01). Male cats had indices of decreased insulin tolerance and significantly lower total adiponectin concentrations than did female cats (mean ± SEM, 3.7 ± 0.4 vs 5.4 ± 0.5 ?g/mL; P < 0.02). Altered SAs could contribute to an obesity-associated decreasing glucose tolerance in cats, and low total adiponectin concentrations may relate to increased risk of diabetes mellitus in neutered male cats. PMID:24373250

  10. Abstract A partial promoter region of the high-molecu-lar weight (HMW) glutenin genes was studied in two

    E-print Network

    Jacomet, Stefanie

    in two wheat specimens, a 300 year-old spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and an approximately 250 year-old bread. aestivum cultivars, whereas in the historical and the recent spelt specific alleles were detected. Pairwise genetic distances up to 0.03 within 200 bp from the HMW Glu-A1-2, Glu-B1-1 and Glu-B1-2 alleles in spelt

  11. Dissociation between adipose tissue expression and serum levels of adiponectin during and after diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Johan Behre; Anders Gummesson; Margareta Jernås; Theodore C. Lystig; Björn Fagerberg; Björn Carlsson; Lena M. S. Carlsson

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to examine if dysmetabolic subjects (MetS+) have lower adiponectin gene expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels than non-dysmetabolic obese subjects (MetS?) at baseline, if adiponectin expression and adiponectin concentration rise more in the dysmetabolic group during weight loss, and if v-SNARE Vti1a (vesicle transport soluble NSF attachment protein receptor vps10p tail interacting 1a) expression increases during the

  12. Serum adiponectin multimer complexes and liver cancer risk in a large cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wakai, Kenji; Shibata, Akira; Fujita, Yuki; Ogimoto, Itsuro; Naito, Mariko; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    Evidence suggests a link between adiponectin, an adipocytokine, and liver tumorigenesis. Different multimer complexes of adiponectin, with low-molecular weight (LMW), middle-molecular weight (MMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW), may have different roles. Therefore the present study was performed with the aim of assessing associations between these multimers and liver cancer development. A nested case-control study (59 liver cancer cases [mean age=63.5 years] and 334 controls [62.7 years]) was conducted as a part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study recruiting healthy participants, aged 40-79 years, for the follow-up period from 1988-1990 to 1999. The end point was liver cancer occurrence/death. Serum levels of HMW, MMW and LMW adiponectin were determined at baseline using an ELISA assay. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses comparing the tertile levels of adiponectin multimers showed that the groups stratified with the highest percentage of LMW tended to have lower odds ratios (ORs) than the lowest group (OR adjusted for sex, age and area=0.54 [95%CI: 0.26-1.11] and adjusted for sex, age, area, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, coffee consumption, diabetes history and HCV-antibody positivity =0.50 [95%CI: 0.22-1.15]), albeit without statistical significance (set at p<0.05). Higher percentages of circulating LMW adiponectin may lead to a reduction of liver cancer risk and relationships with multimer composition may merit further study. PMID:20553088

  13. Adiponectin levels do not change with moderate dietary induced weight loss and exercise in obese postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A S Ryan; B J Nicklas; D M Berman; D Elahi

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in adiponectin levels with moderate weight loss, weight loss plus aerobic exercise, or weight loss plus resistive exercise in overweight and obese, sedentary postmenopausal women.DESIGN: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study of 6-month (3 × \\/week) program of either weight loss (WL, n=15), weight loss + aerobic exercise (WL+AEX, n=16), or weight

  14. Abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary school children, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed during annual health examinations of school children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan. Methods Subjects were all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005–2008 (N?=?1675). The height, weight, percent body fat, and waist circumference (WC) of each subject were measured. Blood samples were drawn from subjects to measure adiponectin isoform values. Childhood abdominal obesity was defined as “a waist-to-height ratio greater than or equal to 0.5” or “a WC greater than or equal to 75 cm”. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between abdominal obesity and each adiponectin isoform value. Results Data from 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. Adiponectin complexes were lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. Abdominal obesity significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for each adiponectin isoform level less than or equal to the median value in boys; the OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.50 (1.59-3.92) for high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adn), 2.47 (1.57-3.88) for medium molecular weight adiponectin (MMW-adn), and 1.75 (1.13-2.70) for low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-adn). In girls, the OR (95% CI) was 1.95 (1.18-3.21) for HMW-adn, 1.40 (0.86-2.28) for MMW-adn, and 1.06 (0.65-1.70) for LMW-adn. Conclusions Abdominal obesity was associated with lower adiponectin complexes and the influence of abdominal obesity varied by adiponectin isoform. Furthermore, the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls. The present study results suggest that prevention of abdominal obesity could contribute to the prevention of lower adiponectin levels, especially in boys. PMID:24670108

  15. Increases in ghrelin and decreases in leptin without altering adiponectin during extreme weight loss in male competitive bodybuilders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarek Mäestu; Jaak Jürimäe; Ivo Valter; Toivo Jürimäe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate responses of ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin to a weight reduction period of 10 weeks in male subjects with high lean body mass and low body fat values. Fourteen male bodybuilders (7 competitors: 28.3 ± 10.3 years, 175.3 ± 5.4 cm, 82.2 ± 9.3 kg; 7 controls: 22.4 ± 3.0 years, 182.4 ±

  16. Resistin and Adiponectin Expression in Visceral Fat of Obese Rats: Effect of Weight Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella Milan; Marnie Granzotto; Alessandro Scarda; Alessandra Calcagno; Claudio Pagano; Giovanni Federspil; Roberto Vettor

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Obesity-related insulin resistance is closely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Several adipocyte-secreted molecules have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes, among them, the recently discovered adiponectin and resistin proteins. Some of these adipocytokines are also present in the immune system, thus suggesting an intriguing functional connection.Research Methods and Procedures: We determined adiponectin and resistin expressions in

  17. Adiponectin Isoforms Differentially Affect Gene Expression and the Lipidome of Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wanninger, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Voggenreiter, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Weiss, Thomas S.; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) exerts multiple beneficial effects in obesity and protects from liver injury. Different APN isoforms circulate in serum, and here, the effect of low molecular weight (LMW) and higher molecular weight (HMW) APN on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) has been analyzed. APN is not detected in hepatocyte lysates; levels are strongly increased by HMW-APN, but not by LMW-APN, suggesting the distinct uptake/degradation of APN isoforms by PHH. Several genes with a role in fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism known to be regulated by HMW-APN are not affected by the LMW-isoform. Follistatin is reduced by HMW-APN and induced by LMW-APN in supernatants of PHH. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is repressed by both isoforms. Cellular triglycerides and cholesterol levels are not reduced by APN. Total phospholipids, including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins, are not changed upon APN incubation, while distinct species are either induced or repressed. Unexpectedly, total ceramide is increased by LMW-APN. Current data show that APN isoforms differentially affect hepatocyte gene expression, but do not grossly alter the hepatocyte lipidome. PMID:24957032

  18. Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

  19. Human High Molecular Weight Melanoma-Associated Antigen (HMW-MAA) Mimicry by Mouse Anti-Idiotypic Monoclonal Antibody MK2-23: Induction of Humoral Anti-HMW-MAA Immunity and Prolongation of Survival in Patients with Stage IV Melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Mittelman; Zhi Jian Chen; Hong Yang; George Y. Wong; Soldano Ferrone

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with stage IV melanoma were immunized with the mouse anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mAb) MK2-23 (2 mg per injection), which bears the internal image of the determinant defined by anti-HMW-MAA mAb 763.74. Two patients were inevaluable, since they did not complete 4 weeks of therapy. Only 14 patients developed antibodies that were shown by serological and immunochemical assays to

  20. Differential transendothelial transport of adiponectin complexes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adiponectin’s effects on systemic physiology and cell-specific responses are well-defined, but little is known about how this insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory adipokine reaches its target cells. All molecules face active and passive transport limitations, but adiponectin is particularly noteworthy due to the diverse size range and high molecular weights of its oligomers. Additionally, its metabolic target organs possess a range of endothelial permeability. Methods Full-length recombinant murine adiponectin was produced and oligomer fractions isolated by gel filtration. Adiponectin complex sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering to determine Stokes radii. Transendothelial transport of purified oligomers was quantitatively assessed under a number of different conditions in vitro using murine endothelial cells and in vivo using several mouse models of altered endothelial function. Results Adiponectin oligomers exhibit large transport radii that limit transendothelial transport. Oligomerization is a significant determinant of flux across endothelial monolayers in vitro; low molecular weight adiponectin is preferentially transported. In vivo sampled sera from the heart, liver, and tail vein demonstrated significantly different complex distribution of lower molecular weight oligomers. Pharmacological interventions, such as PPAR? agonist treatment, differentially affect adiponectin plasma clearance and tissue uptake. Exercise induces enhanced adiponectin uptake to oxidative skeletal muscles, wherein adiponectin potently lowers ceramide levels. In total, endothelial barriers control adiponectin transport in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Conclusions Adiponectin oligomer efficacy in a given tissue may therefore be endothelial transport mediated. Targeting endothelial dysfunction in the metabolic syndrome through exercise and pharmaceuticals may afford an effective approach to increasing adiponectin’s beneficial effects. PMID:24552349

  1. Porcine Adiponectin Receptor 1 Transgene Resists High-fat/Sucrose Diet-Induced Weight Gain, Hepatosteatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Ya-Chin; Huang, Chao-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chien; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Mersmann, Harry J.; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin and its receptors have been demonstrated to play important roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease are highly correlated with down-regulated adiponectin signaling. In this study, we generated mice overexpressing the porcine Adipor1 transgene (pAdipor1) to study its beneficial effects in metabolic syndromes as expressed in diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Wild-type (WT) and pAdipor1 transgenic mice were fed ad libitum with a standard chow diet (Chow) or a high-fat/sucrose diet (HFSD) for 24 weeks, beginning at 6 to 7 weeks of age. There were 12 mice per genetic/diet/sex group. When challenged with HFSD to induce obesity, the pAdipor1 transgenic mice resisted development of weight gain, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. These mice had lowered plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and glycerol concentrations compared to WT mice. Moreover, we found that (indicated by mRNA levels) fatty acid oxidation was enhanced in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and liver lipogenesis was inhibited. The pAdipor1 transgene also restored HFSD-reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose transporter 4 mRNA in the adipose tissues, implying that the increased Pck1 may promote glyceroneogenesis to reduce glucose intolerance and thus activate the flux of glyceride-glycerol to resist diet-induced weight gain in the adipose tissues. Taken together, we demonstrated that pAdipor1 can prevent diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance. Our findings may provide potential therapeutic strategies for treating metabolic syndromes and obesity, such as treatment with an ADIPOR1 agonist or activation of Adipor1 downstream targets. PMID:24172199

  2. Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

    2014-11-01

    Background/Objectives:Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants.Subjects/Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10<weight for length percentile<85) who were between 2 and 5 months of age were enrolled. Anthropometric indices of infants and mothers were measured by routine methods. Breast milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.Results:The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50?pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00?pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04?ng/ml) and without (0/038?ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P>0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups.Conclusions:This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.205. PMID:25351650

  3. Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory L. Florant; Heather Porst; Aubrey Peiffer; Susan F. Hudachek; Chris Pittman; Scott A. Summers; Michael W. Rajala; Philipp E. Scherer

    2004-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes

  4. Characterizing HMW-GS alleles of decaploid Agropyron elongatum in relation to evolution and wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Gao, Xin; Xia, Guangmin

    2008-02-01

    Bread wheat quality is mainly correlated with high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of endosperm. The number of HMW-GS alleles with good processing quality is limited in bread wheat cultivars, while there are plenty of HMW-GS alleles in wheat-related grasses to exploit. We report here on the cloning and characterization of HMW-GS alleles from the decaploid Agropyron elongatum. Eleven novel HMW-GS alleles were cloned from the grass. Of them, five are x-type and six y-type glutenin subunit genes. Three alleles Aex4, Aey7, and Aey9 showed high similarity with another three alleles from the diploid Lophopyrum elongatum, which provided direct evidence for the Ee genome origination of A. elongatum. It was noted that C-terminal regions of three alleles of the y-type genes Aey8, Aey9, and Aey10 showed more similarity with x-type genes than with other y-type genes. This demonstrates that there is a kind of intermediate state that appeared in the divergence between x- and y-type genes in the HMW-GS evolution. One x-type subunit, Aex4, with an additional cysteine residue, was speculated to be correlated with the good processing quality of wheat introgression lines. Aey4 was deduced to be a chimeric gene from the recombination between another two genes. How the HMW-GS genes of A. elongatum may contribute to the improvement of wheat processing quality are discussed. PMID:17992503

  5. Structural variation and evolutionary relationship of novel HMW glutenin subunits from Elymus glaucus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Pu, Zhi-En; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Zheng, You-Liang

    2010-06-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) are important seed storage proteins relevant to the end-use quality of wheat and other cereal crops. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel HMW-GS alleles (1St 1.4 and 1St1.1) from the perennial Triticeae species Elymus glaucus. The amino acid (aa) sequences of E. glaucus 1St1.4 and 1St1.1 were predicted as 434 aa and 358 aa, respectively. Both subunits comprise a signal peptide with a conserved N-terminal domain, a central repetitive domain and a C-terminal domain. Elymus glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 exhibit several distinct characteristics different from other known HMW-GSs. The lengths of repetitive domains in E. glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 are substantially smaller than those of other known HMW-GSs, in which 1St1.1 (only 358 aa) is the smallest subunit identified so far. The N-terminal domains of E. glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 are homologous to y-type subunits, whereas their C-terminal domains are similar to x-type subunits. Our results indicate that E. glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 are novel HMW-GS variants or isoforms, and the characterization of both subunits can enhance our understanding on the structural differentiation and evolutionary relationship of HMW-GSs in Triticeae species. PMID:20626769

  6. Cardiometabolic effects of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, adiponectin has been studied in more than eleven thousand publications. A classical adipokine, adiponectin was among the first factors secreted from adipose tissue that were found to promote metabolic function. Circulating levels of adiponectin consistently decline with increasing body mass index. Clinical and basic science studies have identified adiponectin’s cardiovascular-protective actions, providing a mechanistic link to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in obese individuals. While progress has been made in identifying receptors essential for the metabolic actions of adiponectin (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), few studies have examined the receptor-mediated signaling pathways in cardiovascular tissues. T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored adiponectin-binding protein, was recently identified as critical for the cardiac-protective and revascularization actions of adiponectin. Adiponectin is abundantly present on the surfaces of vascular and muscle tissues through a direct interaction with T-cadherin. Consistent with this observation, adiponectin is absent from T-cadherin-deficient tissues. Since T-cadherin lacks an intracellular domain, additional studies would further our understanding of this signaling pathway. Here, we review the diverse cardiometabolic actions of adiponectin. PMID:24417948

  7. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ADIPONECTIN MULTIMERS INCREASE FOLLOWING ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS SURGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to weight loss, bariatric surgery for severe obesity has been reported to rapidly improve insulin sensitivity, often leading to a sustained resolution of type-2 diabetes mellitus 1. This effect has been proposed to result from the marked early restriction of food intake and/or increased ...

  8. Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Florant, Gregory L; Porst, Heather; Peiffer, Aubrey; Hudachek, Susan F; Pittman, Chris; Summers, Scott A; Rajala, Michael W; Scherer, Philipp E

    2004-11-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes in lipid mass. We collected serum and tissue samples from marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in different seasons while measuring changes in fat mass, including fat-cell size. We found that leptin is positively associated with increasing fat mass and fat-cell size, while adiponectin is negatively associated with increasing lipid mass. These findings are consistent with the putative roles of these adipokines: leptin increases with fat mass and is involved in enhancing lipid oxidation while adiponectin appears to be higher in summer when hepatic insulin sensitivity should be maintained since the animals are eating. Our data suggest that during autumn/winter animals have switched from a lipogenic condition to a lipolytic state, which may include leptin resistance. PMID:15517283

  9. Adiponectin oligomers in human serum during acute and chronic exercise: relation to lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, T; Wegewitz, U; Brechtel, L; Freudenberg, M; Mai, K; Möhlig, M; Diederich, S; Ristow, M; Rochlitz, H; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J

    2007-01-01

    Beneficial effects of physical exercise include improved insulin sensitivity, which may be affected by a modulated release of adiponectin, which is exclusively synthesized in white adipose tissue and mediates insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers, which also have a distinct biological function. We therefore aimed to investigate the distribution of adiponectin oligomers in human serum in relation to physical activity. Thirty-eight lean and healthy individuals were investigated. Seven healthy women and 8 healthy men volunteered to investigate the effect of chronic exercise, at 3 different time points with different training intensities. These individuals were all highly trained and were compared to a control group with low physical activity (n = 15). For studying acute exercise effects, 8 healthy men participated in a bicycle test. Adiponectin was determined by ELISA, oligomers were detected by non-denaturating western blot. Total adiponectin and oligomers were unchanged by acute exercise. LDL cholesterol was significantly lower in the chronic exercise group (p = 0.03). Total adiponectin levels and oligomers were not different between these two groups and were unaltered by different training intensities. However, total adiponectin and specifically HMW oligomers correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.459; p = 0.009). We conclude that acute and chronic exercise does not directly affect circulating adiponectin or oligomer distribution in lean and healthy individuals. Whether such regulation is relevant in individuals with a metabolic disorder remains to be determined. However, our data suggest that adiponectin oligomers have distinct physiological functions IN VIVO, and specifically HMW adiponectin is closely correlated with HDL cholesterol. PMID:17133288

  10. The Role of Adiponectin in Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dalamaga, Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope N.

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight is associated not only with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also with various types of malignancies. Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, exhibits insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, proapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties. Circulating adiponectin levels, which are determined predominantly by genetic factors, diet, physical activity, and abdominal adiposity, are decreased in patients with diabetes, CVD, and several obesity-associated cancers. Also, adiponectin levels are inversely associated with the risk of developing diabetes, CVD, and several malignancies later in life. Many cancer cell lines express adiponectin receptors, and adiponectin in vitro limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Recent in vitro studies demonstrate the antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties of adiponectin. Studies in both animals and humans have investigated adiponectin and adiponectin receptor regulation and expression in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role of adiponectin as a novel risk factor and potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer. In addition, either adiponectin per se or medications that increase adiponectin levels or up-regulate signaling pathways downstream of adiponectin may prove to be useful anticancer agents. This review presents the role of adiponectin in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and examines the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the association between adiponectin and malignancy in the context of a dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. Understanding of these mechanisms may be important for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against obesity-associated malignancies. PMID:22547160

  11. RESISTANCE TRAINING INCREASES SERUM ADIPONECTIN IN OLDER ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin, a circulating hormone secreted exclusively by fat cells, is reduced with obesity and insulin resistance. Low serum adiponectin is a predictor of type 2 diabetes risk. Weight loss increases adiponectin but little is known about its responsiveness to exercise. Resistance training improves...

  12. Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia adhesins of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae mediate broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous strains.

    PubMed

    Winter, Linda E; Barenkamp, Stephen J

    2014-05-01

    The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

  13. Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia Adhesins of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Mediate Broad-Based Opsonophagocytic Killing of Homologous and Heterologous Strains

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Linda E.

    2014-01-01

    The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

  14. Novel variants of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops section Sitopsis species in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), encoded by the genes at Glu-1 loci in wheat and its related species, are significant in the determination of grain processing quality. However, the diversity and variations of HMW-GSs are relatively low in bread wheat. More interests are now focused on wheat wild relatives in Triticeae. The genus Aegilops represents an important germplasm for novel HWM-GSs and other useful genes for wheat genetic improvement. Results Six novel Glu-1 alleles and HMW-GSs were identified and characterized from three species of Aegilops section Sitopsis (S genome). Both open reading frames (ORFs) and promoter regions of these Glu-1 alleles were sequenced and characterized. The ORFs of Sitopsis Glu-1 genes are approximately 2.9?kb and 2.3?kb for x-type and y-type subunits, respectively. Although the primary structures of Sitopsis HMW-GSs are similar to those of previously reported ones, all six x-type or y-type subunits have the large fragment insertions. Our comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences verified that Aegilops section Sitopsis species encode novel HMW-GSs with their molecular weights larger than almost all other known HMW-GSs. The Glu-1 promoter sequences share the high homology among S genome. Our phylogenetic analyses by both network and NJ tree indicated that there is a close phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of x-type and y-type subunit between S and D genome. Conclusions The large molecular weight of HMW-GSs from S genome is a unique feature identified in this study. Such large subunits are resulted from the duplications of repetitive domains in Sitopsis HMW-GSs. The unequal crossover events are the most likely mechanism of variations in glutenin subunits. The S genome-encoded subunits, 1Dx2.2 and 1Dx2.2* have independent origins, although they share similar evolutionary mechanism. As HMW-GSs play a key role in wheat baking quality, these large Sitopsis glutenin subunits can be used as special genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22646663

  15. High frequency of HMW-GS sequence variation through somatic hybridization between Agropyron elongatum and common wheat.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Shu Wei; Sun, Qun; Xia, Guang Min

    2010-01-01

    A symmetric somatic hybridization was performed to combine the protoplasts of tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Fertile regenerants were obtained which were morphologically similar to tall wheatgrass, but which contained some introgression segments from wheat. An SDS-PAGE analysis showed that a number of non-parental high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were present in the symmetric somatic hybridization derivatives. These sequences were amplified, cloned and sequenced, to deliver 14 distinct HMW-GS coding sequences, eight of which were of the y-type (Hy1-Hy8) and six x-type (Hx1-Hx6). Five of the cloned HMW-GS sequences were successfully expressed in E. coli. The analysis of their deduced peptide sequences showed that they all possessed the typical HMW-GS primary structure. Sequence alignments indicated that Hx5 and Hy1 were probably derived from the tall wheatgrass genes Aex5 and Aey6, while Hy2, Hy3, Hx1 and Hy6 may have resulted from slippage in the replication of a related biparental gene. We found that both symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization could promote the emergence of novel alleles. We discussed the origination of allelic variation of HMW-GS genes in somatic hybridization, which might be the result from the response to genomic shock triggered by the merger and interaction of biparent genomes. PMID:19902245

  16. Characteristics and potential functions of human milk adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Newburg, David S; Woo, Jessica G.; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low molecular weight trimer to the high molecular weight octodecamer (18mer) Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control, and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high molecular weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breastfed infant was observed, and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin, and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breastfeeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breastfed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:20105665

  17. Variations of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in autistic patients.

    PubMed

    Blardi, Patrizia; de Lalla, Arianna; Ceccatelli, Linda; Vanessa, Guerri; Auteri, Alberto; Hayek, Joseph

    2010-07-19

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with pathogenesis not completely understood. Although a genetic origin has been recognized, it has been hypothesized a role for environmental factors, immune dysfunctions, and alterations of neurotransmitter systems. In young autistic patients we investigated plasma leptin and adiponectin levels over a year period. Thirty-five patients, mean age at the basal time 14.1+/-5.4 years, were enrolled. Controls were 35 healthy subjects, sex and age matched. Blood samples were withdrawn in the morning at the baseline and 1 year after. In patients leptin concentrations significantly increased, while adiponectin did not significantly change. Leptin values in patients were significantly higher than those found in controls at each time; adiponectin values did not differ at each time between patients and controls. Since patients were not obese, we could hypothesize that leptin might participate to clinical manifestations other than weight balance. The role of adiponectin in autism is still debatable. PMID:20478355

  18. Spelt-specific alleles in HMW glutenin genes from modern and historical European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. E. Blatter; Stefanie Jacomet; Angela Schlumbaum

    2002-01-01

    A partial promoter region of the high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin genes was studied in two wheat specimens, a 300 year-old\\u000a spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and an approximately 250 year-old bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Switzerland. Sequences were compared to a recent Swiss landrace T. spelta ’Oberkulmer.’ The alleles from the historical bread wheat were most similar to those of

  19. Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Brittany M.; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Drury, Bertram E.; Nagel, Susan C.; Welshons, Wade V.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000 ?g/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0–24h),we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose–response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-?g/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. PMID:23892310

  20. Leptin and Adiponectin Responses in Overweight Inactive Elderly following Resistance Training and Detraining Are Intensity Related

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Fatouros; S. Tournis; D. Leontsini; A. Z. Jamurtas; M. Sxina; P. Thomakos; M. Manousaki; K. Taxildaris; A. Mitrakou

    2010-01-01

    Context: Adiponectin and leptin are closely related to weight control and energy balance, whereas exercise affects elderly metabolic reg- ulation and functional capacity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate leptin and adiponectin responses in elderly males after exercise training and detraining.

  1. Adiponectin: A biomarker of obesity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Pischon

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.\\u000a Adiponectin is an adipocytederived hormone that is implicated in several metabolic pathways that may be relevant for the development\\u000a for CVD. Several features make adiponectin an attractive marker for cardiovascular risk, including the ability to manipulate\\u000a adiponectin levels through medication, lifestyle, and diet.

  2. Lactation driven dynamics of adiponectin supply from different fat depots to circulation in cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Häussler, S; Heinz, J F L; Akter, S H; Saremi, B; Müller, U; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H

    2014-04-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) depots are heterogeneous in terms of morphology and adipocyte metabolism. Adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipokines, is known for its insulin sensitizing effects and its role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Little is known about the presence of adiponectin protein in visceral (vc) and subcutaneous (sc) AT depots. We assessed serum adiponectin and adiponectin protein concentrations and the molecular weight forms in vc (mesenterial, omental, and retroperitoneal) and sc (sternum, tail-head, and withers) AT of primiparous dairy cows during early lactation. Primiparous German Holstein cows (n = 25) were divided into a control (CON) and a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. From day 1 of lactation until slaughter, CLA cows were fed 100 g of a CLA supplement/d (approximately 6% of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100 g of a fatty acid mixture/d instead of CLA. Blood samples from all animals were collected from 3 wk before calving until slaughter on day 1 (n = 5, CON cows), 42 (n = 5 each of CON and CLA cows), and 105 (n = 5 each of CON and CLA cows) of lactation when samples from different AT depots were obtained. Adiponectin was measured in serum and tissue by ELISA. In all AT depots adiponectin concentrations were lowest on day 1 than on day 42 and day 105, and circulating adiponectin reached a nadir around parturition. Retroperitoneal AT had the lowest adiponectin concentrations; however, when taking total depot mass into consideration, the portion of circulating adiponectin was higher in vc than sc AT. Serum adiponectin was positively correlated with adiponectin protein concentrations but not with the mRNA abundance in all fat depots. The CLA supplementation did not affect adiponectin concentrations in AT depots. Furthermore, inverse associations between circulating adiponectin and measures of body condition (empty body weight, back fat thickness, and vc AT mass) were observed. In all AT depots at each time, adiponectin was present as high (approximately 300 kDa) and medium (approximately 150 kDa) molecular weight complexes similar to that of the blood serum. These data suggest differential contribution of AT depots to circulating adiponectin. PMID:24462180

  3. Characterisation of adiponectin and its receptors in the bovine mammary gland and in milk.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Giudice, Chiara; Uggč, Martina; Scarafoni, Alessio; Baldi, Antonella; Sartorelli, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which circulates in the form of homo-multimers. The individual oligomers have a distinct profile of activity, playing crucial roles in several biological processes, including metabolism and inflammation. Adiponectin exerts many of its effects by interacting with the receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In the present study, mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was evaluated by quantitative PCR in different areas of the mammary gland in healthy lactating cows. The adiponectin isoforms in milk and blood were investigated by Western blotting and 2D-electrophoresis, and the presence of adiponectin protein was determined by immunohistochemistry. Low level expression of adiponectin mRNA was found in all areas of bovine mammary gland tissues examined. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs were also detected in mammary tissues and their expression was particularly prominent in the parenchyma and cistern. Western blotting revealed a heterogeneous electrophoretic pattern, indicating that different adiponectin isoforms exist in milk, compared with blood. In particular, milk shows a low molecular weight isoform of adiponectin, corresponding to the globular domain. Adiponectin in milk is characterised by a more complex 2D electrophoretic pattern, compared with blood, as illustrated by the presence of proteins of different molecular weights and isoelectric points. Adiponectin protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells lining the secretory alveoli, in secretum within the alveolar lumen and in small peripheral nerves. The study findings support a role for adiponectin in regulating metabolism and immunity of the bovine mammary gland and potentially the calf intestine, following ingestion of milk. PMID:25676879

  4. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADIPONECTIN, INSULIN RESISTANCE, AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer; however, weight alone does not account for all cases. The authors hypothesized that insulin resistance also contributes to an increased risk for endometrial cancer. Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipose...

  5. Author's personal copy Chemical and isotopic composition of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic

    E-print Network

    Guo, Laodong

    Author's personal copy Chemical and isotopic composition of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in the mixing zone of the Mississippi River and transported in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) or colloidal phase

  6. Intra- and interpopulation diversity for HMW glutenin subunits in Spanish spelt wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Caballero; L. M. Martin; J. B. Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of HMW glutenin subunits in spelt wheat, Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta, was studied electrophoretically in 333 accessions grouped in 50 populations originally collected from Asturias, North of Spain, in 1939. The inter- and intra-population distribution of HMW glutenin alleles at the Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci were investigated. The results show that the genetic variation in HMW glutenin

  7. Genomic regions influencing gene expression of the HMW glutenins in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric W. Storlie; Robert J. Ihry; Leslie M. Baehr; Karissa A. Tieszen; Jonathan H. Engbers; Jordan M. Anderson-Daniels; Elizabeth M. Davis; Anne G. Gilbertson; Niels R. Harden; Kristina A. Harris; Amanda J. Johnson; Amy M. Kerkvleit; Matthew M. Moldan; Megan E. Bell; Michael K. Wanous

    2009-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) produces glutenin storage proteins in the endosperm. The HMW glutenins confer distinct viscoelastic properties to bread\\u000a dough. The genetics of HMW glutenin proteins have been extensively studied, and information has accumulated about individual\\u000a subunits, chromosomal locations and DNA sequences, but little is known about the regulators of the HMW glutenins. This investigation\\u000a addressed the question

  8. Plasma adiponectin distribution in a Mediterranean population and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Marisa Granada; Mņnica Bulló; Augusto Corominas; Patricia Casas; Mąrius Foz

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin may play an important role in the regulation of body weight, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of adiponectin in a Mediterranean adult population and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 1023 subjects from a Spanish Mediterranean

  9. ADIPONECTIN SIGNALING IN THE LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Terry P.; Marliss, Errol B.

    2014-01-01

    High glucose production contributes to fed and fasted hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The breakdown of the adiponectin signaling pathway in T1D and the reduction of circulating adiponectin in T2D contribute to this abnormal increase in glucose production. Sufficient amounts of insulin could compensate for the loss of adiponectin signaling in T1D and T2D and reduce hyperglycemia. However, the combination of low adiponectin signaling and high insulin resembles an insulin resistance state associated with cardiovascular disease and decreased life expectancy. Future development of medications that correct the deficiency of adiponectin signaling in the liver could restore the metabolic balance in T1D and T2D and reduce the need for insulin. This article reviews the adiponectin signaling pathway in the liver through T-cadherin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, AMPK, ceramidase activity, APPL1 and the recently discovered Suppressor Of Glucose from Autophagy (SOGA). PMID:24297186

  10. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of a y-type inactive HMW glutenin subunit gene from cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Minmin; Yan, Yueming; Jiang, Yi; Xiao, Yinghua; Hu, Yingkao; Cai, Minhua; Li, Yaxuan; Hsam, Sai L K; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2004-01-01

    Cultivated emmer (Triticum dicoccum, 2n = 4x = 28, AABB) is closely related to bread wheat and possesses extensive allelic variations in high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition. These alleles may be an important genetic resource for wheat quality improvement. To isolate and clone HMW-GS genes from cultivated emmer, two pairs of allele-specific (AS) PCR primers were designed to amplify the coding sequence of y-type HMW-GS genes and their upstream sequences, respectively. The results showed that single bands of strong amplification were obtained through AS-PCR of genomic DNA from emmer. After cloning and sequencing the complete sequence of coding and 5'-flanking regions of a y-type subunit gene at Glu-A1 locus was obtained. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences analysis showed that this gene possessed a similar structure as the previously reported Ay gene from common wheat, and is hence designated as Ay1d. The distinct feature of the Ay1d gene is that its coding region contains four stop codons and its upstream region has a 85-bp deletion in the same position of the Ay gene, which are probably responsible for the silencing of y-type subunit genes at Glu-A1 locus. Phylogenetic analysis of HMW glutenin subunit genes from different Triticum species and genomes were also carried out. PMID:15383071

  11. HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat ( Triticum spelta L.) progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yan; S. L. K. Hsam; J. Z. Yu; Y. Jiang; I. Ohtsuka; F. J. Zeller

    2003-01-01

    The allelic compositions of high- and low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenins (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) among European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.) and related hexaploid and tetraploid Triticum species were investigated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). A total of seven novel glutenin alleles (designated A1a*, B1d*, B1g*, B1f*, B1j*, D1a* at Glu-1 and A3h at the

  12. Adiponectin: a manifold therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary disease?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, being a key component in the interrelationship between adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Central obesity accompanied by insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and future macrovascular complications. Moreover, the remarkable correlation between coronary artery disease (CAD) and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the likelihood that atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may share a common biological background. We summarize here the current knowledge about the influence of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, discussing its forthcoming prospects and potential role as a therapeutic target for MS, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is present in the circulation as a dimer, trimer or protein complex of high molecular weight hexamers, >400 kDa. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are its major receptors in vivo mediating the metabolic actions. Adiponectin stimulates phosphorylation and AMP (adenosin mono phosphate) kinase activation, exerting direct effects on vascular endothelium, diminishing the inflammatory response to mechanical injury and enhancing endothelium protection in cases of apolipoprotein E deficiency. Hypoadiponectinemia is consistently associated with obesity, MS, atherosclerosis, CAD, T2DM. Lifestyle correction helps to favorably modify plasma adiponectin levels. Low adiponectinemia in obese patients is raised via continued weight loss programs in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals and is also accompanied by reductions in pro-inflammatory factors. Diet modifications, like intake of fish, omega-3 supplementation, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and coffee consumption also increase adiponectin levels. Antidiabetic and cardiovascular pharmacological agents, like glitazones, glimepiride, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are also able to improve adiponectin concentration. Fibric acid derivatives, like bezafibrate and fenofibrate, have been reported to enhance adiponectin levels as well. T-cadherin, a membrane-associated adiponectin-binding protein lacking intracellular domain seems to be a main mediator of the antiatherogenic adiponectin actions. The finding of novel pharmacologic agents proficient to improve adiponectin plasma levels should be target of exhaustive research. Interesting future approaches could be the development of adiponectin-targeted drugs chemically designed to induce the activaton of its receptors and/or postreceptor signaling pathways, or the development of specific adiponectin agonists. PMID:24957699

  13. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. PMID:22306535

  14. About the origin of European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.): allelic differentiation of the HMW Glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 subunit genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. E. Blatter; S. Jacomet; A. Schlumbaum

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the origin of European spelt (Triticum spelta L., genome AABBDD) and its relation to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD), we analysed an approximately 1-kb sequence, including a part of the promoter and the coding region, of the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 subunit genes in 58 accessions of hexa- and tetraploid wheat from different geographical regions.

  15. Analysis of HMW glutenin subunits encoded by chromosome 1A of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) indicates quantitative effects on grain quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Halford; J. M. Field; H. Blair; P. Urwin; K. Moore; L. Robert; R. Thompson; R. B. Flavell; A. S. Tatham; P. R. Shewry

    1992-01-01

    A gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin 1Ax1 was isolated from bread wheat cv Hope. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that previously reported for an allelic subunit, 1Ax2*, showed only minor differences, which were consistent with both subunits being associated with good bread-making quality. Quantitative analyses of total protein extracts from 22 cultivars of bread

  16. Differential Effects of Leptin and Adiponectin in Endothelial Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Raghu; Tan, Bee K.; Randeva, Harpal S.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed “adipokines” have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor) and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis). Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-?? and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity. PMID:25650072

  17. Adiponectin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by counteracting angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Guangyu; Guo, Meizi; Cheung, Alfred K; Huang, Yufeng; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2014-02-01

    Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and vasoprotective properties. Epidemiology studies have, however, shown that high levels of serum adiponectin are associated with kidney disease progression. We, therefore, examined the effect of adiponectin administration on the progression of glomerulosclerosis in the obese diabetic (db/db) mouse, a model of type II diabetes. Recombinant human adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 or 150 ?g per day from weeks 18 to 20. Rosiglitazone administered by gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily served as a therapeutic control. Untreated uninephrectomized db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerular matrix expansion, associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), collagen I (Col I), and fibronectin (FN). Treatment with adiponectin at either dose reduced the increases in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis seen in db/db mice, without affecting BW and blood glucose. Renal expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and urinary TNF-? levels, the markers of renal inflammation, were increased in diabetic mice, whereas adiponectin treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Furthermore, adiponectin obliterated the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), but not the total effect of TGF?1, on the mRNA expression of PAI-1, Col I, and FN by cultured glomerular mesangial cells. These observations suggest that adiponectin treatment reduces glomerulosclerosis resulting from type II diabetes probably through its anti-inflammatory and angiotensin-antagonistic effects. Thus, adiponectin has therapeutic implications in the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24744899

  18. Adiponectin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by counteracting angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Guangyu; Guo, Meizi; Cheung, Alfred K; Huang, Yufeng; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine with insulin?sensitizing, anti?inflammatory, and vasoprotective properties. Epidemiology studies have, however, shown that high levels of serum adiponectin are associated with kidney disease progression. We, therefore, examined the effect of adiponectin administration on the progression of glomerulosclerosis in the obese diabetic (db/db) mouse, a model of type II diabetes. Recombinant human adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 or 150 ?g per day from weeks 18 to 20. Rosiglitazone administered by gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily served as a therapeutic control. Untreated uninephrectomized db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerular matrix expansion, associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI?1), collagen I (Col I), and fibronectin (FN). Treatment with adiponectin at either dose reduced the increases in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis seen in db/db mice, without affecting BW and blood glucose. Renal expressions of tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and monocyte?chemoattractant protein?1 (MCP?1) and urinary TNF?? levels, the markers of renal inflammation, were increased in diabetic mice, whereas adiponectin treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Furthermore, adiponectin obliterated the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), but not the total effect of TGF?1, on the mRNA expression of PAI?1, Col I, and FN by cultured glomerular mesangial cells. These observations suggest that adiponectin treatment reduces glomerulosclerosis resulting from type II diabetes probably through its anti?inflammatory and angiotensin–antagonistic effects. Thus, adiponectin has therapeutic implications in the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24744899

  19. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

  20. The expression of p63 and Ck HMW in magnum and infundibulum of Gallus domesticus oviduct.

    PubMed

    Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Koz?owska, Izabela; Walasik, Konrad; Bodnar, Magdalena; Bajek, Anna; Porowi?ska, Dorota; Drewa, Tomasz; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The potential for proliferation and differentiation has a critical meaning in terms of the long-term in vitro culture of oviductal target cells. Therefore, it is important to characterize the oviduct epithelial cells, using approved markers. There is scarce data describing the epithelial cells lining the avian oviduct, most of it referring only to the magnum section of the oviduct. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of both magnum and infundibulum tissues, as the most preferred sources of epithelial cells for research on production of recombinant proteins in oviducts of birds. The main objective was to evaluate the expression of p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratins (anti- p63 antibody and anti- High Molecular Weight Cytokeratins) in epithelial cells (EC) of 2 oviduct sections: magnum (proximal and middle) and infundibulum (distal). IHC analysis and western blotting were performed using the mouse monoclonal anti- p63 antibody and anti-Ck HMW. Immunoreactivity was quantified based on the Remmele - Stegner scoring system (0-12). The expression of p63 in nuclei of luminal cells was significantly higher in the infundibulum (P < 0.05), compared to the magnum section. Cytokeratins were also highly expressed in the infundibulum, but the difference was non-significant. These findings reveal new characteristics of the oviduct EC and designate the location of the source of cells in the oviduct tissue for in vitro culture. PMID:25403071

  1. Granulocyte elastase cleaves human high molecular weight kininogen and destroys its clot-promoting activity

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Purified human granulocyte elastase cleaved purified human high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen into multiple low molecular weight fragments, and destroyed the clot-promoting activity of the HMW kininogen. Elastase digestion did not release kinin or destroy the bradykinin portion of the HMW kininogen molecule; kallikrein could release kinin from the elastase-induced low molecular weight digestion products of HMW kininogen. Purified alpha 1-antitrypsin prevented the destruction of the clot-promoting activity of HMW kininogen by elastase; it also delayed the clotting of normal plasma. Elastase may play a significant role in altered hemostasis as well as fibrinolysis, in areas of inflammation to which polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been attracted. PMID:3260266

  2. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

  3. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experi...

  4. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kusunoki, Natsuko [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Kakiuchi, Terutaka [Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suguro, Toru [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, Shinichi [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan)], E-mail: skawai@med.toho-u.ac.jp

    2009-01-09

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Iacobellis, Gianluca; Di Gioia, Cira; Petramala, Luigi; Chiappetta, Caterina; Serra, Valentina; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Ciardi, Antonio; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT) and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., P < 0.01 for both). Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (r = 0.76, P < 0.01), vanilly mandelic acid (VMA) (r = 0.95, P < 0.01), and serum adiponectin levels (r = 0.95, P < 0.01). Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased (24.2 ± 2??g/mL versus 18 ± 11??g/mL, P < 0.01) after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1) BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2) expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3) catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA. PMID:24348550

  6. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aimin; Wang, Hongbing; Hoo, Ruby L C; Sweeney, Gary; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wang, Yu; Wu, Donghai; Chu, Wenjing; Qin, Guowei; Lam, Karen S L

    2009-02-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing hormone with antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic properties. A decreased serum level of adiponectin in obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular complications, suggesting that pharmacological intervention aimed at elevating adiponectin production might hold promise for the treatment and/or prevention of these diseases. Here we report the identification of two structurally related natural compounds (astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I) from the medicinal herb Radix Astragali that possess such an activity. Astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I selectively increased adiponectin secretion in primary adipocytes without any obvious effects on a panel of other adipokines. Furthermore, an additive effect on induction of adiponectin production was observed between these two compounds and rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione class of insulin-sensitizing drugs. Chronic administration of astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I in both dietary and genetic obese mice significantly elevated serum levels of total adiponectin and selectively increased the composition of its high molecular weight oligomeric complex. These changes were associated with an alleviation of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. By contrast, the beneficial effects of these two compounds on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism were diminished in adiponectin knockout mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that pharmacological elevation of circulating adiponectin alone is sufficient to ameliorate insulin resistance and diabetes and support the use of adiponectin as a biomarker for future drug discovery. The two natural compounds might provide the lead as a novel class of therapeutics for obesity-related diseases. PMID:18927219

  7. Adipocytokines and aging: adiponectin and leptin.

    PubMed

    Gulcelik, N E; Halil, M; Ariogul, S; Usman, A

    2013-06-01

    Adipose tissue is an active metabolic organ secreting adipocytokines which are involved in the energy homeostasis and regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Aging is associated with fat redistribution, which is characterized by loss of peripheral subcutaneous fat and accumulation of visceral fat. Visceral adipose tissue is more involved in the developement of metabolic diseases than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Aging also alters the function, proliferation, size, and number of adipose cells which leads to alterations in the secretion, synthesis and function of the adipocytokines. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiathoregenic adipokine. Centarians have higher adiponectin levels associated with longevity. However, in older individuals ? age 65 or more ? adiponectin is associated with higher mortality. Dysregulation of adiponectin in older individuals may be due to loss of function of circulating adiponectin or a response to increased inflammatory process. Longitidunal increase in adiponectin levels 5with aging rather than genetically high adiponectin levels may translate to increased mortality in older patients. The adipocytokine leptin is traditionally viewed as a product of adipocytes that can exert endocrine effects. There have been conflicting reports of not only the effects of aging on leptin, but also the effects of leptin on age-related diseases including sarcopenia, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with resistance to leptin and/or to a decrease of receptors for this hormone. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of two major adipocytokines adiponectin and leptin in the aging process and age-related diseases. PMID:23732375

  8. Effects of specific domains of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits’ on dough properties by an in vitro assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal do...

  9. Electrospinning and characterization of medium-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/montmorillonite nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Mi Ji; Hyun Woo Lee; Mohammad Rezaul Karim; In Woo Cheong; Eun A. Bae; Tae Hun Kim; Byung Chul Ji; Jeong Hyun Yeum

    2009-01-01

    Submicron fibers of medium-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) (MMW-PVA), high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) (HMW-PVA),\\u000a and montmorillonite clay (MMT) in aqueous solutions were prepared by electrospinning technique. The effect of HMW-PVA and\\u000a MMT on the morphology and mechanical properties of the MMW-PVA\\/HMW-PVA\\/MMT nanofibers were investigated for the first time.\\u000a Scanning electron microscopy, viscometer, tensile strength testing machine, thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and transmission\\u000a electron

  10. Adiponectin influences progesterone production from MA-10 Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Landry, David; Paré, Aurélie; Jean, Stéphanie; Martin, Luc J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity in men is associated with lower testosterone levels, related to reduced sperm concentration and the development of various diseases with aging. Hormones produced by the adipose tissue may have influences on both metabolism and reproductive function. Among them, the production and secretion of adiponectin is inversely correlated to total body fat. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) have been found to be expressed in testicular Leydig cells (producing testosterone). Since StAR and Cyp11a1 are essential for testosterone synthesis and adiponectin has been shown to regulate StAR mRNA in swine granulosa cells, we hypothesized that adiponectin might also regulate these genes in Leydig cells. Our objective was to determine whether adiponectin regulates StAR and Cyp11a1 genes in Leydig cells and to better define its mechanisms of action. Methods used in the current study are qPCR for the mRNA levels, transfections for promoter activities, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the progesterone concentration. We have found that adiponectin cooperates with cAMP-dependent stimulation to activate StAR and Cyp11a1 mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner in MA-10 Leydig cells as demonstrated by transfection of a luciferase reporter plasmid. These results led to a significant increase in progesterone production from MA-10 cells. Thus, our data suggest that high doses of adiponectin typical of normal body weight may promote testosterone production from Leydig cells. PMID:25338202

  11. Genomic regions influencing gene expression of the HMW glutenins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Storlie, Eric W; Ihry, Robert J; Baehr, Leslie M; Tieszen, Karissa A; Engbers, Jonathan H; Anderson-Daniels, Jordan M; Davis, Elizabeth M; Gilbertson, Anne G; Harden, Niels R; Harris, Kristina A; Johnson, Amanda J; Kerkvleit, Amy M; Moldan, Matthew M; Bell, Megan E; Wanous, Michael K

    2009-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) produces glutenin storage proteins in the endosperm. The HMW glutenins confer distinct viscoelastic properties to bread dough. The genetics of HMW glutenin proteins have been extensively studied, and information has accumulated about individual subunits, chromosomal locations and DNA sequences, but little is known about the regulators of the HMW glutenins. This investigation addressed the question of glutenin regulators. Expression of the glutenins was analyzed using QRT-PCR in ditelosomic (dt) Chinese Spring (CS) lines. Primers were designed for each of 4 CS glutenin genes and a control, non-storage protein endosperm-specific gene Agp-L (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase). Each line represents CS wheat, lacking one chromosome arm. The effect of a missing arm could feasibly cause an increase, decrease or no change in expression. For each HMW glutenin, results indicated there were, on average, 8 chromosome arms with an up-regulatory effect and only one instance of a down-regulatory effect. There were significant correlations between orthologous and paralogous HMW glutenins for effects of chromosome groups B and D. Some or all the glutenin alleles shared regulatory loci on chromosome arms 2BS, 7BS, 4DS, 5DS and 6DS, and Agp-L shared regulatory loci with glutenins on arms 7AS, 7BS, 2DS, 3DS, 4DS and 5DS. These results suggest a few chromosome arms contain putative regulatory genes affecting the expression of conserved cis elements of 4 HMW glutenin and Agp-L genes in CS. Regulation by common genes implies the regulators have diverged little from the common wheat ancestor, and furthermore, some regulation may be shared by endosperm-specific-genes. Significant common regulators have practical implications. PMID:18839129

  12. Adiponectin Trajectories Before Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tabįk, Adam G.; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991–1993, 1997–1999, and 2003–2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year0) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. RESULTS Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187–10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535–12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P < 0.0001). Control subjects showed a modest decline in adiponectin throughout follow-up (0.3% per year, P < 0.0001) at higher levels in women than in men (difference at year0: 5,358 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Female case and early-onset case (age at diagnosis <52 years) subjects had a steeper decline than control subjects (slope difference ?1.1% per year, P = 0.001 in females, ?1.6% per year in early-onset case subjects, P = 0.034). In men, adiponectin slopes for case and noncase subjects were parallel. The slope differences by diabetes onset were largely attenuated after adjustment for changes in obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. CONCLUSIONS Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development. PMID:22933430

  13. Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Kayo; Kang, Min-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyama, Kana; Kusudo, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yano, Masamichi [Department of Citriculture, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0292 (Japan); Sasaki, Takao [ARKRAY Inc., Kyoto 601-8045 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-02-01

    Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR{gamma} antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR{gamma} activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR{gamma} in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 and suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

  14. HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) progenitors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Hsam, S L K; Yu, J Z; Jiang, Y; Ohtsuka, I; Zeller, F J

    2003-11-01

    The allelic compositions of high- and low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenins (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) among European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.) and related hexaploid and tetraploid Triticum species were investigated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). A total of seven novel glutenin alleles (designated A1a*, B1d*, B1g*, B1f*, B1j*, D1a* at Glu-1 and A3h at the Glu-3 loci, respectively) in European spelt wheat were detected by SDS-PAGE, which were confirmed further by employing A-PAGE and CE methods. Particularly, two HMW-GS alleles, Glu-B1d* coding the subunits 6.1 and 22.1, and Glu-B1f* coding the subunits 13 and 22*, were found to occur in European spelt with frequencies of 32.34% and 5.11%, respectively. These two alleles were present in cultivated emmer (Triticum dicoccum), but they were not observed in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The allele Glu-B1g* coding for 13* and 19* subunits found in spelt wheat was also detected in club wheat (Triticum compactum L.). Additionally, two alleles coding for LMW-GS, Glu-A3h and Glu-B3d, occurred with high frequencies in spelt, club and cultivated emmer wheat, whereas these were not found or present with very low frequencies in bread wheat. Our results strongly support the secondary origin hypothesis, namely European spelt wheat originated from hybridization between cultivated emmer and club wheat. This is also confirmed experimentally by the artificial synthesis of spelt through crossing between old European emmer wheat, T. dicoccum and club wheat, T. compactum. PMID:13679994

  15. Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Laura E.; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Xu, Lance Y.; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S.; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S. I.; Bechtold, David A.; Ray, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverb? exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverb??/? mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverb??/? WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgery–induced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

  16. Adiponectin induces A20 expression in adipose tissue to confer metabolic benefit.

    PubMed

    Hand, Laura E; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J S; Xu, Lance Y; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S I; Bechtold, David A; Ray, David W

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverb? exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverb?(-/-) mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverb?(-/-) WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

  17. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  18. Myocardial Mitochondrial and Contractile Function Are Preserved in Mice Lacking Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1? were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions. PMID:25785965

  19. Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. bessarabicum, Lophopyrum elongatum, Aegilops markgrafii, and their addition lines in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GSs) play an important role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality in cultivated wheat, and they are also excellent protein markers for genotype identification. The HMW-GSs in wheat species (Triticum ssp.) and Aegilops tauschii...

  20. Adiponectin promotes functional recovery after podocyte ablation.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Joseph M; Wang, Zhao V; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Dihua; Hu, Ming Chang; Moe, Orson W; Susztak, Katalin; Scherer, Philipp E

    2013-02-01

    Low levels of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin correlate with albuminuria in both mice and humans, but whether adiponectin has a causative role in modulating renal disease is unknown. Here, we first generated a mouse model that allows induction of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis specifically in podocytes upon injection of a construct-specific agent. These POD-ATTAC mice exhibited significant kidney damage, mimicking aspects of human renal disease, such as foot process effacement, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis. After the initial induction, both podocytes and filtration function recovered. Next, we crossed POD-ATTAC mice with mice lacking or overexpressing adiponectin. POD-ATTAC mice lacking adiponectin developed irreversible albuminuria and renal failure; conversely, POD-ATTAC mice overexpressing adiponectin recovered more rapidly and exhibited less interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that adiponectin is a renoprotective protein after podocyte injury. Furthermore, the POD-ATTAC mouse provides a platform for further studies, allowing precise timing of podocyte injury and regeneration. PMID:23334396

  1. Identification of Intact High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits from the Wheat Proteome Using Combined Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Rombouts, Ine; Koehler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes a method for the identification of intact high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), the quality determining proteins from the wheat storage proteome. The method includes isolation of HMW-GS from wheat flour, further separation of HMW-GS by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their subsequent molecular identification with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass analyzer. For HMW-GS isolation, wheat proteins were reduced and extracted from flour with 50% 1-propanol containing 1% dithiothreitol. HMW-GS were then selectively precipitated from the protein mixture by adjusting the 1-propanol concentration to 60%. The composition of the precipitated proteins was first evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Coomassie staining and RP-HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Besides HMW-GS (?65%), the isolated proteins mainly contained ?5-gliadins. Secondly, the isolated protein fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Optimal chromatographic separation of HMW-GS from the other proteins in the isolated fraction was obtained when the mobile phase contained 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing agent. Individual HMW-GS were then identified by determining their molecular masses from the high-resolution mass spectra and comparing these with theoretical masses calculated from amino acid sequences. Using formic acid instead of trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase increased protein peak intensities in the base peak mass chromatogram. This allowed the detection of even traces of other wheat proteins than HMW-GS in the isolated fraction, but the chromatographic separation was inferior with a major overlap between the elution ranges of HMW-GS and ?-gliadins. Overall, the described method allows a rapid assessment of wheat quality through the direct determination of the HMW-GS composition and offers a basis for further top-down proteomics of individual HMW-GS and the entire wheat glutenin fraction. PMID:23520527

  2. Adipocyte Spliced Form of X-Box–Binding Protein 1 Promotes Adiponectin Multimerization and Systemic Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Haibo; Yang, Liu; Liu, Meilian; Xia, Sheng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Feng; Kersten, Sander; Qi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes, thereby regulating systemic glucose homeostasis. Ectopic expression of XBP1s in adipocytes improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. The beneficial effect of adipocyte XBP1s on glucose homeostasis is associated with elevated serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and, indeed, is adiponectin-dependent. Mechanistically, XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization rather than activating its transcription, likely through a direct regulation of the expression of several ER chaperones involved in adiponectin maturation, including glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6, ER protein 44, and disulfide bond oxidoreductase A–like protein. Thus, we conclude that XBP1s is an important regulator of adiponectin multimerization, which may lead to a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypoadiponectinemia. PMID:24241534

  3. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA is associated with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Standl, M; Demmelmair, H; Koletzko, B; Heinrich, J

    2015-05-01

    An elevated ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain (LC-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be a potential risk factor for obesity development. N-3 LC-PUFA are thought to alter adiponectin concentrations, and thus may have a beneficial effect on weight development. We analysed the association between n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations in cord blood and adiponectin concentrations at 10 years. Fatty acid composition was measured in cord blood and at 10 years of age by gas chromatography, and adiponectin concentrations were measured only at 10 years of age in 237 children from the Munich LISAplus birth cohort study. Linear regression models assessed associations between n-3 LC-PUFA, n-6 LC-PUFA and the n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. LC-PUFA were presented as percentages and categorized into tertiles. Regression models were adjusted for LC-PUFA percentages at 10 years of age and other potential confounding factors. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA tertiles were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in an inverse J-shaped relationship [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: Beta=1.84 (SE=0.65), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: 1.02 (0.68), p-value<0.01 (ANOVA)]. Further, cord blood n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: 0.14 (0.67), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: -1.37 (0.68), p-value=0.03 (ANOVA)]. The cord blood n-6 LC-PUFA tertiles were not associated with adiponectin concentrations. Our results suggest that a higher n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood are associated with higher adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. PMID:25773861

  4. Influence of Exercise Intensity on Abdominal Fat and Adiponectin in Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rick H.; Kortebein, Patrick M.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Evans, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To examine the influence of moderate-intensity (50% of VO2peak) exercise training (MI) versus high-intensity (75% of VO2peak) exercise training (HI) on regional fat distribution and plasma adiponectin, we randomized 18 overweight (body mass index [BMI]?=?30?±?1 kg/m2) elderly (71?±?1 years) to HI, MI, or a control group (CON). Subjects enrolled in HI or MI completed a 12-week exercise training protocol designed to expend 1000 kcal/week. Body composition testing was completed prior to and following the exercise training using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and a computed tomography scan. Plasma adiponectin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). VO2peak improved in HI and MI, whereas there was no change in VO2peak in CON. No significant change in body weight, BMI, and % fat occurred in MI, HI, or CON. Although there was a significant reduction in visceral fat with HI (?39 cm2), there was no change in the MI or CON groups. In addition, there was a significant increase in thigh muscle attenuation in the HI group. There were no changes in thigh muscle attenuation in the MI and CON groups. Also, there was no change in plasma adiponectin in the MI, HI, or CON groups. In summary, our direct comparison of exercise intensity without weight loss promotes the efficacy of HI in the reduction in visceral fat, even without changes in adiponectin. PMID:19196080

  5. Study of adiponectin in chronic liver disease and cholestasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tary A. Salman; Naglaa Allam; Gasser I. Azab; Ahmed A. Shaarawy; Mona M. Hassouna; Omkolsoum M. El-haddad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Adiponectin is an adipocytokine suggested to have a hepatoprotective effect. To date, little information is available in the\\u000a literature regarding changes in serum adiponectin levels in cirrhosis and cholestasis and the associated metabolic disturbances.\\u000a In order to elucidate the role of adiponectin in chronic liver disease our aim was to determine serum adiponectin in patients\\u000a with different grades of cirrhosis

  6. Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Schito, Anna Maria; Gazzani, Gabriella; Pruzzo, Carla; Daglia, Maria

    2010-11-24

    In previous studies we demonstrated that green and roasted coffee contains low molecular weight (LMW) compounds capable of inhibiting the ability of Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of human dental caries, to adhere to hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. This study addressed the ability of the whole high molecular weight coffee fraction (cHMW) and of its melanoidin and non-melanoidin components (GFC1-5), applied at concentrations that occur in coffee beverages, to (i) inhibit S. mutans growth; (ii) affect S. mutans sucrose-dependent adhesion to and detachment from saliva-coated HA beads (sHA); and (iii) inhibit biofilm development on microtiter plates. The results indicated that only cHMW is endowed with antimicrobial activity. The cHMW fraction and each of the five GFC components inhibited S. mutans adhesion, the strongest effect being exerted by cHMW (91%) and GFC1 (88%). S. mutans detachment from sHA was four times greater (?20%) with cHMW and the GFC1 and GFC4 melanoidins than with controls. Finally, biofilm production by S. mutans was completely abolished by cHMW and was reduced by 20% by the melanoidin components GFC2 and GFC4 and by the non-melanoidin component GFC5 compared with controls. Altogether these findings show that coffee beverage contains both LMW compounds and HMW melanoidin and non-melanoidin components with a strong ability to interfere in vitro with the S. mutans traits relevant for cariogenesis. PMID:21038921

  7. The association of plasma adiponectin levels with hypertensive retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmut Ilker Yilmaz; Alper Sonmez; Selim Kilic; Turgay Celik; Necati Bingol; Murat Pinar; Tarkan Mumcuoglu; Metin Ozata

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associ- ated with essential hypertension. It has also recently been shown that adiponectin plays an essential role in the modulation of angiogenesis. These data led us to hypothesize that adiponectin might con- tribute to end-organ damage in hypertension. Methods: In the present study we have evaluated the relationship between

  8. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Overweight and Obese Asians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Shiung Yang; Wei-Jei Lee; Tohru Funahashi; Sachiyo Tanaka; Yuji Matsuzawa; Chia-Ling Chao; Chi-Ling Chen; Tong-Yuan Tai; Lee-Ming Chuang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Hypoadiponectin has been documented in subjects with obesity, diabetes mellitus, or coronary heart disease, suggesting a potential use of plasma adiponectin in following the clinical progress in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). In this study, we investigated the plasma adiponectin levels in relation to the variables of MS among overweight\\/obese Asian subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: The plasma adiponectin, anthropometric

  9. Identification of a cDNA for a human high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ambrus, J L; Pippin, J; Joseph, A; Xu, C; Blumenthal, D; Tamayo, A; Claypool, K; McCourt, D; Srikiatchatochorn, A; Ford, R J

    1993-01-01

    Proliferation is necessary for many of the phenotypic changes that occur during B-cell maturation. Further differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells or memory B cells requires additional rounds of proliferation. In this manuscript, we describe a cDNA for a human B-cell growth factor we call high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF). Purified HMW-BCGF has been shown to induce B-cell proliferation, inhibit immunoglobulin secretion, and selectively expand certain B-cell subpopulations. Studies using antibodies to HMW-BCGF and its receptor have suggested that HMW-BCGF, while produced by T cells and some malignant B cells, acts predominantly on normal and malignant B cells. The HMW-BCGF cDNA was identified by expression cloning using a monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antisera to HMW-BCGF. Protein produced from the cDNA induced B-cell proliferation, inhibited immunoglobulin secretion, and was recognized in immunoblots by anti-HMW-BCGF antibodies. The amino acid sequence of HMW-BCGF deduced from the cDNA predicts a secreted protein of 53 kDa with three potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The identification of this cDNA will allow further studies examining physiologic roles of this cytokine. We propose to call it interleukin 14. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8327514

  10. Adiponectin and depression: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HU, YAOZHI; DONG, XIAOMENG; CHEN, JINBO

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin has been indicated to be linked with depression. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between adiponectin levels and depression. Six studies with a total of 4,220 subjects were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The references were retrieved via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase, and the following Chinese databases: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wan Fang Data. The analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.2 software. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was assessed following pooling the collected data for analysis. A significant association was detected between adiponectin levels and depression in European populations. In the European group of patients with depression, improvements were observed in adiponectin levels (SMD, ?5.00 µg/ml, 95% CI, ?7.13 to ?2.88). The current meta-analysis indicates that patients with patients had a lower adiponectin level when compared to healthy patients in European groups. PMID:25469244

  11. The Interactive Effects of Transgenically Overexpressed 1Ax1 with Various HMW-GS Combinations on Dough Quality by Introgression of Exogenous Subunits into an Elite Chinese Wheat Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs. PMID:24167625

  12. Isolation and characterization of EMS-induced Dy10 and Ax1 high molecular weight glutenin subunit deficient mutant lines of elite hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Summit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing properties of the dough are critical in the production of bread and other food products derived from wheat. The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major determinants of wheat dough processing qualities. The different alleles of the HMW-GS genes in hexaploid wheat vary ...

  13. The role of adiponectin signaling in metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Michael P; Sweeney, Gary

    2014-06-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity has mandated extensive research focused on mechanisms responsible for associated clinical complications. Emerging from the focus on adipose tissue biology as a vitally important adipokine is adiponectin which is now believed to mediate anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and cancer modifying actions. Adiponectin mediates these primarily beneficial effects via direct signaling effects and via enhancing insulin sensitivity via crosstalk with insulin signaling pathways. Reduced adiponectin action is detrimental and occurs in obesity via decreased circulating levels of adiponectin action or development of adiponectin resistance. This review will focus on cellular mechanisms of adiponectin action, their crosstalk with insulin signaling and the resultant role of adiponectin in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer and reviews data from in vitro cell based studies through animal models to clinical observations. PMID:24019064

  14. The effects of three training methods endurance, resistance and concurrent on adiponectin resting levels in overweighed untrained men.

    PubMed

    Asad, M; Ravasi, A A; Faramarzi, M; Pournemati, P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the impacts of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on adiponectin resting levels of sedentary men. Forty-four sedentary students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: endurance training (ET; 22 ± 0.89 yr, n=12), resistance training (RT, 21 ± 1.57 yr, n=9), concurrent training (CT, 21.38 ± 2.6 yr, n=14) and control group (CG, n=10). After primary measurements, blood samples were drawn with subjects in fasting and resting state for determination of the basic level of adiponectin. The subjects participated in E, R and C training for 8 weeks. The ET group ran 3d/w at 65-85 % of maximum heart rate. The exercise training session for the RT group consisted of 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions of weight training exercise that increase progressively, and repeated 3 sessions per week. The CT group trained exactly the sum of ET and RT groups. Correlated samples t-test and ANOVA were used. The results of the present study showed that after the eight-week training, the adiponectin levels of subjects increased in 3 groups of training but this increase was not significant. The level of adiponectin in CT group increased more than in ET and RT groups. Also, there were no significant differences in content of adiponectin among groups.In general, slight increases in adiponectin levels in training groups especially in CT group may indicate the most potential of CT group in increasing the levels of adiponectin in sedentary men. However more researches are needed to identify the effects of concurrent training (Tab. 4, Ref. 27). PMID:23137206

  15. Regulation of high molecular weight bovine brain neutral protease by phospholipids in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Chauhan; A. M. Sheikh; A. Chauhan; W. D. Spivack; M. D. Fenko; M. N. Malik

    2005-01-01

    The activity of the heat stable, glycosylated high molecular weight bovine brain neutral protease (HMW protease) is differentially regulated by phospholipids. While phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidic acid (PA) had only marginal stimulatory effect (40–75%) on the activity of HMW protease, lysophoshatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA) activated the enzyme by more than two-fold. Both lysoPC and lysoPA exhibited

  16. Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiying Yu; Yan Yang; Muxun Zhang; Huiling Lu; Jianhua Zhang; Hongwei Wang; Katherine Cianflone

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid) are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. METHODS: A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology\\/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid

  17. Fat mass, and not diet, has a large effect on postprandial leptin but not on adiponectin concentrations in cats.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Arai, T; Ishioka, K; Rawlings, J M

    2013-08-01

    Leptin and adiponectin play important roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in different species. Information is limited on the effects of diet, weight gain, and fat mass on their concentrations in cats. This study compared fasting and postprandial blood leptin and total adiponectin concentrations before and after 8 wk of ad libitum feeding to promote weight gain in adult cats (n = 32) fed either a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (23% and 47% ME) or a high-carbohydrate, low-protein (51% and 21% ME) diet. There were significant effects of total, abdominal, and nonabdominal fat mass, but not diet or body weight, on mean 24-h and peak leptin (P < 0.01); observed increases in mean and peak leptin were greatest for abdominal fat mass (50% and 56% increase for every extra 100 g, respectively). After weight gain, postprandial leptin concentration increased markedly relative to when cats were lean, and the duration of the increase was longer after a mean weight gain of 37% with the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet group compared with 17% with the high-carbohydrate, low-protein group (P ? 0.01). Adiponectin was lower than fasting at some time points during the postprandial period in both groups (P ? 0.05). For both fasting and mean 24-h adiponectin, there was no significant diet effect (P ? 0.19) or changes in weight gain relative to when cats were lean (P ? 0.29). In conclusion, fat mass, and not diet, has a large effect on postprandial leptin but not adiponectin concentrations in cats. PMID:23827214

  18. Maternal adiponectin controls milk composition to prevent neonatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zixue; Du, Yang; Schwaid, Adam G; Asterholm, Ingrid W; Scherer, Philipp E; Saghatelian, Alan; Wan, Yihong

    2015-04-01

    Adiponectin is an important adipokine. Increasing evidence suggests that altered adiponectin levels are linked with metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Here we report an important yet previously unrecognized function of adiponectin in lactation by which maternal adiponectin determines the inflammatory status in the nursing neonates. Surprisingly, both maternal adiponectin overexpression in the transgenic mice and maternal adiponectin deletion in the knockout mice lead to systemic inflammation in the pups, manifested as transient hair loss. However, distinct mechanisms are involved. Adiponectin deficiency triggers leukocyte infiltration and production of inflammatory cytokines in the lactating mammary gland. In contrast, adiponectin overabundance increases lipid accumulation in the lactating mammary gland, resulting in excessive long-chain saturated fatty acids in milk. Interestingly, in both cases, the inflammation and alopecia in the pups can be rescued by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/4 deletion because TLR2/4 double-knockout pups are resistant. Mechanistically, long-chain saturated fatty acid activation of inflammatory genes is TLR2/4 dependent and can be potentiated by proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the inflammatory stimuli in both scenarios functionally converge by activating the TLR2/4 signaling. Therefore, our findings reveal adiponectin as a dosage-dependent regulator of lactation homeostasis and milk quality that critically controls inflammation in the nursing neonates. Furthermore, these results suggest that inflammatory infantile disorders may result from maternal adiponectin dysregulation that can be treated by TLR2/4 inhibition. PMID:25590242

  19. Exogenous Recombinant Adiponectin Improves Survival in Experimental Abdominal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Bülent; Y?lmaz, Tonguē Utku; Tezcaner, Tugan; Demir, Ebru Ofluo?lu; Pa?ao?lu, Özge Tu?ēe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, which has anti-inflammatory features, is an important substance in several metabolic mechanisms. Aims: The aim of this study is to evauate the effects of exogenous intraperitoneal administration of adiponectin on the survival, intrabdominal adhesion and inflammatory cytokine levels in an experimental sepsis model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Ninety rats were divided into a control group, adiponectin group and sham group. A cecal puncture abdominal sepsis model was performed in the adiponectin and control groups. Every three hours, exogenous adiponectin was administrated to the adiponectin group. At the 3rd and 24th hours, 10 rats were sacrified in each group in order to measure plasma tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 10, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, IL-6 and macrophage inhibitory factor levels, and the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-kB. The remaining rats were followed for survival. Results: The plasma levels of TNF-?, soluable ICAM-1, IL-6, and macrophage inhibitory factor were significantly higher in the control group than in the adiponectin and sham group (p<0.05). The increase in inflammatory cytokines with time was more prominent in the control group. The activity of NF-kB in the control group was higher than in the adiponectin group (p<0.05). The survival rate of the adiponectin group was higher than in the control group. Conclusion: Administration of exogenous adiponectin to the peritoneum in abdominal sepsis increased survival and decreased intrabdominal adhesions by decreasing the inflammatory response. PMID:25337421

  20. Effect of Ethnicity, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity on Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations Among Malaysian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Koo Hui; Sathyasurya, Daniel Robert; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

    2013-01-01

    Background The Malaysian Health and morbidity Survey (2006) reported the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the Indian population compared to the Malay and Chinese populations. Many studies have supported the important role of adiponectin in insulin-sensitizing, which is associated with T2DM. These studies have raised a research question whether the variation in prevalence is related to the adiponectin concentrations or the lifestyle factors. Objectives The purpose of this study is to determine whether the adiponectin concentrations differ between the Malay, Chinese and the Indian populations with T2DM. It is to investigate the association of adiponectin concentrations with ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity too. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 210 T2DM patients with mean (SD) age of 56.73 (10.23) years were recruited from Penang, Malaysia. Data on demographic background, medical history, anthropometry (weight, height, visceral fat, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), dietary intake (3 days 24 hours diet recall) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were obtained accordingly. Plasma adiponectin and routine laboratory tests (fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride) were performed according to standard procedure. Results After adjustment for physical activity and dietary intakes, the Indian population had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.003) when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations, The Indian population also had significantly higher value of HbA1c (P = 0.017) and significantly lower HDL (P = 0.013). Plasma adiponectin concentrations was significantly associated with ethnicity (P = 0.011), dietary carbohydrate (P = 0.003) and physical activity total MET score (P = 0.026), after medical history, age, sex, total cholesterol and visceral fat adjusted. However, dietary carbohydrate and physical activity did not show significantly difference among the various ethnic groups. Conclusions In conclusion, lower concentration of adiponectin in the Indian population when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations is not associated with lifestyle factors. The possibility of adiponectin gene polymorphism should be discussed further. PMID:24348588

  1. Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, B5, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamura, Shinji [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kiso, Shinichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kiso@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hayashi, Norio [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-01-02

    We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

  2. MicroRNA-218 targets adiponectin receptor 2 to regulate adiponectin signaling.

    PubMed

    Du, Hechun; Fu, Zimu; He, Guohua; Wang, Yuejuan; Xia, Guiyu; Fang, Min; Zhang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin exerts an antidiabetic function through the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). The mechanism regulating the expression of adiponectin receptors remains to be elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that microRNA (miR)?218 targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the AdipoR2 mRNA. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-218 regulated the expression of AdipoR2 using immunoblotting, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assays. The protein level and the mRNA level of AdipoR2 were reduced when miR?218 was expressed in HepG2 cells. Additionally, overexpression of miR?218 repressed the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the 3'UTR of AdipoR2. Furthermore, the present study aimed to determine whether miR-218 regulated glucose metabolism through detecting signaling pathways and glucose uptake. The phosphorylation of AMP?activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase was reduced in miR?218?expressing cells. In addition, miR?218 inhibited adiponectin?induced glucose uptake. The present results suggested that miR?218 targets AdipoR2 to inhibit adiponectin signaling. PMID:25634129

  3. Genetic variants of adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Gong, Jian; Giovannucci, Edward L; Berndt, Sonja I; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Curtis, Keith R; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Le Marchand, Loic; Potter, John D; Schoen, Robert E; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L; White, Emily; Wu, Kana; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Hunter, David J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric; Jensen, Majken; Peters, Ulrike; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-07-01

    Circulating adiponectin has been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Genome-wide association studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adiponectin levels. However, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with CRC risk. In addition, previous data on SNPs in the adiponectin pathway and their associations with CRC are inconsistent. Therefore, we examined 19 SNPs in genes related to adiponectin or its receptors and their associations with CRC using logistic regression among 7,020 cases and 7,631 controls drawn from ten studies included in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Using data from a subset of two large cohort studies, we also assessed the contribution of individual SNPs and an adiponectin genetic score to plasma adiponectin after accounting for lifestyle factors among 2,217 women and 619 men. We did not find any statistically significant association between the 19 adiponectin-associated SNPs and CRC risk (multivariable-adjusted odds ratios ranged from 0.89 to 1.05, all p?>?0.05). Each SNP explained less than 2.50% of the variance of plasma adiponectin, and the genetic score collectively accounted for 2.95 and 1.42% of the variability of adiponectin in women and men, respectively, after adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and postmenopausal hormone use. In conclusion, our findings do not support an association between known adiponectin-related common SNPs and CRC incidence. However, known common SNPs account for only a limited proportion of the interindividual variance in circulating adiponectin. Further work is warranted to investigate the relationship between adiponectin and CRC while accounting for other components in the pathway. PMID:25431318

  4. Associations between Endothelin1 and Adiponectin in Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hsian Yin; Yung-Hsiang Chen; Jeng Wei; Hsu-Lung Jen; Wen-Ping Huang; Mason Shing Young; Der-Cherng Chen; Po-Len Liu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces cardiac hypertrophy, whereas adiponectin may elicit protective effects in the vasculature and myocardium. We therefore evaluated the relationship between plasma ET-1 and adiponectin levels in heart failure (HF) patients, and the association between adiponectin expression and ET-1-induced hypertrophy of human cardiomyocytes (HCM) in vitro. Methods: One hundred seventeen patients with chronic HF were enrolled into this

  5. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. PMID:25653535

  6. Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi), and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14), by 97?% in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS) for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of the 1Bx14 gene. The established BSMV-VIGS system will be very useful in future research on functional analysis of genes contributing to grain quality and the metabolic networks in developing seeds of wheat. PMID:22882902

  7. Recovery of an HMWP/hmwBP (pUL48/pUL47) Complex from Virions of Human Cytomegalovirus: Subunit Interactions, Oligomer Composition, and Deubiquitylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tullman, Jennifer A.; Harmon, Mary-Elizabeth; Delannoy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) high-molecular-weight tegument protein (HMWP, pUL48; 253 kDa) and the HMWP-binding protein (hmwBP, pUL47; 110 kDa) can be recovered as a complex from virions disrupted by treatment with 50 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 0.5 M NaCl, 0.5% NP-40, and 10 mM dithiothreitol [DTT]. The subunit ratio of the complex approximates 1:1, with a shape and structure consistent with an elongated heterodimer. The HMWP/hmwBP complex was corroborated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments using antipeptide antibodies and lysates from both infected cells and disrupted virus particles. An interaction of the amino end of pUL48 (amino acids [aa] 322 to 754) with the carboxyl end of pUL47 (aa 693 to 982) was identified by fragment coimmunoprecipitation experiments, and a head-to-tail self-interaction of hmwBP was also observed. The deubiquitylating activity of pUL48 is retained in the isolated complex, which cleaves K11, K48, and K63 ubiquitin isopeptide linkages. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or human herpesvirus 5 [HHV-5]) is a large DNA-containing virus that belongs to the betaherpesvirus subfamily and is a clinically important pathogen. Defining the constituent elements of its mature form, their organization within the particle, and the assembly process by which it is produced are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of herpesvirus infection and developing drugs and vaccines against them. In this study, we report isolating a complex of two large proteins encoded by HCMV open reading frames (ORFs) UL47 and UL48 and identifying the binding domains responsible for their interaction with each other and of pUL47 with itself. Our calculations indicate that the complex is a rod-shaped heterodimer. Additionally, we determined that the ubiquitin-specific protease activity of the ORF UL48 protein was functional in the complex, cleaving K11-, K48-, and K63-linked ubiquitin dimers. This information builds on and extends our understanding of the HCMV tegument protein network that is required to interface the HCMV envelope and capsid. PMID:24829352

  8. Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-04-16

    Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of G-protein-coupled receptors, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may have a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the carboxy-terminal tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

  9. Association study of the HTR2C, leptin and adiponectin genes and serum marker analyses in clozapine treated long-term patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Klemettilä, J-P; Kampman, O; Seppälä, N; Viikki, M; Hämäläinen, M; Moilanen, E; Mononen, N; Lehtimäki, T; Leinonen, E

    2015-02-01

    Clozapine treatment is associated with weight gain and cardio-metabolic consequences among patients with schizophrenia. Polymorphisms of leptin, serotonin receptor HTR2C and adiponectin genes have been associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic comorbidity. However, the results of the studies so far are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was first to test for a possible role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as a marker of weight gain in association with inflammatory cytokines/adipokines (IL-6, IL-1Ra, hs-CRP and adipsin), and second to study associations between SNPs LEP rs7799039 (-2548 A/G), ADIPOQ rs1501299 and HTR2C rs1414334 and weight gain and levels of leptin and adiponectin, in 190 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment, with retrospectively assessed weight change and cross-sectionally measured cytokine levels. A strong association was found between serum levels of leptin and weight gain and cytokines/adipokines related to metabolic comorbidity, especially among female patients (in women leptin vs. weight gain, IL-6 and IL-1Ra, P<0.001; in men leptin vs. weight gain, P=0.026, leptin vs. IL-1Ra, P<0.001). In male patients low adiponectin level was a more specific marker of clozapine-induced weight gain (P=0.037). The results of the present study do not support a major role of SNPs LEP rs7799039, ADIPOQ rs1501299 and HTR2C rs1414334 in the regulation of weight gain or association of serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and corresponding studied SNPs in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment. PMID:25284335

  10. Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Catherine; Fiquet, Samuel; Boudet, Julie; Dardevet, Mireille; Vincent, Jonathan; Merlino, Marielle; Michard, Robin; Martre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs) in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs) and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator). In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression. PMID:25429295

  11. Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is produced exclusively by adipose tissue and is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome scan of circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children. The present study included extended families with ...

  12. Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced exclusively by adipose tissue, is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children participating in the VVA...

  13. The role of adiponectin in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Edward; Rodrķguez-Molina, Daloha; Bolli, Peter; Israili, Zafar H; Farķa, Judith; Fidilio, Enzamarķa; Bermśdez, Valmore; Velasco, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    It has been two decades since the discovery of adiponectin, and today its role in insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are areas of major interest. Production of adiponectin is reduced in all inflammatory processes and states of insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin regulates carbohydrate metabolism, and may also regulate vascular homeostasis by affecting important signaling pathways in endothelial cells and modulating inflammatory responses in the subendothelial space. Clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between serum adiponectin concentrations and the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing changes in blood pressure. Antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been demonstrated to increase adiponectin levels in 3-6 months. Adiponectin has also been shown to play a role in cardiac injury in modulation of pro-survival reactions, cardiac energy metabolism, and inhibition of hypertrophic remodeling. The effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are believed to be partially mediated by the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways, reducing endothelial cell apoptosis, promoting nitric oxide production, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) activity, and preventing atherosclerotic proliferation and smooth muscle cell migration. Further evaluation of biologically active forms of adiponectin and its receptor should help to clarify how obesity affects the cardiovascular system. PMID:24924994

  14. Adiponectin Gene Is Expressed in Multiple Tissues in the Chicken: Food Deprivation Influences Adiponectin

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    on adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue, liver, ante- rior pituitary gland, and diencephalonRNA transcript in adipose tissue, liver, anterior pituitary gland, diencephalon, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney pituitary gland but not in diencephalon. Our results provide novel ev- idence that, unlike mammals

  15. Characterization of y-type high-molecular-weight glutenins in tetraploid species of Leymus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Pu, Zongjun; Dai, Shoufen; Pu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Bihua; Lan, Xiujin; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Yan, Zehong

    2014-02-01

    Three y-type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin gene open reading frames (ORFs), Chiy1, Chiy2, and Racy, were isolated and characterized from Leymus chinensis PI499516 and Leymus racemosus ssp. racemosus W623305. They shared an extra glutamine in the N-terminal and LAAQLPAMCRL peptides in the C-terminal with x-type HMW glutenins but had different N-terminal lengths. Like other y-type HMW glutenins, Chiy2 and Racy had 104 (or 105) amino acid (aa) residues at the N-terminal and started with EGEASR, whereas Chiy1 had 99 aa in this domain and started with QLQCER because of the deletion of EGEASR. Five other y-type glutenins, including those from Elymus ciliaris, Pseudoroegneria libanotica, and Leymus mollis, were similar to Chiy1. The ORF of Chiy2 was probably not expressed. The ORFs of both Chiy1 and Racy were expressed in bacteria. The maximum likelihood phylogenic tree based on the signal peptide and N-terminal and C-terminal aa residues revealed two clades of y-type HMW glutenins in Triticeae; the first contained Ay, By, Cy, Dy, Eey, Gy, Ky, Ry, Tay, and Uy, while the second clade contained the remaining y types, including those from Leymus. Within the second clade, HMW glutenins lacking the EGEASR peptide formed a subclade. These y-type HMW glutenins in Leymus could not be targeted to the Xm or Ns genome. PMID:24068388

  16. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Agropyron intermedium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1 ? 4 and Glu-1Aiy1 ? 3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  17. Identification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits from Agropyron intermedium

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1?4 and Glu-1Aiy1?3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  18. Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has been increasing worldwide. As in adults, childhood obesity is closely related to hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. Moreover, obese children have been found to be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. Obese children and adolescents tend to develop serious medical and psychosocial complications and also are at greater risk morbidity and mortality in adulthood. The molecular basis of the pathogenesis of obesity-linked disorders has not been fully elucidated. Adipose tissue serves not only as an energy storage organ, but also as an endocrine organ. It releases many factors with autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Adipokines such as leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, adipsin, visfatin, and adiponectin are biologically active molecules produced by adipose tissue. They play a role in energy homeostasis, and in glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin level, unlike that of other adipocytokines, is decreased in obesity and increased after weight reduction. Adiponectin has been associated with both central obesity and increased visceral adipose tissue and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and potent insulin-sensitizing (anti-diabetic) effects. PMID:21147643

  19. The effects of exercise and adipose tissue lipolysis on plasma adiponectin concentration and adiponectin receptor expression in human skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chamindie Punyadeera; Antoine H G Zorenc; Andrew J McAinch; Egbert Smit; Ralph Manders; Hans A Keizer; David Cameron-Smith; Luc J C van Loon

    2005-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that adiponectin regulates plasma free fatty acid (FFA) clearance by stimulating FFA uptake and\\/or oxidation in muscle. We aimed to determine changes in plasma adi- ponectin concentration and adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle during and after prolonged exercise under normal, fasting conditions (high FFA trial; HFA) and following pharmacological inhibition

  20. Adiponectin signals through Adiponectin Receptor 1 to reverse imatinib resistance in K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenghao; Zheng, Cuiping; Chen, Songyan; Lin, Bijing; Chen, Yuemiao; Zhou, Wenjin; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, a member of adipokines, is a functional ligand for Adiponectin Receptor-1 (AdipoR1) and Adiponectin Receptor-2 (AdipoR2), and has been found to be linked to the risk of CML. Imatinib has undoubtedly revolutionised the management and outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), however imatinib resistance has been recognized as a major problem in CML therapy. In this study, we first established imatinib-resistant K562 CML cells, and then evaluated the effect of Adiponectin in reversing imatinib resistance. The data presented here demonstrated that Adiponectin was able to reverse K562 resistance to imatinib in vitro and in vivo. Additional data with molecular approaches suggested that the reversion of Adiponectin in imatinib resistance signals through AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 to downregulate Bcr-Abl expression and effect in imatinib-resistant K562 CML cells. Taken together, our data showed that Adiponectin can reverse imatinib resistance in CML, and to a certain extent elucidate the mechanism of Adiponectin reversing imatinib resistance that may provide a new and promising approach in imatinib resistance management in CML therapy. PMID:25475722

  1. Adiponectin Action: A Combination of Endocrine and Autocrine/Paracrine Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadson, Keith; Liu, Ying; Sweeney, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and works in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin level and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectin’s beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways, and its principal physiological effects (i.e., metabolic and cardiovascular). The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed. PMID:22649379

  2. Development of isohomoeoallelic lines within the wheat cv. Courtot for high molecular weight glutenin subunits: transfer of the Glu-D1 locus to chromosome 1A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dumur; G. Branlard; A.-M. Tanguy; M. Dardevet; O. Coriton; V. Huteau; J. Lemoine; Joseph Jahier

    2009-01-01

    Wheat quality depends on protein composition and grain protein content. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play\\u000a an important role in determining the viscoelastic properties of gluten. In an attempt to improve the bread-making quality\\u000a of hexaploid wheat by elaborating novel HMW-GS combinations, a fragment of wheat chromosome 1D containing the Glu-D1 locus encoding the Dx2+Dy12 subunits was translocated to

  3. A pilot three-month sitagliptin treatment increases serum adiponectin level in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus- a randomized controlled trial START-J study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitors, including sitagliptin, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived circulating protein, has anti-atherosclerotic and anti-diabetic properties and is effectively elevated in bloodstream by thiazolidinediones, an insulin sensitizer. However, the effect of sitagliptin treatment on serum adiponectin level in T2DM has not fully elucidated in Japanese T2DM patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sitagliptin treatment on serum adiponectin levels in T2DM subjects. Methods Twenty-six consecutive Japanese T2DM outpatients were recruited between April 2011 and March 2013, and randomized into the control (conventional treatment, n?=?10) group and sitagliptin treatment group (n?=?16). Serum adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Indices of glycemic control, such as hemoglobin A1c, glycated albumin, and 1.5-anhydro-D-glucitol, were significantly improved after the three-month treatment in both the control and sitagliptin groups. Serum adiponectin level was significantly increased in sitagliptin group from 6.7?±?0.8 to 7.4?±?1.0 ?g/mL without change of body mass index (p?=?0.034), while serum adiponectin level was not altered in the control group (p?=?0.601). Conclusion In Japanese T2DM patients, serum adiponectin level was elevated by three-month treatment with sitagliptin without change of body weight. Trial registration UMIN000004721 PMID:24884787

  4. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on adiponectin levels and lipid profile in the ovariectomized-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Dost, Turhan; Kafkas, Samet; Gokalp, Filiz; Karul, Aslihan; Birincioglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and adiponectin and lipid profile in the ovariectomized-aged rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were first divided into two groups; control (C) and ovariectomized (OVX). Bilateral ovariectomy were carried out on rats (n = 30) except control group (n = 10). After 6 weeks from ovariectomy, ovariectomized rats were subdivided into three groups; one group received no treatment (OVX), two groups received low dose (OVX + Cap5; 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (OVX + Cap20; 20 mg/kg/day) captopril (Cap). Body weights were monitored weekly. Adiponectin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Results: In the OVX group, body weights increased (P < 0.001). In the OVX + Cap20 group, body weights significantly decreased compared with the OVX group during weeks 5 and 6 (P < 0.05). While adiponectin levels increased in the OVX + Cap5 group (P = 0.014), triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased in the OVX + Cap20 group (P = 0.016 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to the OVX group. HDL-C and VLDL-C levels decreased only in OVX + Cap20 group (P < 0.005). Conclusions: ACE inhibitors may be decreasing the ovariectomy-induced weight gain by increasing adiponectin levels, and by affecting lipid profiles. The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be playing an important role in the development of adiposity. PMID:24554906

  5. Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio (Tokuyama Soda Co., Ltd., Tokuyama-city (Japan))

    1993-11-05

    The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

  6. Leptin, Adiponectin, and Obesity among Caucasian and Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Shannon M.; Chai, Weiwen; Lim, Unhee; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI) among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants (P ? .01) across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin (? = 1.34 versus ? = 0.64) and with adiponectin (? = ?0.95 versus ? = ?0.75) than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin. PMID:21331287

  7. Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Risheng; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2013-01-01

    Almost 20 years have passed since the first laboratory evidence emerged that an abundant message encoding a protein with homology to the C1q superfamily is highly specifically expressed in adipocytes. At this stage, we refer to this protein as adiponectin. Despite more than 10,000 reports in the literature since its initial description, we seem to have written only the first chapter in the textbook on adiponectin physiology. With every new aspect we learn about adiponectin, a host of new questions arise with respect to the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we aim to summarize recent findings in the field and bring the rodent studies that suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin levels in plasma and systemic insulin sensitivity in perspective with the currently available data on the clinical side. PMID:24049728

  8. Regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes upon exposure to HIV-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of HIV-related lipodystrophy. The precise mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. In HIV-infected patients, we previously demonstrated a strong relationship between lipodystrophy and levels of adiponectin, an adipose...

  9. Generation of high frequency of novel alleles of the high molecular weight glutenin in somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Shuwei; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-04-01

    Somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) has generated fertile introgression progenies with novel combinations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). Most of these novel HMW-GS alleles were stably inherited. Sixteen HMW-GS sequences were PCR amplified from three introgression progeny lines and sequenced. The alignment of these sequences indicated that five, probably derived from point mutations of the parental genes, whereas eight likely represent the product of replication slippage. Three Glu-1Ay sequences appear to have lost the transposon presented in the parental gene. Two subunits carry an additional cysteine residue, which may be favorable to the quality of end-use product. We demonstrate that novel HMW-GS alleles can be rapidly generated via asymmetric somatic hybridization. PMID:19199095

  10. Lower Serum Adiponectin Levels in African-American Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikako Degawa-Yamauchi; Jason R. Dilts; Jason E. Bovenkerk; Chandan Saha; J. Howard Pratt; Robert V. Considine

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects, in relation to race or gender in younger subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: The relationship of adiponectin, quantitated by radioimmunoassay, to anthropometric and metabolic factors (fasting insulin, glucose, and leptin) and reproductive hormones was examined in 46 healthy African Americans (25 girls\\/21 boys) and 40 whites (20 girls\\/20 boys)

  11. Decreased plasma adiponectin concentration in patients with essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Adamczak; Andrzej Wi; Tohru Funahashi; Jerzy Chudek; Franciszek Kokot; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2003-01-01

    Adipocytes secrete several biologically active substances that are presumed to be involved in obesity-related hypertension. There are no reports that deal with the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and blood pressure (BP).To evaluate the role of adiponectin in essential hypertension 33 patients with essential hypertensive (EHP) (12 women, 21 men) and 33 body mass index-matched normotensive healthy subjects (NHS) (13

  12. Adiponectin and its receptors in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Kaser; A Moschen; A Cayon; A Kaser; J Crespo; F Pons-Romero; C F Ebenbichler; J R Patsch; H Tilg

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived polypeptide, has been shown to alleviate steatosis and inflammation in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.Aim: In the present study, we wished to define liver expression of adiponectin and its receptors in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or simple steatosis were investigated to test whether dysregulation of this system

  13. Gene Targeted Ablation of High Molecular Weight Fibroblast Growth Factor-2

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Mohamad; Yin, Moying; Zhou, Ming; Li, Hongqi; Mustafa, Marwan; Nusyr, Eyad; Keenan, Jack B.; Chen, Hwudaurw; Pawlosky, Sharon; Gard, Connie; Grisham, Christina; Sanford, L. Philip; Doetschman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is produced as high molecular weight isoforms (HMW) and a low molecular weight isoform (LMW) via alternative usage of translation start sites in a single Fgf2mRNA. Although the physiological function of FGF2 and FGF2 LMW has been investigated in myocardial capillarogenesis during normal cardiac growth, the role of FGF2 HMW has not been determined. Here we report the generation of FGF2 HMW-deficient mice in which FGF2 HMW isoforms are ablated by the Tag-and-Exchange gene targeting technique. These mice are normal and fertile with normal fecundity, and have a normal life span. Histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric analyses indicate normal myocardial architecture, blood vessel and cardiac capillary density in young adult FGF2 HMW-deficient mice. These mice along with the FGF2- and FGF2 LMW-deficient mice that we have generated previously will be very useful for elucidating the differential functions of FGF2 isoforms in patho-physiology of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19105223

  14. Allelic variation of the HMW glutenin subunits in Spanish accessions of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Caballero; L. M. Martin; J. B. Alvarez

    2001-01-01

    Spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.) is a hulled wheat of Germanic origin that survives at marginal areas in Asturias (Spain). The HMW glutenin\\u000a subunit composition of 403 accessions of spelt wheat from Spain has been analysed by SDS-PAGE. Three allelic variants were\\u000a detected for Glu-A1. For the Glu-B1 locus, two of seven alleles detected have not

  15. Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Kakali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2015-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25685286

  16. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States) [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  17. Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Kakali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25685286

  18. Adipokines influencing metabolic and cardiovascular disease are differentially regulated in maintenance hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Ziegelmeier; Anette Bachmann; Jeannette Seeger; Ulrike Lossner; Jürgen Kratzsch; Matthias Blüher; Michael Stumvoll; Mathias Fasshauer

    2008-01-01

    Adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and interleukin (IL)-6 significantly influence energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular health. In the current study, we investigated serum levels of these adipokines in diabetic and nondiabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MD) as compared with controls with a glomerular filtration rate greater than 50 mL\\/min. Serum leptin, adiponectin, high–molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and

  19. Characterization of novel HMW-GS in two diploid species of Eremopyrum.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shoufen; Pu, Zongjun; Liu, Dengcai; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Hu, Xinkun; Yan, Zehong

    2013-04-25

    Three HMW-GS and the respective ORFs from diploid species Eremopyrum distans and Eremopyrum triticeum were characterized. Compared to homologous proteins, they showed novel modifications in all domains. In the N-terminals, the y subunit from Er. triticeum (Xey) had 98 aa residues. A short G/IIFWGTS peptide deletion was responsible for the reduced number of aa residues. The end peptide in the y subunit from Er. distans (Fy) was IPTLLR. This unique structure was involved in a replacement between x types with IPA/TLLK/R and y types with R/TSSQTVQ. Both y subunits share the same short peptide LAAQLPAMCRL as x types in the C-terminals. Phylogenic relationships among orthologous genes from Triticeae species revealed that Fy and Xey were neither purely x type nor purely y type based on the N and C terminal residues. Divergence times indicated that Glu-Xe1 and Glu-F1 were separated from each other and that Glu-Xe1 separated from orthologous loci of wild wheat relatives earlier than Glu-F1. Based on the divergence times among Glu-F1, Glu-Xe1, Glu-O1, Glu-St1, and Glu-Ta1, it is possible that genome F separation from O, St, and Ta in species of Henrardia persica, Pseudoroegneria stipifolia, and Taeniatherum crinitum was more recent than the separation of F and Xe. PMID:23403230

  20. Metabolically Protective Cytokines Adiponectin and Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Are Increased by Acute Overfeeding in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Campbell, Lesley V.; Xu, Aimin; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    Context Circulating levels of metabolically protective and adverse cytokines are altered in obese humans and rodent models. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines are altered rapidly in response to over-nutrition, or as a later consequence of the obese state. Methods Forty sedentary healthy individuals were examined prior to and at 3 and 28 days of high fat overfeeding (+1250 kCal/day, 45% fat). Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp), adiposity, serum levels of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), lipocalin-2 and plasminogen activator factor-1 (PAI1) were assessed. Statistics were performed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results Overfeeding increased weight, body fat and liver fat, fasting glucose, insulin and reduced insulin sensitivity by clamp (all P <0.05). Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF21 were increased at day 3 of overfeeding (P ?0.001) and adiponectin was also elevated at day 28 (P=0.001). FABP4, lipocalin-2 and PAI-1 were not changed by overfeeding at either time point. Conclusion Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF-21, were increased by over nutrition and weight gain in healthy humans, despite increases in insulin resistance. We speculate that this was in attempt to maintain glucose homeostasis in a state of nutritional excess. PAI-I, FABP4 and lipocalin 2 were not altered by overfeeding suggesting that changes in these cytokines may be a later consequence of the obese state. Clinical trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00562393) PMID:24205333

  1. Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism

    E-print Network

    Liu, Qingqing

    The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. ...

  2. Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Bussiere, Marianne [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Dos Santos, Esther [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Leneveu, Marie-Christine [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Giudicelli, Yves [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)]. E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)

    2006-06-23

    It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

  3. Elevated Serum Leptin, Adiponectin and Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio Is Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cynthia Ciwei; Teo, Boon Wee; Tai, E. Shyong; Lim, Su Chi; Chan, Choong Meng; Sethi, Sunil; Wong, Tien Y.; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity) involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007–2011). CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 from serum creatinine. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using commercially available ELISA. Odds ratio of CKD associated with elevated adiponectin and leptin levels were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol. Results CKD cases had higher levels of leptin (mean [SD] 9.7 [11.5] vs.16.9 [20.2] ng/mL, p<0.0001) and adiponectin (10.4 [7.4] vs. 9.2 [4.2], p = 0.001) compared to controls. In multi-variable models, compared to those in the lowest quartile, the OR (95% confidence interval) of CKD among those in the highest quartile were: 6.46 (3.84, 10.88), 1.94 (1.32–2.85) and 2.88 (1.78–4.64) for leptin, adiponectin and LAR. Similar associations were also observed when adiponectin and leptin were analyzed as continuous variables. This positive association of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR with CKD was consistently present in subgroups of gender, ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension and overweight status (all P-interaction >0.1). Conclusions Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population. PMID:25793395

  4. The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  5. The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  6. The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamauchi; J. Kamon; H. Waki; Y. Terauchi; N. Kubota; K. Hara; Y. Mori; T. Ide; K. Murakami; N. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka; O. Ezaki; Y. Akanuma; O. Gavrilova; C. Vinson; M. L. Reitman; H. Kagechika; K. Shudo; M. Yoda; Y. Nakano; K. Tobe; R. Nagai; S. Kimura; M. Tomita; P. Froguel; T. Kadowaki

    2001-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin decreases insulin resistance by decreasing triglyceride content in muscle and

  7. Paradoxical Decrease of an Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Arita; Shinji Kihara; Noriyuki Ouchi; Masahiko Takahashi; Kazuhisa Maeda; Jun-ichiro Miyagawa; Kikuko Hotta; Iichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Nakamura; Koji Miyaoka; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Makoto Nishida; Shizuya Yamashita; Kosaku Okubo; Kenji Matsubara; Masahiro Muraguchi; Yasuichi Ohmoto; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

    1999-01-01

    We isolated the human adipose-specific and most abundant gene transcript, apM1 (Maeda, K., et al.,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.221, 286–289, 1996). The apM1 gene product was a kind of soluble matrix protein, which we named adiponectin. To quantitate the plasma adiponectin concentration, we have produced monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for human adiponectin and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. Adiponectin

  8. High-power DPSS Laser hosted on a HMW-THS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchetti, Maurizio

    2007-02-01

    The Hollow Metallic Winglets / HMW-THS, a turbo engine optimised for cooling electronics, handles large flows of energy, gas and air. Its heat exchanging shell, of huge area, tops the pressurised Can; the bottom fits a window. The hosted machine is built around a large inner gas distributor which integrates the main athermal structures. Considering the power levels, the ducting ease of both outer air-flows is as important and cuts noise. Two banks of hybrid mounted Laser Diodes / LDs, side or end feed each lasing Z-slab, thin and exposed to the cooling gas, which flows fast on both sides. The least path to reach the cooling gas minimises dT; to further reduce the thermal lensing effects, the local cooling can be tailored / spoiled to copy the heating density. The simplest optical etc layout is preferable but the current schemes and materials seem suitable; if required, the slab ends etc can be Brewster cut etc. The pumping section can sport a MOPA configuration to eases this function exploiting coherence. The inner pressure can be relevat but affects mildly only the outer window. Compactness and more degrees of symmetry lead to a natural athermal behaviour; the inner structure includes gas ducts dedicated to equalize its temperature. The neuter, clean He sports a top C P and flows easily; speed and pressure increase the heat removal rate and reduce dT; the fast cycle can be important. H II would spoil the HT / HR coatings and the electronics and generates water. Note that He was used to cool the largest AC generators. To improve the heat removal from hot spots or weak elements, a Thermo Electric cooler can yield local, sub-ambient temperature flows. A cycle including dedicated turbo stages, intercoolers and gas expansion suits larger critical sections.

  9. Clinical review: Adiponectin biology and its role in inflammation and critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine first described just over a decade ago. Produced almost exclusively by adipocytes, adiponectin circulates in high concentrations in human plasma. Research into this hormone has revealed it to have insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles. This review discusses the history, biology and physiological role of adiponectin and explores its role in disease, with specific focus on adiponectin in inflammation and sepsis. It appears that an inverse relationship exists between adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines. Low levels of adiponectin have been found in critically ill patients, although data are limited in human subjects at this stage. The role of adiponectin in systemic inflammation and critical illness is not well defined. Early data suggest that plasma levels of adiponectin are decreased in critical illness. Whether this is a result of the disease process itself or whether patients with lower levels of this hormone are more susceptible to developing a critical illness is not known. This observation of lower adiponectin levels then raises the possibility of therapeutic options to increase circulating adiponectin levels. The various options for modulation of serum adiponectin (recombinant adiponectin, thiazolidinediones) are discussed. PMID:21586104

  10. Decreased adiponectin and increased inflammation expression in epicardial adipose tissue in coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Zhou; Yutao Wei; Lei Wang; Xianguo Wang; Xinling Du; Zongquan Sun; Nianguo Dong; Xinzhong Chen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disorders of endocrine substances in epicardial adipose tissue are known causes of coronary artery disease (CAD). Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, expression of adiponectin in epicardial adipose tissue and its function in CAD pathogenesis is unclear. This study investigates adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue in CAD patients. METHODS: Vessels or adipose tissue samples collected from CAD

  11. Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in lean and obese subjects: correlations with insulin resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef V Silha; Michal Krsek; Jan V Skrha; Petr Sucharda; B L G Nyomba; Liam J Murphy

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Adipose tissue regulates insulin sensitivity via the circulating adipocytokines, leptin, resistin and adiponectin. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in lean and obese subjects and determine the relationship between circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods: We examined plasma levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in 17 lean subjects with a

  12. Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Barb; A Neuwirth; C S Mantzoros; S P Balk

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin has received much attention due to its beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, and epidemiologic studies have further shown an inverse association between adiponectin levels and risk for multiple tumors, which is independent of the IGF system or other risk factors. Previous studies have shown that adiponectin can activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in myocytes, hepatocytes, and adipocytes, suggesting that

  13. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Kol, Amir; Farkas, Amnon; Schenck, Patricia A

    2015-02-01

    Serum concentrations of adiponectin were compared between sex-matched hypothyroid (n?=?18) and euthyroid (n?=?18) client-owned dogs with comparable ages and body condition scores (BCS). Concentrations of adiponectin (mean; 95% confidence interval) were significantly (P?adiponectin were significantly negatively associated with concentrations of total thyroxine (P?<0.05) and positively correlated with concentrations of cholesterol (r?=?0.6, P?<0.01) in hypothyroid dogs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in dogs with hypothyroidism. Suggestive of the presence of resistance to adiponectin that could have contributed to development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in these dogs or alternatively, could be a consequence of these metabolic alterations. PMID:25555336

  14. Capillary electrophoresis separation of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and related species with phosphate-based buffers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yueming; Yu, Jianzhong; Jiang, Yi; Hu, Yingkao; Cai, Minhua; Hsam, Sai L K; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2003-05-01

    This study focused on optimizing phosphate-based buffers and other capillary electrophoresis (CE) parameters for separating and characterizing high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42), emmer (Triticum dicoccum, AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). The fast and high-resolution separation of HMW-GS was achieved using 0.1 M phosphate-glycine buffer (pH 2.5, containing 20% acetonitrile and 0.05% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) at 12.5 kV and 40 degrees C with 25 microm inside diameter (ID)x27 cm uncoated fused-silica capillary. In general, one sample separation can be analyzed in 15 min. The good run-to-run repeatable separation of HMW-GS could be obtained with a relative standard deviation of less than 1% when capillaries were rinsed with 1 M phosphoric acid for 2 min, followed by separation buffer for 2 min after each separation. The HMW-GS from some bread wheat cultivars as well as tetraploid and diploid accessions was separated by the CE method described above, and all subunits detected were well characterized and readily identified. Some HMW-GS showed reversed mobilities and elution order compared to the methods of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and SDS-CE. Particularly, most of the HMW-GS analyzed with the CE buffer used were separated into multiple peaks, generally a high peak plus a minor peak. CE appears to be capable of separating and characterizing HMW-GS with fast and high-resolution features, therefore it is expected to be useful for specific germplasm screening and desirable HMW-GS identification in wheat quality improvement. PMID:12731030

  15. Adiponectin: anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Molina, M T; Antuna-Puente, B

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that plays an essential role in regulating several metabolic functions through the secretion of biological mediators called "adipokines". Dysregulation of adipokines plays a crucial role in obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin (APN) is the most abundant adipokine accounting for the 0.01% of total serum protein, and is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology. APN plasma levels are reduced in individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, all traits with low-grade chronic inflammation. It is has been suggested that the absence of APN anti-inflammatory effects may be a contributing factor to this inflammation. APN inhibits the expression of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced endothelial adhesion molecules, macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, tumor necrosis factor-? expression in macrophages and adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. It also has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects, which play a role in its cardioprotective action. This review will focus on APN as an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective plasma protein. PMID:22796520

  16. The effect of anti-Rho(D) and non-specific immunoglobulins on monocyte Fc receptor function: the role of high molecular weight IgG polymers and IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Boughton, B J; Chakraverty, R K; Simpson, A; Smith, N

    1990-01-01

    Anti-Rho(D) immunoglobulin (anti-D) contained more high molecular weight (HMW) IgG polymers than intravenous non-specific immunoglobulin (i.v. Ig). The low-dose anti-D and high-dose i.v. Ig regimens used to treat idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) therefore contained similar total amounts of HMW IgG. In vitro, the HMW IgG polymers were more effective competitive inhibitors of monocyte phagocyte Fc receptors than monomeric IgG. The IgG subclass composition of anti-D and i.v. Ig were both similar to normal human plasma. We conclude that the HMW IgG content but not the IgG subclass composition of anti-D may explain its low-dose therapeutic efficacy in ITP. PMID:2160875

  17. Variant high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits arising from biolistic transformation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation via the biolistic method has been used to introduce genes encoding natural and novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into wheat. The appearance of new seed proteins of sizes not predicted by the transgene coding sequences has been noted in some of these exper...

  18. ASSOCIATION OF THE 276GT POLYMORPHISM OF THE ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN NONDIABETIC KOREANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin gene is known to modulate adiponectin levels and development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We wanted to determine whether two SNPs (45T>G/276G>T) at the adiponectin (ACDC) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and CVD risk factors in response to a we...

  19. Regulation of beta-cell viability and gene expression by distinct agonist fragments of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Brown, James E P; Conner, Alex C; Digby, Janet E; Ward, Kenya L; Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Randeva, Harpal S; Dunmore, Simon J

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Activation of the adiponectin receptors has a clear role in improving insulin resistance although conflicting evidence exists for its effects on pancreatic beta-cells. Previous reports have identified both adiponectin receptors (ADR-1 and ADR-2) in the beta-cell. Recent evidence has suggested that two distinct regions of the adiponectin molecule, the globular domain and a small N-terminal region, have agonist properties. This study investigates the effects of two agonist regions of adiponectin on insulin secretion, gene expression, cell viability and cell signalling in the rat beta-cell line BRIN-BD11, as well as investigating the expression levels of adiponectin receptors (ADRs) in these cells. Cells were treated with globular adiponectin and adiponectin (15-36) +/-leptin to investigate cell viability, expression of key beta-cell genes and ERK1/2 activation. Both globular adiponectin and adiponectin (15-36) caused significant ERK1/2 dependent increases in cell viability. Leptin co-incubation attenuated adiponectin (15-36) but not globular adiponectin induced cell viability. Globular adiponectin, but not adiponectin (15-36), caused a significant 450% increase in PDX-1 expression and a 45% decrease in LPL expression. ADR-1 was expressed at a higher level than ADR-2, and ADR mRNA levels were differentially regulated by non-esterified fatty acids and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor agonists. These data provide evidence of roles for two distinct adiponectin agonist domains in the beta-cell and confirm the potentially important role of adiponectin receptor agonism in maintaining beta-cell mass. PMID:20156502

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Weight Loss and Regain on Cytokine Concentration in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ambeba, Erica J.; Styn, Mindi A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Evans, Rhobert W.; Burke, Lora E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns of weight loss and regain and their effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-?, and anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and IL-10 during a 24-month weight loss trial. Materials/Methods Participants were obese adults (N = 66) who lost and regained ?10 lbs during a 24-month clinical trial of behavioral weight loss treatment. Measurements of cytokines and weight were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to determine percent change in weight and cytokines from baseline. Results The sample was predominantly female (80.3%) and White (86.4%), with a mean age of 48.4 ± 7.3 years and mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.4 kg/m2. At baseline, men had higher waist circumference, body weight, and energy intake, and lower percent body fat and adiponectin. The largest decrease in weight was observed at 6 months with a mean 11% decrease (p < .0001). A significant gender-by-weight change interaction on percent change in adiponectin was observed [b(se) = 0.9 (0.2), p = .0003], with men having a larger increase in adiponectin with weight loss compared to women. There was a significant effect of weight gain over time with increases in IL-6 [b(se) = 0.9 (0.3), p = .001]. Conclusions Overall, weight loss was significantly associated with improvements in adiponectin and IL-6. Those improvements remained at 24 months, following weight regain. The association between weight change and adiponectin was different between genders. Implementing strategies that support sustained weight loss can help prevent a state of chronic systemic inflammation and its associated adverse effects. PMID:23725640

  1. Feline adiponectin: molecular structures and plasma concentrations in obese cats.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Katsumi; Omachi, Asako; Sasaki, Noriyasu; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masayuki

    2009-02-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that is specifically expressed in adipose tissues, directly sensitizes the body to insulin via specific receptors and its decreased plasma concentration is responsible for insulin resistance in obese humans. Diabetes is an important problem also in veterinary medicine, and feline diabetes is very similar to human type 2 diabetes, in which obesity is an important risk factor. In the present study, We obtained cDNA clones corresponding to feline adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 1 (AD-R1), whose nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were highly identical to those of other species, especially, the extra-cellular domain of feline AD-R1 was almost identical to that of human AD-R1. Adiponectin mRNA was exclusively detected in the adipose tissue, but AD-R1 was in all tissues tested in this study. Next, plasma samples were collected from 22 cats visiting veterinary practices. They were divided to 2 groups based on a five-point scale body condition score (BCS), such as normal group (BCS ranged from 2.5 through 3.5) and obese group (BCS ranged from 4.0 through 5.0). Plasma adiponectin in obese cats (7.2 +/- 1.5 microg/ml) was significantly lower than that of normal cats (18.0 +/- 3.2 microg/ml). These results suggest that adiponectin may be responsible for insulin function also in the cat, and it can be a target molecule for treatment of obesity and diabetes in cats. PMID:19262030

  2. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  3. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    PubMed Central

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim D.; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John D.; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM—low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10–1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions. PMID:25368867

  4. Expression of brain adiponectin in a murine model of transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lin-Hui; Miao, Jie; Zhao, Ya-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adiponectin is a hormone that is mainly secreted by fat cells. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, and a protective effect against ischemic brain injury, but the level of expression of adiponectin in brain tissue is unknown. In the current study, a mouse model of transient cerebral ischemia was used to determine the level of expression of adiponectin in ischemic brain tissue. Methods: Sixty CD-1 mice underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The level of expression of adiponectin in mouse brain tissues 1 hour, 4 hours, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days, after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were determined using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results: The level of expression of adiponectin in mouse ischemic brain tissues increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and was higher in the central area of ischemia than in the peripheral area. The level of expression of adiponectin occurred only in vascular endothelial cells. There was no significant change in the level of expression of adiponectin mRNA in brain tissue pre- and post-ischemia/reperfusion injury. Conclusion: After cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, adiponectin accumulated in the vascular endothelial cells of ischemic brain tissues, and non-endogenous adiponectin was generated. Circulating adiponectin accumulated in ischemic brain tissues through its role in adhering to damaged vascular endothelial cells. PMID:25550990

  5. ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 Polymorphisms in Relation to Serum Adiponectin Levels and BMI in Black and White Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah S. Cohen; Marilie D. Gammon; Kari E. North; Robert C. Millikan; Ethan M. Lange; Scott M. Williams; Wei Zheng; Qiuyin Cai; Jirong Long; Jeffrey R. Smith; Lisa B. Signorello; William J. Blot; Charles E. Matthews

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein with influence on several physiologic pathways including those related to insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Adiponectin levels are highly heritable and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined in relation to circulating adiponectin levels and obesity phenotypes, but despite differences in adiponectin levels and obesity prevalence by race, few

  6. Augmented Plasma Adiponectin after Prolonged Fasting During Ramadan in Men

    PubMed Central

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Rasuli, Javad; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting during Ramadan entails major changes in metabolism and energy expenditure. This study sought to determine effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) as two inter-related peptides involved in cells sensitivity to insulin and glucose metabolism. Methods: Total of seventy healthy men, with age range equal or greater than 30, with at least three type2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk factors were selected. Serum lipid profile, anthropometric indices and plasma glucose levels were determined using conventional methods. Also, serum adiponectin and TNF- ? concentra­tions were assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Ramadan fasting resulted in a significant increase of serum adiponectin (P< 0.000), fasting glucose (P< 0.000) and triglycride (P< 0.001). Body mass index was lowered during the fasting (P< 0.000). Finally, no remarkable decrease was found in serum TNF-? levels (P= 0.100). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting resulted in augmented adipo­nectin levels which may help in improving metabolic stress induced by insulin resistance in men with predisposing factors of type2 DM. PMID:25097840

  7. Resistin, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Leptin, and Proinflammatory Cytokines: Relationships in Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Vendrell; Montserrat Broch; Nuria Vilarrasa; Ana Molina; Jose Manuel Gómez; Cristina Gutiérrez; Immaculada Simón; Joan Soler; Cristóbal Richart

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate interactions among leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs), interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in nonmorbid and morbid obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: We measured these hormones by immunoenzyme or radiometric assays in 117 nonmorbid and 57 morbidly obese patients, and in a subgroup of 34 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after gastric bypass

  8. Occupational Exposure to High Molecular Weight Allergens and Lymphoma Risk Among Italian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zock, Jan-Paul; D'Errico, Angelo; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Miligi, Lucia; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Vineis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens that provoke immune reactivity through an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated pathway has been associated with a decreased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The present analysis was conducted to assess the associations between occupational exposure to specific HMW allergens and the risk of B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods We analyzed data from 2290 incident lymphoma cases and 1771 population-based controls enrolled in a multi-center study of hematolymphopoietic malignancies conducted in Italy between 1991 and 1993. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed. Controls were frequency-matched to cases based on age, sex, and study center. An industrial hygienist evaluated HMW occupational exposure classifications after an asthma-specific job exposure matrix was applied to participants' job histories. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between occupational exposures that occurred ?10 years before the date of lymphoma diagnosis and B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Results Ten percent of cases and 11 percent of controls were occupationally exposed to HMW allergens. Exposed individuals had a decreased risk for all lymphomas combined (odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.97), particularly for B-cell lymphomas (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.94). The decreased risks for all lymphomas were also observed when HMW allergen exposure was limited to animal and latex allergens. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to immunologically active HMW allergens is inversely associated with the risk for lymphoma. The effect of exposure to specific allergens warrants further assessment. PMID:19755650

  9. Adiponectin Regulation of Stellate Cell Activation via PPAR?-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Mahnoush S.; Shetty, Shoba; Scherer, Philipp E.; Rockey, Don C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which adiponectin modulates hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice receiving thioacetamide were resistant to fibrosis, compared with controls. In contrast, adiponectin-null animals developed severe fibrosis. Expression of collagen ?1(I) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) mRNAs were significantly lower in adiponectin-overexpressing mice, compared with controls. In wild-type stellate cells exposed to a lentivirus encoding adiponectin, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), SREBP1c, and CEBP? mRNAs was significantly increased (3.2-, 4.1-, and 2.2-fold, respectively; n = 3; P < 0.05, adiponectin virus versus control), consistent with possible activation of an adipogenic transcriptional program. Troglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, strongly suppressed up-regulation of collagen ?1(I) and ?-SMA mRNA in stellate cells isolated from wild-type mice; however, stellate cells from adiponectin-null animals failed to respond to troglitazone. Furthermore, in isolated stellate cells in which PPAR? was depleted using an adenovirus-Cre-recombinase system and in which adiponectin was also overexpressed, collagen ?1(I) and ?-SMA were significantly inhibited. We conclude that the PPAR? effect on stellate cell activation and the fibrogenic cascade appears to be adiponectin-dependent; however, the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on stellate cell activation was not dependent on PPAR?, suggesting the presence of PPAR?-dependent as well as independent pathways in stellate cells. PMID:21641391

  10. Adiponectin modulates focal adhesion disassembly in activated hepatic stellate cells: implication for reversing hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Mells, Jamie E; Thorn, Natalie E; Saxena, Neeraj K; Anania, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Previous evidence indicates that adiponectin possesses antifibrogenic activity in inhibiting liver fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies, however, are limited by adiponectin quaternary structure and effective concentrations in circulation. Here we postulate a novel molecular mechanism, whereby adiponectin targets focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity and disrupts key features of the fibrogenic response. Adiponectin-null (Ad(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were exposed to either saline or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6 wk. CCl4-gavaged mice were also injected with attenuated adenoviral adiponectin (Ad-Adn) or Ad-LacZ for 2 wk. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were treated with or without adiponectin to elucidate signal transduction mechanisms. In vivo delivery of Ad-Adn markedly attenuates CCl4-induced expression of key integrin proteins and markers of HSC activation: ?v, ?3, ?1, ?2(I) collagen, and ?-smooth muscle actin. Confocal experiments of liver tissues demonstrated that adiponectin delivery also suppressed vinculin and p-FAK activity in activated HSCs. In vitro, adiponectin induced dephosphorylation of FAK, mediated by a physical association with activated tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2. Conversely, Shp2 knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuated adiponectin-induced FAK deactivation, and expression of TIMP1 and ?2(I) collagen was abolished in the presence of adiponectin and si-FAK. Finally, we documented that either adiponectin or the synthetic peptide with adiponectin properties, ADP355, suppressed p-FAK in synthetic matrices with stiffness measurements of 9 and 15 kPa, assessed by immunofluorescent imaging and quantitation. The in vivo and in vitro data presented indicate that disassembly of focal adhesion complexes in HSCs is pivotal for hepatic fibrosis therapy, now that small adiponectin-like peptides are available. PMID:25154876

  11. Adiponectin Reduces Hepatic Stellate Cell Migration by Promoting Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Secretion.

    PubMed

    Ramezani-Moghadam, Mehdi; Wang, Jianhua; Ho, Vikki; Iseli, Tristan J; Alzahrani, Badr; Xu, Aimin; Van der Poorten, David; Qiao, Liang; George, Jacob; Hebbard, Lionel

    2015-02-27

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are central players in liver fibrosis that when activated, proliferate, migrate to sites of liver injury, and secrete extracellular matrix. Obesity, a known risk factor for liver fibrosis is associated with reduced levels of adiponectin, a protein that inhibits liver fibrosis in vivo and limits HSC proliferation and migration in vitro. Adiponectin-mediated activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits HSC proliferation, but the mechanism by which it limits HSC migration to sites of injury is unknown. Here we sought to elucidate how adiponectin regulates HSC motility. Primary rat HSCs were isolated and treated with adiponectin in migration assays. The in vivo actions of adiponectin were examined by treating mice with carbon tetrachloride for 12 weeks and then injecting them with adiponectin. Cell and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression, signaling, and histology. Serum from patients with liver fibrosis was examined for adiponectin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein. Adiponectin administration into mice increased TIMP-1 gene and protein expression. In cultured HSCs, adiponectin promoted TIMP-1 expression and through binding of TIMP-1 to the CD63/?1-integrin complex reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase to limit HSC migration. In mice with liver fibrosis, adiponectin had similar effects and limited focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Finally, in patients with advanced fibrosis, there was a positive correlation between serum adiponectin and TIMP-1 levels. In sum, these data show that adiponectin stimulates TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs to retard their migration and contributes to the anti-fibrotic effects of adiponectin. PMID:25575598

  12. Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Roh, Ji won

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers’ eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was 23.6 ± 9.2 pg/ml, higher than that of current smokers (20.4 ± 6.1) and individuals who had never smoked (22.4 ± 5.8) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660, ? value = ?0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827, ? value = ?0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622, ? value = 0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895, ? value = 0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are risk factors for MetS and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071918

  13. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

  14. DIFFERENTIATION OF ALLELIC VARIATIONS OF THE HMW GLUTENIN SUBUNITS OF WHEAT FLOURS BY USE OF MIXING PARAMETERS AND POLYMERIC PROTEIN CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk and OK102, each with four different lines of differing HMW-GS composition were analyzed. The mixing parameters from a 10-g mixograph were utilized to discriminate among different cultivars as well as differen...

  15. Differentiation of allelic variations of the HMW glutenin subunits of wheat flours by use of mixing parameters and polymeric protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk (CK) and OK102, each with four lines differing in HMW-GS composition were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis of mixograph parameters. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify signific...

  16. Ultrastructural Localization of Adiponectin protein in Vasculature of Normal and Atherosclerotic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takuya; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Norikazu; Nakamura, Yukiko; Fujishima, Yuya; Matsuda, Keisuke; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimada, Shoichi; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin, adipose-specific secretory protein, abundantly circulates in bloodstream and its concentration is around 1000-fold higher than that of other cytokines and hormones. Hypoadiponectinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is little or no information on ultrastructural localization of adiponectin in the vasculature. Herein we investigated the localization of vascular adiponectin in the aorta using the immunoelectron microscopic technique. In wild-type (WT) mice, adiponectin was mainly detected on the luminal surface membrane of endothelial cells (ECs) and also found intracellularly in the endocytic vesicles of ECs. In the atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice, adiponectin was detected in ECs, on the cell surface membrane of synthetic smooth muscle cells, and on the surface of monocytes adherent to ECs. Changes in adiponectin localization within the wall of the aorta may provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24809933

  17. What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of insulin resistance or obesity. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine. There is evidence that adiponectin decreases hepatic and systematic insulin resistance, and attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Adiponectin generally predicts steatosis grade and the severity of NAFLD; however, to what extent this is a direct effect or related to the presence of more severe insulin resistance or obesity remains to be addressed. Although there is no proven pharmacotherapy for the treatment of NAFLD, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the indirect upregulation of adiponectin through the administration of various therapeutic agents and/or lifestyle modifications. In this adiponectin-focused review, the pathogenetic role and the potential therapeutic benefits of adiponectin in NAFLD are analyzed systematically. PMID:23430039

  18. What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-02-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of insulin resistance or obesity. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine. There is evidence that adiponectin decreases hepatic and systematic insulin resistance, and attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Adiponectin generally predicts steatosis grade and the severity of NAFLD; however, to what extent this is a direct effect or related to the presence of more severe insulin resistance or obesity remains to be addressed. Although there is no proven pharmacotherapy for the treatment of NAFLD, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the indirect upregulation of adiponectin through the administration of various therapeutic agents and/or lifestyle modifications. In this adiponectin-focused review, the pathogenetic role and the potential therapeutic benefits of adiponectin in NAFLD are analyzed systematically. PMID:23430039

  19. Evidence favoring the existence of two high molecular weight precursor forms of dog kidney renin.

    PubMed

    Potter, D M; Dunn, P M; McDonald, W J

    1979-08-01

    Extraction of canine renal cortical tissue at pH 7.4 in the presence of the protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate (0.2 mM), Na2EDTA (7.8 mM), sodium tetrathionate (7.8 mM). N-ethyl maleimide (7.8 mM) yielded renin activity in two high molecular weight (HMW) forms, 65,000 (65K) and 55,000 (55K). Serial gel filtration chromatography of such extracts stored at 4 C showed that over the course of 2 days, activity at both 65,000 and 55,000 decreased almost entirely, while low molecular weight (LMW) activity at 41,000 (41K), not present immediately after extraction, had appeared in the extracts, The renin activity of the extract doubled over the first 24 h of storage and remained stable over the next 24 h. The activity of all three renin forms was comparably inhibited by antirenin antibodies. Our results support the concept that HMW renin(s) is a biological precursor of 41K renin. The new finding of a renin form intermediate in apparent molecular weight between 65K and 41K renin suggests that proteolytic processing of HMW to LMW renin may involve more than one step. The fact that in vitro conversion of HMW to LMW renin will occur under these conditions but takes place slowly may provide a technique for the future study of the precise manner in which HMW is converted to LMW renin. PMID:456314

  20. Regulation of beta-cell viability and gene expression by distinct agonist fragments of adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. P. Brown; Alex C. Conner; Janet E. Digby; Manjunath Ramanjaneya; Harpal S. Randeva; Simon J. Dunmore

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Activation of the adiponectin receptors has a clear role in improving insulin resistance although conflicting evidence exists for its effects on pancreatic beta-cells. Previous reports have identified both adiponectin receptors (ADR-1 and ADR-2) in the beta-cell. Recent evidence has suggested that two distinct regions of the adiponectin molecule, the globular

  1. Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José-Manuel Fernandez-Real; Michel Pugeat; Abel López-Bermejo; Hubert Bornet; Wifredo Ricart

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene—Apm1—encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin

  2. The Multi-Level Action of Fatty Acids on Adiponectin Production by Fat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Shakun; Chakrabarti, Partha; Huang, Guanrong; Wang, Hong; Farmer, Stephen R.; Kandror, Konstantin V.

    2011-01-01

    Current epidemics of diabetes mellitus is largely caused by wide spread obesity. The best-established connection between obesity and insulin resistance is the elevated and/or dysregulated levels of circulating free fatty acids that cause and aggravate insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other hazardous metabolic conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPAR? and C/EBP?. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBP?-null mice, we have determined that the latter transcription factor may not solely mediate the inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription leaving PPAR? as a likely target of palmitate. In agreement with this model, palmitate increases phosphorylation of PPAR? on Ser273, and substitution of PPAR? for the unphosphorylated mutant Ser273Ala blocks the effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription. The inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin gene expression requires its intracellular metabolism via the acyl-CoA synthetase 1-mediated pathway. In addition, we found that palmitate stimulates degradation of intracellular adiponectin by lysosomes, and the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, suppressed the effect of palmitate on adiponectin release from adipocytes. We present evidence suggesting that the intracellular sorting receptor, sortilin, plays an important role in targeting of adiponectin to lysosomes. Thus, palmitate not only decreases adiponectin expression at the level of transcription but may also stimulate lysosomal degradation of newly synthesized adiponectin. PMID:22140527

  3. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

  4. Adiponectin: a biomarker of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ying Lu; Kuo-Chin Huang; Lin-Chau Chang; Ying-Shing Huang; Yu-Chiao Chi; Ta-Chan Su; Chi-Ling Chen; Wei-Shiung Yang

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most thoroughly studied adipocytokines. Low plasma levels of adiponectin are found to associate\\u000a with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and many other human diseases. From animal experiments and human studies, adiponectin\\u000a has been shown to be a key regulator of insulin sensitivity. In this article, we review the evidence and propose that hypo-adiponectinemia\\u000a is not a

  5. Plasma Concentrations of a Novel, Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kikuko Hotta; Tohru Funahashi; Yukio Arita; Masahiko Takahashi; Morihiro Matsuda; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Hiromi Iwahashi; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Noriyuki Ouchi; Kazuhisa Maeda; Makoto Nishida; Shinji Kihara; Naohiko Sakai; Tadahisa Nakajima; Kyoichi Hasegawa; Masahiro Muraguchi; Yasukazu Ohmoto; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.660.4

  6. Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  7. Effects of DGAT1 deficiency on energy and glucose metabolism are independent of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Streeper, Ryan S.; Koliwad, Suneil K.; Villanueva, Claudio J.; Farese, Robert V.

    2006-01-01

    Mice lacking acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in triacylglycerol synthesis, have enhanced insulin sensitivity and are protected from obesity, a result of increased energy expenditure. In these mice, factors derived from white adipose tissue (WAT) contribute to the systemic changes in metabolism. One such factor, adiponectin, increases fatty acid oxidation and enhances insulin sensitivity. To test the hypothesis that adiponectin is required for the altered energy and glucose metabolism in DGAT1-deficient mice, we generated adiponectin-deficient mice and introduced adiponectin deficiency into DGAT1-deficient mice by genetic crosses. Although adiponectin-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were heavier, exhibited worse glucose tolerance, and had more hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation than wild-type controls, mice lacking both DGAT1 and adiponectin, like DGAT1-deficient mice, were protected from diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. These findings indicate that adiponectin is required for normal energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism but that the metabolic changes induced by DGAT1-deficient WAT are independent of adiponectin and are likely due to other WAT-derived factors. Our findings also suggest that the pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 may be useful for treating human obesity and insulin resistance associated with low circulating adiponectin levels. PMID:16595853

  8. The good fat hormone: Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dat Do; Jorge Alvarez; Elaine Chiquette; Robert Chilton

    2006-01-01

    New treatments for heart disease continue to be of paramount importance. The newest pandemic facing us is the rise of obesity\\u000a and diabetes. One new area of research in the field of metabolism is the hormone adiponectin, which is secreted by fat cells.\\u000a For the most part, this compound seems more likely to be a part of basic science—oriented research;

  9. High serum adiponectin concentration in children with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina F. Möller; Christina Dieterman; Lena Herich; Ilka A. Klaassen; Markus J. Kemper; Dirk E. Müller-Wiefel

    Adiponectin (ADPN) counteracts the inflammatory response of the endothelium, which plays an important role in the development\\u000a of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data in children with CKD are scarce. We examined serum\\u000a ADPN concentration in 90 children with various renal disorders: 28 with CKD on conservative treatment (CKD), 21 on regular\\u000a dialysis treatment (D), and 41

  10. Taurine supplementation prevents ethanol-induced decrease in serum adiponectin and reduces hepatic steatosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M.; Tang, Hui; McMullen, Megan M.; Axhemi, Armend; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding decreases expression of adiponectin by adipocytes and circulating adiponectin. Adiponectin treatment during chronic ethanol feeding prevents liver injury in mice. Chronic ethanol feeding also increases oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in adipose tissue. Here we tested the hypothesis that supplemental taurine, an amino acid that functions as a chemical chaperone/osmolyte and enhances cellular anti-oxidant activity, would prevent ethanol-induced decreases in adiponectin expression and attenuate liver injury. Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased as early as 4–7 days after feeding rats a 36% ethanol diet. This rapid decrease was associated with increased oxidative, but not ER, stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Taurine prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress and increased inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue. Ethanol feeding also rapidly decreased expression of transcription factors regulating adiponectin expression (C/EBP?, PPAR? and PPAR?) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Taurine prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in C/EBP? and PPAR? normalizing adiponectin mRNA and serum adiponectin concentrations. In the liver, taurine prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress and attenuated TNF-? expression and steatosis, at least in part, by increasing expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion In subcutaneous adipose tissue, taurine decreased ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cytokine expression, as well as normalized expression of adiponectin mRNA. Taurine prevented ethanol-induced decreases in serum adiponectin; normalized adiponectin was associated with a reduction in hepatic oxidative stress, TNF-? expression and steatosis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that taurine has important protective effects against ethanol-induced tissue injury in both adipose and liver. PMID:19296466

  11. Anthocyanin increases adiponectin secretion and protects against diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yuhua; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2014-04-15

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-secreted adipokine with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study, we evaluated a potential role for adiponectin in the protective effects of anthocyanin on diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction. We treated db/db mice on a normal diet with anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside (C3G; 2 g/kg diet) for 8 wk. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations of the aorta were then evaluated. Adiponectin expression and secretion were also measured. C3G treatment restores endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in db/db mice, whereas diabetic mice treated with an anti-adiponectin antibody do not respond. C3G treatment induces adiponectin expression and secretion in cultured 3T3 adipocytes through transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1). Silencing Foxo1 expression prevented C3G-stimulated induction of adiponectin expression. In contrast, overexpression of Foxo1-ADA promoted adiponectin expression in adipocytes. C3G activates Foxo1 by increasing its deacetylation via silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1). Furthermore, purified anthocyanin supplementation significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Changes in adiponectin concentrations positively correlated with FMD in the anthocyanin group. Mechanistically, adiponectin activates cAMP-PKA-eNOS signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells, increasing endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. These results demonstrate that adipocyte-derived adiponectin is required for anthocyanin C3G-mediated improvement of endothelial function in diabetes. PMID:24595303

  12. Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ippei Kanazawa; Toru Yamaguchi; Shozo Yano; Mika Yamauchi; Masahiro Yamamoto; Toshitsugu Sugimoto

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. RESULTS: Adiponectin

  13. Advances in the field of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, Robert A.; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Summary Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in?depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR?1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four? and five?ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation. PMID:21255317

  14. High molecular weight glutenin subunit variation in Triticum turgidum var. dicoccum.

    PubMed

    Vallega, V; Waines, J G

    1987-10-01

    Variation in high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit composition among 167 accessions of dicoccum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccum Schrank) of diverse origins was investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A total of 20 alleles were identified, and 9 of them were found to be different from those previously detected by Payne and Lawrence (1983 b) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The newly discovered alleles enhance the genetic variability available to improve the industrial quality of wheats and some of them may facilitate basic research on the relationship of industrial quality with HMW glutenin subunit number. The novel variants include a GLU-A1 encoded subunit which has higher molecular mass than any other so far described in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats, and a 'null' GLU-B1 allele. Dicoccums containing neither GLU-A1- nor GLU-B1-encoded subunits were also identified. A comparison of the mean number of HMW glutenin subunits contained in various primitive and modern domesticated wheats of different ploidy levels and the identification of wheats containing no HMW glutenin subunits suggest that the occurrence of 'null' GLU-1 alleles in these species depends on chance rather on an inherent tendency on the part of modern polyploid wheats to suppress the activity of redundant GLU-1 genes. PMID:24240328

  15. Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, B.; Alling, V.; Humborg, C.; Korth, F.; Mörth, C. M.

    2012-11-01

    To test the hypothesis whether high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter, 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as ?13C values of HMW-DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial DOM in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total HMW-DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM reaching the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations, our results indicate that substantial amounts of HMW-DOM (> 50%) seem to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.8, 3.0, and 4.5 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

  16. Macrophage polarization phenotype regulates adiponectin receptor expression and adiponectin anti-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    van Stijn, Caroline M W; Kim, Jason; Lusis, Aldons J; Barish, Grant D; Tangirala, Rajendra K

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (APN), a pleiotropic adipokine that exerts anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antiatherogenic effects through its receptors (AdipoRs), AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, is an important therapeutic target. Factors regulating AdipoR expression in monocyte/macrophages are poorly understood, and the significance of polarized macrophage activation in controlling AdipoR expression and the APN-mediated inflammatory response has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the macrophage polarization phenotype controls the AdipoR expression and APN-mediated inflammatory response. With the use of mouse bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages, we demonstrate that classical activation (M1) of macrophages suppressed (40-60% of control) AdipoR expression, whereas alternative activation (M2) preserved it. Remarkably, the macrophage polarization phenotypes produced contrasting inflammatory responses to APN (EC50 5 µg/ml). In M1 macrophages, APN induced proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12 (>10-fold of control) and AdipoR levels. In contrast, in M2 macrophages, APN induced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering AdipoR expression. Furthermore, M1 macrophages adapt to a cytokine environment by reversing AdipoR expression. APN induced AdipoR mRNA and protein expression by up-regulating liver X receptor-? (LXR?) in macrophages. These results provide the first evidence that macrophage polarization is a key determinant regulating AdipoR expression and differential APN-mediated macrophage inflammatory responses, which can profoundly influence their pathogenic role in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. PMID:25392268

  17. Globular adiponectin but not full-length adiponectin induces increased procoagulability in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Antoniak, Silvio; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Rauch, Ursula

    2008-02-01

    Adiponectin (APN), a recently discovered adipocytokine, is present in human serum in a full length (fAPN) and a globular form (gAPN). gAPN is a proteolytic cleavage product of fAPN and seems to show independent biological activities compared to the properties of fAPN. The influence of gAPN and fAPN on procoagulability of cells is still unknown. This study examined the effect of gAPN and fAPN on the expression of tissue factor (TF), the initiator of the extrinsic coagulation system, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TF activity was measured by a chromogenic assay, TF mRNA by real-time PCR and TF protein by western blot. We found TF activity to be increased after activation by gAPN (3 microg/mL) compared to a non-stimulated control (169.0+/-19.23 U versus 501.9+/-38.95 U, p<0.001). Furthermore, TF mRNA and TF protein was increased dose-dependently after gAPN stimulation. The gAPN-induced rise of TF activity and TF mRNA was significantly reduced by inhibition of the MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Contrary to gAPN, stimulation with fAPN did not lead to these procoagulant effects. In conclusion, gAPN increased TF transcription, expression and activity in HUVECs. Therefore, our data support the theory that gAPN but not fAPN supports the cellular procoagulability via TF upregulation. PMID:18054040

  18. High-resolution identification of human adiponectin oligomers and regulation by pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients

    E-print Network

    Wysocki, Vicki H.

    High-resolution identification of human adiponectin oligomers and regulation by pioglitazone, adiponectin trimers in human and rodent plasma were found to migrate as two distinct populations adiponectin concentration has been proposed as a bio- marker for metabolic disorders and glycemic control

  19. MOLAR FRACTIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT GLUTENINS SUBUNITS ARE STABLE WHEN WHEAT IS GROWN UNDER VARIOUS MINERAL NUTRITION AND TEMPERATURE REGIMENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molar ratios of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were determined for flour from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Butte86) produced under 13 different combinations of temperature, water and mineral nutrition. Despite great differences in duration of grain fill, total protein ...

  20. TRANSGENIC WHEATS WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF DX5 AND/OR DY10 HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS YIELD DOUGHS WITH INCREASED MIXING STRENGTH AND TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to test the effects of independently increasing the in vivo levels of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) Dx5 and Dy10 on wheat flour properties, we increased the copy numbers of their corresponding genes by genetic transformation. Thirteen transformants with increases in one o...

  1. An asparagines residue at the N-terminus affects the maturation process of low molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) glutenin polymers are of two main types, high- (HMW-GS) and low- (LMW-GS) molecular weight subunits. The most common are the latter, based on the first amino acid of the mature sequence, are known as LMW-m and LMW-s types. They differ as a result of three extra amino acids (MET...

  2. DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique wit...

  3. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FASTING SERUM ADIPONECTIN IN HISPANIC CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties, adiponectin may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic and environmental factors influencing fasting serum adiponectin were investigated in 805 Hispanic non-overweight and ...

  4. L-4F treatment reduces adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    and the associated insu- lin resistance and changes in serum levels of adiponectin, suggesting that increases in ROS.001). L-4F treatment increased serum adiponectin levels (P , 0.037) and de- creased adipogenesis in mouse oxidation, liver insulin action, and glucose uptake and positively affect serum triglyceride levels (12

  5. Serum Adiponectin and Resistin Levels in de Novo and Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Children Patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-BAZ, Hatim A; MOSA, Tamer E; ELABD, Elham M; RAMADAN, Amal; ELHAROUN, Ahmed S; ELMORSY, Elsayed A; FOUDA, Manal I

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue secretes a large number of adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Many of these hormones and cytokines are altered in obese individuals and may lead to disruption of the normal balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of our work was to investigate the disturbance of secretion of adiponectin and resistin in de novo and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Egyptian children and determine whether adiponectin and resistin are implicated in increased risk relapse compared to healthy individuals. Methods: Measurements of adiponectin and resistin were performed at diagnosis, in 32 patients with de novo ALL aged 3 to 18 years (mean 9.8 y) and 19 children with relapsed ALL aged 5 to 17 (mean 9.9 yr). 10 apparently healthy children with matched age and sex were used as controls. Results: Mean adiponectin levels were low (P < 0.05), whereas mean resistin levels were high (P<0.05) at diagnosis and relapsed ALL (compared to healthy controls). A significant decrease of adiponectin levels was observed in relapsed ALL compared to de novo ALL. In contrast resistin was significantly increased in relapsed ALL compared to de novo patients. Adiponectin in ALL subjects inversely correlated with resistin level (r = ?0.51, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Low adiponectin and high resistin level at diagnosis suggest their implication in ALL pathogenesis and may serve as potential clinically significant diagnostic markers to detect leukemic relapse. PMID:23802108

  6. Up- and down-regulation of adiponectin expression and multimerization: Mechanisms and therapeutic implication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meilian; Liu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin has been receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential therapeutic use for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Adiponectin expression levels and multimerization are down-regulated in obesity and up-regulated by insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), metformin, sulfonylurea and resveratrol (RSV). The precise mechanisms underlying adiponectin up- and down-regulation remain largely unknown, but recent studies indicate that the cellular and plasma levels of adiponectin could be regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. At the post-translational level, TZDs and resveratrol promote adiponectin levels and multimerization via up-regulation of disulfidebond-A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L). Adiponectin levels are also stimulated by FOXO1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and are suppressed by PKA or silencing mediator of retinoid andthyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). Since multimerization is important not only for adiponectin function but also for stability, increasing adiponectin multimerization has become a promising drug target for the treatment of metabolic diseases and other related disorders. PMID:22342903

  7. Regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis by adiponectin: effects on hepatocytes, pancreatic ? cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Caroline; Sifuentes, Angelica; Holland, William L

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has received considerable attention for its potential anti-diabetic actions. The adipokine exerts control of glucose and lipid homeostasis via critical effects within the liver, adipose, and pancreas. By stimulating adipogenesis, opposing inflammation, and influencing rates of lipid oxidation and lipolysis, adiponectin critically governs lipid spillover into non-adipose tissues. Ceramide, a cytotoxic and insulin desensitizing lipid metabolite formed when peripheral tissues are exposed to excessive lipid deposition, is potently opposed by adiponectin. Via adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, adiponectin stimulates the deacylation of ceramide- yielding sphingosine for conversion to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase. The resulting conversion from ceramide to S1P promotes survival of functional beta cell mass, allowing for insulin production to meet insulin demands. Alleviation of ceramide burden on the liver allows for improvements in hepatic insulin action. Here, we summarize how adiponectin-induced changes in these tissues lead to improvements in glucose metabolism, highlighting the sphingolipid signaling mechanisms linking adiponectin to each action. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: We review the anti-diabetic actions of adiponectin. PMID:24417945

  8. The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Cantarin, Maria P Martinez; Waldman, Scott; Doria, Cataldo; Frank, Adam M.; Maley, Warren R.; Ramirez, Carlo B.; Keith, Scott W.; Falkner, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin has anti-diabetic properties and patients with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance have low plasma adiponectin levels. However, although kidney disease is associated with insulin resistance, adiponectin is elevated in end stage renal disease. Here we determine if adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in renal disease in a case-control study of 36 patients with end stage renal disease and 23 kidney donors. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at kidney transplantation and donation. The mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased to 15.6 mg/ml in cases compared to 8.4 mg/ml in controls. Plasma levels of the inflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat was significantly higher in cases than controls while adiponectin receptor 1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood cells, muscle and adipose tissue in cases compared to controls. Thus, our study suggests that adipose tissue production of adiponectin contributes to the high plasma levels seen in end stage renal disease. PMID:23283133

  9. Enhanced carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice lacking adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kamada; Shinji Tamura; Shinichi Kiso; Hitoshi Matsumoto; Yukiko Saji; Yuichi Yoshida; Koji Fukui; Norikazu Maeda; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Hiroyuki Nagaretani; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Shinji Kihara; Jun-ichiro Miyagawa; Yasuhisa Shinomura; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Obesity is one of the risk factors for liver fibrosis, in which plasma adiponectin, an adipocytokine, levels are decreased. Hepatic stellate cells play central roles in liver fibrosis. When they are activated, they undergo transformation to myofibroblast-like cells. Adiponectin suppresses the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, whose characteristics are similar to those of hepatic

  10. Bisphenol A at Environmentally Relevant Doses Inhibits Adiponectin Release from Human Adipose Tissue Explants and Adipocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Hugo; Terry D. Brandebourg; Jessica G. Woo; Jean Loftus; J. Wesley Alexander; Nira Ben-Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of obesity has risen dramatically over the last few decades. This epidemic may be affected by exposure to xenobiotic chemicals. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detectable at nanomolar levels in human serum worldwide. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific hormone that increases insulin sensitivity and reduces tissue inflammation. Thus, any factor that suppresses adiponectin release could lead

  11. Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes ?-cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Risheng; Holland, William L; Gordillo, Ruth; Wang, Miao; Wang, Qiong A; Shao, Mengle; Morley, Thomas S; Gupta, Rana K; Stahl, Andreas; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-01-01

    As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute ?-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential role of adiponectin under insulinopenic conditions to maintain minimal lipid homeostasis. When insulin levels are marginal, adiponectin is critical for insulin signaling, endocytosis, and lipid uptake in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. In the absence of both insulin and adiponectin, severe lipoatrophy and hyperlipidemia lead to lethality. In contrast, elevated adiponectin levels improve systemic lipid metabolism in the near absence of insulin. Moreover, adiponectin is sufficient to mitigate local lipotoxicity in pancreatic islets, and it promotes reconstitution of ?-cell mass, eventually reinstating glycemic control. We uncovered an essential new role for adiponectin, with major implications for type 1 diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03851.001 PMID:25339419

  12. LINKAGE AND RH MAPPING OF THE PORCINE ADIPONECTIN GENE ON CHROMOSOME 13

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, is an adipocytokine that regulates energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism. A portion of porcine ADIPOQ (adipocyte, C1Q and collagen domain containing) gene encoding for adiponectin was amplified and sequenced. Sequence of 3326 bp enco...

  13. Fasting Serum Adiponectin Level Inversely Correlates with Metabolic Syndrome in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hsien Wang; Ji-Hung Wang; Chung-Jen Lee; Te-Chao Fang; Hung-Hsiang Liou; Bang-Gee Hsu

    2010-01-01

    Background:Metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and predicts hospitalization in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. An inverse association between circulating adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has been observed in humans. However, no data are available on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and serum adiponectin levels in PD patients. Method: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 47 PD patients

  14. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  15. Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cabral, J.A. (Inst. de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Amazonas (Brazil))

    1999-07-15

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

  16. Mitotic Illegitimate Recombination Is a Mechanism for Novel Changes in High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits in Wheat-Rye Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongwei; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Wenjie; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang; Zhang, Huaigang; Yen, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Wide hybrids can have novel traits or changed expression of a quantitative trait that their parents do not have. These phenomena have long been noticed, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are seed storage proteins encoded by Glu-1 genes that only express in endosperm in wheat and its related species. Novel HMW-GS compositions have been observed in their hybrids. This research elucidated the molecular mechanisms by investigating the causative factors of novel HMW-GS changes in wheat-rye hybrids. HMW-GS compositions in the endosperm and their coding sequences in the leaves of F1 and F2 hybrids between wheat landrace Shinchunaga and rye landrace Qinling were investigated. Missing and/or additional novel HMW-GSs were observed in the endosperm of 0.5% of the 2078 F1 and 22% of 36 F2 hybrid seeds. The wildtype Glu-1Ax null allele was found to have 42 types of short repeat sequences of 3-60 bp long that appeared 2 to 100 times. It also has an in-frame stop codon in the central repetitive region. Analyzing cloned allele sequences of HMW-GS coding gene Glu-1 revealed that deletions involving the in-frame stop codon had happened, resulting in novel ?1.8-kb Glu-1Ax alleles in some F1 and F2 plants. The cloned mutant Glu-1Ax alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the HMW-GSs produced matched the novel HMW-GSs found in the hybrids. The differential changes between the endosperm and the plant of the same hybrids and the data of E. coli expression of the cloned deletion alleles both suggested that mitotic illegitimate recombination between two copies of a short repeat sequence had resulted in the deletions and thus the changed HMW-GS compositions. Our experiments have provided the first direct evidence to show that mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism that produces novel phenotypes in wide hybrids. PMID:21887262

  17. Comparison of salivary and plasma adiponectin and leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of saliva with plasma protein levels makes saliva an attractive diagnostic tool. Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy individuals or diabetes mellitus patients have been previously reported. Nevertheless, salivary levels of these adipocytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) have never been investigated. This study was aimed to determine adiponectin and leptin levels in saliva and plasma from patients with metabolic syndrome, and evaluate any correlation of these levels with MS. Methods Forty-six healthy and 82 MS patients were enrolled. Demographic data and blood biochemistries were recorded. Saliva and plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Adiponectin and leptin were higher in plasma than in saliva (p?adiponectin was decreased and plasma leptin increased in patients with MS (p?adiponectin and salivary leptin were not different between healthy subjects and MS patients (p?=?.619 and p?=?.523). Correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin showed significant association (r?=?.211, p?=?.018) while salivary and plasma leptin had no correlation (r?=?-.161, p?=?.069). Significant correlation was observed between the salivary adiponectin/salivary leptin ratio and plasma adiponectin (r?=?.371, p?adiponectin (OR?=?1.009; 95% CI 1.002–1.015 and OR?=?1.125; 95% CI 1.029–1.230). For leptin, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with a high level of plasma leptin (OR?=?1.621; 95% CI 1.212–2.168 and OR?=?.966; 95% CI .938–.996). The OR for MS as predicted by plasma adiponectin was .928 (95% CI .881-.977). Conclusions This study showed that salivary adiponectin and leptin do not correlate with MS. Although correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin was observed, no association with MS was observed. Only plasma adiponectin may be useful for the prediction of MS. PMID:24528653

  18. Effect of repeated US stimulation on adiponectin secretion by adipocytes of obese human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Irie, Takasuke; Itoh, Kouichi

    2006-05-01

    To clarify the effect of the repeated sonication on the adiponectin secretion by adipocytes obtained from obese subjects. Using 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound at an intensity of 0.50 or 2.1 W/cm2, we sonicated culture flasks of subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from obese human subjects, in a series of 3 sessions of US stimulation applied for a daily total of 15 min. For the measurement of adiponectin secretion, 50 ?l of the culture medium was collected from each flask every 24 h after the 1st stimulation. Quantification of adiponectin protein levels in cell culture supernatants was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit recommended by the manufacturer. The adiponectin concentrations in the culture medium of the US stimulation groups rose significantly (p<0.05). Repeated US stimulation may accelerate adiponectin secretion in obese human adipocytes.

  19. Gene expression pattern of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in dominant and atretic follicles and oocytes screened based on brilliant cresyl blue staining.

    PubMed

    Tabandeh, M R; Golestani, N; Kafi, M; Hosseini, A; Saeb, M; Sarkoohi, P

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to control male and female fertility. The aim of this study was to determine whether adiponectin and its receptors gene expression levels differ between dominant follicle (DF) and atretic follicle (AF) and also between oocytes which were stained positively and negatively with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB(+) and BCB(-)). Based on estradiol/progesterone ratio, follicles from ovaries were classified as AFs and DFs. The stages of estrous cycle (follicular or luteal phases) were defined by macroscopic observation of the ovaries and the uterus. Oocytes were stained with BCB for 90 min. The relative expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA in theca and cumulus cells and oocytes of different follicles were determined by quantitative real time PCR. Adiponectin and its receptors genes were clearly expressed higher (P<0.05) in theca and cumulus cells and oocytes of DFs than those of AFs during the follicular and luteal phases. BCB(+) oocytes showed a higher (P<0.05) expression of adiponectin and its receptors compared with their BCB(-) counterparts. Positive correlation (r>0.725, P<0.001) was observed between adiponectin mRNA level in ovarian cells of DFs and follicular fluid E2 concentration in follicular phase. Adiponectin mRNA abundance in ovarian cells of AFs showed a significant negative correlation with follicular fluid progesterone concentration in follicular and luteal phases (r<-0.731, P<0.001). This work has revealed the novel association of adiponectin and its receptors genes with follicular dominance and oocyte competence, thereby opening several new avenues of research into the mechanisms of dominance and competence in animal and human. PMID:22391295

  20. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, S; Matsushita, Y; Nakagawa, T; Hayashi, T; Noda, M; Mizoue, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Prospective studies have consistently shown a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among those with higher circulating adiponectin levels. Objective: We examined prospectively the association between serum adiponectin levels and type 2 diabetes risk among Japanese workers, taking visceral fat mass into account. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 4591 Japanese employees who attended a comprehensive health screening in 2008; had biochemical data including serum adiponectin; were free of diabetes at baseline; and received health screening in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between adiponectin and incidence of diabetes among overall subjects, as well as subgroups. Stratified analyses were carried out according to variables including visceral fat area (VFA). Results: During 3 years of follow-up, 217 diabetic cases were newly identified. Of these, 87% had a prediabetes at baseline. Serum adiponectin level was significantly, inversely associated with incidence of diabetes, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) for the lowest through highest quartile of adiponectin of 1 (reference), 0.79 (0.55–1.12), 0.60 (0.41–0.88) and 0.40 (0.25–0.64), respectively (P-value for trend <0.01). This association was materially unchanged with adjustment for VFA instead of BMI. After further adjustment for both homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c, however, the association became statistically nonsignificant (P-value for trend=0.18). Risk reduction associated with higher adiponectin levels was observed in both participants with and without obesity or insulin resistance at baseline. Conclusions: Results suggest that higher levels of circulating adiponectin are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of overall and intra-abdominal fat deposition, and that adiponectin may confer a benefit in both persons with and without insulin resistance. PMID:25133442

  1. Adiponectin inhibits leptin signaling via multiple mechanisms to exert protective effects against hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    HANDY, Jeffrey A.; FU, Ping P.; KUMAR, Pradeep; MELLS, Jamie E.; SHARMA, Shvetank; SAXENA, Neeraj K.; ANANIA, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Adiponectin is protective against hepatic fibrosis, while leptin promotes fibrosis. In hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), leptin signals via a Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (Jak2/Stat3) pathway, producing effects that enhance extracellular matrix deposition. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) are both negative regulators of Jak/Stat signaling, and recent studies demonstrated a role for adiponectin in regulating SOCS-3 expression. In this study we investigated mechanisms whereby adiponectin dampens leptin signaling and prevents excess ECM production. We treated culture-activated rat HSCs with recombinant adiponectin, leptin, both or neither, and also treated adiponectin knockout (Ad?/?) and wild-type mice with leptin and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or saline. We analyzed Jak2 and Ob-Rb phosphorylation, and PTP1B expression and activity. We also explored potential mechanisms through which adiponectin regulates SOCS-3/Ob-Rb association. Adiponectin inhibited leptin-stimulated Jak2 activation and Ob-Rb phosphorylation in HSCs, while both were increased in Ad?/? mice. Adiponectin stimulated PTP1B expression and activity, in vitro, while PTP1B expression was lower in Ad?/?mice than in wild-type mice. Adiponectin also promoted SOCS-3/Ob-R association, and blocked leptin-stimulated formation of extracellular TIMP-1/MMP-1 complexes, in vitro. These data suggest two novel mechanisms whereby adiponectin inhibits hepatic fibrosis: by promoting binding of SOCS-3 to Ob-Rb, and stimulating PTP1B expression and activity, thus inhibiting Jak2-Stat3 signaling at multiple points. PMID:21846328

  2. GnRH decreases adiponectin expression in pituitary gonadotropes via the calcium and PKA pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonathan; Zheng, Weiming; Grafer, Constance; Mann, Merry Lynn; Halvorson, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    As endocrinologically active cells, adipocytes are capable of secreting various adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin to impact metabolic function. Although adipocytes remain to be the primary site of synthesis and secretion, there is now growing evidence that supports the presence of adiponectin and its receptors within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, providing a possible link between obesity and abnormal reproductive physiology. It has been demonstrated that adiponectin may reduce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus as well as modulate gonadal steroid hormone production. Furthermore, prior data indicate that adiponectin may play a role in decreasing luteinizing hormone secretion from pituitary gonadotropes. We aimed to identify the hormonal regulators of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in pituitary gonadotropes using immortalized gonadotropic L?T2 cells and primary rat pituitary cells. Our study shows significant alterations in adiponectin expression across the estrous cycle. In addition, we present a novel finding that GnRH suppresses pituitary adiponectin expression via the calcium and protein kinase A intracellular pathways in both cultured rat primary pituitary cells and the L?T2 gonadotrope cell line. The GnRH did not alter expression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in cultured gonadotropes. Expression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, was not altered by GnRH in cell culture but in vivo or in vitro. Our data suggest that gonadotrope function may be modulated by GnRH-mediated changes in adiponectin expression. PMID:23239819

  3. Cholesterol-induced mammary tumorigenesis is enhanced by adiponectin deficiency: role of LDL receptor upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen Siu-Ling; Wong, Nai-Sum; Chen, Jie; Shepherd, Peter R; Wang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that can suppress the proliferation of various human carcinoma cells. Although its anti-tumor activities have been suggested by many clinical investigations and animal studies, the underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized. In MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT) transgenic mice models, reduced- or complete loss-of-adiponectin expression promotes mammary tumor development. The present study demonstrated that while tumor development in control MMTV-PyVT mice is associated with a progressively decreased circulating cholesterol concentration, adiponectin deficient MMTV-PyVT mice showed significantly elevated total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol contents in tumors derived from adiponectin deficient mice were dramatically augmented. High fat high cholesterol diet further accelerated the tumor development in adiponectin deficient PyVT mice. The protein levels of LDL receptor (LDLR) were found to be upregulated in adiponectin-deficient tumor cells. In human breast carcinoma cells, treatment with LDL-cholesterol or overexpressing LDLR elevates nuclear beta-catenin activity and facilitates tumor cell proliferation. On the other hand, adiponectin decreased LDLR protein expression in breast cancer cells and inhibited LDL-cholesterol-induced tumor cell proliferation. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence demonstrated a stimulatory effect of adiponectin on autophagy process, which mediated the down-regulation of LDLR. Adiponectin-induced reduction of LDLR was blocked by treatment with a specific inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that adiponectin elicits tumor suppressive effects by modulating cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR expression in breast cancer cells, which is at least in part attributed to its role in promoting autophagic flux. PMID:24113220

  4. Effect of gliadins and HMW and LMW subunits of glutenin on dough properties in the F 6 recombinant inbred lines from a bread wheat cross

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Nieto-Taladriz; M. R. Perretant; M. Rousset

    1994-01-01

    The storage proteins of 64 F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the bread wheat cross ‘Prinqual’\\/‘Marengo’ were analyzed. Parents differed at four loci: Gli-B1 (coding for gliadins), Glu-B1 (coding for HMW glutenin subunits), Glu-A3\\/Gli-A1 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits\\/gliadins) and Glu-D3 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits). The effect of allelic variation at these loci on tenacity, extensibility and dough

  5. The cumulative effect of allelic variation in LMW and HMW glutenin subunits on dough properties in the progeny of two bread wheats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Gupta; N. K. Singh; K. W. Shepherd

    1989-01-01

    The effects of allelic variation at Gli-A1, GluA3 and Glu-A1 loci coding for gliadins, LMW glutenin subunits and HMW glutenin subunits on dough resistance and extensibility was analysed in 56 F2-derived F6 families from a cross between bread wheats MKR(111\\/8) and ‘Kite’. Extensograph data from two sites giving widely different flour protein levels (approximately 7% and 14%) revealed that the

  6. Adiponectin resistance and proinflammatory changes in the visceral adipose tissue induced by fructose consumption via ketohexokinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Marek, George; Pannu, Varinderpal; Shanmugham, Prashanth; Pancione, Brianna; Mascia, Dominic; Crosson, Sean; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y

    2015-02-01

    An epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is linked with the increase in consumption of fructose-containing sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. In mammalian cells, fructose is metabolized predominantly via phosphorylation to fructose-1 phosphate by ketohexokinase (KHK) or by alternative pathways. Here we demonstrate that a KHK-dependent pathway mediates insulin resistance and inflammatory changes in the visceral fat in response to high fructose. We used mice (males, C57BL/6 background) including littermate wild-type control and mice lacking both isoforms of KHK (KHK-null). Fructose diet induced metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, proinflammatory changes in the visceral fat (production of proinflammatory adipokines and macrophage infiltration), the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, and decrease of the high-molecular weight adiponectin followed by decrease in the downstream signaling. KHK-KO mice consuming the same high-fructose diet remained lean, with normal insulin sensitivity and healthy visceral adipose tissue with normal adiponectin function not distinguishable from the control by any of the tested parameters. This study demonstrates that blocking KHK and redirecting fructose metabolism to alternative pathways is an effective way to prevent visceral obesity and insulin resistance induced by high fructose, a widespread component of Western diets. PMID:25187370

  7. Adiponectin and peptide YY in the fasting blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Nieminen, Petteri

    2005-02-01

    Adiponectin (Acrp30) and peptide YY (PYY) are weight-regulatory hormones participating in the control of energy homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term wintertime fasting on plasma Acrp30 and PYY levels in the carnivorous blue fox, a farm-bred variant of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). Plasma Acrp30 and PYY concentrations were determined with radioimmunoassays during a 22-day period of fasting, which led to a 20.3% reduction in body mass of the animals (n=32). Sixteen fed blue foxes served as the control group. Acrp30 and PYY were present in blue fox plasma at similar or lower levels as reported previously for other mammals. Fasting had no acute effects on Acrp30 or PYY concentrations of the blue foxes. However, the Acrp30 levels of the fasted blue foxes were 24%-48% higher than in the fed animals between days 8-22 of fasting. Fasted blue foxes also had 6.2-fold higher plasma PYY concentrations after 15 days of fasting. Acrp30 and PYY seem to play roles in the body weight-regulation of the blue fox during long-term fasting, but their specific functions and physiological significance remain to be determined. PMID:15748866

  8. Sertoli cell processes have axoplasmic features: an ordered microtubule distribution and an abundant high molecular weight microtubule- associated protein (cytoplasmic dynein)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Microtubules in the cytoplasm of rat Sertoli cell stage VI-VIII testicular seminiferous epithelium were studied morphometrically by electron microscopy. The Sertoli cell microtubules demonstrated axonal features, being largely parallel in orientation and predominantly spaced one to two microtubule diameters apart, suggesting the presence of microtubule-bound spacer molecules. Testis microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) were isolated by a taxol, salt elution procedure. Testis MAPs promoted microtubule assembly, but to a lesser degree than brain MAPs. High molecular weight MAPs, similar in electrophoretic mobilities to brain MAP-1 and MAP-2, were prominent components of total testis MAPs, though no shared immunoreactivity was detected between testis and brain high molecular weight MAPs using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Unlike brain high molecular weight MAPs, testis high molecular weight MAPs were not heat stable. Testis MAP composition, studied on postnatal days 5, 10, 15, and 24 and in the adult, changed dramatically during ontogeny. However, the expression of the major testis high molecular weight MAP, called HMW-2, was constitutive and independent of the development of mature germ cells. The Sertoli cell origin of HMW-2 was confirmed by identifying this protein as the major MAP found in an enriched Sertoli cell preparation and in two rat models of testicular injury characterized by germ cell depletion. HMW-2 was selectively released from testis microtubules by ATP and co-purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation with MAP- 1C, a neuronal cytoplasmic dynein. The inhibition of the microtubule- activated ATPase activity of HMW-2 by vanadate and erythro-(2-hydroxy-3- nonyl)adenine and its proteolytic breakdown by vanadate-dependent UV photocleavage confirmed the dynein-like nature of HMW-2. As demonstrated by this study, the neuronal and Sertoli cell cytoskeletons share morphological, structural and functional properties. PMID:2972729

  9. Induction of human adiponectin gene transcription by telmisartan, angiotensin receptor blocker, independently on PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Moriuchi, Akie [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan); Yamasaki, Hironori [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Health Center, Nagasaki University (Japan)]. E-mail: f1195@cc.nagasaki-u-ac.jp; Shimamura, Mika [Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Kita, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Hironaga; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Tsuyoshi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Fujishima, Keiichiro; Fukushima, Keiko [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan); Fukushima, Tetsuya; Abiru, Norio; Eguchi, Katsumi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Hayakawa, Takao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki [Project III, National Institute of Health Sciences, Osaka Branch, Fundamental Research Laboratories for Development of Medicine (Japan); Nagayama, Yuji [Department of Medical Gene Technology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Nagasaki University (Japan); Kawasaki, Eiji [Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2007-05-18

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, has been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and inhibit the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, several reports have stated that angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), increase adiponectin plasma level, and ameliorate insulin resistance. Telmisartan, a subclass of ARBs, has been shown to be a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}, and to increase the plasma adiponectin level. However, the transcriptional regulation of the human adiponectin gene by telmisartan has not been determined yet. To elucidate the effect of telmisartan on adiponectin, the stimulatory regulation of human adiponectin gene by telmisartan was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, utilizing adenovirus-mediated luciferase reporter gene-transferring technique. This study indicates that telmisartan may stimulate adiponectin transcription independent of PPAR-{gamma}.

  10. A new link between skeleton, obesity and insulin resistance: relationships between osteocalcin, leptin and insulin resistance in obese children before and after weight loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Reinehr; C L Roth

    2010-01-01

    Background:The skeleton is regarded recently as an endocrine organ that affects energy metabolism. However, there are very limited data available concerning the relationships between the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin, weight status, adiponectin and leptin in obese humans, especially in children.Methods:We analyzed osteocalcin, adiponectin, leptin and insulin resistance (IR) index homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in 60 obese and 19 age- and gender-matched

  11. Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent samples of Caucasian women: the Chingford Study (n = 808, mean age 62.8 +/- 5.9 years) and Twins UK (n = 2,718, mean age 47.4 +/- 12.6 years). In the Chingford cohort, -11391 G/A, -10066 G/A (rs182052), -7734 C/A (rs16861209), +276 G/T (rs1501299) and +3228 C/T (rs1063537) were significantly associated with fasting serum adiponectin (Ps = 1.00 x 10(-4) to 1.40 x 10(-2)). Associations with all except +3228 C/T were replicated in the Twins UK cohort (Ps = 3.19 x 10(-9) to 6.00 x 10(-3)). In Chingford subjects, the 12 most common 8-SNP haplotypes (frequency 1.90%) explained 2.85% (p = 5.00 x 10(-2)) and in Twins UK subjects, the four most common 5-SNP haplotypes (frequency > 5.00%) explained 1.66% of the variance (p = 5.83 x 10(-7)). To investigate effects of -11391 G/A (rs17300539) and -11377 C/G (rs266729) on promoter activity, 1.2 kb of the ADIPOQ promoter region was cloned in a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the four haplotypes were transfected in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. No significant allelic effects on promoter activity were found. PMID:18523726

  12. Structural and genetical studies on the high-molecular-weight subunits of wheat glutenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. I. Payne; L. M. Holt; C. N. Law

    1981-01-01

    Summary  The high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin from about 185 varieties were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulphate\\u000a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). About 20 different, major subunits were distinguished by this technique although\\u000a each variety contained, with only a few exceptions, between 3 and 5 subunits. Further inter-varietal substitution lines to\\u000a those already described (Payne et al. 1980) were analysed and the

  13. Effects of fenofibrate on adiponectin expression in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Jung; Wang, Lu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression. PMID:25525608

  14. Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ying-Jung; Wang, Lu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression. PMID:25525608

  15. Nicotinic acid increases adiponectin secretion from differentiated bovine preadipocytes through G-protein coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  16. The relationship between serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines in obese Korean juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung Hwan; Kwon, Eun Byul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to systemic inflammatory processes causing cardiovascular complications. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), CD40 ligand (CD40L), P-selectin are newly described mediators of inflammation and have a significant effect in atherosclerosis. Adiponectin has shown anti-inflammatory effects in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and inflammatory mediators in children and adolescents. Methods Fifty children or adolescents, twenty two with a body mass index (BMI) over 95th percentile, and twenty eight with a BMI below 75th percentile were included in the study. Serum soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), P-selectin, CD40L, lipid profiles, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin were measured to evaluate associations with adiponectin. Comparison of these variables was performed between the obese and the nonobese group. Results We found a adiponectin to be significant lower and sICAM-1 significant higher in the obese group compared to the nonobese group, but there were no significant differences in P-selectin and soluble CD40L. Adiponectin was negatively associated with ICAM-1 and P-selectin in the obese group. Conclusion Negative associations of adiponectin with ICAM-1 and P-selectin in obese children and adolescents suggest that serum adiponectin level may represent the inflammatory status. PMID:25653687

  17. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Heidi N.; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S.; Yu, Xing; Lane, Robert H.; Joss-Moore, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-?2 (PPAR?2) in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPAR? increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PPAR? agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPAR?, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI-) induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1) normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPAR? expression in male rats and (2) increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR. PMID:23533720

  18. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  19. Adiponectin Receptor Signaling on Dendritic Cells Blunts Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Peng H.; Tyrrell, Helen E.J.; Gao, Liquan; Xu, Danmei; Quan, Jianchao; Gill, Dipender; Rai, Lena; Ding, Yunchuan; Plant, Gareth; Chen, Yuan; Xue, John Z.; Handa, Ashok I.; Greenall, Michael J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Xue, Shao-An

    2015-01-01

    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) that interact with T cells represent a crucial site for the development of tolerance to tumor antigens, but there remains incomplete knowledge about how DC-tolerizing signals evolve during tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are sufficient to blunt antitumor immunity. Mechanistic investigations of ligand–receptor interactions on DCs revealed novel signaling pathways for each receptor. AdipoR1 stimulated IL10 production by activating the AMPK and MAPKp38 pathways, whereas AdipoR2 modified inflammatory processes by activating the COX-2 and PPAR? pathways. Stimulation of these pathways was sufficient to block activation of NF-?B in DC, thereby attenuating their ability to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into how DC-tolerizing signals evolve in cancer to promote immune escape. Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly applicable strategies for immunometabolic therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:25261236

  20. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (? = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; ? = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  1. Quality trait variations in [??Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.

    PubMed

    Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

  2. Recombinant DNA technology for melanoma immunotherapy: anti-Id DNA vaccines targeting high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen.

    PubMed

    Barucca, A; Capitani, M; Cesca, M; Tomassoni, D; Kazmi, U; Concetti, F; Vincenzetti, L; Concetti, A; Venanzi, F M

    2014-11-01

    Anti-idiotypic MK2-23 monoclonal antibody (anti-Id MK2-23 mAb), which mimics the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), has been used to implement active immunotherapy against melanoma. However, due to safety and standardization issues, this approach never entered extensive clinical trials. In the present study, we investigated the usage of DNA vaccines as an alternative to MK2-23 mAb immunization. MK2-23 DNA plasmids coding for single chain (scFv) MK2-23 antibody were constructed via the insertion of variable heavy (V H) and light (V L) chains of MK2-23 into the pVAC-1mcs plasmids. Two alternative MK2-23 plasmids format V H/V L, and V L/V H were assembled. We demonstrate that both polypeptides expressed by scFv plasmids in vitro retained the ability to mimic HMW-MAA antigen, and to elicit specific anti-HMW-MAA humoral and cellular immunoresponses in immunized mice. Notably, MK2-23 scFv DNA vaccines impaired the onset and growth of transplantable B16 melanoma cells not engineered to express HMW-MAA. This pilot study suggests that optimized MK2-23 scFv DNA vaccines could potentially provide a safer and cost-effective alternative to anti-Id antibody immunization, for melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:25027754

  3. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose tissue and reduced adipoR2 mRNA expression 2-fold in liver. Conclusion Hyperglycemia as a result of a high-fat diet is associated with an increase in the expression of the adiponectin receptors in muscle. An excess of glucocorticoids, rather than their absence, increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. PMID:21244702

  4. Leptin prevents the metabolic effects of adiponectin in L6 myotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Fang; J. Fetros; K. E. Dadson; A. Xu; G. Sweeney

    2009-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Adiponectin and leptin are negatively and positively correlated with human obesity respectively, and have both been shown\\u000a to regulate energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. However, little is known about their signalling and functional crosstalk.\\u000a Here we investigated the effects of leptin on metabolic actions of (1) globular adiponectin (gAd) and (2) full-length adiponectin\\u000a (fAd) in L6 cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Glucose uptake was

  5. Short communication: circulating and milk adiponectin change differently during energy deficiency at different stages of lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Häussler, S; Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Bruckmaier, R M; Sauerwein, H

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipokines in circulation, is known for its role in regulation of body metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages of lactation (lactational NEB at the onset of lactation and an induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d of lactation) on circulating adiponectin concentrations. We also investigated the effect of feed restriction on adiponectin concentrations in milk and the relationships of blood and milk adiponectin with selected plasma or milk variables and with measures of body condition. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows throughout 3 experimental periods [i.e., period 1=3 wk antepartum up to 12 wk postpartum, period 2=3 wk of feed restriction starting at around 100 d in milk with a control (n=25) and feed-restricted group (50% of energy requirements; n=25), and period 3=subsequent realimentation period for 8 wk]. Milk adiponectin was investigated among 21 multiparous cows at wk 2 and wk 12 of period 1 and wk 2 of period 2. Adiponectin concentrations in plasma and skim milk were measured using an in-house ELISA specific for bovine adiponectin. Major changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations were observed during the periparturient period, whereas energy deficiency during established lactation at around 100 d in milk and subsequent refeeding did not affect plasma adiponectin. Together with lower adiponectin concentrations in milk (µg/mL), the reduction in milk yield led to decreased adiponectin secretion via milk (mg/d) at the second week of feed restriction. Irrespective of time and treatment, milk adiponectin represented about 0.002% of total milk protein. Mean adiponectin concentrations in milk (0.61 ± 0.03 µg/mL) were about 92% lower than the mean plasma adiponectin concentrations (32.1 ± 1.0 µg/mL). The proportion of the steady-state plasma adiponectin pool secreted daily via milk was 2.7%. In view of the similar extent of NEB in both periods of energy deficiency, decreasing adiponectin concentrations seems important for accomplishing the adaptation to the rapidly increasing metabolic rates in early lactation, whereas the lipolytic reaction toward feed restriction-induced NEB during established lactation seems to occur largely independent of changes in circulating adiponectin. PMID:24472130

  6. Adiponectin Stimulates Angiogenesis by Promoting Cross-talk between AMP-activated Protein Kinase and Akt Signaling in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kihara, Shinji; Kumada, Masahiro; Sato, Kaori; Inoue, Tatsuya; Funahashi, Tohru; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine with anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties. Here, we investigated whether adiponectin regulates angiogenic processes in vitro and in vivo. Adiponectin stimulated the differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs) into capillary-like structures in vitro and functioned as a chemoattractant in migration assays. Adiponectin promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B, and endothelial nitric oxide synthesis (eNOS) in HUVECs. Transduction with either dominant-negative AMPK or dominant-negative Akt abolished adiponectin-induced eNOS phosphorylation as well as adiponectin-stimulated HUVEC migration and differentiation. Dominant-negative AMPK also inhibited adiponectin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that AMPK is upstream of Akt. Dominant-negative Akt or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 blocked adiponectin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, migration, and differentiation without altering AMPK phosphorylation. Finally, adiponectin stimulated blood vessel growth in vivo in mouse Matrigel plug implantation and rabbit corneal models of angiogenesis. These data indicate that adiponectin can function to stimulate the new blood vessel growth by promoting cross-talk between AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt signaling within endothelial cells. PMID:14557259

  7. Serum adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein, retinol-binding protein 4, and adiponectin concentrations in relation to the development of the metabolic syndrome in Korean boys: a 3-y prospective cohort study12345

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung M; Yannakoulia, Mary; Park, Min S; Cho, Geum J; Kim, Jung H; Lee, Seung H; Hwang, Taik G; Yang, Sei J; Kim, Tai N; Yoo, Hye J; Baik, Sai H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein (A-FABP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and adiponectin have been associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in adults. Objective: We evaluated the association of A-FABP, RBP4, and adiponectin with the metabolic syndrome in Korean boys. Design: In this prospective cohort study, 159 boys participated in a school-based health examination and were followed up after 3 y. The metabolic syndrome in children was defined by using the pediatric adaptation of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Results: Compared with normal-weight participants, overweight children had significantly higher A-FABP (23.6 ± 8.2 compared with 12.8 ± 5.1 ?g/L, P < 0.001) and RBP4 (69.3 ± 17.1 compared with 59.7 ± 15.3 ?g/mL, P = 0.001) concentrations and significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (11.5 ± 5.4 compared with 18.1 ± 8.4 ?g/mL, P < 0.001). Baseline A-FABP concentrations were significantly higher in children who developed the metabolic syndrome than in those who did not, whereas adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower. Baseline RBP4 concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only A-FABP was an independent predictor of the development of the metabolic syndrome after adjustment for Tanner stage, insulin resistance, body mass index, sleep duration, and physical activity (odds ratio: 17.3; 95% CI: 1.25, 239.76; highest compared with lowest tertile), whereas the significant association between adiponectin and the metabolic syndrome observed by using bivariate analysis reflects, in part, an underlying association with obesity. Conclusion: A-FABP predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome independently of pubertal status, adiposity, and insulin resistance in Korean boys. PMID:21106915

  8. Effects of genetic variants in the promoter region of the bovine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene on marbling of Hanwoo beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjeong; Davis, Michael E; Chung, Hoyoung

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to verify genetic effects of the bovine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene on carcass traits of Hanwoo cattle. The measured carcass traits were marbling score (MAR), backfat thickness (BFT), loineye area (LEA), and carcass weight (CAW). Selection of primers was based on the bovine ADIPOQ sequence, and the analysis amplified approximately 267 and 333bp genomic segments, including 67bp of insertions in the promoter region. Sequencing analysis confirmed genetic variants (g.81966235C>T, g.81966377T>C, and g.81966364D>I) that showed significant effects on MAR. The present results suggest that the identified SNPs are useful genetic markers for the improvement of carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle. PMID:25817801

  9. Adiponectin inhibits insulin function in primary trophoblasts by PPAR?-mediated ceramide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-04-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPAR?. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPAR?, because activation of PPAR? with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPAR?-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPAR? and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability. PMID:24606127

  10. Evidence that an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment triggers the release of a cell-associated high-molecular-weight amylase in Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980.

    PubMed

    Egelseer, E M; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sįra, M

    1996-10-01

    During growth on starch medium, the S-layer-carrying Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and an S-layer-deficient variant each secreted three amylases, with identical molecular weights of 58,000, 122,000, and 184,000, into the culture fluid. Only the high-molecular-weight amylase (hmwA) was also identified as cell associated. Extraction and reassociation experiments showed that the hmwA had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and to the S-layer surface, but the interactions with the peptidoglycan-containing layer were stronger than those with the S-layer surface. For the S-layer-deficient variant, no changes in the amount of cell-associated and free hmwA could be observed during growth on starch medium, while for the S-layer-carrying strain, cell association of the hmwA strongly depended on the growth phase of the cells. The maximum amount of cell-associated hmwA was observed 3 h after inoculation, which corresponded to early exponential growth. The steady decrease in cell-associated hmwA during continued growth correlated with the appearance and the increasing intensity of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This protein had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and was identified as an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment which did not result from proteolytic cleavage of the whole S-layer protein but seems to be a truncated copy of the S-layer protein which is coexpressed with the hmwA under certain culture conditions. During growth on starch medium, the N-terminal S-layer protein fragment was integrated into the S-layer lattice, which led to the loss of its regular structure over a wide range and to the loss of amylase binding sites. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein is responsible for the anchoring of the subunits to the peptidoglycan-containing layer, while the surface-located C-terminal half could function as a binding site for the hmwA. PMID:8824603

  11. Adiponectin as an independent predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy in nondiabetic patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peer, Maya; Mashavi, Margarita; Matas, Zipora; Harpaz, David; Shargorodsky, Marina

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated novel and traditional biomarkers as well as hemodynamic parameters associated with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. Nondiabetic patients with hypertension (n = 86) were evaluated for lipids, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, aldosterone, renin, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and endothelin. Arterial elasticity was evaluated using pulse wave contour. The LVH parameters were assessed echographically. Adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with left ventricular mass (LVM; P = .032). The aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) was significantly, positively associated with LVM (P = .031). Fasting insulin as well as HOMA-IR was significantly, positively associated with LVM (P = .036 and P = .025, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, adiponectin and ARR remained a significant predictor of LVM. The present study found that adiponectin and ARR are important independent determinants of LVH in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. PMID:24576986

  12. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels in psoriatic patients according to topical treatment.

    PubMed

    Baran, A; Flisiak, I; Jaroszewicz, J; Swiderska, M

    2014-05-15

    Abstract Objectives: Psoriasis has been considered as a systemic disease associated with obesity, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines have influence on many metabolic processes. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional topical treatment on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Forty-nine patients with relapse of plaque-type psoriasis and 16 healthy controls were examined. Blood samples were collected before therapy and after 14 days of application. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for correlations with effectiveness of topical treatment. Results: Adiponectin and leptin serum levels were significantly decreased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls. As a result of the topical treatment, serum adiponectin level did not significantly change. Serum leptin level increased significantly, still remaining lower than in the controls. Conclusions: Leptin might be a useful marker in assessing the efficacy of the treatment for psoriasis. PMID:24754531

  13. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (?45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations in a normal estrous cycle of dairy cows, and furthermore, it was found that high-producing dairy cows with higher postpartum serum adiponectin concentrations had NLA and earlier C-LA. PMID:25680575

  14. Novel Modulator for Endothelial Adhesion Molecules Adipocyte-Derived Plasma Protein Adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yukio Arit; Kazuhisa Maeda; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Kikuko Hott; Makoto Nishida; Masahiko Takahashi; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

    Background—Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated whether adiponectin could modulate endothelial function and relate to coronary disease.

  15. Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin\\/ACRP30

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norikazu Maeda; Ken Kishida; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Morihiro Matsuda; Hiroyuki Nagaretani; Naoki Furuyama; Hidehiko Kondo; Masahiko Takahashi; Yukio Arita; Ryutaro Komuro; Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yoshihiro Tochino; Keiichi Okutomi; Masato Horie; Satoshi Takeda; Toshifumi Aoyama; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura

    2002-01-01

    Here we investigated the biological functions of adiponectin\\/ACRP30, a fat-derived hormone, by disrupting the gene that encodes it in mice. Adiponectin\\/ACRP30-knockout (KO) mice showed delayed clearance of free fatty acid in plasma, low levels of fatty-acid transport protein 1 (FATP-1) mRNA in muscle, high levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA in adipose tissue and high plasma TNF-? concentrations. The

  16. Lifestyle plus Exercise Intervention Improves Metabolic Syndrome Markers without Change in Adiponectin in Obese Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Gon Park; Hae-Ryen Hong; Jiyoung Lee; Hyun-Sik Kang

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Little is known about whether lifestyle plus exercise intervention improves obesity, metabolic syndrome markers, and circulating adiponectin concentrations in obese girls. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week lifestyle plus exercise intervention on adiponectin and metabolic syndrome markers in Korean obese adolescents. Methods: A total of 44 obese adolescent girls (13–15 years old),

  17. Insulin-independent role of adiponectin receptor signaling in Drosophila germline stem cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Laws, Kaitlin M; Sampson, Leesa L; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2015-03-15

    Adipocytes have key endocrine roles, mediated in large part by secreted protein hormones termed adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin is well known for its role in sensitizing peripheral tissues to insulin, and several lines of evidence suggest that adiponectin might also modulate stem cells/precursors. It remains unclear, however, how adiponectin signaling controls stem cells and whether this role is secondary to its insulin-sensitizing effects or distinct. Drosophila adipocytes also function as an endocrine organ and, although no obvious adiponectin homolog has been identified, Drosophila AdipoR encodes a well-conserved homolog of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Here, we generate a null AdipoR allele and use clonal analysis to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement for AdipoR in germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. AdipoR null GSCs are not fully responsive to bone morphogenetic protein ligands from the niche and have a slight reduction in E-cadherin levels at the GSC-niche junction. Conversely, germline-specific overexpression of AdipoR inhibits natural GSC loss, suggesting that reduction in adiponectin signaling might contribute to the normal decline in GSC numbers observed over time in wild-type females. Surprisingly, AdipoR is not required for insulin sensitization of the germline, leading us to speculate that insulin sensitization is a more recently acquired function than stem cell regulation in the evolutionary history of adiponectin signaling. Our findings establish Drosophila female GSCs as a new system for future studies addressing the molecular mechanisms whereby adiponectin receptor signaling modulates stem cell fate. PMID:25576925

  18. Inhibition of leptin-induced vascular extracellular matrix remodelling by adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Fang; Wang, Bing-jian; Chu, Guang; Cao, Qunan; Sun, Bao-Gui; Dai, Qiu-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which is the result of disruption in the balance of ECM synthesis and degradation, induces vessel fibrosis and thereby leads to hypertension. Leptin is known to promote tissue fibrosis, while adiponectin has recently been demonstrated to be anti-fibrogenic in tissue fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin and to further elucidate the mechanisms through which adiponectin dampens leptin signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells, thus preventing excess ECM production, in our already established 3D co-culture vessel models. Our 3D co-culture vessel model, which mimics true blood vessels, is composed of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen type I. We validated the profibrogenic effects of leptin and analysed matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and collagen types II/IV secretion in 3D vessel models. The protective/inhibitory effects of adiponectin were re-analysed by inhibiting adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR) and AdipoR2 expression in endothelial cells using RNAi technology. In the 3D vessel models, adiponectin blocked the leptin-stimulated secretion of collagen types II/IV and TIMP1 while significantly increasing MMP2/9 activity. In endothelial cells, adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMPK, thereby suppressing leptin-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of SOCS3 in smooth muscle cells. Our findings indicate that adiponectin disrupted the leptin-induced vascular ECM remodelling via AdipoR1 and enhanced AMPK signalling in endothelial cells, which, in turn, promoted SOCS3 up-regulation in smooth muscle cells to repress leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3. PMID:24982243

  19. ASSOCIATION AMONG LIFESTYLE STATUS, PLASMA ADIPONECTIN LEVEL AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN OBESE MIDDLE AGED MEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Mohebbi; Mehrzad Moghadasi; Farhad Rahmani-Nia; Sadegh Hassan-Nia; Hamid Noroozi

    MOHEBBI, H.; MOGHADASI, M.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; HASSAN-NIA, S.; NOROOZI, H. Association among Lifestyle Status, Plasma Adiponectin Level and Metabolic Syndrome in obese middle aged men. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 3, p. 243-252, 2009. Low plasma levels of the adiponectin characterize obesity and high levels of metabolic syndrome components. The aim of this study was to determine whether

  20. Adiponectin and Ghrelin Levels and Body Size in Normoglycemic Filipino, African-American, and White Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies have reported ethnic differences in adiponectin and ghrelin, but few have assessed the role of body size in normoglycemic women. We compared fasting adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations in normoglycemic 40- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women.Methods: Participants included women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 143), the University of California-San Diego Filipino Women’s Health Study

  1. Adiponectin and vascular properties in obese patients: is it a novel biomarker of early atherosclerosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Shargorodsky; M Boaz; Y Goldberg; Z Matas; D Gavish; A Fux; N Wolfson

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived collagen-like protein, highly specific to adipose tissue and may represent an important link between obesity and atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate a possible association between serum adiponectin levels and early vascular changes in obese patients as determined by intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse-wave contour analysis.Design:Obese subjects (n=47) were evaluated for arterial

  2. Control by homoeologous group 1 chromosomes of the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin, a major protein of wheat endosperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. I. Payne; C. N. Law; E. E. Mudd

    1980-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobilities of the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin from 7 varieties were compared by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In total, 12 subunits were clearly resolved and they had nominal molecular weights of between 95,000 and 140,000. The chromosomes which control their synthesis were determined using monosomic lines and inter-varietal substitution lines. All

  3. Role of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Stephanie; Hebbard, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), a novel hormone/cytokine derived from adipocyte tissue, is involved in various physiological functions. Genetics, nutrition, and adiposity are factors contributing to circulating plasma concentrations of APN. Clinical correlation studies have shown that lower levels of serum APN are associated with increased malignancy of various cancers, such as breast and colon cancers, suggesting that APN has a role in tumorigenesis. APN affects insulin resistance, thus further influencing cancer development. Tumor cells may express receptors for APN. Cellular signaling is the mechanism by which APN exerts its host-protective responses. These factors suggest that serum APN levels and downstream signaling targets of APN may serve as potential diagnostic markers for malignancies. Further research is necessary to clarify the exact role of APN in cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23691481

  4. Regulatory Role of Autophagy in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Saroj; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, exhibits diverse biological responses, including metabolism of glucose and lipid, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Recently, adiponectin has been shown to modulate autophagy as well. While emerging evidence has demonstrated that autophagy plays a role in the modulation of proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, the role of autophagy in apoptosis of cancer cell caused by adiponectin has not been explored. In the present study, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induces both apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), as evidenced by increase in caspase-3 activity, Bax, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3 II) protein levels, and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, gene silencing of LC3B, an autophagy marker, significantly enhanced gAcrp-induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, whereas induction of autophagy by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, significantly prevented gAcrp-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells HepG2. Furthermore, modulation of autophagy produced similar effects on gAcrp-induced Bax expression in HepG2 cells. These results implicate that induction of autophagy plays a regulatory role in adiponectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and thus inhibition of autophagy would be a novel promising target to enhance the efficiency of cancer cell apoptosis by adiponectin. PMID:25414767

  5. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed. PMID:21587097

  6. Maternal Serum Adiponectin at 11–13 Weeks of Gestation in Pregnancies Delivering Small for Gestation Neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surabhi Nanda; Ranjit Akolekar; Danielle Sodre; Eirini Vaikousi; Kypros H. Nicolaides

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether maternal serum levels of adiponectin in the first trimester are altered in pregnancies that subsequently deliver small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods: Maternal serum adiponectin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 11–13 weeks’ gestation in 50 singleton normotensive pregnancies that delivered SGA neonates and 300 non-SGA controls. The median adiponectin and PAPP-A

  7. Adiponectin Is Functionally Active in Human Islets but Does Not Affect Insulin Secretory Function or  Cell Lipoapoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Staiger; N. Stefan; H. Staiger; M. D. Brendel; D. Brandhorst; R. G. Bretzel; F. Machicao; M. Kellerer; M. Stumvoll; A. Fritsche; H.-U. Haring

    2005-01-01

    Context: The adipokine adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti- atherogenic, and antiinflammatory properties. Mouse and human adiponectin receptor-1 and -2 have been cloned, both of which are expressed in various tissues and mediate effects of globular and full- lengthadiponectin.Whetheradiponectinaffectsinsulinsecretionand -cell apoptosis and whether plasma adiponectin is associated with -cell function in humans is under investigation. Design and Methods: In human islets from

  8. Effects of adiponectin in TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 cytokine production from coronary artery disease macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kyriazi, E; Tsiotra, P C; Boutati, E; Ikonomidis, I; Fountoulaki, K; Maratou, E; Lekakis, J; Dimitriadis, G; Kremastinos, D T; Raptis, S A

    2011-07-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue secreted protein, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. We examined the effects of the globular and full-length adiponectin on cytokine production in macrophages derived from Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients and control individuals. Adiponectin's effects in human macrophages upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were also examined. Full length adiponectin acted differently on TNF-? and IL-6 production by upregulating TNF-? and IL-6 protein production, but not their mRNA expression. Additionally, full length adiponectin was unable to abrogate LPS proinflammatory effect in TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA expression in CAD and NON-CAD macrophages. In contrast, globular adiponectin appeared to have proinflammatory properties by potently upregulating TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA and protein secretion in human macrophages while subsequently rendered cells resistant to further proinflammatory stimuli. Moreover, both forms of adiponectin powerfully suppressed scavenger MSR-AI mRNA expression and augmented IL-10 protein release, both occurring independently of the presence of LPS or CAD. These data indicate that adiponectin could potentially protect human macrophages via the elevated IL-10 secretion and the suppression of MSR-AI expression. It can also be protective in CAD patients since the reduced adiponectin-induced IL-6 release in CAD macrophages compared to controls, could be beneficial in the development of inflammation related atherosclerosis. PMID:21626471

  9. Adiponectin Prevents Reduction of Lipid-Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis via AMPK/ACC2 Pathway in Chicken Adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Yan, Jun; Liu, Zhenjiang; Feng, Min; Sun, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin (APN) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and reduces lipid content in human and animal adipocytes. However, the mechanism of adiponectin in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in chicken adipocytes has never been reported. The objective of this study is to examine the mechanism that adiponectin plays in lipid-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in chicken adipocytes. We found that the overexpression of adiponectin reduced the membrane DAG content and elevated the membrane translocation of PKC?. In contrast to control groups, the overexpression of adiponectin increased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial DNA contents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?coactivator 1? (PGC1-?) expression. Mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C (Cyt?C) content were detected by JC-1 fluorescent staining and immunofluorescence which indicated that overexpression of adiponectin enhanced mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Moreover, AMPK/ACC2 signaling pathway was activated along with the elevation of PGC1-? and TFAM by the overexpression of adiponectin, meanwhile the lipid transcription marker genes were down-regulated. This effect was alleviated by reducing adiponectin and a specific inhibitor of AMPK pathway. We concluded that adiponectin could prevent reduction of lipid-induced mitochondrial biogenesis via AMPK/ACC2 pathway in chicken adipocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1090-1100, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25536013

  10. Adiponectin attenuates Ang?-induced TGF?1 production in human mesangial cells via an AMPK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tan, Min; Tang, Gongyao; Rui, Hongliang

    2014-12-01

    Glomerulosclerosis is a key element in end-stage renal failure. Angiotensin?(Ang?) plays an important role in modulating cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and degradation. Adiponectin, a protein derived from adipocytes, is primarily involved in regulating glucose levels and fatty acid break down. It has recently been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. However the role of adiponectin as a reno-protective agent has not been fully explored. We herein examine the effect of adiponectin on Ang ?-induced TGF?1 and ECM production in Human Renal Mesangial Cells (HRMCs) and explore the signaling pathway involved. In this study, we found that both adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) are expressed in HRMCs. Adiponectin (10?g/ml) attenuated the stimulatory effect of Ang? on TGF-?1 and fibronectin. Furthermore, adiponectin activated the AMP-activated protein kinase?AMPK? and, the AMPK specific inhibitor (Compound C) blocked AMPK activation. We also determined that Compound C blocked the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on Ang?-stimulated TGF?1 and fibronectin production. In summary, these results demonstrate that adiponectin suppresses Ang?-induced synthesis of ECM in mesangial cells via activation of the AMPK pathway. Based on our data, we suggest that this mechanism could delay the progression of kidney disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25471552

  11. Effects of sulfonylurea drugs on adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 adipocytes: implication of different mechanism from pioglitazone.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yukiko; Matsuda, Masafumi; Tawaramoto, Kazuhito; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Hashiramoto, Mitsuru; Matsuki, Michihiro; Kaku, Kohei

    2008-07-01

    Adiponectin is a fat-derived cytokine with anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. In this study, effects of sulfonylureas (SUs) on adiponectin production and the action mechanism were evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The cells were incubated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, gliclazide, pioglitazone, metformin and the medium only as the control. In the control, the adiponectin level evaluated as the production rate per 24 h was not changed, while pioglitazone significantly increased the adiponectin level. SUs also increased the adiponectin level, but metformin failed to show any increase in adiponectin production. SUs induced adiponectin gene expression as well as pioglitazone. Pioglitazone significantly increased adipogenesis, but glimepiride did not. The aP2 gene expression was increased by pioglitazone, but not by glimepiride. Forskolin, a protein kinase A stimulator, reduced the adiponectin production stimulated by glimepiride but not by pioglitazone. These observations strongly suggest that SUs stimulate the adiponectin production through a different mechanism from pioglitazone, namely an interaction with protein kinase A activity. The significance of the extrapancreatic action of SUs observed in this study should be further evaluated in the clinical field. PMID:18455831

  12. Adiponectin does not cross the blood-brain barrier but modifies cytokine expression of brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Joachim; Verma, Sulekha; Göhring, Isabel; Bobbert, Thomas; Seifert, Joseph; Sindler, Amy L; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Hileman, Stanley M; Tschöp, Matthias; Banks, William A

    2006-01-01

    Adiponectin has recently been reported to generate a negative energy balance by increasing energy expenditure. However, it is unclear whether such effects require the presence and direct action of the adiponectin protein in the central nervous system. In this study, neither radiolabeled nonglycosylated nor glycosylated globular adiponectin crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice. In addition, adiponectin was not detectable in human cerebrospinal fluid using various established methods. Using murine cerebral microvessels, we demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptors, which are upregulated during fasting, in brain endothelium. Interestingly, treatment with adiponectin reduced secretion of the centrally active interleukin-6 from brain endothelial cells, a phenomenon that was paralleled by a similar trend of other proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, our data suggest that direct effects of endogenous adiponectin on central nervous system pathways are unlikely to exist. However, the identification of adiponectin receptors on brain endothelial cells and the finding of a modified secretion pattern of centrally active substances from BBB cells provides an alternate explanation as to how adiponectin may evoke effects on energy metabolism. PMID:16380487

  13. Oral administration of ?-aminobutyric acid and ?-oryzanol prevents stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuyuki; Kiyotani, Yuka; Uchida, Asako; Nagasaka, Reiko; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kanemoto, Shigeharu; Hori, Masatoshi; Ushio, Hideki

    2011-06-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and is found to associate partly with chronic stress at work in human. Adiponectin circulates in mammal blood mainly as a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) multimers. Low circulating levels of adiponectin are related to metabolic syndrome. We have then investigated the influence of immobilization stress on plasma adiponectin concentrations in mice. Relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels were markedly reduced by immobilization stress (0.66±0.07 and 0.59±0.06 after 102 h, respectively), significantly different from the control values (p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ?-oryzanol abundantly contained in germinated brown rice have some physiological functions. We further investigated the effect of GABA, ?-oryzanol, GABA plus ?-oryzanol on adiponectin levels in mice subjected to immobilization stress. GABA and ?-oryzanol significantly increased the relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels under immobilization stress (1.10±0.11 and 0.99±0.19 after 102 h, respectively, for GABA; 1.08±0.17 and 1.15±0.17 after 102 h, respectively, for ?-oryzanol). Additionally, the co-administration of GABA and ?-oryzanol also increased both relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels (1.02±0.07 and 0.99±0.10 after 102 h, respectively) and was effective in an earlier phase from 30 to 54 h. The results indicate that the co-administration of GABA and ?-oryzanol might be effective in preventing stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia in mice and be also a promising tool for improving metabolic syndrome aggravated by chronic stress. PMID:21316207

  14. Expression of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine hypothalamus during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Smolinska, N; Maleszka, A; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Czerwinska, J; Szeszko, K; Nitkiewicz, A

    2014-06-01

    Adiponectin is a hormonal link between obesity and reproduction, and its actions are mediated by two types of receptors: adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). This study compares the expression levels of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins in selected areas of the porcine hypothalamus responsible for GnRH production and secretion: the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), pre-optic area (POA) and stalk median eminence (SME). The tissue samples were harvested on days 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. Adiponectin mRNA expression in MBH was significantly lower on days 14-16, whereas in SME, the most pronounced gene expression was found on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein in MBH was most abundant on days 17-19 and in POA on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein expression in SME was at similar level throughout the most of the cycle with a statistically significant drop (p < 0.05) on days 14-16. AdipoR1 gene expression in POA was potentiated on days 2-3 and 10-12 of the oestrous cycle (p < 0.05). In SME, the highest AdipoR1 mRNA expression was noted on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The concentrations of the AdipoR1 protein in POA were similar throughout the luteal phase (days 2-14 of the cycle), and they decreased on days 17-19 (p < 0.05). In SME, AdipoR1 protein expression peak occurred on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The expression patterns of the AdipoR2 gene in MBH, POA and SME revealed the highest mRNA levels on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). The highest content of AdipoR2 protein in MBH was reported on days 2-3 (p < 0.05), while in POA on days 17-19 and in SME on days 10-12 and 14-16 (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins are present in the porcine hypothalamus and that their expression levels are determined by the pig's endocrine status related to the oestrous cycle. PMID:24592982

  15. Metabolic profiling of transgenic wheat over-expressing the high-molecular-weight Dx5 glutenin subunit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boryana S. Stamova; Ute Roessner; Suganthi Suren; Debbie Laudencia-Chingcuanco; Antony Bacic; Diane M. Beckles

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to evaluate potential changes in the metabolic network of transgenic wheat grain over-expressing\\u000a the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin Dx5-subunit gene. GC–MS and multivariate analyses were used to compare the metabolite\\u000a profiles of developing caryopses of two independently transformed lines over-expressing Dx5 and another two independently transformed lines expressing only the selectable-marker gene (controls). Developing

  16. Psoriasis is associated with decreased plasma adiponectin levels independently of cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, R. C.; Krishnamoorthy, P.; DerOhannessian, S.; Doveikis, J.; Wilcox, M.; Thomas, P.; Rader, D. J.; Reilly, M. P.; Voorhees, A. Van; Gelfand, J. M.; Mehta, N. N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease that may be associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile including modulated plasma adiponectin and leptin levels. Whether these levels are independent of cardiometabolic risk factors, which are also prevalent in psoriasis, is not known. Methods A consecutive sample of 122 participants with varying degrees of psoriasis severity, and a random sample of 134 participants without psoriasis were recruited for this case–control study. Cardiometabolic risk factors including traditional cardiovascular risk factors, waist circumference, insulin resistance, and total plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured. Total plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses by psoriasis status. Results Participants with psoriasis had mostly mild disease and were mainly on topical therapies, but still had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with those without psoriasis. Furthermore, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in participants with psoriasis than those without {7.13 µg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 4.9–11.3) vs. 14.5 µg/mL (IQR 8.4–24.1); P < 0.001]}. Plasma leptin (ng/mL) levels were higher in the psoriasis group but this did not reach statistical significance [11.3 (IQR 6.4–21.8) vs. 9.8 (IQR 4.9–20.5); P = 0.07]. In multivariable modelling, plasma adiponectin levels were still negatively associated with psoriasis status after adjusting for waist size (% difference = ?41.2%, P < 0.001), insulin resistance (% difference = ?39.5%, P < 0.001) and both waist size and insulin resistance (% difference = ?38.5%, P < 0.001) Conclusion Plasma levels of adiponectin were lower in psoriasis, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for cardiometabolic risk factors known to decrease adiponectin levels. These findings suggest that inflammation present in psoriasis may be associated with adipose tissue dysfunction; however, direct studies of adipose tissue are needed to confirm this. PMID:24341476

  17. Catecholamines, Adiponectin, and Insulin Resistance as Measured by HOMA in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Andrea; Dougherty, Shayne; Cucchiara, Andrew; Marcus, Carole L.; Brooks, Lee J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Its contribution to insulin resistance is complicated by obesity and puberty. We hypothesized that OSA is associated with worse insulin resistance and lower adiponectin after adjustment for obesity and puberty and that catecholamines might mediate these changes. Methods: Normal controls and children with suspected OSA were recruited and categorized as pubertal or prepubertal. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed. Subjects were categorized as OSA for total apnea hypopnea index (Total-AHI) ? 1.5 events/h. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and 24-hour urinary catecholamines were obtained. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) was calculated. The independent effects of OSA upon HOMA, adiponectin, and urinary catecholamines following adjustment for body mass index (BMI) were determined. Results (median; min, max): Subjects (n = 98, 42F; 11 ± 4 years, 37 prepubertal) were generally overweight (BMI-Z = 2.1; ?3, 4.1) and had wide-ranging insulin sensitivities (HOMA = 2.7; 0.5, 27) and PSG parameters (Total-AHI = 1.6; 0, 185). The risks of elevated insulin (P = 0.04) and HOMA (P = 0.05) were higher in OSA vs non OSA obese pubertal children. Polysomnographic markers of OSA, including Total-AHI (P = 0.001, R2 = 0.32), were negatively associated with adiponectin in pubertal children. Total-AHI and oxygen desaturation were associated with higher urinary normetanephrine and norepinephrine. Conclusions: In obese pubertal children, OSA was associated with worse insulin resistance. Worsening OSA was associated with lower adiponectin and increasing urinary catecholamines. Whether OSA directly lowers adiponectin and aggravates a predisposition to insulin resistance is unknown, but these preliminary findings highlight the importance of further studying pediatric OSA. Citation: Kelly A; Dougherty S; Cucchiara A; Marcus CL; Brooks LJ. Catecholamines, adiponectin, and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1185-1191. PMID:20857865

  18. Relatively high levels of serum adiponectin in obese women, a potential indicator of anti-inflammatory dysfunction: Relation to sex hormone- binding globulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Altan Onat; Gülay Hergenē; Zekeriya Küēükdurmaz; Serkan Bulur

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether serum adiponectin concentrations diminish linearly with increasing adiposity and, if not, which factors codetermine this association. These issues were investigated cross-sectionally in 1188 men and women, representative of middle-aged and elderly Turkish adults. Serum total adiponectin was assayed by ELISA. Serum adiponectin values in men, though declining significantly in transition from the bottom to the mid

  19. Adiponectin Is Related to Carotid Artery Plaque and a Predictor of Cardiovascular Outcome in a Cohort of Non-Diabetic Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zan-zhe Yu; Zhao-hui Ni; Le-yi Gu; Ai-wu Lin; Wei Fang; Qiang Yao; Bengt Lindholm; Jia-qi Qian

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated associations between circulating adiponectin, inflammation and cardiovascular disease in peritoneal dialysis patients. Methods: A prospective study was performed in 59 non-diabetic patients. The concentrations of serum adiponectin, biochemical data and ultrasound of carotid artery were measured at enrollment. The patients were followed up to 39 months mainly for

  20. Regulation of adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Samira; Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Nazifi, Saed; Saeb, Mehdi; Shirian, Sadegh; Sarkoohi, Parisa

    2012-06-01

    Available experimental data suggest that adiponectin and thyroid hormones have biological interaction in vivo. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on adipose adiponectin gene expression in thyroid dysfunction are unclear. We induced hyper- (HYPER) and hypothyroidism (HYPO) by daily administration of a 12 mg/l of levothyroxine and 250 mg/l of methimazole in drinking water of rats, respectively, for 42 days. The white adipose tissues and serum sample were taken on days 15, 28, 42 and also 2 weeks after treatment cessation. Analysis of adiponectin gene expression was performed by real-time PCR and 2(-??ct) method. The levels of adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA in the HYPO rats were decreased during the 6-week treatment when compared to control rats (<0.05) and were increased significantly 2 weeks after HYPO cessation (P?adiponectin gene expression occurred in parallel with a decrease in T3, T4, fT3 and fT4 concentrations (P?adiponectin gene expression was increased in HYPER rats during the 6-week treatment in parallel with an increase the thyroid hormones concentrations (P?Adiponectin gene expression levels showed significant negative correlations with concentrations of LDL (HYPO; r?=?-0.806, P?=?0.001 and HYPER; r?=?-0.749, P?=?0.002), triglyceride (HYPO; r?=?-0.825, P?=?0.001 and HYPER; r?=?-0.824, P?=?0.001) and significant positive correlations with concentrations of glucose (HYPO; r?=?0.674, P?=?0.004 and HYPER; r?=?0.866, P?=?0.001) and HDL (HYPO; r?=?0.755, P?=?0.001 and HYPER; r?=?0.839, P?=?0.001). The current study provides evidence that adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue is regulated by thyroid hormones at the translation level and that lipid and carbohydrate disturbances in a patient with thyroid dysfunction may be, in part, due to adiponectin gene expression changes. PMID:22127636

  1. Association of ADIPOQ gene with obesity and adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-05-01

    Studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ADIPOQ gene have been linked with obesity and with adiponectin levels in various populations. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and rs3774261 SNPs with obesity and with adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays. Obesity parameters and adiponectin levels were measured in 574 subjects. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Sequenom MassARRAY. A significant genotypic association was observed between ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity. The frequencies of AG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in the obese group (11%) than in the non-obese group (5%) (P=0.024). The odds of A alleles occurring among the obese group were twice those among the non-obese group (odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval 1.13-4.09). However, no significant association was found between allelic frequencies of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity after Bonferroni correction (P>0.025) or between ADIPOQ rs3774261 and obesity both at allelic and genotypic levels. ADIPOQ SNPs were not significantly associated with log-adiponectin levels. GA, GG, and AG haplotypes of the ADIPOQ gene were not associated with obesity. We confirmed the previously reported association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 with the risk of obesity. ADIPOQ SNPs are not important modulators of adiponectin levels in this population. PMID:24449366

  2. Intestinal epithelial cells promote secretion of leptin and adiponectin in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Rino; Mizuno, Yuki; Miwa, Akiho; Hamada, Akihiro; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Wabitsch, Martin; Sonoyama, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Although leptin and adiponectin are the predominant adipokines, how their circulating levels are regulated is incompletely understood. The present study tested whether intestinal epithelial cells influence the expression and secretion of these adipokines by adipocytes. Leptin gene expression and secretion by cultured human primary adipocytes and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome adipocytes increased upon coculture with human enterocytic Caco-2 cells or incubation in conditioned medium of Caco-2 cells. Although adiponectin secretion increased, its mRNA levels decreased. Tissue homogenate of the ileum (but not the jejunum, colon, or liver) of nonobese C57BL/6J mice also stimulated leptin and adiponectin secretion by cultured murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, ileal homogenate of obese KK-Ay mice had no effect on leptin and adiponectin secretion. We propose that as yet unidentified humoral factors released from intestinal epithelial cells are involved in regulating circulating leptin and adiponectin levels. Decreased production of such factors may contribute to hyperphagia in KK-Ay mice. PMID:25656573

  3. The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, T. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Urology, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX (United Kingdom); Digby, J.E. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chen, J. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Desai, K.M. [Department of Urology, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX (United Kingdom); Randeva, H.S. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: H.Randeva@warwick.ac.uk

    2006-09-29

    Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and plasma levels of the adipokine, adiponectin, are low in the former but high in the latter. Adiponectin has been shown to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, suggesting that adiponectin and its receptors (Adipo-R1, Adipo-R2) may provide a molecular association between obesity and prostate carcinogenesis. We show for First time, the protein distribution of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 in LNCaP and PC3 cells, and in human prostate tissue. Using real-time RT-PCR we provide novel data demonstrating the differential regulation of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 mRNA expression by testosterone, 5-{alpha} dihydrotestosterone, {beta}-estradiol, tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that adiponectin and its receptors may contribute to the molecular association between obesity and prostate cancer through a complex interaction with other hormones and cytokines that also play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and prostate cancer.

  4. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived adiponectin activates BKCa channels to induce anticontractile responses

    PubMed Central

    Withers, Sarah B.; Yao, Zhihong; Werner, Matthias E.; Edwards, Gill; Weston, Arthur H.; Heagerty, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify the potential mechanisms by which perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) reduces tone in small arteries. Small mesenteric arteries from wild-type and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel knockout mice were mounted on a wire myograph in the presence and absence of PVAT, and contractile responses to norepinephrine were assessed. Electrophysiology studies were performed in isolated vessels to measure changes in membrane potential produced by adiponectin. Contractile responses from wild-type mouse small arteries were significantly reduced in the presence of PVAT. This was not observed in the presence of a BKCa channel inhibitor or with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition or in BKCa or adiponectin knockout mice. Solution transfer experiments demonstrated the presence of an anticontractile factor released from PVAT. Adiponectin-induced vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization in wild-type arteries were not evident in the absence of or after inhibition of BKCa channels. PVAT from BKCa or adiponectin knockout mice failed to elicit an anticontractile response in wild-type arteries. PVAT releases adiponectin, which is an anticontractile factor. Its effect on vascular tone is mediated by activation of BKCa channels on vascular smooth muscle cells and adipocytes and by endothelial mechanisms. PMID:23292715

  5. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection and therapeutic profile

    PubMed Central

    Peta, Valentina; Torti, Carlo; Milic, Natasa; Focą, Alfredo; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closely associated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis is more common in genotype 3 infection owing to a direct cytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype 3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely to be the result of the alterations in host metabolism; metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype 1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormones involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has been demonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as the decreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrix protein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, are associated with liver steatosis. Various studies have shown that steatosis is strongly correlated negatively with adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection. The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus induced steatosis is still not completely understood, but the relationship between adiponectin low levels and liver steatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectin to protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulation by increasing ?-oxidation of free fatty acid and thus decreasing de novo free fatty acid production. PMID:25624996

  6. The effects of acute exercise on serum adiponectin and resistin levels and their relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Z. Jamurtas; V. Theocharis; G. Koukoulis; N. Stakias; I. G. Fatouros; D. Kouretas; Y. Koutedakis

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a submaximal aerobic exercise bout on adiponectin and resistin levels as well as insulin sensitivity, until 48 h post-exercise in healthy overweight males. Nine subjects performed an exercise bout at an intensity corresponding to approximately 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption for 45 min. Adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and insulin

  7. Gene–environment interaction between adiponectin gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on the risk of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Wu, Qun Hong; Jiao, Ming Li; Fan, Xiao Hong; Hu, Quan; Hao, Yan Hua; Liu, Ruo Hong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yu; Han, Li Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To evaluate whether the adiponectin gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk and interaction with environmental factors modifies the DR risk, and to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and DR. Materials and Methods Four adiponectin polymorphisms were evaluated in 372 DR cases and 145 controls. Differences in environmental factors between cases and controls were evaluated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. The model-free multifactor dimensionality reduction method and traditional multiple regression models were applied to explore interactions between the polymorphisms and environmental factors. Results Using the Bonferroni method, we found no significant associations between four adiponectin polymorphisms and DR susceptibility. Multivariate logistic regression found that physical activity played a protective role in the progress of DR, whereas family history of diabetes (odds ratio 1.75) and insulin therapy (odds ratio 1.78) were associated with an increased risk for DR. The interaction between the C-11377 G (rs266729) polymorphism and insulin therapy might be associated with DR risk. Family history of diabetes combined with insulin therapy also increased the risk of DR. No adiponectin gene polymorphisms influenced the serum adiponectin levels. Serum adiponectin levels did not differ between the DR group and non-DR group. Conclusions No significant association was identified between four adiponectin polymorphisms and DR susceptibility after stringent Bonferroni correction. The interaction between C-11377G (rs266729) polymorphism and insulin therapy, as well as the interaction between family history of diabetes and insulin therapy, might be associated with DR susceptibility. PMID:25621134

  8. Circulating serum adiponectin concentrations do not differ between obese and non-obese caucasians and are unrelated to insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Owecki, M; Miczke, A; Pupek-Musialik, D; Bryl, W; Cymerys, M; Nikisch, E; Sowi?ski, J

    2007-01-01

    Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in obesity and insulin resistance seem paradoxical, since adipose tissue is the only source of adiponectin, and reports on that subject are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of adiponectin in non-obese and obese normoglycemic humans, and to determine the correlation between adiponectin and HOMA index of insulin sensitivity. Based on the WHO definition of obesity, 145 obese subjects and 49 non-obese controls (aged 20-55 years) were studied. The serum adiponectin concentrations did not differ between subjects and controls (p=0.6398) and were not correlated with HOMA index (r=-0.0211; p=0.8048, and r=-0.0523; p=0.4757, for subjects and controls, respectively). Adiponectin was not correlated with HOMA index in females (r=-0.0521; p=0.6546, and r=-0.0825; p=0.3981, for female subjects and controls, respectively) as well as in males (r=0.0033; p=0.9791, and r=0.0123; p=0.9131, for male subjects and controls, respectively). These results lead to the conclusion that neither the concentrations of adiponectin differ between obese and non-obese humans, nor does any relationship between adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity exist. PMID:17226110

  9. Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role f...

  10. Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Meier; Axel M. Gressner

    2004-01-01

    Background: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. Approach: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobio- chemistry and

  11. Changes in plasma levels of fat-derived hormones adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Otero; R Lago; R Gomez; F Lago; C Dieguez; J J Go?mez-Reino; O Gualillo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition characterised by polyarthritis and severe change in body mass and neuroendocrine environment.Objectives: To investigate plasma levels of adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to compare them with levels in healthy controls.Methods: Adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and leptin concentrations were measured in 31 patients with rheumatoid arthritis

  12. Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Meier; Axel M. Gressner

    Background: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. Approach: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobio- chemistry and

  13. Adiponectin in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2013-10-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin (APN) are reduced in obesity and associated comorbidities, with inflammation playing an important role in downregulating APN production. In contrast to obesity and metabolic disease, elevated systemic and local levels of APN are present in patients with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune and pulmonary conditions, heart and kidney failure, viral hepatitis, organ transplantation and perhaps critical illness. A positive association between inflammation and APN is usually reported in inflammatory/immune pathologies, in contrast with the negative correlation typical of metabolic disease. This review discusses the role of APN in modulation of inflammation and immunity and the potential mechanisms leading to increased levels of APN in inflammatory/immune diseases, including modification of adipose tissue physiology; relative contribution of different tissues and adipose depots; hormonal, pharmacological, nutritional and life style factors; the potential contribution of the microbiota as well as the role of altered APN clearance and release from T-cadherin-associated tissue reservoirs. Potential reasons for some of the apparently contradictory findings on the role of APN as a modulator of immunity and inflammation are also discussed, including a comparison of types of recombinant APN used for in vitro studies and strain-dependent differences in the phenotype of APN KO mice. PMID:23850004

  14. Adiponectin attenuates osteolysis in aseptic loosening of total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Putz, S; Schlattjan, M; Bechmann, Lars P; Totsch, Martin; Grabellus, Florian; Hilken, Gero; Jäger, M; Canbay, A

    2014-01-01

    Joint replacements have a longer durability in patients with high serum levels of adiponectin (APN) than in patients with low levels. We aimed to characterize the unknown pathophysiological effects of APN on wear particle-induced inflammation, apoptosis and osteolysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect APN, its receptors and apoptosis in patients with and without aseptic loosening. Additionally, APN knockout mouse studies and pharmacological intervention of APN were performed in an established calvarial mouse model. Osteolysis and inflammation were quantified by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography, apoptosis by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. In a cell culture model, human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with or without metal wear debris particles and partially treated with APN. Expression of APN, AdipoR1 and calreticulin in specimens from patients with aseptic loosening were significantly higher than in patients without aseptic loosening. Administration of APN in mice significantly reduced wear particle-induced inflammation, osteolysis and the number of caspase-3-positive macrophages. The cell culture model showed that APN leads to significantly lower values of TNF-?. These findings support a prominent role of APN in the development of particle-induced osteolysis and APN may be therapeutically useful in patients with aseptic loosening. PMID:23994269

  15. Mucus and adiponectin deficiency: role in chronic inflammation-induced colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Arpit; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Ponemone, Venkatesh; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Larsen, Bianca; Fletcher, Emma; Greene, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to define the role of adiponectin (APN) in preventing goblet cell apoptosis and in differentiation of epithelial cells to goblet cell lineage resulting in greater mucus production and hence greater protection from chronic inflammation-induced colon cancer (CICC). Methods Six- to eight-week-old male APNKO and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were randomly distributed to three treatment groups: DSS, DMH, DSS+DMH and control. Chronic inflammation was induced in DSS and DSS+ DMH group by administrating 2 % DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by 5 days of normal drinking water and this constitutes one DSS cycle. Three cycles of DSS were administered to induce chronic inflammation. Cancer was induced in both APNKO and WT mice in DMH and DSS+ DMH groups by intraperitoneal injections of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once for DSS+DMH group and once per week for 12 weeks for DMH group. On day 129, the colon tissue was dissected for mucus thickness measurements and for genomic studies. HT29-Cl.16E and Ls174T cells were used for several genomic and siRNA studies. Results APNKO mice have more tumors and tumor area in DSS+DMH group than WT mice. APN deficiency down-regulated goblet to epithelial cell ratio and enhanced the colonic mucosal erosion with reduced mucus thickness. APN increases Muc2 production with no affect on Muc1 production. APN abated goblet cell apoptosis, while APN deficiency reduced epithelial to goblet cell differentiation. Conclusion APN may be involved in reducing the severity of CICC by preventing goblet cell apoptosis and increasing epithelial to goblet cell differentiation. PMID:23474825

  16. Combined delivery of the adiponectin gene and rosiglitazone using cationic lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Davaa, Enkhzaya; Kang, Bong-Seok; Han, Joo-Hui; Lee, Sang-Eun; Ng, Choon Lian; Myung, Chang-Seon; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2015-04-10

    For the combined delivery of an insulin-sensitizing adipokine; i.e., the ADN gene, and the potent PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, cationic lipid emulsions were formulated using the cationic lipid DOTAP, helper lipid DOPE, castor oil, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The effect of drug loading on the physicochemical characteristics of the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes was investigated. Complex formation between the cationic emulsion and negatively charged plasmid DNA was confirmed and protection from DNase was observed. The in vitro transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were evaluated in HepG2 cells. The particle sizes of the cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 230-540nm and those of the rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 220-340nm. Gel retardation of the complexes was observed when the complexation weight ratios of the cationic lipid to plasmid DNA exceeded 4:1 for both the drug-free and rosiglitazone-loaded complexes. Both complexes stabilized plasmid DNA against DNase. The ADN expression level increased dose-dependently when cells were transfected with the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes. The rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complexes showed higher cellular uptake in HepG2 cells depending on the rosiglitazone loading, but not depending on the type of plasmid DNA type such as pVAX/ADN, pCAG/ADN, or pVAX. The drug-loaded cationic emulsion/plasmid DNA complexes were less cytotoxic than free rosiglitazone. Therefore, a cationic emulsion could potentially serve as a co-delivery system for rosiglitazone and the adiponectin gene. PMID:25681724

  17. Higher levels of adiponectin in vascular endothelial cells are associated with greater brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Luttrell, Meredith J; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S; Christou, Demetra D

    2015-03-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects on the vascular endothelium. Recently adiponectin protein has been reported in murine vascular endothelial cells, however, whether adiponectin is present in human vascular endothelial cells remains unexplored. We sought to examine 1) adiponectin protein in vascular endothelial cells collected from older adults free of overt cardiovascular disease; 2) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin and in vivo vascular endothelial function; and 3) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin, circulating (plasma) adiponectin and related factors. We measured vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation using ultrasonography), vascular endothelial cell adiponectin (biopsy coupled with quantitative immunofluorescence) and circulating adiponectin (Mercodia, ELISA) in older, sedentary, non-smoking, men and women (55-79years). We found that higher endothelial cell adiponectin was related with greater flow-mediated dilation (r=0.43, P<0.05) and greater flow-mediated dilation normalized for shear stress (r=0.56, P<0.01), but was not related with vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide (r=0.04, P=0.9). Vascular endothelial cell adiponectin was not related with circulating adiponectin (r=-0.14, P=0.6). Endothelial cell and circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with adiposity, metabolic and other factors, but both were inversely associated with renal function (r=0.44 to 0.62, P?0.04). In conclusion, higher endothelial cell adiponectin levels are associated with higher vascular endothelial function, independent of circulating adiponectin levels in older adults. PMID:25572013

  18. Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic progenitor cells overexpressing high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Rumpel, R; Hohmann, M; Klein, A; Wesemann, M; Baumgärtner, W; Ratzka, A; Grothe, C

    2015-02-12

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent neurotrophic factor promoting survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. FGF-2 is expressed in different isoforms representing distinct translation products from a single mRNA. For this study, we focused on the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, which, after non-viral plasmid-based overexpression in embryonic day 12 (E12) rat ventral mesencephalon (VM)-derived cells, revealed increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in a 'colayer' cell culture model. To determine the therapeutic potential of VM cells producing FGF-2-HMW as their 'own' neurotrophic factor, we transplanted cell suspensions obtained from such in vitro modified and differentiated cell cultures into the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemiparkinsonian rat model. Animals, having received either non-transfected cells, empty-control transfected, or FGF-2-HMW-plasmid transfected cells, were analyzed in two different transplantation paradigms each using 172,000 or 520,000 cells, respectively. The behavioral performances in the amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotational test as well as in the cylinder test were evaluated for up to thirteen weeks post transplantation (postTX). Finally, the integration of the grafted cells into the host striatum was analyzed by immunohistochemical measurements. Those analyses revealed improvements of behavioral deficits in all five groups receiving DA neuron grafts, except for amphetamine-induced rotation of the FGF-2-HMW small graft group. Altogether, genetic modification with the FGF-2-HMW-plasmid did not further improve functional recovery compared to the control groups and had no influence on either the number of surviving DA neurons or on the density of outgrowing TH(+) fibers. PMID:25499314

  19. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored. PMID:23222083

  20. Adiponectin Receptors Form Homomers and Heteromers Exhibiting Distinct Ligand Binding and Intracellular Signaling Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R.; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes. PMID:23255609

  1. Structural and Functional Similarities between Osmotin from Nicotiana Tabacum Seeds and Human Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Colonna, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Osmotin, a plant protein, specifically binds a seven transmembrane domain receptor-like protein to exert its biological activity via a RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. The receptor protein is encoded in the gene ORE20/PHO36 and the mammalian homolog of PHO36 is a receptor for the human hormone adiponectin (ADIPOR1). Moreover it is known that the osmotin domain I can be overlapped to the ?-barrel domain of adiponectin. Therefore, these observations and some already existing structural and biological data open a window on a possible use of the osmotin or of its derivative as adiponectin agonist. We have modelled the three-dimensional structure of the adiponectin trimer (ADIPOQ), and two ADIPOR1 and PHO36 receptors. Moreover, we have also modelled the following complexes: ADIPOQ/ADIPOR1, osmotin/PHO36 and osmotin/ADIPOR1. We have then shown the structural determinants of these interactions and their physico-chemical features and analyzed the related interaction residues involved in the formation of the complexes. The stability of the modelled structures and their complexes was always evaluated and controlled by molecular dynamics. On the basis of these results a 9 residues osmotin peptide was selected and its interaction with ADIPOR1 and PHO36 was modelled and analysed in term of energetic stability by molecular dynamics. To confirm in vivo the molecular modelling data, osmotin has been purified from nicotiana tabacum seeds and its nine residues peptide synthesized. We have used cultured human synovial fibroblasts that respond to adiponectin by increasing the expression of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta via ADIPOR1. The biological effect on fibroblasts of osmotin and its peptide derivative has been found similar to that of adiponectin confirming the results found in silico. PMID:21311758

  2. Opposite effects of 17-? estradiol and testosterone on mitochondrial biogenesis and adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Capllonch-Amer, Gabriela; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M; Garcķa-Palmer, Francisco J; Gianotti, Magdalena

    2014-04-01

    Sexual dimorphism has been found in both mitochondrial functionality and adiponectin expression in white adipose tissue, with female rats presenting more functional mitochondria than males and greater adiponectin expression. However, little is known about the role of sex hormones in this dimorphism. The aim was to elucidate the role of sex hormones in mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and in adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes, and also to provide new evidence of the link between these processes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated and treated either with 17-? estradiol (E?; 10? nM), progesterone (Pg), testosterone (1? ?M both), or a combination of Pg or testosterone with flutamide (FLT; 10? ?M) or E? (1? ?M). The markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and adiponectin expression were analyzed. E? induced mitochondrial proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1, although testosterone showed opposite effects. Pg treatment stimulated proliferation but impaired differentiation. In concerns mitochondrial dynamics, these hormones promoted fusion over fission. FLT treatment indicated that Pg elicits its effects on mitochondrial dynamics through the androgen receptor. E? coadministration with testosterone or Pg reversed its effects. In conclusion, our results show that E? induces stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipocytes in vitro, especially in situations that imply an impairment of mitochondrial function, whereas testosterone would have opposite effects. Moreover, testosterone and Pg alter mitochondrial dynamics by promoting fusion over fission, while E? stimulates both processes. All these alterations run in parallel with changes in adiponectin expression, thus suggesting the existence of a link between mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes. PMID:24604890

  3. Nucleotide sequence of a gene from chromosome 1D of wheat encoding a HMW-glutenin subunit.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R D; Bartels, D; Harberd, N P

    1985-10-11

    A high molecular weight glutenin gene in hexaploid wheat has been isolated by cloning in bacteriophage lambda and characterized. The gene corresponds to polypeptide 12 encoded by chromosome 1D in the variety "Chinese Spring". The coding sequence predicted contains seven cysteine residues six of which flank a central repetitive region comprising more than 70% of the polypeptide. These findings are related to the role of high molecular weight subunits in the viscoelastic theory of gluten structure. PMID:3840588

  4. Adiponectin may play a part in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmut Ilker Yilmaz; Alper Sonmez; Cengizhan Acikel; Turgay Celik; Necati Bingol; Murat Pinar; Zeki Bayraktar; Metin Ozata

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To measure plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes and to investigate any association with the severity of diabetic retinopathy, because adiponectin seems to be an important modulator for metabolic and vascular diseases. Methods: Seventy-four patients (mean age 46.8^5.1 years; body mass index (BMI), 26.8^2.10kg\\/m2) and 54 healthy volunteers (mean age 46.8^5.4 years; BMI 26.47^2.33kg\\/m2) were included.

  5. Adiponectin levels do not predict clinical onset of type 1 diabetes in antibody-positive relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Truyen; J. De Grijse; C. Van Schravendijk; D. De Smet; K. Decochez; E. Vandemeulebroucke; M. Giri; B. Keymeulen; C. Mathieu; L. Van Gaal; P. De Pauw; I. Weets; D. G. Pipeleers; F. K. Gorus

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\/Hypothesis  Insulin resistance has been proposed as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether adiponectin, an insulin\\u000a sensitiser, can serve as an additional predictive marker for type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of known patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adiponectin was followed in 211 persistently islet antibody-positive (Ab+) first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients\\u000a and in 211 age- and sex-matched persistently

  6. Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-05-12

    Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

  7. The Adipokine Profile of Metabolically Benign Obese and At-Risk Normal Weight Postmenopausal Women: The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Xu, Linzhi; Wang, Dan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Allison, Matthew A.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly a third of obese individuals, termed metabolically benign obese, have a low burden of adiposity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities, while a substantial proportion of normal weight individuals possess risk factors. In cross-sectional analyses of 699 normal weight and 1294 overweight/obese postmenopausal women enrolled in a nested case-control stroke study ancillary to the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, we compared levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin among metabolically benign normal weight, at-risk normal weight, metabolically benign obese, and at-risk obese women using components of the ATP III definition of the metabolic syndrome (metabolically benign: ?1 of the 4 components; at-risk phenotype: ?2 components or diabetes). Overall, 382/699 normal weight women (54.6%) and 328/1194 overweight/obese women (27.5%) were metabolically benign. Among normal weight women, at-risk women had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to metabolically benign women; multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were significant for having leptin (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.28–5.01) and resistin (1.46; 1.03–2.07) in the top tertile and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.64; 1.81–3.84). Compared to metabolically benign overweight/obese women, at-risk obese women had higher odds of having leptin in the top tertile (1.62; 1.24–2.12) and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.78; 2.04–3.77). Overall, metabolically benign overweight/obese women had an intermediate adipokine profile (between at-risk obese and metabolically benign normal weight women), while at-risk normal weight women had a less favorable profile compared to metabolically benign normal weight women. As adiponectin was the only adipokine independent of BMI, it may be most likely to have a role in the etiological pathway of these phenotypes. PMID:24357553

  8. Gene expression levels of Casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms are correlated to adiponectin levels in adipose tissue of morbid obese patients and site-specific phosphorylation mediated by CK1 influences multimerization of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Bischof, Joachim; Radermacher, Peter; Wabitsch, Martin; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Wolf, Anna-Maria; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Knippschild, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue has now been recognized as an important endocrine organ secreting bioactive molecules termed adipocytokines. In obesity, anti-inflammatory adipocytokines like adiponectin are decreased while pro-inflammatory factors are over-produced. These changes contribute to the development of insulin resistance and obesity-associated diseases. Since members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family are involved in the regulation of various signaling pathways we ask here whether they are able to modulate the functions of adiponectin. We show that CK1? and ? are expressed in adipose tissue and that the expression of CK1 isoforms correlates with that of adiponectin. Furthermore, adiponectin co-immunoprecipitates with CK1? and CK1? and is phosphorylated by CK1? at serine 174 and threonine 235, thereby influencing the formation of adiponectin oligomeric complexes. Furthermore, inhibition of CK1? in human adipocytes by IC261 leads to an increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, our data indicate that site-specific phosphorylation of adiponectin, especially at sites targeted by CK1? in vitro, provides an additional regulatory mechanism for modulating adiponectin complex formation and function. PMID:25724478

  9. Orally active osteoanabolic agent GTDF binds to adiponectin receptors, with a preference for AdipoR1, induces adiponectin-associated signaling, and improves metabolic health in a rodent model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Joharapurkar, Amit Arvind; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Mishra, Jay Sharan; Singh, Nidhi; Yadav, Manisha; Hossain, Zakir; Khan, Kainat; Kumar, Sudhir; Dhanesha, Nirav Anilkumar; Mishra, Devendra Pratap; Maurya, Rakesh; Sharma, Sharad; Jain, Mukul Rameshchandra; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Gayen, Jiaur Rahaman; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sanyal, Sabyasachi

    2014-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that signals through plasma membrane-bound adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and -2). Plasma adiponectin depletion is associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin therapy, however, is yet unavailable owing to its large size, complex multimerization, and functional differences of the multimers. We report discovery and characterization of 6-C-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3S)-(+)-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol (GTDF) as an orally active adiponectin mimetic. GTDF interacted with both AdipoRs, with a preference for AdipoR1. It induced adiponectin-associated signaling and enhanced glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro, which were augmented or abolished by AdipoR1 overexpression or silencing, respectively. GTDF improved metabolic health, characterized by elevated glucose clearance, ?-cell survival, reduced steatohepatitis, browning of white adipose tissue, and improved lipid profile in an AdipoR1-expressing but not an AdipoR1-depleted strain of diabetic mice. The discovery of GTDF as an adiponectin mimetic provides a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:24848063

  10. Adiponectin upregulates ABCA1 expression through liver X receptor alpha signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhiming; Bai, Rui; Liu, Ming; Xiao, Chuanshi; Bian, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and anti-atherosclerosis. Liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) can stimulate cholesterol efflux through ABCA1. It has been well known that adiponectin has cardiovascular protection. In this study, we attempted to clarify the effect of adiponectin on expression of ABCA1, and explored the role of LXR? in the regulation of ABCA1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results showed that adiponectin increased ABCA1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Consequently, adiponectin promoted cholesterol efflux and decreased cholesterol content in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, adiponectin up-regulated the expression of LXR? in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LXR? small interfering RNA completely abolished the promotion effects of adiponectin. In summary, adiponectin up-regulates ABCA1 expression via the LXR? pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This novel insight could prove useful for developing new treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25755733

  11. Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Neschen, Susanne; Morino, Katsutaro; Rossbacher, Jörg C; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Cline, Gary W; Sono, Saki; Gillum, Matthew; Shulman, Gerald I

    2006-04-01

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about factors that regulate its secretion. To examine the effect of fish oil on adiponectin secretion, mice were fed either a control diet or isocaloric diets containing 27% safflower oil or 27, 13.5, and 8% menhaden fish oil. Within 15 days, fish oil feeding raised plasma adiponectin concentrations two- to threefold in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations remained approximately twofold higher for 7 days when the fish oil diet was replaced by the safflower oil diet. Within 24 h, fish oil markedly induced transcription of the adiponectin gene in epididymal adipose tissue but not in subcutaneous fat. The increase of plasma adiponectin by fish oil was completely blocked by administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma inhibitor bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether. In contrast, there was no effect of fish oil feeding on adiponectin secretion in PPARalpha-null mice. These data suggest that fish oil is a naturally occurring potent regulator of adiponectin secretion in vivo and that it does so through a PPARgamma-dependent and PPARalpha-independent manner in epididymal fat. PMID:16567512

  12. High adiponectin levels fail to protect against the risk of hypertension and, in women, against coronary disease: involvement in autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Onat, Altan; Ayd?n, Mesut; Can, Günay; Köro?lu, Bayram; Karagöz, Ahmet; Altay, Servet

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether serum adiponectin protects against cardiometabolic risk in a population sample with prevailing metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Middle-aged adults representative of a general population with baseline circulating adiponectin measurements (n = 1224) were analyzed prospectively at a mean of 3.8 years’ follow-up, using continuous values or sex-specific tertiles. Total adiponectin was assayed by an ELISA kit. Type-2 diabetes was identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ? 140 mmHg and/or ? 90 mmHg and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Outcomes were predicted using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that were controlled for potential confounders. RESULTS: In models of multiple linear regression, sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting insulin (inverse) and, in men, age were significant independent covariates of serum adiponectin which further tended in women to be positively associated with serum creatinine. Cox regression analyses for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusted for sex, age, non-HDL cholesterol, waist circumference and C-reactive protein, revealed significant inverse association with adiponectin tertiles in men but not women (HR = 0.66; 95%CI: 0.32-1.38 for highest tertile). Cox regression for type-2 diabetes in a similar model (wherein glucose replaced non-HDL cholesterol), adiponectin tertiles appeared to protect in each gender. HR for incident hypertension roughly displayed unity in each of the adiponectin tertiles (P-trend = 0.67). CONCLUSION: High adiponectin levels failed to protect against the development of hypertension and, in women, against CHD, presumably paralleling impairment in renal function as well. Involvement of adiponectin in autoimmune complex with loss of antioxidative-antiatherogenic properties may be underlying. PMID:24147206

  13. TYPES AND RATES OF SEQUENCE EVOLUTION AT HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS IN HEXAPLOID WHEAT AND ITS ANCESTRAL GENOMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Glu-1 locus, encoding the High Molecular Weight-glutenin protein subunits, controls bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and represents a recently evolved region unique to Triticeae genomes. To understand the molecular evolution of this locus region, three orthologous Glu...

  14. Adiponectin stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha in renal glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Cammisotto, Philippe G; Bendayan, Moļse

    2008-12-01

    Adiponectin receptor ADIPOR1 activates the intracellular second messenger AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that participates in the control of the oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study reveals the presence of a functional ADIPOR1 receptor in all the cells of the renal glomeruli. Isolated glomeruli were incubated in vitro with adiponectin and proteins analysed by western blot. Electron microscopy using immunogold labeling was carried out on kidney sections. ADIPOR1 and catalytic AMPK sub-units alpha1 and alpha2 were revealed in normal rat glomeruli and incubation of freshly isolated rat glomeruli with either adiponectin or AICAR led to the activation by phosphorylation of catalytic AMPK. Electron microscopy localized with high resolution these proteins at the plasma membrane of the three glomerular cells, namely the endothelial, the mesangial and the podocyte cells, as well as on Bowman's capsule epithelial cells. It is concluded that glomerular cells express a functional adiponectin receptor ADIPOR1 which, through activation of AMPK, may play important roles in the control of oxidative stress and cell survival within the glomerulus. PMID:18941912

  15. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

  16. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodrķguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  17. The Balance between Leptin and Adiponectin in the Control of Carcinogenesis- Focus on Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that a growing list of cancers may be influenced by obesity. In obese individuals these cancers can be more frequent and more aggressive resulting in reduced survival. One of the most prominent and well characterized cancers in this regard is breast cancer. Obesity plays a complex role in breast cancer and is associated with increased inflammation, angiogenesis and alterations in serum levels of potential growth factors such as adiponectin, leptin and estrogen in the serum. Reduced levels of serum adiponectin have been reported in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls, particularly in postmenopausal women. The role of serum leptin levels in breast cancer appears to be more complex. Some studies have shown leptin to be increased in women with breast cancer but other studies have found leptin to be decreased or unchanged. This may be due to a number of confounding issues. We and others propose that it may be the levels of adiponectin and leptin as well as the balance of adiponectin and leptin that are the critical factors in breast and other obesity related cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:22728769

  18. Osmotin: a plant sentinel and a possible agonist of mammalian adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, S.; Hima Kumari, P.; Shravan Kumar, G.; Mohanalatha, C.; Kavi Kishor, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Osmotin is a stress responsive antifungal protein belonging to the pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 family that confers tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Protective efforts of osmotin in plants range from high temperature to cold and salt to drought. It lyses the plasma membrane of the pathogens. It is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. It is a differentially expressed and developmentally regulated protein that protects the cells from osmotic stress and invading pathogens as well, by structural or metabolic alterations. During stress conditions, osmotin helps in the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, which quenches reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Osmotin expression results in the accumulation of storage reserves and increases the shelf-life of fruits. It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. Adiponectin, produced in adipose tissues of mammals, is an insulin-sensitizing hormone. Strangely, osmotin acts like the mammalian hormone adiponectin in various in vitro and in vivo models. Adiponectin and osmotin, the two receptor binding proteins do not share sequence similarity at the amino acid level, but interestingly they have a similar structural and functional properties. In experimental mice, adiponectin inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration, primary tumor growth, and reduces atherosclerosis. This retrospective work examines the vital role of osmotin in plant defense and as a potential targeted therapeutic drug for humans. PMID:25852715

  19. Relation of Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Level to Serum C-Reactive Protein: The INTERLIPID Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kita, Yoshikuni; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Choudhury, Sohel R.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Masaki, Kamal H.; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Despite considerable study, the relevance of leptin and adiponectin for atherosclerosis development is still unsettled. We investigated relations of serum leptin and adiponectin to serum C-reactive protein (CRP), using the INTERLIPID dataset on Japanese emigrants living in Hawaii and Japanese in Japan. Design and Methods. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and CRP were measured by standardized methods in men and women of ages 40 to 59 years from two population samples, one Japanese-American in Hawaii (83 men, 89 women) and the other Japanese in central Japan (111 men, 104 women). Participants with CRP >10?mg/L were excluded. Results. Sex-specific multiple linear regression analyses, with log-transformed leptin and adiponectin (log-leptin, log-adipo), site (Hawaii = 1, Japan = 0), SBP, HbA1c, smoking (cigarettes/day), and physical activity index score of the Framingham Offspring Study as covariates, showed that log-leptin directly related and log-adipo inversely related to log-CRP for both sexes (Ps < 0.05 to <0.01). Addition to the model of BMI and interaction terms (BMI × log-leptin, BMI × log-adipo, SITE × log-leptin, SITE × log-adipo) resulted in disappearance of statistical significance except for direct relation of log-leptin to log-CRP in men (P = 0.006). Conclusions. Leptin directly related to CRP independent of BMI and other confounding factors in men but not in women. PMID:24371525

  20. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

  1. Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity

    E-print Network

    Suchard, Marc A.

    Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity Bulent in the circula- tion, with important effects on metabolism. We studied five lean and five obese young men [ages: 24.2 1.0 (lean) and 21.8 1.6 (obese) years (difference not significant); body mass indexes: 35.0 1

  2. Adiponectin is a candidate marker of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Gilardini; Philip G. McTernan; Andrea Girola; Nancy F. da Silva; Luisella Alberti; Sudhesh Kumar; Cecilia Invitti

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of several biomarkers to identify obese children and adolescents with increased metabolic risk. One hundred sixty-two Caucasian obese children and adolescents (41% males, 9–18 years old) referred to the Istituto Auxologico Italiano between 2003 and 2004 underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Circulating levels of adiponectin (AD), plasminogen activator inhibitor

  3. The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with underlying biological mechanisms in the future. PMID:23991180

  4. Adiponectin modulates oxidative stress-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Essick, Eric E; Wilson, Richard M; Pimentel, David R; Shimano, Masayuki; Baid, Simoni; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Sam, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic heart failure (HF) i.e., "HF with preserved ejection fraction" (HF-preserved EF) accounts for up to 50% of all HF presentations; however there have been no therapeutic advances. This stems in part from an incomplete understanding about HF-preserved EF. Hypertension is the major cause of HF-preserved EF whilst HF-preserved EF is also highly associated with obesity. Similarly, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., oxidative stress occurs in hypertension and obesity, sensitizing the heart to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inducing autophagic type-II programmed cell death and accelerating the propensity to adverse cardiac remodeling, diastolic dysfunction and HF. Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine, mediates cardioprotective actions but it is unknown if APN modulates cardiomyocyte autophagy. We tested the hypothesis that APN ameliorates oxidative stress-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were pretreated with recombinant APN (30 µg/mL) followed by 1mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. Wild type (WT) and APN-deficient (APN-KO) mice were infused with angiotensin (Ang)-II (3.2 mg/kg/d) for 14 days to induced oxidative stress. Autophagy-related proteins, mTOR, AMPK and ERK expression were measured. H2O2 induced LC3I to LC3II conversion by a factor of 3.4±1.0 which was abrogated by pre-treatment with APN by 44.5±10%. However, neither H2O2 nor APN affected ATG5, ATG7, or Beclin-1 expression. H2O2 increased phospho-AMPK by 49±6.0%, whilst pretreatment with APN decreased phospho-AMPK by 26±4%. H2O2 decreased phospho-mTOR by 36±13%, which was restored by APN. ERK inhibition demonstrated that the ERK-mTOR pathway is involved in H2O2-induced autophagy. Chronic Ang-II infusion significantly increased myocardial LC3II/I protein expression ratio in APN-KO vs. WT mice. These data suggest that excessive ROS caused cardiomyocyte autophagy which was ameliorated by APN by inhibiting an H2O2-induced AMPK/mTOR/ERK-dependent mechanism. These findings demonstrate the anti-oxidant potential of APN in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension-induced HF-preserved EF. PMID:23894332

  5. PPAR?-Independent Increase in Glucose Uptake and Adiponectin Abundance in Fat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Gupta, Alok K.; Hegde, Vijay; Floyd, Elizabeth; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Although thiazolidinediones (TZD) effectively improve hyperglycemia and increase adiponectin, a proinsulin-sensitizing adipokine, they also increase adipogenesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? induction, which may be undesirable. Recent safety concerns about some TZD have prompted the search for next generation agents that can enhance glycemic control and adiponectin independent of PPAR? or adipogenesis. Reminiscent of TZD action, a human adenovirus, adenovirus 36 (Ad36), up-regulates PPAR?, induces adipogenesis, and improves systemic glycemic control in vivo. We determined whether this effect of Ad36 requires PPAR? and/or adipogenesis. Glucose uptake and relevant cell signaling were determined in mock-infected or human adenoviruses Ad36 or Ad2-infected cell types under the following conditions: 1) undifferentiated human-adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (hASC), 2) hASC differentiated as adipocytes, 3) hASC in presence or absence of a PPAR? inhibitor, 4) NIH/3T3 that have impaired PPAR? expression, and 5) PPAR?-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with intact PPAR? served as a positive control. Additionally, to determine natural Ad36 infection, human sera were screened for Ad36 antibodies. In undifferentiated or differentiated hASC, or despite the inhibition, down-regulation, or the absence of PPAR?, Ad36 significantly enhanced glucose uptake and PPAR?, adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and glucose transporter 1 protein abundance, compared with mock or Ad2-infected cells. This indicated that Ad36 up-regulates glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion independent of adipogenesis or without recruiting PPAR?. In humans, natural Ad36 infection predicted greater adiponectin levels, suggesting a human relevance of these effects. In conclusion, Ad36 provides a novel template to metabolically remodel human adipose tissue to enhance glycemic control without the concomitant increase in adiposity or PPAR? induction associated with TZD actions. PMID:21791563

  6. Epistatic interaction between adiponectin and survivin gene polymorphisms in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Shahrabi-Farahani, Maryam; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Parvin; Fereidooni, Forozande; Larijani, Bagher; Shafiee, Gita; Amoli, Mahsa M

    2015-04-01

    Adiponectin appears to play an important role in the development and progression of several obesity-related malignancies. Also, overexpression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is associated with increased risk of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We also investigated whether epistasis between surviving and adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with EC risk in an Iranian population. The samples comprised formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections obtained from the archive of the pathology department, Imam-Khomeini Hospital and Firouzgar hospital. After DNA extraction the genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin (rs1063539, rs2241766) and survivin (rs9904341) gene were evaluated in the study. The increased frequency of ADIPOQ rs1063539C allele (CC+CG genotype) was associated with decreased EC risk [OR: 0.39(0.17-0.90)]. Survivin rs9904341C allele (CC+CG genotype) was associated with increased EC risk [crude OR: 2.75(1.27-5.95), adjusted OR: 2.93(1.27-6.76)]. We observed an epistatic interaction between survivin rs9904341 CC+CG genotype and ADIPOQ rs1063539 GG genotype increasing the risk of EC compared to those with other genotypes [OR: 4.86(1.88-12.54), P=0.001]. Our findings indicate that adiponectin might have a modulatory effect on survivin role and function in EC, which requires further investigation. PMID:25613698

  7. Association of Adiponectin rs1501299 and rs266729 Gene Polymorphisms With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Hanafi Bojd, Hamideh; Eskandari Nasab, Ebrahim; Bahari, Ali; Hashemzehi, Noor Allah; Shafieipour, Sara; Narouie, Behzad; Taheri, Mohsen; Ghavami, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adiponectin is a white and brown adipose tissue hormone, and have been found to play essential roles in the regulation of energy homoeostasis. Recent reports have identified a possible role of adiponectin in NAFLD via PPAR? pathway. Objectives The present study was designed to find out the impact of adiponectin rs1501299 (276G/T) and rs266729 (-11377C/G) gene polymorphisms in NAFLD. Patients and Methods Eighty-three patients with diagnosis of NAFLD, and 93 healthy subjects were included in the study. Tetra ARMS-PCR was designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results A significant difference was found between NAFLD and control group regarding the rs266729 polymorphism (?2 = 7.35, P = 0.025). The rs266729 polymorphism increased the risk of NAFLD in codominant (CC vs. CG: OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.16 - 4.12, P = 0.016) and dominant (CC vs. CG/GG: OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.27; P = 0.008) inheritance tested models. The G allele increased the risk of NAFLD (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.57, P = 0.037) in comparison with C allele. No significant difference was found between the groups concerning adiponectin rs1501299 gene polymorphism (?2 = 0.70, P = 0.697). Conclusions adiponectin rs266729 polymorphism might be a candidate gene, which determines the susceptibility to NAFLD. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings in various populations. PMID:23922565

  8. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  9. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 sensitively responds to weight reduction induced by lifestyle intervention on overweight Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, A; Tsushita, K; Kato, A; Ozaki, N; Tabata, M; Endo, M; Oike, Y; Oiso, Y

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Overexpression of Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) in obese adipose tissues promotes adipose tissue inflammation and its-related metabolic abnormalities. In a comparative study with adiponectin, we investigated whether alterations in serum Angptl2 concentrations reflect the effect of lifestyle intervention on weight loss and improved metabolic parameters in overweight subjects. Methods: A total of 154 Japanese men (age, 40.9±5.1 years; body mass index, 26.9±3.6?kg?m?2; abdominal circumference, 94.1±8.9?cm) underwent a 3-month lifestyle intervention and underwent follow-up for 3 months thereafter. Results: Decreased serum Angptl2 levels, but not increased serum adiponectin levels, were immediately apparent at the end of 3-month lifestyle intervention. Angptl2 levels continued to decrease for 3 months in parallel with body weight loss and improvement in metabolic indicators. In subjects showing ?6% weight reduction, markedly reduced Angptl2 levels were detected at the end of 3-month intervention, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected 3 months after the end of intervention. Multivariate analysis revealed changes in serum Angptl2 levels associated with changes in triglycerides (TGs), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, changes in serum adiponectin levels were associated with altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting plasma glucose levels. Conclusion: A 3-month lifestyle intervention promoted weight reduction and improved glucose and lipid metabolism, an effect maintained 3 months later. Notably, our findings indicate that decreased Angptl2 levels are a good indicator of reduced visceral fat and metabolic improvement at early stages of lifestyle intervention. Thus, Angptl2 reflects adiposity and might be a key protein to regulate inflammation and TG metabolism, whereas adiponectin levels could reflect improved glucose and HDL-C metabolism. PMID:23154406

  10. Weight set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-12-11

    Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

  11. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  12. Adiponectin stimulates autophagy and reduces oxidative stress to enhance insulin sensitivity during high-fat diet feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Rai, Esther; Park, Min; Gabor, Tim V; Scheid, Michael P; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have characterized the antidiabetic effects of adiponectin, yet the precise cellular mechanisms in skeletal muscle, in particular, changes in autophagy, require further clarification. In the current study, we used a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type (WT) or adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) mice with and without adiponectin replenishment. Temporal analysis of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle insulin receptor substrate and Akt phosphorylation demonstrated exaggerated and more rapid HFD-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of Ad-KO mice. Superoxide dismutase activity, the reduced glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide ratio, and lipid peroxidation indicated that HFD-induced oxidative stress was corrected by adiponectin. Gene array analysis implicated several antioxidant enzymes, including Gpxs, Prdx, Sod, and Nox4, in mediating this effect. Adiponectin also attenuated palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species production in cultured myotubes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary muscle cells. Increased LC3-II and decreased p62 expression suggested that HFD induced autophagy in muscle of WT mice; however, these changes were not observed in Ad-KO mice. Replenishing adiponectin in Ad-KO mice increased LC3-II and Beclin1 and decreased p62 protein levels, induced fibroblast growth factor-21 expression, and corrected HFD-induced decreases in LC3, Beclin1, and ULK1 gene expression. In vitro studies examining changes in phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), LC3-II, and lysosomal enzyme activity confirmed that adiponectin directly induced autophagic flux in cultured muscle cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. We overexpressed an inactive mutant of Atg5 to create an autophagy-deficient cell model, and together with pharmacological inhibition of autophagy, demonstrated reduced insulin sensitivity under these conditions. In summary, adiponectin stimulated skeletal muscle autophagy and antioxidant potential to reduce insulin resistance caused by HFD. PMID:25071026

  13. Globular adiponectin inhibits ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Subedi, Amit; Lee, Eung-Seok; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kang, WonKu; Kwak, Mi-Kyung; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    Hepatocellular apoptosis is an essential pathological feature of alcoholic liver disease. Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, has been shown to play beneficial roles in alcoholic liver disease against various inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules. However, the effects of adiponectin on ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) in the prevention of ethanol-induced apoptosis and further tried to decipher the potential mechanisms involved. In the present study, we demonstrated that gAcrp significantly inhibits both ethanol-induced increase in Fas ligand expression and activation of caspase-3 in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells), suggesting that gAcrp plays a protective role against ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells. This protective effect of gAcrp was mediated through adiponectin receptor R1 (adipoR1). Further, globular adiponectin treatment caused induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through, at least in part, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, (Nrf2) signaling. Treatment with SnPP, a pharmacological inhibitor of HO-1, and knockdown of HO-1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) restored caspase-3 activity suppressed by gAcrp, indicating a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role of gAcrp in ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells. In addition, carbon monoxide, a byproduct obtained from the catabolism of free heme was found to contribute to the anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that globular adiponectin prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via HO-1 induction and revealed a novel biological response of globular adiponectin in the protection of liver injury from alcohol consumption. PMID:22842631

  14. Troglitazone and ?2Troglitazone Enhance Adiponectin Expression in Monocytes/Macrophages through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (?2troglitazone, (?2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-dependent pathway whereas ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and ?2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-?-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and ?2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and ?2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis. PMID:25328285

  15. Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maļmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2014-01-01

    Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported. PMID:24240086

  16. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)] [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  17. Stellar Rotation and Variability in IC 348 and Indication of a 4.75 Year Period for the Unique, Apparently Eclipsing Pre-Main Sequence Star HMW 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhagen, S. C. J.; Rhode, K. L.; Herbst, W.; Williams, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past two years of a seven-year photometric variability study of the young stellar cluster IC 348, numerous periodically variable T Tauri stars were discovered, bringing the total number of identified periodic variables in IC 348 to 69, or about 45 % of all cluster stars observed by us. This includes data from Herbst, Maley & Williams (2000, AJ 120, 394), Cohen, Herbst & Williams (2004, AJ 127, 1602) and Littlefair et al. (2005 MNRAS 358, 341). In addition to these photometric data, spectra of 30 cluster members were obtained with the WIYN 3.5m telescope and used to calculate radial velocities and v sin i rotation measurements, offering a generally complementary view of stellar rotation in IC 348. A mean heliocentric radial velocity for the cluster has been determined, and two radial velocity outliers discovered, which are possible spectroscopic binaries. The distribution of rotation periods, their relationship to v sin i measurements and the implications of these results for the rotation and radii of pre-main sequence stars in IC 348 will be presented. In addition, we discuss the recent behavior of the peculiar variable HMW 15 (Cohen, Herbst & Williams 2003 ApJ 596, L243), which now appears to be undergoing a periodic eclipse on a time scale of 4.75 years. We discuss possible origins for this extraordinarily long periodicity. S. Nordhagen was an undergraduate summer student at Wesleyan University, sponsored by the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. Their REU program is supported by NSF grant AST-0353997.

  18. Genetic Variation in the Gene Encoding Adiponectin Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Japanese Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Hara; Philippe Boutin; Yasumichi Mori; Kazuyuki Tobe; Christian Dina; Kazuki Yasuda; Toshimasa Yamauchi; Shuichi Otabe; Terumasa Okada; Kazuhiro Eto; Hiroko Kadowaki; Ryoko Hagura; Yasuo Akanuma; Yoshio Yazaki; Ryozo Nagai; Matsuo Taniyama; Koichi Matsubara; Madoka Yoda; Yasuko Nakano; Satoshi Kimura; Motowo Tomita; Chikako Ito; Philippe Froguel; Takashi Kadowaki

    2002-01-01

    An adipocyte-derived peptide, adiponectin (also known as GBP28), is decreased in subjects with type 2 diabe- tes. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a diabetes susceptibility locus to chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene (APM1) is located. Herein, we present evidence of an association between frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene and type 2

  19. Polymerization of Kraft lignin via ultrasonication for high-molecular-weight applications.

    PubMed

    Wells, Tyrone; Kosa, Matyas; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    Kraft lignin is an inexpensive and abundant byproduct of pulp mills that can be used in the synthesis of adhesives and carbon fibers along with energy production. Some of these material applications favor the utilization of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin. This study investigates the use of ultrasonics as a means to increase the degree of polymerization (DP) of highly purified Kraft lignin. Treated samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After 15 min of sustained cavitation, ultrasonicated lignin generated a high molecular-weight fraction (~35%) that had a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) over 450-fold greater than the initial Kraft lignin sample. (13)C-NMR and (31)P-NMR analysis indicated that the highly-polymerized fraction was enriched with C5 condensed phenolic structures. PMID:23714331

  20. Suppression of mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by adiponectin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Su, Y-X; Deng, H-C; Zhang, M-X; Long, J; Peng, Z-G

    2014-09-01

    Renal growth, particularly hypertrophy, is a feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is an important regulator of cell proliferation. Recent studies have suggested that adiponectin has a protective effect in the kidney. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanisms of adiponectin in early DN. Mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were cultured in media containing different concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) with or without adiponectin. MMC proliferation and expression of type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin were investigated. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were injected intravenously with recombinant lentivirus encoding the mouse adiponectin gene (Lenti-Acdc-IRES-EGFP). Urinary microalbumin, serum adiponectin level, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin were determined. Adiponectin inhibited the increases in MMC proliferation and expression of type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin induced by PDGF-BB. Adiponectin also effectively reduced renal cell proliferation and expression of type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin when it was introduced in vivo by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer. These findings suggest that adiponectin exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting renal cell proliferation and reducing synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, thus suppressing the development and progression of DN. PMID:24816832

  1. Six new chalcones from Angelica keiskei inducing adiponectin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohnogi, Hiromu; Kudo, Yoko; Tahara, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Enoki, Tatsuji; Hayami, Shoko; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Tanimura, Yuko; Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Kato, Ikunoshin; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba in Japanese), a traditional herb in Japan, contains abundant prenylated chalcones. It has been reported that the chalcones from A. keiskei showed such bioactivities as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Xanthoangelol, 4-hydroxyderricin and six new chalcones were isolated in this study from an ethanol extract of A. keiskei by octadecyl silyl (ODS) and silica gel chromatography, and identified by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. The chalcones from A. keiskei markedly increased the expression of the adiponectin gene and the production of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the chalcones from A. keiskei might be useful for preventing the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22738967

  2. Additional Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 on the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Serum Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is implicated in diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate whether serum adiponectin levels in patients with both coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) are lower than in patients with CAD alone and control subjects. Objectives: In this present study, we measured serum adiponectin levels in consecutive CAD patients with and without T2DM and investigated whether decreased adiponectin is associated with risk factors of CAD. Materials and Methods: The study included 198 subjects, 138 patients with CAD (72 of whom had both CAD and T2DM), and 60 control subjects. We measured serum adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin by ELISA. In addition, Lipid profile, glucose and anthropometrical measurements were performed in all subjects. Results: The results revealed significant difference in serum adiponectin levels between patients with CAD+T2DM and patients with CAD alone (3.80 ± 1.52 vs. 5.25 ± 2.35, P = 0.007), between patients with CAD and control (5.25 ± 2.35 vs. 7.04 ± 3.32, P = 0.001), and between patients with CAD + T2DM and control (3.80 ± 1.52 vs. 7.04 ± 3.32, P < 0.001). Serum adiponectin level was significantly higher in women in contrast to men (5.97 ± 3.15 vs. 4.62 ± 2.81 µg/ml, P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin levels were correlated significantly with insulin (r = -0.178, P = 0.013), total cholesterol (r = -0.313, P < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (r = -0.154, P = 0.016), body mass index (r = -0.171, P = 0.016), glucose (r = -0.202, P = 0.006), HOMA-IR (r= -0.251, P = 0.001), and IL-6 levels (r = -0.321, P = 0.001). Adiponectin was correlated positively only with high density lipoprotein (r = 0.389, P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is speculated that increased insulin resistance and increase in other adipokines such as IL-6 may contribute to the decreased serum levels of adiponectin in patients with both CAD and T2DM. PMID:24719717

  3. Common genetic variation in adiponectin, leptin, and leptin receptor and association with breast cancer subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Nyante; Marilie D. Gammon; Jay S. Kaufman; Jeannette T. Bensen; Dan Yu Lin; Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan; Yijuan Hu; Qianchuan He; Jingchun Luo; Robert C. Millikan

    2011-01-01

    Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether\\u000a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of\\u000a 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like,

  4. Increased serum adiponectin levels in type 1 diabetic patients with microvascular complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frystyk; L. Tarnow; T. Krarup Hansen; H.-H. Parving; A. Flyvbjerg

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Low serum adiponectin (ADPN) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetic patients, the relationship between ADPN and the presence of vascular complications is largely unknown.Methods  We investigated the relationship between serum ADPN and the presence of retinopathy, nephropathy and CVD in patients with type 1

  5. Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity is a major background of life style-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the extent of whole body fat accumulation does not necessarily the determinant for the occurrence of these diseases. We developed the method for body fat analysis using CT scan and established the concept of visceral fat obesity, in other word metabolic syndrome in which intra-abdominal visceral fat accumulation has an important role in the development of diabetes, lipid disorder, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In order to clarify the mechanism that visceral fat accumulation causes metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, we have analyzed gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. From the analysis, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue expressed abundantly the genes encoding bioactive substances such as cytokines, growth factors and complements. In addition to known bioactive substances, we found a novel collagen-like protein which we named adiponectin. Adiponectin is present in plasma at a very high concentration and is inversely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherogenic properties and recent studies revealed that this protein has an anti-inflammatory and anti-oncogenic function. Therefore hypoadiponectinemia induced by visceral fat accumulation should become a strong risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and also some kinds of cancers.In this review article, I would like to discuss the mechanism of life style-related diseases by focusing on the dysregulation of adiponectin related to obesity, especially visceral obesity. PMID:20154470

  6. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamauchi; J. Kamon; Y. Minokoshi; Y. Ito; H. Waki; S. Uchida; S. Yamashita; M. Noda; S. Kita; K. Ueki; K. Eto; Y. Akanuma; P. Froguel; F. Foufelle; P. Ferre; D. Carling; S. Kimura; R. Nagai; B. B. Kahn; T. Kadowaki

    2002-01-01

    Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full-length Ad in

  7. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Huaixing Li; Oscar H Franco; Zhijie Yu; Yong Liu; Xu Lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Hypoadiponectinemia is an important risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little is known about its role in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma adiponectin levels and MetS in middle-aged and elderly Chinese from both urban and rural areas of northern and southern China.Methods and Procedures:This population-based cross-sectional study included 3,193

  8. Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. KingSarah; Sarah E. Deemer; Dixie L. Thompson

    The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD)\\u000a risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional\\u000a study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level\\u000a of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and

  9. Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Imatoh; S. Tanihara; M. Miyazaki; Y. Momose; Y. Uryu; H. Une

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant\\u000a inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms are still\\u000a not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study to clarify the relationship between coffee consumption\\u000a and adiponectin levels in Japanese males. We also

  10. The role of the novel adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin in human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan J Diez; Pedro Iglesias

    2003-01-01

    Adiponectin, also called GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30, is a novel adipose tissue-specific protein that has structural homology to collagen VIII and X and complement factor C1q, and that circulates in human plasma at high levels. It is one of the physiologically active polypeptides secreted by adipose tissue, whose multiple functions have started to be understood in the last few

  11. High serum C1q-binding adiponectin levels in male patients with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The complement system is part of the immune system in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in blood, and serum C1q binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We investigated the comparative evaluation of serum C1q-APN levels in males with ACS, stable angina pectoris (SAP) versus controls. Methods The study subjects were 138 Japanese patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. Blood total adiponectin (Total-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into three groups according to the clinical condition: ACS (n?=?78), SAP (n?=?41) or normal coronary (NC, n?=?19) groups. Results Serum C1q levels were significantly higher in the ACS group (54.9±1.2 ?g/mL) than in the NC group (48.0±2.5 ?g/mL). Although serum Total-APN levels were significantly lower in the SAP and ACS groups, compared with the NC group (7.0±0.5, 7.2±0.3, 10.6±2.0 ?g/mL, respectively), serum C1q-APN levels were significantly higher in the ACS group than in the NC and SAP groups (112.1±4.1, 66.3±4.4, 65.7±2.9 units/mL, respectively). Conclusions Patients with ACS had higher serum C1q-APN levels. Trial Registration UMIN000002997 PMID:24400991

  12. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

  13. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood–brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

  14. Relationship of Caffeine with Adiponectin and Blood Sugar Levels in Subjects with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhaktha, Geetha; Mayya, Shreemathi; Shantaram, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coffee though not usually thought of as healthy food but can be treated as one of the beneficial drink. Many researchers have found strong evidence that coffee reduces the risk of several serious ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, etc. The long term beneficial effect of coffee on diabetes is now understood to be more influential and obliging. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 220 healthy subjects of which 143 consumed coffee and 77 did not. These were matched with 90 diabetic subjects. Among the 90 diabetics, 48 consumed coffee and 42 did not consume coffee. Results: The mean adiponectin value was significantly higher in coffee consumed normal and diabetic subjects than the subjects who did not consume coffee. The decrease in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c values were also observed in normal and diabetic subjects who consumed coffee than the other groups who did not consume coffee. Significant difference (p<0.05) in mean FBG, PPBS, HbA1c and adiponectin were observed between coffee consumed and no coffee consumed groups. Conclusion: The long term use of caffeine is more efficient on blood sugar and adiponectin levels, which needed in the prevention of complications in diabetic subjects. PMID:25737971

  15. Adiponectin modulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 through AMPK signaling cascade in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wu, Liling; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Limei; Zhao, Yali

    2007-03-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived polypeptide hormone, plays an important role in regulating fatty acid oxidation. beta-oxidation of fatty acids supplies most of the cardiac energy and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 serves as a key regulator during this process. To characterize the potential effects of adiponectin on CPT-1, we incubated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with globular adiponectin (gAd). Results showed that gAd promoted the activity and mRNA expression of CPT-1. The underlying signal pathway involved in this modulatory effect was further investigated. Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with adenine 9-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (AraA) completely abrogated gAd-mediated AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and suppressed the promotion of CPT-1 activity. gAd also induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, which was inhibited by AraA. SB202190, a p38MAPK inhibitor, blocked gAd-stimulated PPAR-alpha phosphorylation. When AMPK and/or p38MAPK was inhibited, gAd-enhanced mRNA expression of CPT-1 was partially reduced. In conclusion, our study suggests that the activation of AMPK signaling cascade participates in the promotion effect of gAd on CPT-1. PMID:17109977

  16. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  17. Development, validation, and pilot application of a semiquantitative Western blot analysis and an ELISA for bovine adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, M; Mielenz, B; Singh, S P; Kopp, C; Heinz, J; Häussler, S; Sauerwein, H

    2013-04-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived glycoprotein circulating as highly abundant multimers. It regulates glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In ruminants, valid data about serum concentrations and tissue-specific protein expression are lacking, and we, therefore, aimed to generate a polyclonal antibody against bovine adiponectin to apply it in immunodetection. The specificity of the purified anti-adiponectin antibody was established by Western blot analysis with the use of reducing and denaturing conditions applied to both the purified protein and the bovine serum samples. Besides bovine serum, the applicability of the antibody for immunodetection of adiponectin was confirmed for the supernatant fluid of in vitro-differentiated bovine adipocytes, for protein extracts from bovine adipose tissue, and also in a multispecies comparison: bands comparable in size with monomeric bovine adiponectin were obtained under denaturing conditions in serum of camel, horse, human, mouse, pig, roe deer, and sheep. In addition, when used in immunohistochemistry on bovine adipose tissue sections, a characteristic adipocyte-specific staining pattern was obtained with this antibody. The antibody was used for establishing a semiquantitative Western blot procedure and the development of an ELISA. Both methods were extensively validated and were first applied to characterize the serum adiponectin concentrations in multiparous dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, that is, 3 wk before until 5 wk after calving. With both assays a time effect (P = 0.017, P = 0.026, respectively) with lowest values at the day of parturition was observed. We thus established 2 useful tools to validly assess bovine adiponectin at the protein level. PMID:23291015

  18. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CENTRALLY ADMINISTERED ADIPONECTIN ON APPETITE, METABOLISM AND BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Mirian; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Hall, John E.; da Silva, Alexandre A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute studies suggest that adiponectin may reduce sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP) via actions on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the chronic effects of adiponectin on energy expenditure and cardiovascular function are still poorly understood. We tested if chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of adiponectin (1 or 7 µg/day) in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and at the high dose (7 µg/day) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a hypertensive model associated with sympathetic overactivity, evoked chronic reductions in BP and heart rate (HR). We also determined if chronic ICV adiponectin infusion alters appetite, whole body oxygen consumption (VO2), and insulin and leptin levels. Neither dose of adiponectin infused for 7 days significantly altered BP or HR in the HFD group (115±2 to 112±2 mmHg and 384±6 to 379±6 bpm at 1 µg/day; 109±3 to 111±3 mmHg and 366±5 and 367±5 bpm at 7µg/day). The higher dose slightly reduced food intake (14±1 to 11±1 g/day), whereas VO2, insulin and leptin levels were not affected by the treatment. In SHRs, ICV adiponectin infusion reduced appetite (22±2 to 12±2 g/day) and insulin levels (~55%), but did not alter BP (162±4 to 164±3 mmHg) or HR (312±5 to 322±8 bpm). These results suggest that adiponectin, acting via its direct actions on the CNS, has a small effect to reduce appetite and insulin levels, but it has no long-term action to reduce BP or HR, or to alter whole body metabolic rate. PMID:22749987

  19. Is there any interaction of resistin and adiponectin levels with protein-energy wasting among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kaynar, Kubra; Kural, Birgul V; Ulusoy, Sukru; Cansiz, Muammer; Akcan, Buket; Misir, Nuray; Yaman, Selcuk; Kaya, Nuh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adipocytokines including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on appearance of protein-energy wasting (PEW). One hundred fifty patients with mean age of 45.4?±?15.9 years, without active infections or chronic inflammatory conditions were recruited into the study. Study groups were control group (consisting of 30 healthy volunteers with normal kidney functions), hemodialysis group, predialysis group, peritoneal dialysis group and kidney transplant group. Fasting morning serum leptin, ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin, resistin levels of all of the groups were measured. Anthropometric and nutritional assessments of all patients were obtained. Diagnosis of PEW was made according to definition recommended by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Presence of PEW in hemodialysis (23.3%) and peritoneal dialysis (26.7%) groups were significantly higher than those of predialysis (3.3%), and transplantation (0%) groups. Adiponectin and resistin levels in predialysis, peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients were significantly higher than control group (p: 0.0001). This study had given significant positive correlations between presence of PEW and serum resistin (r: 0.267, p: 0.001), and serum adiponectin levels (r: 0.349, p: 0.0001). There were no relationship between presence of PEW and ghrelin, acylated-ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, and leptin levels of the groups. CKD patients except transplant patients had higher adiponectin and resistin levels than control group. PEW was found to be linearly correlated with resistin and adiponectin. High serum resistin and adiponectin levels might have a role in development of PEW among dialysis patients. PMID:23919731

  20. Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Results T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = ?0.12 and r = ?0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = ?0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. Conclusions These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. PMID:23592672

  1. Chlorogenic Acid Improves Late Diabetes through Adiponectin Receptor Signaling Pathways in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shasha; Chang, Cuiqing; Zhang, Lantao; Liu, Yang; Huang, Xianren; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on glucose and lipid metabolism in late diabetic db/db mice, as well as on adiponectin receptors and their signaling molecules, to provide evidence for CGA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We randomly divided 16 female db/db mice into db/db-CGA and db/db-control (CON) groups equally; db/m mice were used as control mice. The mice in both the db/db-CGA and db/m-CGA groups were administered 80 mg/kg/d CGA by lavage for 12 weeks, whereas the mice in both CON groups were given equal volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by lavage. At the end of the intervention, we assessed body fat and the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in the plasma, liver and skeletal muscle tissues as well as the levels of aldose reductase (AR) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in the kidneys and measured adiponectin receptors and the protein expression of their signaling molecules in liver and muscle tissues. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared with the db/db-CON group, the percentage of body fat, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the db/db-CGA group were all significantly decreased; TGF-?1 protein expression and AR activity in the kidney were both decreased; and the adiponectin level in visceral adipose was increased. The protein expression of adiponectin receptors (ADPNRs), the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver and muscle, and the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-?) in the liver were all significantly greater. CGA could lower the levels of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during late diabetes and improve kidney fibrosis to some extent through the modulation of adiponectin receptor signaling pathways in db/db mice. PMID:25849026

  2. Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Megan R.; Port, Ava M.; Shah, Mitali; Bourland, Ashley C.; Istfan, Nawfal W.; Nelson, Kerrie P.; Gokce, Noyan; Apovian, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity. Methods Obese subjects (29.0–44.6 kg/m2) recruited from Boston Medical Center were randomized to a hypocaloric LFHC (n=26) or HFLC (n=29) diet for 12 weeks. Results The age range of subjects was 21–62 years. As a percentage of daily calories, the HFLC group consumed 33.5% protein, 56.0% fat and 9.6% carbohydrate and the LFHC group consumed 22.0% protein, 25.0% fat and 55.7% carbohydrate. The change in percent body weight, lean and fat mass, blood pressure, flow mediated dilation, hip:waist ratio, hemoglobin A1C, fasting insulin and glucose, and glucose and insulin response to a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test did not differ (P>0.05) between diets after 12 weeks. The HFLC group had greater mean decreases in serum triglyceride (P=0.07), and hs-CRP (P=0.03), and greater mean increases in HDL cholesterol (P=0.004), and total adiponectin (P=0.045) relative to the LFHC. Secreted adipose tissue adiponectin or TNF-? did not differ after weight loss for either diet. Conclusions Relative to the LFHC group, the HFLC group had greater improvements in blood lipids and systemic inflammation with similar changes in body weight and composition. This small-scale study suggests that HFLC diets may be more beneficial to cardiovascular health and inflammation in free-living obese adults compared to LFHC diets. PMID:24075505

  3. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

  4. Weight Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss Expectations and Goals share Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss No matter what your weight loss ... Read full story >> share 3 Steps for Setting Physical Activity Goals Think about the "big picture" of your ...

  5. Cut-Off Value of Total Adiponectin for Managing Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Male Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Akiko; Yonemoto, Koji; Shikama, Yosuke; Aki, Nanako; Kosugi, Chisato; Tamura, Ayako; Ichihara, Takako; Minagawa, Takako; Kuwamura, Yumi; Miyoshi, Masashi; Nakao, Takayuki; Funaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the optimal cut-off value of serum total adiponectin for managing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in male Japanese workers. Methods A total of 365 subjects without MetS aged 20–60 years were followed up prospectively for a mean of 3.1 years. The accelerated failure-time model was used to estimate time ratio (TR) and cut-off value for developing MetS. Results During follow-up, 45 subjects developed MetS. Age-adjusted TR significantly declined with decreasing total adiponectin level (? 4.9, 5.0–6.6, 6.7–8.8 and ? 8.9 ?g/ml, P for trend = 0.003). In multivariate analyses, TR of MetS was 0.12 (95% CI 0.02–0.78; P = 0.03) in subjects with total adiponectin level of 5.0–6.6 ?g/ml, and 0.15 (95% CI 0.02–0.97; P = 0.047) in subjects with total adiponectin level ? 4.9 ?g/ml compared with those with total adiponectin level ? 8.9 ?g/ml. The accelerated failure-time model showed that the optimal cut-off value of total adiponectin for managing the risk of developing MetS was 6.2 ?g/ml. In the multivariate-adjusted model, the mean time to the development of MetS was 78% shorter for total adiponectin level ? 6.2 ?g/ml compared with > 6.2 ?g/ml (TR 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08–0.64, P = 0.005). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the cut-off value for managing the risk of developing MetS is 6.2 ?g/ml in male Japanese workers. Subjects with total adiponectin level ? 6.2 ?g/ml developed MetS more rapidly than did those with total adiponectin level > 6.2 ?g/ml. PMID:25705909

  6. Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2013-10-01

    In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, ?13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

  7. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Colado Simćo, Andréa Name; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ? 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ? 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ? 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  8. Adiponectin Is a Candidate Biomarker of Lower Extremity Bone Density in Men With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Ashley L; Battaglino, Ricardo A; Donovan, Jayne; Gagnon, David; Lazzari, Antonio A; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major regulator of bone metabolism and in the general population obesity is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). However, bone-fat interactions are multifactorial, and may involve pathways that influence both bone formation and resorption with competing effects on the skeleton. One such pathway involves adipocyte production of adipokines that regulate bone metabolism. In this study we determined the association between BMD, walking status, and circulating adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) in 149 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Although adipokine levels did not vary significantly based on walking status, there was a significant inverse association between adiponectin and BMD in wheelchair users independent of body composition. We found no association between adiponectin and BMD in the walkers and no association between leptin and BMD in either group. These findings suggest that for subjects with chronic SCI, walking may mitigate the effect of adiponectin mediated bone loss. For wheelchair users, adipose-derived adiponectin may contribute to SCI-induced osteoporosis because the osteoprotective benefits of obesity appear to require mechanical loading during ambulation. PMID:23787489

  9. Fish oil N-3 fatty acids increase adiponectin and decrease leptin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simćo, Andréa Name Colado; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ? 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ? 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ? 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  10. Molecular evolution of adiponectin in Carnivora and its mRNA expression in relation to hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Kapiainen, Suvi; Harris, Lora; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2010-09-15

    Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone with low circulating concentrations and/or mRNA expression in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to hepatic lipidosis. In addition, adiponectin mRNA expression was studied in the retroperitoneal fat of the American mink (Neovison vison), as hepatic lipidosis with close similarities to NAFLD can be rapidly induced to the species by fasting. The mRNA expression was determined after overnight-7d of food deprivation and 28d of re-feeding and correlated to the liver fat %. The homologies between the determined carnivoran mRNA sequences and that of the domestic dog were 92.2-99.1%. As the mRNA expression was not affected by short-term fasting and did not correlate with the liver fat %, there seems to be no clear connection between adiponectin and the development of lipidosis in the American mink. In the future, the obtained sequences can be utilized in further studies of adiponectin expression in comparative endocrinology. PMID:20553720

  11. Adiponectin exerts its negative effect on bone metabolism via OPG/RANKL pathway: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Ping; Li, Xian-Ping; Wang, Min; Zhao, Li-Ling; Li, Hui; Xie, Hui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effects of adiponectin on the bone metabolism in vivo. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone microstructure, serum adiponectin levels, and biochemical markers of the bone turnover were measured in 12-week-old male Adipo-/- and WT mice. In addition, the osteoclast formation, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) expression were examined. The serum adiponectin levels were normal in the WT mice while undetectable in the Adipo-/- mice. Compared with the WT mice, the Adipo-/- mice had higher BMD, more trabecular bone, greater bone volume fraction, and trabecular thickness in the left femur. On the contrary, fewer osteoclasts were observed in the Adipo-/- mice when compared with the WT mice. Meanwhile, the Adipo-/- mice had a significantly decreased serum carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)/osteocalcin (OC) ratio. Interestingly, both the adiponectin and RANKL would cause a significant increase of CTX/OC ratio in the co-culture of the CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the osteoblasts from Adipo-/- mice. Further, immunohistochemistry assays in tibias and both the RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses in the cultured osteoblasts showed the Adipo-/- mice expressed lower levels of RANKL but higher levels of OPG. Adiponectin had a negative effect on the bone metabolism, and this negative effect might be mediated, at least in part, by the OPG/RANKL pathway. PMID:24627163

  12. The Effect of Adiponectin on Osteonectin Gene Expression by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein-Treated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niknam, Sara; Ghatreh-Samani, Keihan; Farrokhi, Effat

    2015-01-01

    Osteonectin is a bone- associated protein involved in vascular calcification. Adiponectin may protect against cardiovascular disease but possible effects on vascular calcification have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of adiponectin on oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)- induced expression of osteonectin in human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (HA/VSMCs). HA/VSMCs were cultured in F12K media and then treated with oxLDL (100 µg/mL) in the presence or absence of adoponectin (5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 hours. mRNA expression and protein level of osteonectin were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. After exposure to oxLDL, osteonectin expression increased 1.62 ± 0.23- and 6.62 ± 0.48-fold after 24 and 48 hours respectively compared to the control. Adiponectin increased oxLDL- induced osteonectin expression in a time-dependent manner after 24 and 48 hours (3.24 ± 0.39- and 24.93 ± 2.15-fold, respectively). Western blotting confirmed that osteonectin protein was upregulated by adiponectin.Our data suggest that OxLDL might cause the increase of osteonectin expression both at mRNA and protein level. This upregulation is intensified by adiponectin. PMID:25815284

  13. The impact of metformin treatment on adiponectin and resistin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Basios, G; Trakakis, E; Chrelias, Ch; Panagopoulos, P; Vaggopoulos, V; Skarpas, P; Kassanos, D; Dimitriadis, G; Hatziagelaki, E

    2015-02-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often characterized by adiposity and insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies in patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMt2) indicate that adiponectin and resistin may play a role in the pathophysiology of IR. The aim of this study was to identify a possible correlation between the plasma levels of adiponectin and resistin and IR in patients with PCOS. Thirty-one women of reproductive age were enrolled in this prospective study after being diagnosed with PCOS and IR according to Rotterdam and American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, respectively. Every patient was treated with a daily dose of 1275?mg metformin for 6 months. Adiponectin, resistin, and the primary hormonal and metabolic parameters of the syndrome were evaluated at entry and endpoint of treatment. Adiponectin plasma levels were reduced after metformin treatment, but resistin levels were not significantly affected. Our study suggests that circulating levels of adiponectin should be evaluated with skepticism in patients with PCOS. The adipokine's role in the manifestation of IR in PCOS remains unclear and needs further investigation. PMID:25377599

  14. Serum adiponectin is related to plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not to plasma insulin-concentration in healthy children: the FLVS II study.

    PubMed

    Kettaneh, Adrien; Heude, Barbara; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Scherer, Philipp; Meyre, David; Borys, Jean-Michel; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2006-09-01

    Although low levels of plasma adiponectin were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk in adults, few data investigated that relationship in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Fleurbaix and Laventie, 2 cities in the north of France. The main outcome measure was the correlations between plasma adiponectin and adiposity variables (the body mass index, the sum of 4 skinfolds, waist circumference [WC], and percent body fat [bioimpedance]), blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and insulin. In 398 children of both sexes, adiponectin was not significantly related to age and pubertal stage. In boys only, adiponectin correlated with WC (r = -0.19; P = .008) and body mass index (r = -0.15; P = .04) but not with other adiposity variables. After taking into account WC, adiponectin was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol in boys (r = 0.14; P = .05) and girls (r = 0.25; P = .0004), but was not correlated with insulin and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance in both sexes. These results suggest that, in apparently healthy children, adiponectin is related to the level of HDL-cholesterol independently of fat mass. The relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance previously reported in obese or diabetic children was not apparent in these subjects and may therefore occur only at later age with fat accumulation. PMID:16919535

  15. Relationships Between Plasma Adiponectin and Body Fat Distribution, Insulin Sensitivity, and Plasma Lipoproteins in Alaskan Yup’ik Eskimos: The CANHR Study

    PubMed Central

    Goropashnaya, Anna V.; Herron, Johanna; Sexton, Mary; Havel, Peter J.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin, a protein, secreted by adipose tissue has anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing actions. We examined the relationship between plasma adiponectin and adiposity, insulin resistance, plasma lipids, glucose, leptin and anthropometric measurements in adult 316 men and 353 women Yup’ik Eskimos in Southwest Alaska. Adiponectin concentration was negatively associated with BMI, percent of body fat, sum of skin folds, waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin, and leptin in both men and women, and also with glucose in women. Adiponectin concentration correlated positively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, and also with low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. Insulin sensitive individuals (HOMA-IR < 3.52, n = 442) had higher plasma adiponectin concentrations than more insulin resistant individuals (HOMA-IR ? 3.52, n = 224): 11.02 ± 0.27 ?g/mL vs. 8.26 ± 0.32 ?g/mL, P <.001. Adiponectin concentrations did not differ between groups of participants with low and high level of risk for developing coronary heart disease. No difference in plasma adiponectin levels was found among Yup’ik Eskimos and Caucasians matched for sex, age and BMI. In conclusion, circulating adiponectin concentrations were most strongly associated with sum of skin folds in Yup’ik men and with HDL-C levels, sum of skin folds, waist circumference, insulin and triglycerides concentrations in Yup’ik women. PMID:19059527

  16. Serum Adiponectin is Related to Plasma HDL-Cholesterol but not to Plasma Insulin-Concentration in Healthy Children. The FLVS II Study.

    E-print Network

    and Medicine, Diabetes Research and Training Center (P.S.), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, France. Abbreviated title: Adiponectin in children Key-words: Adipose Tissue, Adolescents / Children. The relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance previously reported in obese or diabetic children

  17. Globular adiponectin regulates energy homeostasis through AMP-activated protein kinase-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (AMPK/ACC) pathway in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun-Ping; Liu, Chun-e; Hu, Ya-Ting; Chen, Gang; Lin, Li-xiang

    2010-11-01

    Adiponectin is a newly researched adipokine which participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents an energy sensor that responds to hormone and nutrition status in vivo and exerts a regulatory effect in the hypothalamus and multiple peripheral tissues. We investigated the possible mechanisms involved in appetite regulation by adiponectin in vitro with GT1-7 cells, a mouse immortalized hypothalamic neuron. The results showed that adiponectin increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, activated AMPK phosphorylated and inactivated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and subsequently increased expression of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) mRNA. Our results also indicated that adiponectin had no effect on signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3). Together these findings suggest that adiponectin regulated energy homeostasis through the AMPK/ACC pathway but not the JAK/STAT3 pathway in the hypothalamus. PMID:20625797

  18. Peanut sprouts extract (Arachis hypogaea L.) has anti-obesity effects by controlling the protein expressions of PPAR? and adiponectin of adipose tissue in rats fed high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam E; Ha, Ae Wha; Woo, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT element binding protein ? (C/EBP ?), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. RESULTS After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPAR? in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP ? and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPAR? which regulates the expression of adiponectin. PMID:24741399

  19. Prognostic Effect of Circulating Adiponectin in a Randomized 2 × 2 Trial of Low-Dose Tamoxifen and Fenretinide in Premenopausal Women at Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macis, Debora; Gandini, Sara; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Johansson, Harriet; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Lazzeroni, Matteo; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Mora, Serena; Feroce, Irene; Pizzamiglio, Maria; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Gulisano, Marcella; Bonanni, Bernardo; DeCensi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adipokines are linked to obesity and insulin sensitivity and have recently been related to breast cancer risk and prognosis. We investigated the associations of plasma leptin and adiponectin with mammographic density and disease status and assessed their prognostic effect on recurrence-free survival in premenopausal women at risk for breast cancer. Patients and Methods We measured circulating lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity (calculated by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] index), leptin, adiponectin, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio in 235 premenopausal women with pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer (n = 21), intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 160), or 5-year Gail risk of 1.3% or greater (n = 54) who participated in a 2 × 2 trial of low-dose tamoxifen, fenretinide, both agents, or placebo over a 2-year period. Results At baseline, adiponectin levels were directly associated with mammographic density and HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA index. Median adiponectin levels were lower in affected than in unaffected women (P = .006). After a median of 7.2 years and total of 57 breast neoplastic events, there was a 12% reduction in the risk of breast neoplastic events per unit increase of adiponectin (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.96; P = .03). There was no interaction between treatment and adiponectin levels. Conclusion Low adiponectin levels are associated with a history of prior intraepithelial neoplasia or pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer and higher risk of second breast neoplastic events in premenopausal women. The associations are independent of BMI, mammographic density, and treatment. Our findings support the role of adiponectin as a potential target for premenopausal breast cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22162577

  20. Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Baoying [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University (China); Lam, Karen S.L. [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang Yu [Genome Research Center, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wu Donghai [Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Lam, Michael C. [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Shen Jiangang [School of Chinese Medicine, University of Hong Kong (China); Wong Laiching [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Hoo, Ruby L.C. [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhang Jialiang [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Xu Aimin [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) and Genome Research Center, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: amxu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2006-03-10

    Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP{alpha}), but had no effect on HIF-1{alpha}, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1{alpha} and decreased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, but not PPAR{gamma}. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Nitric oxide bioavailability and adiponectin production in chronic systolic heart failure: relation to severity of cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tang, W H Wilson; Shrestha, Kevin; Tong, Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Troughton, Richard W; Borowski, Allen G; Klein, Allan L; Hazen, Stanley L

    2013-07-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic adipokine elevated in heart failure (HF) that may protect against endothelial dysfunction by influencing underlying nitric oxide bioavailability. In this study, we examine the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and measures of nitric oxide bioavailability and myocardial performance in patients with chronic systolic HF. In 139 ambulatory patients with stable, chronic systolic HF (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction ?40%, New York Heart Association class I to IV), we measured plasma levels of adiponectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and global arginine bioavailability (GABR), and performed comprehensive echocardiography with assessment of cardiac structure and performance. Adverse events (all-cause mortality or cardiac transplantation) were prospectively tracked for a median of 39 months. Plasma adiponectin levels directly correlated with plasma ADMA levels (Spearman's r = 0.41, P < 0.001) and aminoterminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), inversely correlated with GABR (r = -0.39, P < 0.001), and were not associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.81) or myeloperoxidase (P = 0.07). Interestingly, increased plasma adiponectin levels remained positively correlated with plasma ADMA levels only in patients with elevated NT-proBNP levels (r = 0.33, P = 0.009). Higher plasma adiponectin levels were associated with worse LV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums P = 0.002), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (rank sums P = 0.002), and RV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums P = 0.011), but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels. Plasma adiponectin levels predicted increased risk of adverse clinical events (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval 1.45 [1.02-2.07], P = 0.038) but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels, or echocardiographic indices of diastolic or RV systolic dysfunction. In patients with chronic systolic HF, adiponectin production is more closely linked with nitric oxide bioavailability than inflammation, and appears to be more robust in the setting of cardiac dysfunction or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. PMID:23499315

  2. Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Adiponectin Production in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure: Relation to Severity of Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Shrestha, Kevin; Tong, Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Troughton, Richard W.; Borowski, Allen G.; Klein, Allan L.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic adipokine elevated in heart failure (HF) that may protect against endothelial dysfunction by influencing underlying nitric oxide bioavailablity. In this study, we examine the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and measures of nitric oxide bioavailability and myocardial performance in patients with chronic systolic HF. In 139 ambulatory patients with stable, chronic systolic HF (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction ?40%, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I to IV), we measured plasma levels of adiponectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and global arginine bioavailability (GABR), and performed comprehensive echocardiography with assessment of cardiac structure and performance. Adverse events (all-cause mortality or cardiac transplantation) were prospectively tracked for a median of 39 months. Plasma adiponectin levels directly correlated with plasma ADMA levels (Spearman’s r=0.41, p<0.001) and NT-proBNP levels (r=0.55, p<0.001), inversely correlated with GABR (r= ?0.39, p<0.001), and were not associated with hsCRP (p=0.81) or MPO (p=0.07). Interestingly, increased plasma adiponectin levels remained positively correlated with plasma ADMA levels only in patients with elevated NT-proBNP levels (r= 0.33, p=0.009). Higher plasma adiponectin levels were associated with worse LV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.002), RV systolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.002), and RV diastolic dysfunction (rank sums p=0.011), but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels. Plasma adiponectin levels predicted increased risk of adverse clinical events (HR [95% CI]: 1.45 [1.02–2.07], p=0.038) but not after adjustment for plasma ADMA and NT-proBNP levels, or echocardiographic indices of diastolic or RV systolic dysfunction. In patients with chronic systolic HF, adiponectin production is more closely linked with nitric oxide bioavailability than inflammation, and appears to be more robust in the setting of cardiac dysfunction or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. PMID:23499315

  3. Smoking and Diabetes: Is the Association Mediated by Adiponectin, Leptin, or C-reactive Protein?

    PubMed Central

    Hilawe, Esayas Haregot; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Li, Yuanying; Uemura, Mayu; Wang, Chaochen; Chiang, Chifa; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Zhang, Yan; Kawazoe, Nobuo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between cigarette smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes is well established, its mechanisms are yet to be clarified. This study examined the possible mediating effects of adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on the smoking-diabetes association. Methods Between 2002 and 2011, we followed 3338 Japanese workers, aged 35–66 years, who were enrolled in the second Aichi workers’ cohort study. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to determine the hazard ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between smoking status and risk of diabetes. A multiple mediation model with bootstrapping was used to estimate the magnitude and the respective bias-corrected (BC) 95% CIs of the indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through the three biomarkers. Results Relative to never smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly elevated in current (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.25–2.46) and ex-smokers (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.22). The indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through adiponectin levels were statistically significant among light (point estimate 0.033, BC 95% CI 0.005–0.082), moderate (point estimate 0.044, BC 95% CI 0.010–0.094), and heavy smokers (point estimate 0.054, BC 95% CI 0.013–0.113). In contrast, neither the indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through leptin nor CRP levels were significant, as the corresponding BC 95% CIs included zero. Conclusions In our analysis, adiponectin concentration appeared to partially mediate the effect of smoking on diabetes, while leptin and CRP levels did not. PMID:25400076

  4. Adiponectin Pretreatment Counteracts the Detrimental Effect of a Diabetic Environment on Endothelial Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Simon F.; Schwarz, Theresa M.; Hermann, Patrick C.; Seissler, Jochen; Aicher, Alexandra; Heeschen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It has been shown that vascular progenitors from patients with diabetes are dysfunctional. However, therapeutic strategies to counteract their reduced functional capacity are still lacking. Because adiponectin has reported salutary effects on endothelial function, we investigated the functional effects of globular adiponectin (gAcrp), the active domain of adiponectin, on isolated endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ECFC were isolated from peripheral blood of type 2 diabetic patients (dmECFC) and compared with ECFC of healthy young volunteers (yECFC) and nondiabetic age-matched control subjects (hECFC). Cells were treated with gAcrp for 48 h followed by assessment of cell counts, cell cycle analysis, and migration capacity. For in vivo evaluation, human ECFC were injected into normoglycemic or streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic nu/nu mice after hind limb ischemia. RESULTS Whereas dmECFC were functionally impaired compared with yECFC and hECFC, gAcrp significantly enhanced their in vitro proliferation and migratory activity. In vitro effects were significantly stronger in hECFC compared with dmECFC and were mediated through the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. Most important, however, we observed a profound and sustained increase of the in vivo neovascularization in mice receiving gAcrp-pretreated dmECFC compared with untreated dmECFC under both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. CONCLUSIONS Pretreatment of ECFC with gAcrp enhanced the functional capacity of ECFC in vitro and in vivo in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic environments. Therefore, preconditioning of dmECFC with gAcrp may be a novel approach to counteract their functional impairment in diabetes. PMID:21270275

  5. FGF21 attenuates pathological myocardial remodeling following myocardial infarction through the adiponectin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Joki, Yusuke; Ohashi, Koji; Yuasa, Daisuke; Shibata, Rei; Ito, Masanori; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Satoko; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Kanemura, Noriyoshi; Ogawa, Hayato; Daida, Hiroyuki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-27

    Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of death. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a circulating factor with an anti-diabetic property. Skeletal muscle is an important source of FGF21 production. Here, we investigated whether skeletal muscle-derived FGF21 modulates cardiac remodeling in a murine model of myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was produced in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice by the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Adenoviral vectors expressing FGF21 (Ad-FGF21) or control ?-galactosidase were intramuscularly injected into mice at 3 days before permanent LAD ligation. Intramuscular injection of Ad-FGF21 increased plasma FGF21 levels in WT mice compared with control. Treatment of WT mice with Ad-FGF21 led to improvement of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and dilatation at 2 weeks after LAD ligation. Ad-FGF21 administration to WT mice also led to enhancement of capillary density in the infarct border zone, and reduction of myocyte apoptosis in the remote zone, which were accompanied by decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, treatment of WT mice with Ad-FGF21 increased plasma levels of adiponectin, which is a cardioprotective adipokine. The beneficial effects of Ad-FGF21 on cardiac dysfunction and inflammatory response after myocardial infarction were diminished in adiponectin-knockout mice. These data suggest that muscle-derived FGF21 ameliorates adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, at least in part, through an adiponectin-dependent mechanism. PMID:25712519

  6. Relationship between Birth Weight and Metabolic Status in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Jackman, Michelle; Mahmud, Farid H.; Clarson, Cheril

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10–16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64?g (range 1899–4990?g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (? Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and ? insulin = 10?pmol/L for birth weight <2.5?kg versus >4.5?kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance. PMID:24555145

  7. History of weight cycling does not impede future weight loss or metabolic improvements in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Caitlin; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Imayama, Ikuyo; Xiao, Liren; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L.; Duggan, Catherine R.; Wang, Ching-Yun; Alfano, Catherine M.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Blackburn, George L.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Objective Given that the repetitive loss and regain of body weight, termed weight cycling, is a prevalent phenomenon that has been associated with negative physiological and psychological outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate weight change and physiological outcomes in women with a lifetime history of weight cycling enrolled in a 12-month diet and/or exercise intervention. Methods 439 overweight, inactive, postmenopausal women were randomized to: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal (N=118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 45 min/day, 5 days/week (n=117); ii) both dietary weight loss and exercise (n=117); or iv) control (n=87). Women were categorized as non-, moderate-(?3 losses of ?4.5 kg), or severe-cyclers (?3 losses of ?9.1 kg). Trend tests and linear regression were used to compare adherence and changes in weight, body composition, blood pressure, insulin, C-peptide, glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 between cyclers and non-cyclers. Results Moderate (n=103) and severe (n=77) cyclers were heavier and had less favorable metabolic profiles than non-cyclers at baseline. There were, however, no significant differences in adherence to the lifestyle interventions. Weight-cyclers (combined) had a greater improvement in HOMA-IR compared to non-cyclers participating in the exercise only intervention (p=0.03), but no differences were apparent in the other groups. Conclusion A history of weight cycling does not impede successful participation in lifestyle interventions or alter the benefits of diet and/or exercise on body composition and metabolic outcomes. PMID:22898251

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin induce adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Flachs; V. Mohamed-Ali; O. Horakova; M. Rossmeisl; M. J. Hosseinzadeh-Attar; M. Hensler; J. Ruzickova; J. Kopecky

    2006-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protect against insulin\\u000a resistance and obesity in rodents and increase insulin sensitivity in healthy humans. We tested whether the anti-diabetic\\u000a effects of EPA and DHA involve enhanced production of the endogenous insulin sensitiser, adiponectin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied the effects, in an obesity-promoting high-fat diet, of partial

  9. Weight Control

    MedlinePLUS

    Keeping a healthy weight is crucial. If you are underweight, overweight, or obese, you may have a higher risk of certain health problems. ... U.S. are overweight or obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure ...

  10. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  11. The STEDMAN Project: Biophysical, Biochemical and Metabolic Effects of a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention during Weight Loss, Maintenance, and Regain

    PubMed Central

    Haqq, Andrea M.; Arlotto, Michelle; Slentz, Cris A.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; McMahon, Ross L.; Rochon, James; Gallup, Dianne; Bain, James R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Wenner, Brett R.; Stevens, Robert D; Millington, David S.; Muoio, Deborah M; Butler, Mark D.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Study of the Effects of Diet on Metabolism and Nutrition (STEDMAN) Project uses comprehensive metabolic profiling to probe biochemical mechanisms of weight loss in humans. Measurements at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks, 6 and 12 months included diet, body composition, metabolic rate, hormones, and 80 intermediary metabolites measured by mass spectrometry. In 27 obese adults in a behavioral weight loss intervention, median weight decreased 13.9 lb over the first 6 months, then reverted towards baseline by 12 months. Insulin resistance (HOMA) was partially ameliorated in the first 6 months and showed sustained improvement at 12 months despite weight regain. Ghrelin increased with weight loss and reverted to baseline, whereas leptin and PYY fell at 6 months and remained persistently low. NPY levels did not change. Factors possibly contributing to sustained improvement in insulin sensitivity despite weight regain include adiponectin (increased by 12 months), IGF-1 (increased during weight loss and continued to increase during weight regain), and visceral fat (fell at 6 months but did not change thereafter). We observed a persistent reduction in free fatty acids, branched chain amino acids, and related metabolites that may contribute to improved insulin action. These findings provide evidence for sustained benefits of weight loss in obese humans and insights into mechanisms. PMID:19290809

  12. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876

  13. Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunit genes from the Ns genome of Psathyrostachys juncea.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lina; Liang, Yu; Qin, Lumin; Sun, Lei; Xia, Guangmin; Liu, Shuwei

    2014-12-01

    The Ns genome of the genus Psathyrostachys possesses superior traits useful for wheat improvement. However, very little is known about the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin encoded by the Ns genome. In this paper, we report the isolation of four alleles of HMW glutenin subunit gene from Psathyrostachys juncea. Sequence alignment data shows the four alleles have similar primary structure with those in wheat and other wheat-related grasses, with some unique modifications. All four sequences more closely resemble y-type, rather than x-type, glutenins. However, our results show three of the subunits (1Ns2-4) contain an extra glutamine residue in the N-terminal region not found on typical y-type subunits, as well as the x-type subunit specific sequence LAAQLPAMCRL. These three subunits likely represent an intermediate state in the divergence between x- and y-type subunits. Results also indicate that the Ns genome is more closely related to the St genome of Pseudoroegneria than any other Triticeae genomes. PMID:25081411

  14. Globular adiponectin activates motility and regenerative traits of muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

  15. Globular Adiponectin Activates Motility and Regenerative Traits of Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

  16. A microfluidic interface for the culture and sampling of adiponectin from primary adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Leah A; Brooks, Jessica C; Hoepfner, Lauren D; Wanders, Desiree; Judd, Robert L; Easley, Christopher J

    2015-02-21

    Secreted from adipose tissue, adiponectin is a vital endocrine hormone that acts in glucose metabolism, thereby establishing its crucial role in diabetes, obesity, and other metabolic disease states. Insulin exposure to primary adipocytes cultured in static conditions has been shown to stimulate adiponectin secretion. However, conventional, static methodology for culturing and stimulating adipocytes falls short of truly mimicking physiological environments. Along with decreases in experimental costs and sample volume, and increased temporal resolution, microfluidic platforms permit small-volume flowing cell culture systems, which more accurately represent the constant flow conditions through vasculature in vivo. Here, we have integrated a customized primary tissue culture reservoir into a passively operated microfluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fabrication of the reservoir was accomplished through unique PDMS "landscaping" above sampling channels, with a design strategy targeted to primary adipocytes to overcome issues of positive cell buoyancy. This reservoir allowed three-dimensional culture of primary murine adipocytes, accurate control over stimulants via constant perfusion, and sampling of adipokine secretion during various treatments. As the first report of primary adipocyte culture and sampling within microfluidic systems, this work sets the stage for future studies in adipokine secretion dynamics. PMID:25423362

  17. Adiponectin and Insulin in Gray Seals during Suckling and Fasting: Relationship with Nutritional State and Body Mass during Nursing in Mothers and Pups.

    PubMed

    Bennett, K A; Hughes, J; Stamatas, S; Brand, S; Foster, N L; Moss, S E W; Pomeroy, P P

    2015-01-01

    Animals that fast during breeding and/or development, such as phocids, must regulate energy balance carefully to maximize reproductive fitness and survival probability. Adiponectin, produced by adipose tissue, contributes to metabolic regulation by modulating sensitivity to insulin, increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver and muscle, and promoting adipogenesis and lipid storage in fat tissue. We tested the hypotheses that (1) circulating adiponectin, insulin, or relative adiponectin gene expression is related to nutritional state, body mass, and mass gain in wild gray seal pups; (2) plasma adiponectin or insulin is related to maternal lactation duration, body mass, percentage milk fat, or free fatty acid (FFA) concentration; and (3) plasma adiponectin and insulin are correlated with circulating FFA in females and pups. In pups, plasma adiponectin decreased during suckling (linear mixed-effects model [LME]: T = 4.49; P < 0.001) and the early postweaning fast (LME: T = 3.39; P = 0.004). In contrast, their blubber adiponectin gene expression was higher during the early postweaning fast than early in suckling (LME: T = 2.11; P = 0.046). Insulin levels were significantly higher in early (LME: T = 3.52; P = 0.004) and late (LME: T = 6.99; P < 0.001) suckling than in fasting and, given the effect of nutritional state, were also positively related to body mass (LME: T = 3.58; P = 0.004). Adiponectin and insulin levels did not change during lactation and were unrelated to milk FFA or percentage milk fat in adult females. Our data suggest that adiponectin, in conjunction with insulin, may facilitate fat storage in seals and is likely to be particularly important in the development of blubber reserves in pups. PMID:25860828

  18. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  19. Mifepristone Promotes Adiponectin Production and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced-Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Hasan, Arif U.; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Nagai, Yukiko; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kosaka, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The steroid receptor antagonist mifepristone is used as an anti-cancer agent, eliciting both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on malignant cells. However, the metabolic effects of long-term treatment with mifepristone have remained unclear. The effects of mifepristone on insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion were evaluated both in in vivo and in vitro. First, we explored the effects of mifepristone, on metabolic functions in obese mice receiving a high-fat diet. When these mice were fed mifepristone, they exhibited a marked improvement in insulin sensitivity, attenuated hepatic injury, and decreased adipocyte size, compared with mice that received only the high-fat diet. Intriguingly, mifepristone-treated mice showed significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Second, we tested the effects of mifepristone on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. When differentiated adipocytes were treated with mifepristone for 48 h, adiponectin was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, these results reveal novel actions of mifepristone on metabolic functions, in vivo and in vitro, in which the drug exerts antidiabetic effects associated with an upregulation in adiponectin-secretion. PMID:24223187

  20. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in High Risk African-Americans with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwame Osei; Trudy Gaillard; Dara Schuster

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We studied plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before and after oral glucose challenge in normal glucose tolerant, impaired glucose tolerant, and type 2 diabetic first degree relatives of African-American patients with type 2 diabetes.Research Methods and Procedures: We studied 19 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 8 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 with type 2

  1. Decreased glucose tolerance and plasma adiponectin:resistin ratio in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    tolerance test was also applied and blood glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Plasma levels-traumatic stress disorder. Resistin Abbreviations CVS Chronic variable stress GTT Glucose tolerance test HPAARTICLE Decreased glucose tolerance and plasma adiponectin:resistin ratio in a mouse model of post

  2. Adiponectin, a downstream target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, controls hepatitis B virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sarah; Jung, Jaesung; Kim, Taeyeung; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin, E-mail: kimkm@ajou.ac.k

    2011-01-20

    In this study, HepG2-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-stable cells that did not overexpress HBx and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells were analyzed for their expression of HBV-induced, upregulated adipogenic and lipogenic genes. The mRNAs of CCAAT enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), adiponectin, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were expressed at higher levels in HepG2-HBV and lamivudine-treated stable cells and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells than in the HepG2 cells. Lamivudine treatment reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha}. Conversely, HBV replication was upregulated by adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone treatments and was downregulated by adiponectin siRNAs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HBV replication and/or protein expression, even in the absence of HBx, upregulated adipogenic or lipogenic genes, and that the control of adiponectin might prove useful as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Perinatal BPA exposure induces hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production in later life of male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2014-04-01

    The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance. PMID:24705360

  4. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance. PMID:24705360

  5. Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a,c,

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, Level 7, Playford Building, City East Campus, Frome Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia c Unit for Experimental Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology

  6. Adiponectin Gene Variants are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (211391 G . A, 211377C.G, 45 T.G, and 276 G.T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat...

  7. Association between Vitamin D and Adiponectin and Its Relationship with Body Mass Index: The META-Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Morris, Alanna A.; Stoyanova, Neli; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low vitamin D and adiponectin levels are both associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have indicated that vitamin D levels are directly associated with adiponectin, and that this association varies across body mass index (BMI) categories; stronger with increasing BMI. Few studies examined this association in African-Americans (AA), known to have lower levels of vitamin D and adiponectin, and in whites. Methods: We assessed whether serum vitamin D is associated with serum adiponectin in a biracial population-based sample. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 426 non-diabetic participants (218 whites and 208 AA) from the META-Health Study, a random sample from the metro Atlanta. Age-adjusted correlations and multivariable linear regression were used for analyses. We investigated the effect modification of the BMI categories of lean, overweight, and obese as defined by standard cut-points (25 and 30?kg/m2). Results: The mean (SD) age of our study sample was 50.5 (9) years. The mean (SD) levels of vitamin D were 27.4 (9.8) ng/mL in white women, 25.5 (9.3) ng/mL in white men, 16.9 (7.3) ng/mL in AA women, and 18.8 (7.3) ng/mL in AA men. The mean (SD) levels of adiponectin were 17.0 (17.1) ?g/mL in white women, 9.9 (11.3) ?g/mL in white men, 6.6 (4.8) ?g/mL in AA women, and 9.4 (11.6) ?g/mL in AA men. Among lean white women (n?=?63), there was a significant direct association between vitamin D and adiponectin (??=?0.02, p?=?0.04) after adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, income, and season of blood drawing. On the contrary, in lean AA women (n?=?23), there was a significant inverse association (??=??0.06, p?=?0.01). Conclusion: The association of vitamin D and adiponectin is dependent on race, gender, and BMI category. Among lean white women, there was a significant direct association, whereas in lean AA women the association was inverse. No association was present among obese individuals. PMID:25353014

  8. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-03-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group (n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients (p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However, it remains to be clarified which of the mechanisms of action of MBT may have determined the changes in serum levels of adiponectin and resistin that we observed.

  9. Proteogenomic Characterization of Novel x-Type High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1.1

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Faye, Annie; Dardevet, Mireille; Ravel, Catherine; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of Portuguese wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landrace ‘Barbela’ revealed the existence of a new x-type high molecular weight-glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) encoded at the Glu-A1 locus, which we named 1Ax1.1. Using one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we compared subunit 1Ax1.1 with other subunits encoded at the Glu-A1 locus. Subunit 1Ax1.1 has a theoretical molecular weight of 93,648 Da (or 91,508 Da for the mature protein) and an isoelectric point (pI) of about 5.7, making it the largest and most acidic HMW-GS known to be encoded at Glu-A1. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence 2601 bp of the Glu-A1 locus from the ‘Barbela 28’ wheat genome. A very high level of identity was found between the sequence encoding 1Ax1.1 and those encoding other alleles of the locus. The major difference found was an insertion of 36 amino acids in the central repetitive domain. PMID:23478438

  10. Long-Term Dietary Sodium Restriction Increases Adiponectin Expression and Ameliorates the Proinflammatory Adipokine Profile in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Baudrand, R; Lian, CG; Lian, BQ; Ricchiuti, V; Yao, TM; Li, J; Williams, GH; Adler, GK

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Obesity is associated with changes in adiponectin and pro-inflammatory adipokines. Sodium intake can affect adipokine secretion suggesting a role in cardiovascular dysfunction. We tested if long-term dietary sodium restriction modifies the expression of adiponectin and ameliorates the pro-inflammatory profile of obese, diabetic Methods/Results Db/db mice were randomized to high sodium (HS 1.6% Na+, n=6) or low sodium (LS 0.03% Na+, n=8) diet for 16 weeks and compared with lean, db/+ mice on HS diet (n=8). Insulin levels were 50% lower in the db/db mice on LS diet when compared with HS db/db (p <0.05). LS diet increased cardiac adiponectin mRNA levels in db/db mice by 5-fold when compared with db/db mice on HS diet and by 2-fold when compared with HS lean mice (both p < 0.01). LS diet increased adiponectin in adipose tissue compared with db/db mice on HS diet, achieving levels similar to those of lean mice. MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-? expression were reduced more than 50% in adipose tissue of db/db mice on LS diet when compared with HS db/db mice (all p < 0.05), to levels observed in the HS lean mice. Further, LS db/db mice had significantly reduced circulating MCP-1 and IL-6 levels when compared with HS db/db mice (both p < 0.01). Conclusion In obese-diabetic mice, long-term LS diet increases adiponectin in heart and adipose tissue and reduces pro-inflammatory factors in adipose tissue and plasma. These additive mechanisms may contribute to the potential cardioprotective benefits of LS diet in obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:24418377

  11. Serum adiponectin and leptin in relation to risk for preeclampsia: results from a large case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Dalamaga, Maria; Srinivas, Sindhu K.; Elovitz, Michal A.; Chamberland, John; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Conditions resulting in insulin resistance, as well as metabolic, immune and angiogenic perturbations, have been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (PE). Our purpose was to assess whether the adipose tissue secreted hormones: adiponectin, which has immune modulating, metabolic and angiogenic properties, and leptin, which reflects overall fat mass, are associated with PE risk. METHODS We performed a case-control design study within a hospital-based cohort of 368 pregnant women (106 with PE and 262 controls; mean age: 26.6 ± 6.8 years; mean gestational age at admission: 38.2 ± 2.8 weeks) between March 2005 and August 2007 at the Hospital of Pennsylvania University. Serum adiponectin and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of data was performed using simple and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS No significant differences in adiponectin or leptin levels between pre-eclamptic and control pregnant women emerged in univariate analyses (p=0.57 and p=0.15 respectively). Among pre-eclamptic women, there were also no differences in adipokines between those with mild and severe disease. Serum adiponectin and leptin were not associated with higher risk of PE before and after adjustment for maternal age, race, primigravida, smoking status, body mass index at screening, gestational age at admission, history of preeclampsia, chronic hypertension and gestational diabetes (OR: 0.93, 95% C.I.: 0.83–1.04 and OR: 1, 95% C.I.0.97–1.03, respectively). CONCLUSION Maternal serum adiponectin and leptin levels, drawn at the time of PE diagnosis, were not associated with PE. PMID:21632080

  12. Levels of adiponectin and leptin at onset of type 1 diabetes have changed over time in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Safai, Narges; Eising, Stefanie; Hougaard, David Michael; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbųl; Skogstrand, Kristin; Pociot, Flemming; Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are proteins secreted by the adipose tissue and have an influence on insulin sensitivity and on inflammatory markers. Altered levels could play a part in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We determined adiponectin and leptin levels over a nine-year period in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in relation to the increasing incidence of T1D, and studied the impact of patient status, age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Data were derived from a population-based registry of diabetic children (DanDiabKids) from 1997 to 2005. Children with newly diagnosed T1D (n = 482) were included, and healthy siblings (n = 479) were chosen as a control group. Leptin levels were significantly higher in recent years (in both patients and siblings), whereas for adiponectin, the levels were lower in recent years in the patient group. Leptin levels were lower in children with T1D (RR 0.74, p = 0.003) and in males (RR 0.52, p < 0.001) and increasing with age in both groups. For adiponectin, there was a negative association between level and age in patients. Both adipokines showed a significant correlation with BMI and lower levels in children with blood samples taken within the first 2 days after initiation of insulin treatment. There has been a change in leptin and adiponectin levels in children with or without T1D from 1997 to 2005. This is not explained by changes in BMI and may reflect changes in other factors like diet or physical activity. PMID:25059225

  13. A Novel Role of Globular Adiponectin in Treatment with HFD/STZ Induced T2DM Combined with NAFLD Rats

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Xuan-Pu; Yang, Xiang-Jiu; Lu, Hua-Dong; Huang, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Wen-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on treatment of type 2 diabetic rats combined with NAFLD. Materials and Methods. Twenty-one male wistar rats were fed with normal diet (7 rats) or high fat diet (HFD) (14 rats) for 4 weeks, and then HFD-fed rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Half of T2DM rats were randomly injected with gAd intraperitoneally for 7 days. The expressions of adiponectin receptors (adipoR1/R2) in liver and skeletal muscle tissues were detected through western blotting or RT-qPCR, respectively. Results. Globular adiponectin alleviated the hepatic steatosis and increased insulin secretion. In liver, both the protein and mRNA expressions of adipoR2 in T2DM group decreased (P < 0.05, resp.) in contrast to NC group and increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, resp.) after gAd treatment. But the protein and mRNA expressions of adipoR1 increased (P < 0.05, resp.) in T2DM group and no change was found in the gAd-treated group. In skeletal muscle, the protein and mRNA expressions of adipoR1 and adipoR2 were upregulated in T2DM group and were downregulated after gAd treatment. Conclusions. Globular adiponectin could ameliorate the hepatic steatosis and vary the expressions of adiponectin receptors in liver and skeletal muscle by stimulating insulin secretion. PMID:24683323

  14. Influence of low- and high-molecular-weight plasminogen activators on the onset of labor and on the hemostatic system.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Shigenori; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Okada, Kiyotaka; Matsuo, Osamu

    2002-12-01

    Measurement of activities of urinary (u-PA) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and analysis of euglobulin lysis times (ELTs) and prekallikrein were performed simultaneously using the plasma of normal pregnant women and nonpregnant women. The activities of plasminogen activators were determined by the method of electrophoretic zymography. The activity of low-molecular-weight (LMW) u-PA was significantly decreased at the onset of labor (p = 0.05) compared with that during the latter half of pregnancy. The same tendency was observed in the analysis of prekallikrein. On the contrary, no significance was shown in activities of high-molecular-weight (HMW) u-PA or t-PA. It is suggested that the action of kallikrein on low-molecular-weight u-PA causes it to change into plasmin at the onset of labor. PMID:12536345

  15. Endocrine Determinants of Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion during a Weight Cycle in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, Judith; Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Müller, Manfred J.; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL) of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear. Methods In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2) followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF), 3wks of caloric restriction (CR) containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO) and 2wks of refeeding (RF) with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI), insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose) and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion) were assessed. Results IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05). Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05) whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05) and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only). After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant. Conclusion Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major endocrine determinants of IS, leptin/adiponectin-ratio and fT4 levels may impact changes in insulin secretion with weight cycling. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01737034 PMID:25723719

  16. Association of adulthood weight gain with circulating adipokine and insulin resistance in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Pham, N M; Yasuda, K; Nanri, A; Kurotani, K; Kuwahara, K; Akter, S; Sato, M; Hayabuchi, H; Mizoue, T

    2014-12-01

    Background/Objectives:Although adipokines and insulin resistance are known to be correlated with body fatness, it is unclear whether they are independently related to weight gain experience. We examined the associations of serum adipokines and marker of insulin resistance with past weight gain during adulthood by taking the degree of attained body mass index (BMI) level into consideration.Subjects/Methods:Subjects were 399 Japanese municipal employees, aged ?30 years, who participated in a health survey. Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Weight change during adulthood was calculated as the difference between measured current weight and recalled weight at the age of 20 years. Multiple regression was performed to calculate mean adipokine levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) according to weight gain (<5?kg, 5-9.9?kg, or ?10?kg) with adjustment for current BMI.Results:Weight gain from the age of 20 years was significantly and positively associated with leptin levels even after adjustment for current BMI (P for trend <0.001), whereas it was significantly and inversely associated with adiponectin levels in a BMI-adjusted model among subjects aged ?40 years (P for trend=0.03). Weight gain was associated with HOMA-IR in a BMI-unadjusted model (P for trend <0.001), but this association was largely attenuated after adjustment for BMI. Resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and visfatin were not associated with past weight gain.Conclusions:Results suggest that a large weight gain during adulthood is associated with higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels independently of the degree of attained BMI level.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.257. PMID:25469462

  17. Regulation of Insulin Resistance and Adiponectin Signaling in Adipose Tissue by Liver X Receptor Activation Highlights a Cross-Talk with PPAR?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weina; Wu, Fang; Yin, Xueyao; Yu, Dan; Pan, Qianqian; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been recognized as a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis; however, their role in insulin sensitivity is controversial. Adiponectin plays a unique role in maintaining insulin sensitivity. Currently, no systematic experiments elucidating the role of LXR activation in insulin function based on adiponectin signaling have been reported. Here, we investigated the role of LXR activation in insulin resistance based on adiponectin signaling, and possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice maintained on a regular chow received the LXR agonist, T0901317 (30 mg/kg.d) for 3 weeks by intraperitoneal injection, and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with T0901317 or GW3965. T0901317 treatment induced significant insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. It decreased adiponectin gene transcription in epididymal fat, as well as serum adiponectin levels. Activity of AMPK, a key mediator of adiponectin signaling, was also decreased, resulting in decreased Glut-4 membrane translocation in epididymal fat. In contrast, adiponectin activity was not changed in the liver of T0901317 treated mice. In vitro, both T0901317 and GW3965 decreased adiponectin expression in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, an effect which was diminished by LXR? silencing. ChIP-qPCR studies demonstrated that T0901317 decreased the binding of PPAR? to the PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) of the adiponectin promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, T0901317 exerted an antagonistic effect on the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes co-treated with 3 µM Pioglitazone. In luciferase reporter gene assays, T0901317 dose-dependently inhibited PPRE-Luc activity in HEK293 cells co-transfected with LXR? and PPAR?. These results suggest that LXR activation induces insulin resistance with decreased adiponectin signaling in epididymal fat, probably due to negative regulation of PPAR? signaling. These findings indicate that the potential of LXR activation as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis may be limited by the possibility of exacerbating insulin resistance-related disease. PMID:24972069

  18. Weight Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss strategy that works best for you and start feeling better now. Assess Your Lifestyle Use our tools in this section to assess your current lifestyle. From there, you can decide which steps to take toward a healthier weight. Getting Started ...

  19. The effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms on endothelial function and metabolic risk factors in healthy subjects: the significance of plasma adiponectin levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiko Imamura; Ryotaro Takahashi; Ryuichiro Murakami; Hiroki Kataoka; Xian Wu Cheng; Yasushi Numaguchi; Toyoaki Murohara; Kenji Okumura

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Genetic variants of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, Glu298Asp and T-786C, have been reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is an adipocyte- derived plasma protein with insulin-sensitizing and vascular protective effects; its levels are typically low in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, eNOS gene polymorphisms may also be associated with specific metabolic profiles, including plasma adiponectin levels

  20. Lack of effect of TNF? blockade therapy on circulating adiponectin levels in patients with autoimmune disease: results from two independent prospective studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike J L Peters; Pauline Watt; Lynne Cherry; Paul Welsh; Eric Henninger; Ben A C Dijkmans; Iain B McInnes; Michael T Nurmohamed; Naveed Sattar

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAdiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and potentially antiatherogenic molecule. Some recent reports suggest that tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) blockade therapy increases circulating adiponectin levels, but data are sparse and inconsistent.MethodsData from a double-blind placebo controlled study of onercept in 126 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and from pre- and post-adalimumab treatment in 171 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were used

  1. Impact of the Adipokine Adiponectin and the Hepatokine Fetuin-A on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes: Prospective Cohort- and Cross-Sectional Phenotyping Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Norbert; Sun, Qi; Fritsche, Andreas; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Gerst, Felicia; Jeppesen, Charlotte; Joost, Hans-Georg; Hu, Frank B.; Boeing, Heiner; Ullrich, Susanne; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schulze, Matthias B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among adipokines and hepatokines, adiponectin and fetuin-A were consistently found to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes, both by regulating insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine to what extent circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A are independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes in humans, and the major mechanisms involved. Methods Relationships with incident diabetes were tested in two cohort studies: within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study (628 cases) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 470 cases). Relationships with body fat compartments, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were studied in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP; N?=?358). Results Circulating adiponectin and fetuin-A, independently of several confounders and of each other, associated with risk of diabetes in EPIC-Potsdam (RR for 1 SD: adiponectin: 0.45 [95% CI 0.37–0.54], fetuin-A: 1.18 [1.05–1.32]) and the NHS (0.51 [0.42–0.62], 1.35 [1.16–1.58]). Obesity measures considerably attenuated the association of adiponectin, but not of fetuin-A. Subjects with low adiponectin and concomitantly high fetuin-A had the highest risk. Whereas both proteins were independently (both p<1.8×10?7) associated with insulin sensitivity, circulating fetuin-A (r?=??0.37, p?=?0.0004), but not adiponectin, associated with insulin secretion in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Conclusions We provide novel information that adiponectin and fetuin-A independently of each other associate with the diabetes risk. Furthermore, we suggest that they are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes via different mechanisms, possibly by mediating effects of their source tissues, expanded adipose tissue and nonalcoholic fatty liver. PMID:24643166

  2. Association of CDH13 Genotypes/Haplotypes with Circulating Adiponectin Levels, Metabolic Syndrome, and Related Metabolic Phenotypes: The Role of the Suppression Effect

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Hsu, Lung-An; Wu, Semon; Sun, Yu-Chen; Juan, Shu-Hui; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous genome-wide association studies have indicated an association between CDH13 genotypes and adiponectin levels. In this study, we used mediation analysis to assess the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels, metabolic syndrome, and related metabolic phenotypes. Methods and results A sample population of 530 Taiwanese participants was enrolled. Four CDH13 gene variants in the promoter and intron 1 regions were genotyped. After adjustment for clinical covariates, the CDH13 genotypes/haplotypes exhibited an association with the adiponectin levels (lowest P = 1.95 × 10?11 for rs4783244 and lowest P = 3.78 × 10?13 for haplotype ATTT). Significant correlations were observed between the adiponectin levels and the various metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes (all P ? 0.005). After further adjustment for the adiponectin levels, participants with a minor allele of rs12051272 revealed a considerable association with a more favorable metabolic profile, including higher insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower diastolic blood pressure, circulating levels of fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides, and as a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (all P < 0.05). The mediation analysis further revealed a suppression effect of the adiponectin levels on the association between CDH13 genotypes and metabolic syndrome and its related phenotypes (Sobel test; all P < 0.001). Conclusion The genetic polymorphisms at the CDH13 locus independently affect the adiponectin levels, whereas the adiponectin levels exhibit a suppressive effect on the association between CDH13 locus variants and various metabolic phenotypes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, these results provide further evidence of the association between the CDH13 gene variants and the risks of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:25875811

  3. The Y111 H (T415C) polymorphism in exon 3 of the gene encoding adiponectin is uncommon in Polish obese patients.

    PubMed

    Owecki, M; Miczke, A; Kaczmarek, M; Hoppe-Go?ebiewska, J; Pupek-Musialik, D; S?omski, R; Bryll, W; Cymerys, M; Nikisch, E; Sowi?ski, J

    2007-11-01

    The genetic background of obesity is under research. Obesity-related phenotype candidate genes include the gene encoding adiponectin (AdipoQ). In this study, exon 3 of the adiponectin gene was screened for the Y111 H (Tyr111His, or T415C, rs17366743) polymorphism, and adiponectin serum concentrations were measured in 206 obese subjects (110 women and 96 men, aged 50.5+/-16.9 years). Their BMI, % of body fat, plasma glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Adiponectin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. A fragment of exon 3 of the adiponectin gene was amplified in PCR and screened for the Y111 H polymorphism in SSCP analysis. Genetic screening revealed a different SSCP pattern in 2 subjects. Subsequent genotyping disclosed the TC genotype in both subjects, resulting in Y111 H heterozygote variant frequency of 0.01 in the whole cohort. Other results for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) positive and negative subjects were as follows, respectively: BMI (kg/m (2)) 39.95+/-9.83 vs. 38.12+/-8.56; waist circumference (cm) 122+/-18.4 vs.115+/-16; glucose (mmol/l) 7.51+/-1.86 vs. 5.56+/-0.74; HbA1c (%) 7.55+/-1.86 vs. 6.58+/-1.36; body fat (%) 51+/-2 vs. 44+/-10; plasma insulin (mU/l) 28.92+/-16.50 vs. 37.59+/-47.34; adiponectin (ng/ml) 1301+/-15.8 vs. 5682+/-4156. Due to a proportion of 2 vs. 204, statistical calculations were not possible. The Y111 H adiponectin gene variant is uncommon in Polish obese subjects. Although we observed low adiponectin concentrations in Y111 H SNP heterozygote carriers, this finding was not confirmed by statistics. PMID:17992633

  4. Impact of waist circumference versus adiponectin level on subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis in a sample from the general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Holewijn; M. den Heijer; D. W. Swinkels; A. F. H. Stalenhoef; J. de Graaf

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Waist circumference is a clinical marker of obesity and an established risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone and new biomarker of obesity, was recently proposed as the missing link between obesity and increased cardiovascular risk. We evaluated waist and adiponectin in a middle-aged population-based cohort to compare the impact of both obesity-markers on subclinical atherosclerosis,

  5. Body Fat Mass and Macronutrient Intake in Relation to Circulating Soluble Leptin Receptor, Free Leptin Index, Adiponectin, and Resistin Concentrations in Healthy Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY YANNAKOULIA; NIKOS YIANNAKOURIS; SUSANN BLUHER; ANTONIA-LEDA MATALAS; DOROTHY KLIMIS-ZACAS; CHRISTOS S. MANTZOROS

    The adipocyte-derived hormones leptin (which circulates in a free form and bound to a soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R)), adiponectin, and resistin play a key role in regulating energy homeostasis and metabolism. We assessed the association be- tween body composition, total energy, and macronutrient in- take and serum leptin, sOB-R, free leptin index, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations in 61 female and

  6. GnRH secretion is inhibited by adiponectin through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Bing ChengJun-Ping; Jun-Ping Wen; Jun Yang; Ying Yang; Guang Ning; Xiao-Ying Li

    2011-01-01

    Adipokines produced from adipose tissues participate in regulation of reproduction, energy homeostasis, food intake, and neuroendocrine\\u000a function in the hypothalamus. We have previously reported that adiponectin significantly reduced GnRH secretion from GT1-7\\u000a hypothalamic GnRH neuron cells. In this study, we further investigated the inhibition of GnRH secretion by adiponectin in\\u000a vivo and found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was inhibited

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Localization Is Critical for DsbA-L Protein to Suppress ER Stress and Adiponectin Down-regulation in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meilian; Chen, Hongzhi; Wei, Li; Hu, Derong; Dong, Kun; Jia, Weiping; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2015-04-17

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory functions. We previously reported that adiponectin multimerization and stability are promoted by the disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in cells and in vivo. However, the precise mechanism by which DsbA-L regulates adiponectin biosynthesis remains elusive. Here we show that DsbA-L is co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein disulfide isomerase and the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. In addition, DsbA-L interacts with the ER chaperone protein Ero1-L? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In silico analysis and truncation mapping studies revealed that DsbA-L contains an ER targeting signal at its N terminus. Deletion of the first 6 residues at the N terminus greatly impaired DsbA-L localization in the ER. Overexpression of the wild type but not the ER localization-defective mutant of DsbA-L protects against thapsigargin-induced ER stress and adiponectin down-regulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, overexpression of the wild type but not the ER localization-defective mutant of DsbA-L promotes adiponectin multimerization. Together, our results reveal that DsbA-L is localized in both the mitochondria and the ER in adipocytes and that its ER localization plays a critical role in suppressing ER stress and promoting adiponectin biosynthesis and secretion. PMID:25739441

  8. Adiponectin inhibits neutrophil phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by inhibition of PKB and ERK 1/2 MAPK signalling and Mac-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandra; Lord, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Full length adiponectin is a potent immune modulatory adipokine, impacting upon the actions of several immune cells. Neutrophil oxidative burst has been shown to decrease in response to adiponectin, and we speculated that it could have other effects on neutrophil function. Here we report that adiponectin reduces the phagocytic ability of human neutrophils, decreasing significantly the ingestion of opsonised E. coli by these cells in whole blood (p<0.05) and as isolated neutrophils (p<0.05). We then determined the mechanisms involved. We observed that the activation of Mac-1, the receptor engaged in complement-mediated phagocytosis, was decreased by adiponectin in response to E. coli stimulation. Moreover, treatment of neutrophils with adiponectin prior to incubation with E. coli significantly inhibited signalling through the PI3K/PKB and ERK 1/2 pathways, with a parallel reduction of F-actin content. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors showed that inhibition of PI3K/PKB, but not ERK 1/2 signalling was able to prevent the activation of Mac-1. In conclusion, we propose that adiponectin negatively affects neutrophil phagocytosis, reducing the uptake of E. coli and inhibiting Mac-1 activation, the latter by blockade of the PI3K/PKB signal pathway. PMID:23935932

  9. Aldehyde oxidase 1 is highly abundant in hepatic steatosis and is downregulated by adiponectin and fenofibric acid in hepatocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weigert, Johanna [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmidl, Christian [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buettner, Roland [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Bollheimer, Cornelius [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Aslanidis, Charalampos [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schoelmerich, Juergen [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buechler, Christa [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2006-11-24

    Adiponectin protects the liver from steatosis caused by obesity or alcohol and therefore the influence of adiponectin on human hepatocytes was analyzed. GeneChip experiments indicated that recombinant adiponectin downregulates aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) expression and this was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot. AOX1 is a xenobiotic metabolizing protein and produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), that promote cell damage and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin and fenofibric acid activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR-{alpha}) and both suppress AOX1 protein and this is blocked by the PPAR-{alpha} antagonist RU486. Obesity is associated with low adiponectin, reduced hepatic PPAR-{alpha} activity and fatty liver, and AOX1 was found induced in the liver of rats on a high-fat diet when compared to controls. Free fatty acids and leptin, that are elevated in obesity, failed to upregulate AOX1 in vitro. The current data indicate that adiponectin reduces AOX1 by activating PPAR-{alpha} whereas fatty liver disease is associated with elevated hepatic AOX1. High AOX1 may be associated with higher ROS well described to induce fibrogenesis in liver tissue but may also influence drug metabolism and activity.

  10. Salsalate and adiponectin ameliorate hepatic steatosis by inhibition of the hepatokine fetuin-A.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae Woo; Youn, Byung-Soo; Choi, Hae Yoon; Lee, So Young; Hong, Ho Cheol; Yang, Sae Jeong; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Baek-Hui; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2013-10-01

    Fetuin-A was recently identified as a novel hepatokine which is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Salsalate, a prodrug of salicylate with an anti-inflammatory effect and lower side effect profile, significantly lowers glucose and triglyceride levels, and increased adiponectin concentrations in randomized clinical trials. In this study, we examined the effects and regulatory mechanisms of salsalate and full length-adiponectin (fAd) on fetuin-A expression, steatosis and lipid metabolism in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. Incubation of hepatocytes with palmitate significantly increased fetuin-A and SREBP-1c expression which lead to steatosis and knock-down of fetuin-A by siRNA restored these changes. Salsalate significantly down-regulated palmitate-induced fetuin-A mRNA expression and secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of palmitate-induced fetuin-A by salsalate was mediated by AMPK-mediated reduction of NF?B activity, which was blocked by AMPK siRNA or an inhibitor of AMPK. Salsalate attenuated the excessive steatosis by palmitate through SREBP-1c regulation in hepatocytes. Furthermore, fAd also showed suppression of palmitate-induced fetuin-A through the AMPK pathway and improvement of steatosis accompanied by restoration of SREBP-1c, PAPR-? and CD36. In preliminary in vivo experiments, salsalate treatment inhibited high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis as well as fetuin-A mRNA and protein expression in SD rats. In conclusion, salsalate and fAd improved palmitate-induced steatosis and impairment of lipid metabolism in hepatocytes via fetuin-A inhibition through the AMPK-NF?B pathway. PMID:23948064

  11. Adiponectin receptors: expression in Zucker diabetic rats and effects of fenofibrate and metformin.

    PubMed

    Metais, Coralie; Forcheron, Fabien; Abdallah, Pauline; Basset, Alexandra; Del Carmine, Peggy; Bricca, Giampiero; Beylot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, acts through 2 receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. A decreased expression of these receptors could contribute to insulin resistance and diabetes. We determined if the expression of adiponectin receptors is decreased in an experimental model, the Zucker diabetic rat (ZDF), and if a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, fenofibrate, and metformin could increase these expressions. The ZDF and control (L) rats were studied at 7, 14, and 21 weeks. After initial study at 7 weeks, ZDF received no treatment (n = 10), metformin (n = 10), or fenofibrate (n = 10) until final studies at 14 or 21 weeks. The L rats received no treatment. AdipoR1 and R2 expressions were measured in liver, muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT). As expected, ZDF rats were insulin resistant at 7 weeks, had type 2 diabetes mellitus at 14 weeks, and had diabetes with insulin deficiency at 21 weeks. Compared with L rats, AdipoRs messenger RNA was decreased only in the WAT (P < .05) of 7-week-old ZDF rats, but was unchanged in muscle and increased in liver. Metformin and fenofibrate decreased plasma triacylglycerols (P < .01) as expected. The only effect of fenofibrate on AdipoRs was a moderate increase (P < .01) of both receptors' messenger RNA in liver. Metformin increased AdipoR1 and R2 expression in muscle (P < .01) and AdipoR1 (P < .01) in WAT. These results do not support an important role for decreased AdipoRs expression in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Parts of the actions of fenofibrate and of metformin could be mediated by a stimulation of the expression of these receptors in liver and in insulin-sensitive, glucose-utilizing tissues (muscle, WAT), respectively. PMID:18555836

  12. Association of +45(T\\/G) and +276(G\\/T) polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene with coronary artery disease in a population of Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Esteghamati; Nasrin Mansournia; Manouchehr Nakhjavani; Mohammad Ali Mansournia; Abdolrahim Nikzamir; Mehrshad Abbasi

    The relation of Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin locus (+45T\\/G and +276G\\/T) with coronary artery\\u000a disease (CAD) is controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic influence of the adiponectin gene\\u000a polymorphisms in the development of CAD among patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The adiponectin genotypes were detected\\u000a by polymerase chain reaction

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of an Herbal Formulation for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T.; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m2. Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m2; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  14. Ascofuranone stimulates expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor through the modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase family members in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocyte cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Ji, E-mail: hjcho.dr@gmail.com [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibitors for MEK and JNK increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone significantly suppressed phosho-ERK, while increasing phospho-p38. -- Abstract: Ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic, was originally isolated as a hypolipidemic substance from a culture broth of the phytopathogenic fungus, Ascochyta visiae. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by adipocytes. It relieves insulin resistance by decreasing the plasma triglycerides and improving glucose uptake, and has anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we found that ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, a major transcription factor for adiponectin, in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocytes cell line, without promoting accumulation of lipid droplets. Ascofuranone induced expression of adiponectin, and increases the promoter activity of adiponectin and PPRE, PPAR response element, as comparably as a PPAR{gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone, that stimulates lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cell line. Moreover, inhibitors for MEK and JNK, like ascofuranone, considerably increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, while a p38 inhibitor significantly suppressed. Ascofuranone significantly suppressed ERK phosphorylation, while increasing p38 phosphorylation, during adipocyte differentiation program. These results suggest that ascofuranone regulates the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} through the modulation of MAP kinase family members.

  15. Fat cell-secreted adiponectin mediates physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis: an alternative anti-depressive treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-fai

    2015-01-01

    Psychological depression is drawing accumulating attention nowadays, due to the skyrocketing incidence worldwide and the enormous burdens it incurs. Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, although knowledge of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. Suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis in adult brains has been regarded, at least partly, contributive to depression, whereas physical exercise that restores neurogenesis accordingly exerts the anti-depressive action. Several recent publications have suggested the potential role of adiponectin, a protein hormone secreted by peripheral mature adipocytes, in mediating physical exercise-triggered enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviation of depression. Here, we briefly review these novel findings and discuss the possibility of counteracting depression by modulating adiponectin signaling in the hippocampus with interventions including physical exercise and administration of pharmacological agents. PMID:25788905

  16. Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Kinase, and Adiponectin in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Joėlle; Chabrolle, Christine; Ramé, Christelle; Tosca, Lucie; Coyral-Castel, Stéphanie

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the interaction between energy balance and reproduction are the subject of intensive investigations. The integrated control of these systems is probably a multifaceted phenomenon involving an array of signals governing energy homeostasis, metabolism, and fertility. Two fuel sensors, PPARs, a superfamily of nuclear receptors and the kinase AMPK, integrate energy control and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin, one of the adipocyte-derived factors mediate its actions through the AMPK or PPARs pathway. These three molecules are expressed in the ovary, raising questions about the biological actions of fuel sensors in fertility and the use of these molecules to treat fertility problems. This review will highlight the expression and putative role of PPARs, AMPK, and adiponectin in the ovary, particularly during folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation. PMID:18288279

  17. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. I. Small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Stefan U; van Swieten, Eric; Bosma, Tjibbe; de Boef, Esther; van Dijk, Alard A; Robillard, George T

    2003-07-01

    The solution structure of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat gluten proteins has been investigated for a range of concentrations and temperatures using mainly small-angle neutron scattering. A representative part of the repetitive domain (dB1) was studied as well as an "oligomer" basically consisting of four dB1 units, which has a length similar to the complete central domain. The scattering data over the entire angular range of both proteins are in quantitative agreement with a structural model based on a worm-like chain, a model frequently used in polymer theory. This model describes the "supersecondary structure" of dB1 and dB4 as a semiflexible cylinder with a length of about 235 and 900 A, respectively, and a cross-sectional diameter of about 15 A. The flexibility of both proteins is characterized by a persistence length of about 13 A. Their structures are thus quantitatively identical, which implies that the central HMW domain can be elongated while retaining its structural characteristics. It seems conceivable that the flexible cylinder results from a helical structure, which resembles the beta-spiral observed in earlier studies on gluten proteins and elastin. However, compared to the previously proposed structure of a (stiff) rod, our experiments clearly indicate flexibility of the cylinder. PMID:12833258

  18. Adiposity in Childhood Is Related to C-Reactive Protein and Adiponectin in Young Adulthood: From the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demet Toprak; Ahmet Toprak; Wei Chen; Ji Hua Xu; Sathanur Srinivasan; Gerald S. Berenson

    2011-01-01

    To determine the association between cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in childhood and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and adiponectin in adulthood, 835 eligible white and African-American young adult subjects (age range 24–42 years, average 34 years, 43% men, 31% African Americans) who had CV risk-factor variable data from their childhood (20 years earlier, age range 5–18 years, average 14 years) were

  19. Empirical characteristics of family-based linkage to a complex trait: the ADIPOQ region and adiponectin levels.

    PubMed

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Palmer, Nicholette D; Mark Brown, W; Brown, Mark W; Ziegler, Julie T; Sandy An, S; An, Sandy S; Guo, Xiuqing; Ida Chen, Y-D; Chen, Ida Y-D; Taylor, Kent; Hawkins, Gregory A; Ng, Maggie C Y; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Lorenzo, Carlos; Norris, Jill M; Rotter, Jerome I; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Langefeld, Carl D; Bowden, Donald W

    2015-02-01

    We previously identified a low-frequency (1.1 %) coding variant (G45R; rs200573126) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) which was the basis for a multipoint microsatellite linkage signal (LOD = 8.2) for plasma adiponectin levels in Hispanic families. We have empirically evaluated the ability of data from targeted common variants, exome chip genotyping, and genome-wide association study data to detect linkage and association to adiponectin protein levels at this locus. Simple two-point linkage and association analyses were performed in 88 Hispanic families (1,150 individuals) using 10,958 SNPs on chromosome 3. Approaches were compared for their ability to map the functional variant, G45R, which was strongly linked (two-point LOD = 20.98) and powerfully associated (p value = 8.1 × 10(-50)). Over 450 SNPs within a broad 61 Mb interval around rs200573126 showed nominal evidence of linkage (LOD > 3) but only four other SNPs in this region were associated with p values < 1.0 × 10(-4). When G45R was accounted for, the maximum LOD score across the interval dropped to 4.39 and the best p value was 1.1 × 10(-5). Linked and/or associated variants ranged in frequency (0.0018-0.50) and type (coding, non-coding) and had little detectable linkage disequilibrium with rs200573126 (r (2) < 0.20). In addition, the two-point linkage approach empirically outperformed multipoint microsatellite and multipoint SNP analysis. In the absence of data for rs200573126, family-based linkage analysis using a moderately dense SNP dataset, including both common and low-frequency variants, resulted in stronger evidence for an adiponectin locus than association data alone. Thus, linkage analysis can be a useful tool to facilitate identification of high-impact genetic variants. PMID:25447270

  20. Relationships between serum adipocyte hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin), bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Ardekani, J; Soleymani-Salehabadi, H; Owlia, M B; Mohiti, A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fasting serum leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporosis patients and a non-osteoporosis control group. We studied 81 non-diabetic osteoporosis patients (92 % female, 8 % male; mean age 54.5 ± 15.5 years and body mass index [BMI] 28.2 ± 4.6) and 120 non-diabetic individuals with normal BMD as controls (86 % female, 14 % male; mean age 39.7 ± 10.4 years and BMI 28.8 ± 4.4). BMD was studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck and fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical measurement of fasting blood glucose, leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Fasting levels of plasma adiponectin had a significant negative correlation with BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine in the osteoporosis group (r = -0.478, P = 0.003, r = -0.513, P = 0.023) but not in the non-osteoporosis group (r = -0.158, P = 0.057, r = -0.23, P = 0.465). Fasting plasma levels of resistin were significantly correlated only with femur BMD in the osteoporosis group, and not significantly correlated with lumbar spine BMD (r = -0.244, P = 0.048 vs r = 0.276, P = 0.56). Leptin did not have a significant correlation with BMD in either the osteoporosis or non-osteoporosis groups (P > 0.05). Adiponectin had a significant negative correlation with BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. The correlation between leptin and resistin are not inconclusive. PMID:24052207

  1. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) adiponectin receptors: molecular characterization, mRNA expression, and subcellular location.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chaobin; Wang, Bin; Sun, Caiyun; Jia, Jirong; Li, Wensheng

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin is an abundantly secreted adipokine from adipose tissue in mammals, which plays important roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The biological function of adiponectin is mediated by at least two receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Although both of them were identified in mammals, there are few researches about adiponectin and its receptors in teleosts. In this study, two types of adiponectin receptors have been isolated and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of grouper AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are 1444 and 2034 bp in length, encoding proteins of 376 amino acids and 375 amino acids, respectively. Multiple alignment results showed that there was a variable region at the N-terminal of AdipoR1/R2, which has never been reported. Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were found to be widely expressed in various tissues of grouper. Compared to AdipoR2, AdipoR1 expressed at higher levels in the nervous system and pituitary gland, but at lower levels in some peripheral tissues, including heart, liver, adipose tissue, stomach, intestine and especially gonad. Fasting and refeeding experiments showed that the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 were up-regulated by fasting in the muscle and adipose tissue of grouper, and restored rapidly to normal levels after refeeding. However, the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in the hypothalamus and liver of grouper were insensitive to fasting. By indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that grouper AdipoR1/R2 were integral membrane proteins; the C-terminals were extracellular, while the N-terminals were intracellular. PMID:24406511

  2. Suppression of adiponectin by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in glomerular mesangial cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Takiue, Keiichi; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Ayu; Kikumoto, Yoko; Kitamura, Shinji; Maeshima, Yohei; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) may be associated with the mesangial deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1. To identify mediators affected by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs), we generated enzymatically modified desialylated and degalactosylated (deSial/deGal) IgA1. The state of deglycosylated IgA1 was confirmed by lectin binding to Helix aspersa (HAA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA). In the cytokine array analysis, 52 proteins were upregulated and 34 were downregulated in HMCs after stimulation with deSial/deGal IgA1. Among them, the secretion of adiponectin was suppressed in HMCs after stimulation with deSial/deGal IgA1. HMCs expressed mRNAs for adiponectin and its type 1 receptor, but not the type 2 receptor. Moreover, we revealed a downregulation of adiponectin expression in the glomeruli of renal biopsy specimens from patients with IgAN compared to those with lupus nephritis. We also demonstrated that aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was deposited in the mesangium of patients with IgAN by dual staining of HAA and IgA. Moreover, the urinary HAA/SNA ratio of lectin binding was significantly higher in IgAN compared to other kidney diseases. Since adiponectin has anti-inflammatory effects, including the inhibition of adhesion molecules and cytokines, these data suggest that the local suppression of this adipokine by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 could be involved in the regulation of glomerular inflammation and sclerosis in IgAN. PMID:22457806

  3. Changes in Insulin Resistance Following Bariatric Surgery and the Adipoinsular Axis: Role of the Adipocytokines, Leptin, Adiponectin and Resistin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth H. Ballantyne; Andrew Gumbs; Irvin M. Modlin

    2005-01-01

    The fat mass participates in the regulation of glucose and insulin metabolism through the release of adipocytokines in a mechanism\\u000a called the adipoinsular axis. Putative adipocytokines include leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Obesity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of\\u000a insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery for morbidly obese patients leads to rapid and prolonged\\u000a improvement

  4. Effects of Glucose and Insulin on Acyl ghrelin and Desacyl ghrelin, Leptin and Adiponectin in Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, WT; Liu, J; Gaylinn, B; Thorner, M; Meneilly, GS; Babich, SL; Thompson, D; Chanoine, JP

    2010-01-01

    Structured Summary Aim To compare the regulation of ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin by insulin and glucose during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy in women with diabetes. Methods We studied 9 pregnant women with diabetes. All women were treated with insulin and omitted the morning dose on the day of the test. Following collection of baseline fasting samples, we performed 3 successive glucose clamps: 2 euglycemic clamps (glucose 5mmol/L, insulin infusion at 20 and 40 mU m-2 min -1) and 1 hyperglycemic clamp (glucose 10 mmol/L, insulin infusion at 40 mU m-2 min -1). We determined concentrations of acyl- and desacyl ghrelin (using a double antibody sandwich assay that recognizes the full length molecule), leptin and adiponectin. Results Fasting desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased while insulin and leptin concentrations increased between the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy (P?0.011). During the clamp studies, desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased by 33% (2nd trimester, P=0.004) and 27% (3rd trimester, P=0.09) with increasing glucose and insulin concentrations while acyl ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations were unaffected. Conclusions Glucose and insulin regulate desacyl ghrelin concentrations in pregnant women with diabetes. Impaired desacyl ghrelin regulation may affect energy metabolism in pregnant women with poorly controlled diabetes. PMID:20005544

  5. Effects of glucose and insulin on acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin in pregnant women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William; Liu, Jianhua; Gaylinn, Bruce; Thorner, Michael O; Meneilly, Graydon S; Babich, Sandra L; Thompson, David; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the regulation of ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin by insulin and glucose during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in women with diabetes. We studied 9 pregnant women with diabetes. All women were treated with insulin and omitted the morning dose on the day of the test. After collection of baseline fasting samples, we performed 3 successive glucose clamps: 2 euglycemic clamps (glucose, 5 mmol/L; insulin infusion at 20 and 40 mU m(-2) min(-1)) and 1 hyperglycemic clamp (glucose, 10 mmol/L; insulin infusion at 40 mU m(-2) min(-1)). We determined concentrations of acyl and desacyl ghrelin (using a double-antibody sandwich assay that recognizes the full-length molecule), leptin, and adiponectin. Fasting desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased, whereas insulin and leptin concentrations increased, between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (P < or = .011). During the clamp studies, desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased by 33% (second trimester, P = .004) and 27% (third trimester, P = .09) with increasing glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas acyl ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations were unaffected. Glucose and insulin regulate desacyl ghrelin concentrations in pregnant women with diabetes. Impaired desacyl ghrelin regulation may affect energy metabolism in pregnant women with poorly controlled diabetes. PMID:20005544

  6. Lower Adiponectin Levels at First Trimester of Pregnancy Are Associated With Increased Insulin Resistance and Higher Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, ?-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6–13 weeks) and 2nd (24–28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), ?-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUCinsulin/glucose), and ?-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = ?0.22, P < 0.0001) and Matsuda index (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001, and r = 0.29, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for confounding factors, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUCinsulin/glucose. CONCLUSIONS Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements. PMID:23300287

  7. Comparison of plasma adiponectin & certain inflammatory markers in angiographically proven coronary artery disease patients with & without diabetes – A study from India

    PubMed Central

    Kumpatla, Satyavani; Karuppiah, Kirubakaran; Immaneni, Sathyamurthy; Muthukumaran, Parthiban; Krishnan, Jayanthi; Narayanamoorthy, Srinivasan Kanthallu; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The association between adiponectin and risk of cardiovascular disease is well known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adiponectin and certain inflammatory markers and to determine the correlations between them in angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in subjects with and without diabetes. Methods: A total of 180 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for symptoms suggestive of CAD were categorised into groups based on their diabetes and/or CAD status: group1 (non-diabetic non-CAD); group2 (non-diabetic CAD); group3 (diabetic non-CAD) and group4 (diabetic CAD). Adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and soluble form of E-selectin (sE-selectin) were estimated using quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) by particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in subjects with either diabetes or CAD and were much lower in subjects who had both. hsCRP was elevated in CAD and diabetes but did not differ significantly between groups. sE-selectin and TNF-? levels were elevated in CAD. Adiponectin negatively correlated with age, glucose, sE-selectin, total and LDL cholesterol. hsCRP correlated with BMI, sE-selectin and urea. sE-selectin correlated with BMI, triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol, whereas TNF-? correlated with fasting plasma glucose. In the logistic regression analysis, adiponectin had a significant inverse association with CAD. sE-selectin and TNF-? also showed significant independent association with CAD. Interpretation & conclusions: Adiponectin and other inflammatory markers such as sE-selectin and TNF-? showed a significant association with CAD. Hence, early assessment of such markers can help to identify high risk patients, and to reduce the inflammatory component of diabetes and CAD. PMID:25109718

  8. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Oishi, Yuichi, E-mail: y3oishi@nodai.ac.jp [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  9. Association between prehypertension, metabolic and inflammatory markers, decreased adiponectin and enhanced insulinemia in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with development of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of risk factors, such as insulin resistance, inflammatory response, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure that predispose affected individuals to well-characterized medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney chronic disease. The study was designed to establish relationship between metabolic and inflammatory disorder, renal sodium retention and enhanced blood pressure in a group of obese subjects compared with age-matched, lean volunteers. Methods The study was performed after 14 h overnight fast after and before OGTT in 13 lean (BMI 22.92?±?2.03 kg/m2) and, 27 obese (BMI 36.15?±?3.84 kg/m2) volunteers. Assessment of HOMA-IR and QUICKI index were calculated and circulating concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and C-reactive protein, measured by immunoassay. Results The study shows that a hyperinsulinemic (HI: 10.85?±?4.09 ?g/ml) subgroup of well-characterized metabolic syndrome bearers-obese subjects show higher glycemic and elevated blood pressure levels when compared to lean and normoinsulinemic (NI: 5.51?±?1.18 ?g/ml, P?adiponectin measured in basal period was significantly enhanced in NI subjects when compared to HI groups (P?adiponectin levels and dysfunctional inflammatory modulation associated with hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and renal dysfunction in a particular subgroup of obeses. PMID:24966877

  10. Identification and characterization of CTRP9, a novel secreted glycoprotein, from adipose tissue that reduces serum glucose in mice and forms heterotrimers with adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G. William; Krawczyk, Sarah A.; Kitidis-Mitrokostas, Claire; Ge, Guangtao; Spooner, Eric; Hug, Christopher; Gimeno, Ruth; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is a major insulin-sensitizing, multimeric hormone derived from adipose tissue that acts on muscle and liver to regulate whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we describe a novel and highly conserved paralog of adiponectin designated as C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9. Of all the CTRP paralogs, CTRP9 shows the highest degree of amino acid identity to adiponectin in its globular C1q domain. CTRP9 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and females expresses higher levels of the transcript than males. Moreover, its expression levels in ob/ob mice changed in an age-dependent manner, with significant up-regulation in younger mice. CTRP9 is a secreted glycoprotein with multiple post-translational modifications in its collagen domain that include hydroxylated prolines and hydroxylated and glycosylated lysines. It is secreted as multimers (predominantly trimers) from transfected cells and circulates in the mouse serum with levels varying according to sex and metabolic state of mice. Furthermore, CTRP9 and adiponectin can be secreted as heterooligomers when cotransfected into mammalian cells, and in vivo, adiponectin/CTRP9 complexes can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from the serum of adiponectin and CTRP9 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that adiponectin and CTRP9 associate via their globular C1q domain, and this interaction does not require their conserved N-terminal cysteines or their collagen domains. Furthermore, we show that adiponectin and CTRP9 form heterotrimers. In cultured myotubes, CTRP9 specifically activates AMPK, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK signaling pathways. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CTRP9 in obese (ob/ob) mice significantly lowered serum glucose levels. Collectively, these results suggest that CTRP9 is a novel adipokine, and further study of CTRP9 will yield novel mechanistic insights into its physiological and metabolic function.—Wong, G. W., Krawczyk, S. A., Kitidis-Mitrokostas, C., Ge, G., Spooner, E., Hug, C., Gimeno, R., Lodish, H. F. Identification and characterization of CTRP9, a novel secreted glycoprotein from adipose tissue that reduces serum glucose in mice and forms heterotrimers with adiponectin. PMID:18787108

  11. Different molecular weight hyaluronic acid effects on human macrophage interleukin 1? production.

    PubMed

    Baeva, Larissa F; Lyle, Daniel B; Rios, Maria; Langone, John J; Lightfoote, Marilyn M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effect of hyaluronan (HA) molecular weight on immune response. HA with molecular weights ranging from the unitary disaccharide unit (400 Da) up to 1.7 × 10(6) Da and with very low endotoxin contamination level (less than 0.03 EU/mg) was used. Primary human monocyte/macrophage cultures were assayed for IL-1? production under a variety of inflammatory conditions with or without HA. Under the highest inflammatory states, production of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) was suppressed in the presence of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) and in the presence of low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) at mg/mL concentrations. There was variability in the sensitivity of the response to HA fragments with MW below 5000 Da at micromolar concentrations. There was variability in IL-1? cytokine productions from donor to donor in unstimulated human cell cultures. This study supplements our previous published study that investigated the immunogenic effect of HA molecular weights using murine cell line RAW264.6, rat splenocytes, and rat adherent differentiated primary macrophages. These data support the hypothesis that if the amount of endotoxin is reduced to an extremely low level, LMW-HA may not directly provoke normal tissue macrophage-mediated inflammatory reactions. PMID:23533059