Sample records for weight hmw adiponectin

  1. Performance of ELISA for specific measurement of high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Tanita, Toshimi; Miyakoshi, Hideo; Nakano, Yasuko

    2008-04-20

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein secreted as trimer, hexamer and high-molecular-weight (HMW) complex. Several reports have indicated that the biologically active form of adiponectin is HMW, and that HMW adiponectin concentration is correlated with insulin sensitivity and metabolic disorders including diabetes better than total adiponectin concentration. We developed a sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody against HMW adiponectin purified from human serum. The specificity of established ELISA to HMW adiponectin was confirmed by analysis of human serum fractions prepared by gel filtration chromatography. After careful purification of HMW adiponectin for the calibration standard, the concentration was determined by the amino acid analysis, protein concentration assay by Lowry's method and theoretical calculation from amino acid sequence of adiponectin. An appropriate calibration curve was obtained by HMW adiponectin standards and an assay range is from 0.2 to 25 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was below 3.0% and 5.1%, respectively. The recovery of added HMW adiponectin was from 98.5% to 99.2%. No interference of blood components was confirmed by adding free and conjugated forms of bilirubin, hemoglobin and lipids. Serum is suitable as samples and could be stored at 10 degrees C in the refrigerator for at least 28 days stably. Our HMW adiponectin-specific ELISA system is simple, without any procedure of sample pretreatment, reliable, suitable for routine analysis and highly useful for elucidating the clinical significance of adiponectin. PMID:18304569

  2. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMI<=24.0. Higher HMW/total adiponectin ratio was negatively associated with breast cancer (P=0.019) in the subgroup of postmenopausal women. Interestingly, in the subgroup of women with family history of breast cancer, higher circulating total and HMW adiponectin were positively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed. PMID:26070203

  3. Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer,

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform

  4. Preferential increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin after niacin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Westphal; Claus Luley

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveRecently we have demonstrated that treatment with niacin raises adiponectin between 52% and 95% in patients with the metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated whether all three adiponectin fractions are increased equally, and, secondly, whether the increase in the biologically most active high-molecular weight (HMW) fraction can prevent the deterioration of insulin sensitivity that was also observed after niacin.

  5. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels and Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Horáková, Dagmar; Azeem, Kate?ina; Benešová, Radka; Pastucha, Dalibor; Horák, Vladimír; Dumbrovská, Lenka; Martínek, Arnošt; Novotný, Dalibor; Hobzová, Milada; Galuszková, Dana; Janout, Vladimír; Don?vská, Sandra; Vrbková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the potential use of lower total and HMW adiponectin levels for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Concentrations of total adiponectin or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin decrease in association with the development of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity, insulin resistance, or T2DM. Increased adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease. A total of 551 individuals were assessed. The first group comprised metabolically healthy participants (143 females, and 126 males) and the second group were T2DM patients (164 females, and 118 males). Both total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin in diabetic patients were significantly lower when compared with the group of metabolically healthy individuals. There was a weak monotonic correlation between HMW adiponectin levels and triglycerides levels. Binary logistic regression analysis, gender adjusted, showed a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic persons when both total adiponectin (OR = 1.700) and HMW adiponectin (OR = 2.785) levels were decreased. A decrease in total adiponectin levels as well as a decrease in its HMW adiponectin is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in individuals with T2DM. This association suggests that adiponectin levels may be potentially used as an epidemiological marker for cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

  6. Low-molecular-weight adiponectin is more closely associated with disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis than other adiponectin multimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Li; Ma, Cui-Li; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Rui; Bi, Li-Qi

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin is divided into high-molecular-weight (HMW), medium-molecular-weight (MMW), and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. These forms differ not only in the number of adiponectin molecules but also in their biological activity. There are conflicting findings regarding the role of adiponectin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, few reports have described the relationships between serum adiponectin multimers levels and RA. Therefore, we examined the association of total adiponectin and its multimers with RA. Two study groups were examined: 180 recently diagnosed untreated RA patients with disease duration less than 1 year (RA group) and 160 age- and sex-matched control subjects (control group). RA-related factors, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, complete lipid profile, and adiponectin multimers were measured. The levels of total adiponectin and each multimer of adiponectin were significantly lower in the RA than in the control (P?HMW, MMW, and LMW were positively correlated with triglycerides levels and negatively correlated with the Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). Multivariate regression analysis showed that total, HMW, and MMW adiponectin were independently associated with serum triglycerides level. LMW adiponectin was independently correlated with serum triglycerides level and DAS28. The decreased LMW adiponectin levels may be associated with disease activity of RA. PMID:25750183

  7. High-molecular-weight adiponectin does not predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Aso, Yoshimasa; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Inukai, Toshihiko; Brix, Johanna; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2009-04-01

    Low circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HMW adiponectin and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The investigation took place in a specialized outpatient clinic for metabolic diseases and included 147 patients with T2DM following a cross-sectional and a prospective study protocol. Ninety patients had macrovascular disease at baseline defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, previous stroke, or peripheral artery disease. HMW adiponectin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) and routine clinical parameters were determined in all patients at baseline. The occurrence of new cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) during the follow-up period was evaluated. No significant correlations between traditional cardiovascular risk markers and HMW adiponectin could be detected. HMW adiponectin did not differ between subjects with and without macrovascular disease at baseline (3.5 [interquartile range [IQR]: 2.2-5.7] mg/L vs 4.0 [IQR: 2.5-7.1] mg/L). During a follow-up of 19.3 (IQR: 16-25) months, 61 endpoints (41 myocardial infarctions, 10 strokes, and 10 deaths) were observed. A 1-standard-deviation increment of log-transformed HMW adiponectin was not significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.54; P = 0.835). In conclusion, HMW adiponectin was not related to present macrovascular disease and is not associated with future cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with T2DM. It is unlikely that HMW adiponectin has significant vasoprotective effects in these patients. PMID:19304279

  8. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Argüelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin—an adipose tissue-derived protein—may provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case–control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68–1.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26–0.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60–1.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

  9. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin and ethnic-specific differences in adiposity and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic-specific differences in insulin resistance (IR) are well described but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing adipocytokine that circulates as multiple isoforms, with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin associated with greatest insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study is to determine if plasma total and HMW adiponectin concentrations underlie ethnic-specific differences in IR. Methods Healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults (N?=?634) were assessed for sociodemographics; lifestyle; fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and total and HMW adiponectin; and adiposity measures [BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (quantified by computed tomography)]. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed IR. Results South Asians had the greatest HOMA-IR, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations were lower in Chinese and South Asians than Aboriginal and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P?HMW adiponectin and HOMA-IR with stronger effects observed in Aboriginals (P?=?0.001), Chinese (P?=?0.002), and South Asians (P?=?0.040) compared to Europeans. This was not observed for total adiponectin (P?=?0.431). At mean total adiponectin concentrations South Asians had higher HOMA-IR than Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations a greater increase in HOMA-IR is observed in Aboriginals, Chinese, and South Asians than Europeans. Ethnic-specific differences in HMW adiponectin may account for differences in IR. PMID:24225161

  10. High molecular weight adiponectin reduces apolipoprotein B and E release in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Sigruener, Alexander [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Eggenhofer, Elke [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weigert, Johanna [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schlitt, Hans J. [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Aslanidis, Charalampos [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Piso, Pompiliu [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Langmann, Thomas [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schmitz, Gerd [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schoelmerich, Juergen [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buechler, Christa [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-01-12

    Low circulating levels of high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-Apm) have been linked to dyslipidaemia and systemic HMW-Apm negatively correlates with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and ApoE and is positively associated with ApoA-I. Therefore, it was investigated whether HMW-Apm alters the hepatic synthesis of ApoB, ApoE, and ApoA-I or the activity of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as the main determinant of plasma HDL. HMW-Apm reduces hepatic ApoB and ApoE release whereas ABCA1 protein, activity and ApoA-I were not altered. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hepatic nuclear factor 4-{alpha} (HNF4-{alpha}) and HNF4-{alpha} regulated genes like ApoB are downregulated by HMW-Apm and this was confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. Therefore it is concluded that HMW-adiponectin may ameliorate dyslipidaemia by reducing the hepatic release of ApoB and ApoE, whereas ABCA1 function and ApoA-I secretion are not influenced.

  11. Relations of plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin to new-onset heart failure in adults ?65 years of age (from the Cardiovascular Health study).

    PubMed

    Karas, Maria G; Benkeser, David; Arnold, Alice M; Bartz, Traci M; Djousse, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ix, Joachim H; Zieman, Susan J; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P; Mantzoros, Christos S; Gottdiener, John S; deFilippi, Christopher R; Kizer, Jorge R

    2014-01-15

    Adiponectin exhibits cardioprotective properties in experimental studies, but elevated levels have been linked to increased mortality in older adults and patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The adipokine's association with new-onset HF remains less well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with incident HF (n = 780) and, in a subset, echocardiographic parameters in a community-based cohort of adults aged ?65 years. Total and HMW adiponectin were measured in 3,228 subjects without prevalent HF, atrial fibrillation or CVD. The relations of total and HMW adiponectin with HF were nonlinear, with significant associations observed only for concentrations greater than the median (12.4 and 6.2 mg/L, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios per SD increment in total adiponectin were 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.21) for concentrations less than the median and 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.38) higher than the median. There was a suggestion of effect modification by body mass index, whereby the association appeared strongest in participants with lower body mass indexes. Consistent with the HF findings, higher adiponectin tended to be associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and left atrial enlargement. Results were similar for HMW adiponectin. In conclusion, total and HMW adiponectin showed comparable relations with incident HF in this older cohort, with a threshold effect of increasing risk occurring at their median concentrations. High levels of adiponectin may mark or mediate age-related processes that lead to HF in older adults. PMID:24169012

  12. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50–60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25435686

  13. Effect of dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations in overweight to moderately obese men and women123

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Swarbrick, Michael M; Callahan, Holly S; Matthys, Colleen C; Havel, Peter J; Weigle, David S

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicated that dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increase circulating adiponectin concentrations in rodents. Objective We aimed to investigate whether a diet rich in n–3 PUFAs increased plasma concentrations of total or high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in healthy overweight-to-moderately obese men and women. Design Sixteen women and 10 men with a body mass index (in kg/m2) between 28 and 33 were randomly assigned to consume a diet rich in n–3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake) from both plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n–3 PUFAs). For the first 2 wk, these diets were consumed under isocaloric conditions; then followed a 12-wk period of ad libitum consumption that was associated with a moderate loss of ?3.5% of body weight in both groups. Total and HMW adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured before and after each diet phase. Results Plasma fasting adiponectin concentrations did not change during the isocaloric period, but they increased modestly (?10%) during the ad libitum period when subjects lost weight [P = 0.009 for time in repeated-measures analysis of variance] and to a similar extent in subjects consuming the control (x? ± SD: 0.42 ± 0.69 ?g/mL) and n–3 PUFA (0.45 ± 0.85 ?g/mL) diets (P = 0.920 for time × treatment interaction). Plasma concentrations of HMW adiponectin did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion Dietary n–3 PUFAs consumed at levels of 3.5% of energy intake do not significantly increase plasma or HMW adiponectin concentrations in overweight-to-moderately obese healthy men and women over the course of 14 wk. PMID:18258624

  14. Evaluation of salivary adiponectin profile in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Nigro, E; Piombino, P; Scudiero, O; Monaco, M L; Schettino, P; Chambery, A; Daniele, A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease significantly risen worldwide, especially among children. Adipokines, secreted from adipose tissue, are hormones involved in various cellular processes such as energy metabolism and inflammation. Among the others, adiponectin is gaining increasing interest for its insulin-sentitizing, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. This adipokine undergoes different post-translational modifications, after which it circulates as oligomers of high, medium and low molecular weight (HMW, MMW, LMW); HMW are the most biologically active oligomers. Serum adiponectin levels as well as the amount of its oligomers are inversely correlated to BMI and closely associated with obesity and related diseases. In this study, we analyzed total adiponectin expression and its oligomeric profile in saliva samples from 27 obese compared to 27 age- and sex-matched controls. Moreover, we compared adiponectin oligomerization between serum and saliva samples. The analysis of the different adiponectin oligomers reveals a slightly higher expression of total, HMW and LMW salivary adiponectin in obese patients compared to controls. Finally, FPLC analysis evidenced that HMW oligomers in saliva have a higher molecular weight than in serum confirming the presence of more complex oligomers in saliva, previously identified as super HMW (S-HMW). Saliva is considered a potential source of novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of metabolic disorders. The assessment of total adiponectin and its oligomeric profiles in saliva samples may represent a promising biological marker for the analysis of metabolic diseases. PMID:25481860

  15. Preatherosclerosis and Adiponectin Subfractions in Obese Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Mangge; Gunter Almer; Samih Haj-Yahya; Stefan Pilz; Robert Gasser; Reinhard Möller; Renate Horejsi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated total adiponectin, high-molecular weight (HMW), medium-molecular weight (MMW), low-molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin subfractions, clinical parameters, routine lab parameters, lipids, metabolic, inflammatory biomarkers, and intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid arteries in 70 obese juveniles and adolescents with preatherosclerosis and 55 normal weight controls of similar age and gender distribution. Compared with the controls, the obese probands had a

  16. Adiponectin profiles are affected by chronic and acute changes in carbohydrate intake in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Heok Yit; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M; Fleeman, Linda M; Armstrong, P Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Ishioka, Katsumi; Verkest, Kurt R; Richards, Ayanthi A; Rawlings, John M; Rose, Felicity J; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2011-07-01

    Adiponectin is a key adipokine that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It circulates in stable low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) forms. The aims of this study were to characterize baseline adiponectin profiles (total, LMW and HMW multimers) in healthy cats and to assess the effects of varying dietary carbohydrate content on adiponectin profiles. Cats were maintained on a diet with moderate carbohydrate content (37% metabolisable energy [ME]) for 4 weeks and then randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate (19% ME) or high carbohydrate (52% ME) diet for 4 weeks. Fasting and postprandial plasma adiponectin profiles were measured by ELISA and sucrose gradient/Western blot. After consuming the moderate carbohydrate diet for 4 weeks, fasting total, HMW and LMW plasma adiponectin concentrations were 5.0±0.6, 2.5±0.5 and 2.6±0.2 ?g/mL, respectively. After changing to the low carbohydrate diet, fasting total adiponectin was unchanged but HMW adiponectin increased and LMW adiponectin decreased. No significant postprandial changes were observed. Cats consuming the high carbohydrate diet had increased fasting total and LMW adiponectin with no change in HMW adiponectin. In the postprandial state total adiponectin was reduced and there was a trend towards a decrease in HMW (p=0.086) but not LMW multimers. These data indicate that feline adiponectin multimer profiles are similar to those reported in other species and demonstrate that changes in plasma adiponectin occur in response to chronic and acute carbohydrate intake and these reflect differential changes in adiponectin multimers. PMID:21530529

  17. Gender-Specific Associations between Circulating T-Cadherin and High Molecular Weight-Adiponectin in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W.; Pfaff, Dennis; Dasen, Boris; Frismantiene, Agne; Erne, Paul; Resink, Therese J.; Philippova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Close relationships exist between presence of adiponectin (APN) within vascular tissue and expression of T-cadherin (T-cad) on vascular cells. APN and T-cad are also present in the circulation but here their relationships are unknown. This study investigates associations between circulating levels of high molecular weight APN (HMW-APN) and T-cad in a population comprising 66 women and 181 men with angiographically proven stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma HMW-APN and T-cad were measured by ELISA and analysed for associations with baseline clinical characteristics and with each other. In multivariable analysis BMI and HDL were independently associated with HMW-APN in both genders, while diabetes and extent of coronary stenosis were independently associated with T-cad in males only. Regression analysis showed no significant association between HMW-APN and T-cad in the overall study population. However, there was a negative association between HMW-APN and T-cad (P=0.037) in a subgroup of young men (age <60 years, had no diabetes and no or 1-vessel CAD) which persisted after multivariable analysis with adjustment for all potentially influential variables (P=0.021). In the corresponding subgroup of women there was a positive association between HMW-APN and T-cad (P=0.013) which disappeared after adjustment for HDL. After exclusion of the young men, a positive association (P=0.008) between HMW-APN and T-cad was found for the remaining participants of the overall population which disappeared after adjustment for HDL and BMI. The existence of opposing correlations between circulating HMW-APN and T-cad in male and female patient populations underscores the necessity to consider gender as a confounding variable when evaluating biomarker potentials of APN and T-cad. PMID:26083608

  18. Adipose tissue depot and cell size dependency of adiponectin synthesis and secretion in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Lauren K; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Henry, Robert R; Wittgrove, Alan C; Phillips, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing fat cell (FC) hormone whose levels are related to adipose tissue (AT) mass and depot distribution. We hypothesized that the nature of AT expansion (hypertrophy vs. hyperplasia) contributes to obesity-related reductions in serum adiponectin and that this effect is influenced by the regional distribution of AT to subcutaneous (S) and visceral (V) depots. Thirteen obese subjects provided paired AT biopsies. Serum total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. Secretion was quantified following 24-h explant culture. FC size, number, % large, and % small FC were determined by microscopic analysis. Secretion of total adiponectin was highest by SAT (P = 0.008) and correlated more strongly with serum adiponectin (total: P = 0.015, r = 0.77; HMW: P = 0.005, r = 0.83) than did secretion by VAT (P = 0.05, r = 0.66 for both). FC size was greatest in SAT and correlated negatively with both serum (total: P = 0.01, r = ?0.74; HMW: P = 0.03, r = ?0.69) and secreted (total: P = 0.05, r = ?0.72; HMW: P = 0.02, r = ?0.87) adiponectin. The % small FC in SAT correlated positively with both serum (total: P = 0.006, r = 0.87; HMW: P = 0.009, r = 0.79) and secreted (total: P = 0.03, r = 0.75; HMW: P = 0.01, r = 0.92) adiponectin. VAT FC size correlated negatively with serum HMW adiponectin (P = 0.01, r = ?0.76) but not with any measure of secretion. VAT had the greatest % small FC, which related positively to serum HMW (P = 0.004, r = 0.81) and to secreted total adiponectin (P = 0.02, r = 0.78). These studies indicate that differences in fat cell size and depot distribution of AT expansion are important influences on adiponectin in obesity. PMID:24052897

  19. Adiponectin Changes in Relation to the Macronutrient Composition of a Weight-Loss Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne S. Summer; Bonnie J. Brehm; Stephen C. Benoit; David A. D'Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-derived protein with beneficial metabolic effects. Low adiponectin is associated with obesity and related diseases. Significant weight loss increases adiponectin, reducing disease risk. This study compared the effects of two weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on adiponectin. Eighty-one obese women in two cohorts were randomized to a low-fat (LF) or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. All subjects

  20. Regulation and Quality Control of Adiponectin Assembly by Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone ERp44.

    PubMed

    Hampe, Lutz; Radjainia, Mazdak; Xu, Cheng; Harris, Paul W R; Bashiri, Ghader; Goldstone, David C; Brimble, Margaret A; Wang, Yu; Mitra, Alok K

    2015-07-17

    Adiponectin, a collagenous hormone secreted abundantly from adipocytes, possesses potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Mediated by the conserved Cys(39) located in the variable region of the N terminus, the trimeric (low molecular weight (LMW)) adiponectin subunit assembles into different higher order complexes, e.g. hexamers (middle molecular weight (MMW)) and 12-18-mers (high molecular weight (HMW)), the latter being mostly responsible for the insulin-sensitizing activity of adiponectin. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone ERp44 retains adiponectin in the early secretory compartment and tightly controls the oxidative state of Cys(39) and the oligomerization of adiponectin. Using cellular and in vitro assays, we show that ERp44 specifically recognizes the LMW and MMW forms but not the HMW form. Our binding assays with short peptide mimetics of adiponectin suggest that ERp44 intercepts and converts the pool of fully oxidized LMW and MMW adiponectin, but not the HMW form, into reduced trimeric precursors. These ERp44-bound precursors in the cis-Golgi may be transported back to the ER and released to enhance the population of adiponectin intermediates with appropriate oxidative state for HMW assembly, thereby underpinning the process of ERp44 quality control. PMID:26060250

  1. Regulation of Adiponectin Multimerization, Signaling and Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meilian; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, which exists in serum in three major complexes including trimer, hexamer, and the high molecular weight (HMW) form, has strong insulin sensitizing, antiinflammatory and anti-diabetic functions. Different adiponectin complexes exert tissue-specific biological functions and activate distinct signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the mechanisms regulating adiponectin multimerization. We also describe the major target tissues in which distinct adiponectin multimers exert their functional roles. Finally, we discuss the potential involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial stress in diet-induced adiponectin downregulation and highlight the roles of Disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in the prevention of endoplasmic reticulum stress and promotion of adiponectin multimerization, stability, and function. PMID:24417943

  2. Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Benjamin A.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Arthur, John M.; McFee, Wayne E.; Janech, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload) have higher levels of 2?h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n?=?4) and without (n?=?5) iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2?h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean?±?SD) at 763?±?298 and 727?±?291?pmol/ml, respectively (p?=?0.91); however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared to controls (30.0?±?6.3 versus 17.0?±?6.6%, respectively; p?=?0.016). Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r?=?0.999, p? adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with metabolic disorders. PMID:24065958

  3. Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with increased circulating total and high molecular weight adiponectin and decreased resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Fargnoli, Jessica L.; Fung, Teresa T.; Olenczuk, Deanna M.; Chamberland, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), is associated with a lower risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Whether these benefits are mediated by changes in plasma adipokine concentrations remains to be elucidated. Objective To determine whether adherence to the AHEI is associated with higher plasma total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations and lower concentrations of resistin, as well as biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Design Evaluation of 1922 women from the Nurses’ Health Study, 62% of whom were overweight, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, plasma biomarker concentrations measured in 1990 and data on dietary intake from SFFQs administered in 1984, 1986, and 1990, averaged to account for long-term dietary exposure and reduce within subject variability. Results After adjustment for age and energy intake, women with the highest average adherence to the AHEI had 24% higher median total adiponectin and 32% higher median HMW adiponectin concentrations, as well as 16% lower resistin, 41% lower CRP, 19% lower sE-selectin, 24% lower ferritin concentrations (P<0.01 for all). These associations remained significant after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, and smoking status. Inverse associations between the AHEI and sTNF-?RII, IL-6, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, c-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c were evident, but were not significant after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions The preventive effects of healthier dietary patterns on risk for diabetes and atherosclerosis may be mediated by improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines or other biomarkers of risk for diabetes and CVD. PMID:18996855

  4. THE ASSOCIATION OF SNP276G>T AT ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CIRCULATING ADIPONECTIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN RESPONSE TO MILD WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and the features of insulin resistance in response to a weight loss intervention. 294 nondiabetic/overweight-obese Koreans ...

  5. Influence of Androgens on Circulating Adiponectin in Male and Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yarrow, Joshua F.; Beggs, Luke A.; Conover, Christine F.; McCoy, Sean C.; Beck, Darren T.; Borst, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5? reducible androgen 17?-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM), gonadectomy (GX), or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05). GX increased total adiponectin by 29–34% in both sexes (p<0.05), while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46–53% below respective SHAMs (p?0.001) and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r?=??0.746 and females: r?=??0.742, p?0.001); however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p?0.001) in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p?0.001). Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05). In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05). Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r?=?0.596, p?0.001) and adult animals (r?=?0.657, p?0.001). Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW adiponectin. This change is directionally similar to the androgen-induced lipolytic effects on visceral adiposity and equal in magnitude between TE and TREN, suggesting that neither the aromatization nor the 5? reduction of androgens is required for this effect. PMID:23071783

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? enhances adiponectin secretion via up-regulating DsbA-L expression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, An; He, Yiduo; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zaiqing

    2015-08-15

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase like-protein (DsbA-L) was identified as a molecular chaperone facilitating the assembly and secretion of adiponectin, an adipokine with multiple beneficial effects. In obesity the level of DsbA-L is reduced with a concomitant decrease of the circulating adiponectin level, especially of the high molecular weight form (HMW). Both rodent and human studies have shown that the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists increase adiponectin levels in serum by activating PPAR?, which up-regulates critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones thus facilitating protein folding. As shown in the present study, overexpression of PPAR? in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells elicited the cellular release of HMW adiponectin. PPAR? enhanced expression of DsbA-L by binding directly to peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) site within the DsbA-L promoter. Conversely, in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, PPAR? knockdown resulted in decreased expression of Adiponectin, DsbA-L and ERp44. DsbA-L expression increased after PPAR? agonist treatment and decreased upon treatment with PPAR? antagonist in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DsbA-L deficiency in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells impaired the secretion of adiponectin. We therefore propose that DsbA-L plays an important role in facilitating HMW adiponectin formation and release from cells under the regulation of PPAR?. PMID:25917454

  7. Adiponectin changes in HCV-Genotype 4: relation to liver histology and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Derbala, M; Rizk, N; Al-Kaabi, S; Amer, A; Shebl, F; Al Marri, A; Aigha, I; Alyaesi, D; Mohamed, H; Aman, H; Basem, N

    2009-10-01

    Recently, attention has been focussed on adiponectin and its changes in different types of chronic liver disease. Its relation to hepatic fibrosis and insulin resistance in post-hepatitis liver disease is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the adiponectin changes in genotype 4 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patient in relation to liver histology and insulin resistance, and its usefulness as a predictor of hepatic fibrosis and response to treatment. Total adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW) form as well as insulin levels were studied in 92 chronic HCV, genotype 4 and 66 healthy control volunteers. Neither total adiponectin (r = 0.101, P = 0.220) nor HMW adiponectin (r = 0.081, P = 0.328) correlated with viral load. Total and not HMW adiponectin was significantly correlated with hepatic fibrosis and inflammation (r = 0.267, P = 0.002, r = 0.278, P < 0.001, respectively).In addition, total adiponectin (r = 0.224, P = 0.002) and HMW adiponectin (r = 0.266, P < 0.0006) significantly correlated with insulin resistance. As fibrosis did not correlate with insulin resistance (r = 0.081, P = 0.204), the correlation between total adiponectin and fibrosis was not mediated by insulin resistance. Multivariable regression analysis, (including pretreatment cases and controls) revealed that total adiponectin was significantly associated with gender, being lower among male subjects (X(2) = 13.04, P = 0.0001). The multivariable regression model supported the lack of association between insulin resistance and total adiponectin levels (X(2) = 1.88, P = 0.171), while non cirrhotics had significantly lower total adiponectin levels than cirrhotics (X(2) = 10.90, P = 0.004) and lower level of inflammation significantly lower total adiponectin levels than more severe inflammation (X(2) = 8.95, P = 0.003). Total or HMW adiponectin did not yield receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with area under the curve (AUC) >75%, thus the cutoff points have poor sensitivity/specificity as predictors of fibrosis. However, as a predictor of end-of-treatment response, the ROC curve of adiponectin index gave yield an AUC = 81.4%. We can conclude that total adiponectin level, in HCV genotype 4 patients, increases with progression of hepatic fibrosis regardless of insulin resistance. Its high molecular form does not have such correlation. The adiponectin changes are not related to viral load, insulin resistance or other demographic data suggesting that this change is histologically related. In spite of this, no adiponectin cutoff level had reasonable sensitivity/specificity for predicting hepatic fibrosis stage, while this may be used as a predictor for antiviral response possibly reflecting improvement in hepatic inflammation post treatment. PMID:19486470

  8. Identification of Unprecedented Anticancer Properties of High Molecular Weight Biomacromolecular Complex Containing Bovine Lactoferrin (HMW-bLf)

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R.; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Kanwar, Rupinder K.

    2014-01-01

    With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (?250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (?78–80 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01) of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further. PMID:25222273

  9. Adiponectin Isoforms Differentially Affect Gene Expression and the Lipidome of Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wanninger, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Voggenreiter, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Weiss, Thomas S.; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) exerts multiple beneficial effects in obesity and protects from liver injury. Different APN isoforms circulate in serum, and here, the effect of low molecular weight (LMW) and higher molecular weight (HMW) APN on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) has been analyzed. APN is not detected in hepatocyte lysates; levels are strongly increased by HMW-APN, but not by LMW-APN, suggesting the distinct uptake/degradation of APN isoforms by PHH. Several genes with a role in fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism known to be regulated by HMW-APN are not affected by the LMW-isoform. Follistatin is reduced by HMW-APN and induced by LMW-APN in supernatants of PHH. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is repressed by both isoforms. Cellular triglycerides and cholesterol levels are not reduced by APN. Total phospholipids, including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins, are not changed upon APN incubation, while distinct species are either induced or repressed. Unexpectedly, total ceramide is increased by LMW-APN. Current data show that APN isoforms differentially affect hepatocyte gene expression, but do not grossly alter the hepatocyte lipidome. PMID:24957032

  10. Weight Loss and Changes in Salivary Ghrelin and Adiponectin: Comparison Between Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Benedix; Sabine Westphal; Robert Patschke; Dennis Granowski; Claus Luley; Hans Lippert; Stephanie Wolff

    2011-01-01

    Background  Weight loss is associated with increased levels of adiponectin with a greater increase observed following Roux-en-Y gastric\\u000a bypass (RYGB) compared to restrictive procedures. However, currently there are no data on changes in adiponectin following\\u000a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Ghrelin was reported to be also produced by the salivary glands. There are also no\\u000a data available regarding its changes following bariatric

  11. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25)

    PubMed Central

    Hatami Zargaran, Zeynab; Salehi, Moosa; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Babajafari, Siavash

    2014-01-01

    Background: It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group continued their normal diet, while the intervention group was required to follow a 6 isocaloric meal diet instead of their previous meal pattern (3 meals and 2 snacks). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical, except for meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed prior to and at the end of the study for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, leptin, and adiponectinn concentrations. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the measurements before and after the study in each group. Besides, independent t-test was used for comparison of the measurements between the groups. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.38 ± 9.7 in the intervention group and 37.6 ± 10.9 in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P < 0.001), BMI (P < 0.001), triglyceride (P < 0.001), and leptin (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in HDL (P < 0.001) and adiponectin (P = 0.031). Conclusions: The 6 isocaloric meal pattern led to a reduction in BMI, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), and leptin concentrations and an increase in HDL and adiponectin compared to the normal diet. PMID:24936481

  12. Analysis of HMW glutenin subunits and their coding sequences in two diploid Aegilops species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Liu; Z. Yan; Y. Wan; K. Liu; Y. Zheng; D. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in hexaploid wheat. In contrast, less is known about these types of proteins in wheat related species. In this paper, we report the analysis of HMW glutenin subunits and their coding sequences in two diploid Aegilops species, Aegilops umbellulata (UU) and Aegilops

  13. Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ching-Jung; Wang, Pei Wen; Hu, Tsung Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of several candidate genes associated with NAFLD in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and NAFLD and in those with DM but without fatty liver disease. Methods We enrolled 350 patients with type 2 DM and NAFLD and 209 patients with DM but without NAFLD. Body mass index (BMI), % body fat (% BF), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high molecular weight (HMW) isoform of adiponectin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. Thirteen SNPs in 5 genes (adiponectin, leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, adiponutrin/patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? co-activator 1? ) were measured. Results Only adiponectin rs266729 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to NAFLD (p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the proportion of subjects with homozygous genotype GG was higher in patients with NAFLD (31%) than in controls (11%) and that the proportions of heterozygous CG and homozygous CC were higher in controls (37% and 52%, respectively) than in patients with NAFLD (33% and 36%, respectively). Patients with NAFLD carrying the GG genotype of rs266729 showed significantly lower serum HMW adiponectin levels than patients carrying the GC or CC genotype (3.75±0.37 vs. 3.99±0.66 vs. 4.79±0.58 ?g/ml, p< 0.001). Body fat and serum HMW adiponectin levels were the strongest predictors of developing NAFLD (p < 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes gene polymorphism of adiponectin rs266729 is associated with risk of NAFLD. G allele of rs266729 is associated with hypoadiponectinemia. Low serum adiponectin level may precipitate liver steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26042596

  14. Plasma Acylation-Stimulating Protein, Adiponectin, Leptin, and Ghrelin before and after Weight Loss Induced by Gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbidly Obese Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAY FARAJ; PETER J. HAVEL; STEVE PHELIS; DAVID BLANK; ALLAN D. SNIDERMAN; KATHERINE CIANFLONE

    We examined fasting plasma insulin, acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and metabolic\\/car- diovascular risk profile before and 15 6 months after iso- lated Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in 50 morbidly obese subjects. Average preoperative plasma lipids were mostly nor- mal, whereas ASP, insulin, and leptin were elevated, and adi- ponectin and ghrelin were decreased. Postoperatively, body weight decreased significantly

  15. Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

    2015-02-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

  16. Differential transendothelial transport of adiponectin complexes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adiponectin’s effects on systemic physiology and cell-specific responses are well-defined, but little is known about how this insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory adipokine reaches its target cells. All molecules face active and passive transport limitations, but adiponectin is particularly noteworthy due to the diverse size range and high molecular weights of its oligomers. Additionally, its metabolic target organs possess a range of endothelial permeability. Methods Full-length recombinant murine adiponectin was produced and oligomer fractions isolated by gel filtration. Adiponectin complex sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering to determine Stokes radii. Transendothelial transport of purified oligomers was quantitatively assessed under a number of different conditions in vitro using murine endothelial cells and in vivo using several mouse models of altered endothelial function. Results Adiponectin oligomers exhibit large transport radii that limit transendothelial transport. Oligomerization is a significant determinant of flux across endothelial monolayers in vitro; low molecular weight adiponectin is preferentially transported. In vivo sampled sera from the heart, liver, and tail vein demonstrated significantly different complex distribution of lower molecular weight oligomers. Pharmacological interventions, such as PPAR? agonist treatment, differentially affect adiponectin plasma clearance and tissue uptake. Exercise induces enhanced adiponectin uptake to oxidative skeletal muscles, wherein adiponectin potently lowers ceramide levels. In total, endothelial barriers control adiponectin transport in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Conclusions Adiponectin oligomer efficacy in a given tissue may therefore be endothelial transport mediated. Targeting endothelial dysfunction in the metabolic syndrome through exercise and pharmaceuticals may afford an effective approach to increasing adiponectin’s beneficial effects. PMID:24552349

  17. Pediatric Obesity and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Proteomic Approach Identifies Multimeric Adiponectin as a Key Link between These Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Gillian E.; Ricotti, Roberta; Roccio, Marta; Moia, Stefania; Bellone, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Key circulating molecules that link vitamin D (VD) to pediatric obesity and its co-morbidities remain unclear. Using a proteomic approach, our objective was to identify key molecules in obese children dichotomized according to 25OH-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. A total of 42 obese children (M/F?=?18/24) were divided according to their 25OHD3 levels into 25OHD3 deficient (VDD; n?=?18; 25OHD<15 ng/ml) or normal subjects (NVD; n?=?24; >30 ng/ml). Plasma proteomic analyses by two dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis were performed at baseline in all subjects. VDD subjects underwent a 12mo treatment with 3000 IU vitamin D3 once a week to confirm the proteomic analyses. The proteomic analyses identified 53 “spots” that differed between VDD and NVD (p<0.05), amongst which adiponectin was identified. Adiponectin was selected for confirmational studies due to its tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Western Immunoblot (WIB) analyses of 2D-gels demonstrated a downregulation of adiponectin in VDD subjects, which was confirmed in the plasma from VDD with respect to NVD subjects (p<0.035) and increased following 12mo vitamin D3 supplementation in VDD subjects (p<0.02). High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, a surrogate indicator of insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower in VDD subjects (p<0.02) and improved with vitamin D3 supplementation (p<0.042). A direct effect in vitro of 1?,25-(OH)2D3 on adipocyte adiponectin synthesis was demonstrated, with adiponectin and its multimeric forms upregulated, even at low pharmacological doses (10?9 M) of 1?,25-(OH)2D3. This upregulation was paralleled by the adiponectin interactive protein, DsbA-L, suggesting that the VD regulation of adiponectin involves post-transciptional events. Using a proteomic approach, multimeric adiponectin has been identified as a key plasma protein that links VDD to pediatric obesity. PMID:24404137

  18. Bread making quality attributes of Iranian trade cultivars of wheat and their HMW glutenin subunits composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najafian G; Baghaee N; Morteza-gholi M; Babaee-Goli E

    Sixty seven varieties of wheat including mostly hexaploid and durum genotypes grown in Iran were tested for bread making quality attributes and their hectoliter weight, percentage of protein content, grain hardness index, flour water absorption, falling number and SDS-sedimentation volume were determined. High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits composition of these varieties was also determined using SDS- PAGE. Clustering of

  19. Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory L. Florant; Heather Porst; Aubrey Peiffer; Susan F. Hudachek; Chris Pittman; Scott A. Summers; Michael W. Rajala; Philipp E. Scherer

    2004-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes

  20. Characterizing HMW-GS alleles of decaploid Agropyron elongatum in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuwei; Gao, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Bread wheat quality is mainly correlated with high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of endosperm. The number of HMW-GS alleles with good processing quality is limited in bread wheat cultivars, while there are plenty of HMW-GS alleles in wheat-related grasses to exploit. We report here on the cloning and characterization of HMW-GS alleles from the decaploid Agropyron elongatum. Eleven novel HMW-GS alleles were cloned from the grass. Of them, five are x-type and six y-type glutenin subunit genes. Three alleles Aex4, Aey7, and Aey9 showed high similarity with another three alleles from the diploid Lophopyrum elongatum, which provided direct evidence for the Ee genome origination of A. elongatum. It was noted that C-terminal regions of three alleles of the y-type genes Aey8, Aey9, and Aey10 showed more similarity with x-type genes than with other y-type genes. This demonstrates that there is a kind of intermediate state that appeared in the divergence between x- and y-type genes in the HMW-GS evolution. One x-type subunit, Aex4, with an additional cysteine residue, was speculated to be correlated with the good processing quality of wheat introgression lines. Aey4 was deduced to be a chimeric gene from the recombination between another two genes. How the HMW-GS genes of A. elongatum may contribute to the improvement of wheat processing quality are discussed. PMID:17992503

  1. Characterizing HMW-GS alleles of decaploid Agropyron elongatum in relation to evolution and wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Gao, Xin; Xia, Guangmin

    2008-02-01

    Bread wheat quality is mainly correlated with high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of endosperm. The number of HMW-GS alleles with good processing quality is limited in bread wheat cultivars, while there are plenty of HMW-GS alleles in wheat-related grasses to exploit. We report here on the cloning and characterization of HMW-GS alleles from the decaploid Agropyron elongatum. Eleven novel HMW-GS alleles were cloned from the grass. Of them, five are x-type and six y-type glutenin subunit genes. Three alleles Aex4, Aey7, and Aey9 showed high similarity with another three alleles from the diploid Lophopyrum elongatum, which provided direct evidence for the Ee genome origination of A. elongatum. It was noted that C-terminal regions of three alleles of the y-type genes Aey8, Aey9, and Aey10 showed more similarity with x-type genes than with other y-type genes. This demonstrates that there is a kind of intermediate state that appeared in the divergence between x- and y-type genes in the HMW-GS evolution. One x-type subunit, Aex4, with an additional cysteine residue, was speculated to be correlated with the good processing quality of wheat introgression lines. Aey4 was deduced to be a chimeric gene from the recombination between another two genes. How the HMW-GS genes of A. elongatum may contribute to the improvement of wheat processing quality are discussed. PMID:17992503

  2. Sequence variations and molecular phylogenetic analyses of the HMW-GS genes from different genomes in Triticeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Rui Wang; Ze-Hong Yan; Qian-Tao Jiang; Yu-Ming Wei; Bernard R. Baum; You-Liang Zheng

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the molecular evolution of the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) in Triticeae, multiple sequence alignment was carried out on the N-terminal sequences of 77 HMW-GSs. The sequence of N-terminal domain showed high homology in both x- and y-type subunits. Sequence alignment of the N-terminal domain of y-type subunits suggested that they shared similar primary structure with each other, not

  3. Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia adhesins of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae mediate broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous strains.

    PubMed

    Winter, Linda E; Barenkamp, Stephen J

    2014-05-01

    The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

  4. Novel variants of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops section Sitopsis species in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), encoded by the genes at Glu-1 loci in wheat and its related species, are significant in the determination of grain processing quality. However, the diversity and variations of HMW-GSs are relatively low in bread wheat. More interests are now focused on wheat wild relatives in Triticeae. The genus Aegilops represents an important germplasm for novel HWM-GSs and other useful genes for wheat genetic improvement. Results Six novel Glu-1 alleles and HMW-GSs were identified and characterized from three species of Aegilops section Sitopsis (S genome). Both open reading frames (ORFs) and promoter regions of these Glu-1 alleles were sequenced and characterized. The ORFs of Sitopsis Glu-1 genes are approximately 2.9?kb and 2.3?kb for x-type and y-type subunits, respectively. Although the primary structures of Sitopsis HMW-GSs are similar to those of previously reported ones, all six x-type or y-type subunits have the large fragment insertions. Our comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences verified that Aegilops section Sitopsis species encode novel HMW-GSs with their molecular weights larger than almost all other known HMW-GSs. The Glu-1 promoter sequences share the high homology among S genome. Our phylogenetic analyses by both network and NJ tree indicated that there is a close phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of x-type and y-type subunit between S and D genome. Conclusions The large molecular weight of HMW-GSs from S genome is a unique feature identified in this study. Such large subunits are resulted from the duplications of repetitive domains in Sitopsis HMW-GSs. The unequal crossover events are the most likely mechanism of variations in glutenin subunits. The S genome-encoded subunits, 1Dx2.2 and 1Dx2.2* have independent origins, although they share similar evolutionary mechanism. As HMW-GSs play a key role in wheat baking quality, these large Sitopsis glutenin subunits can be used as special genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22646663

  5. Generation of novel high quality HMW-GS genes in two introgression lines of Triticum aestivum/Agropyron elongatum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuwei; Zhao, Shuangyi; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2007-01-01

    Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) have been proved to be mostly correlated with the processing quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). But wheat cultivars have limited number of high quality HMW-GS. However, novel HMW-GS were found to be present in many wheat asymmetric somatic hybrid introgression lines of common wheat/Agropyron elongatum. Results To exploit how these new subunits were generated, we isolated HMW-GS genes from two sib hybrid lines (II-12 and 11-4-6) and compared them with those from their parents. The result shows that two genes of hybrid (H11-3-3 and H11-4-3) are directly introgressed from the donor parent Agropyron elongatum; one hybrid gene (H1Dx5) comes from point mutation of a parental wheat gene (1Dx2.1); two other hybrid genes (H1By8 and H1By16) are likely resulting from unequal crossover or slippage of a parental wheat gene (1By9.1); and the sixth novel hybrid gene (H1Dy12) may come from recombination between two parental genes. Conclusion Therefore, we demonstrate that novel HMW-GS genes can be rapidly created through asymmetric somatic hybridization in a manner similar with the evolution mechanism of these genes supposed before. We also described gene shuffling as a new mechanism of novel HMW-GS gene formation in hybrids. The results suggest that asymmetric somatic hybridization is an important approach for widening HMW-GS genebank of wheat quality improvement. PMID:17502002

  6. High frequency of HMW-GS sequence variation through somatic hybridization between Agropyron elongatum and common wheat.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Shu Wei; Sun, Qun; Xia, Guang Min

    2010-01-01

    A symmetric somatic hybridization was performed to combine the protoplasts of tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Fertile regenerants were obtained which were morphologically similar to tall wheatgrass, but which contained some introgression segments from wheat. An SDS-PAGE analysis showed that a number of non-parental high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were present in the symmetric somatic hybridization derivatives. These sequences were amplified, cloned and sequenced, to deliver 14 distinct HMW-GS coding sequences, eight of which were of the y-type (Hy1-Hy8) and six x-type (Hx1-Hx6). Five of the cloned HMW-GS sequences were successfully expressed in E. coli. The analysis of their deduced peptide sequences showed that they all possessed the typical HMW-GS primary structure. Sequence alignments indicated that Hx5 and Hy1 were probably derived from the tall wheatgrass genes Aex5 and Aey6, while Hy2, Hy3, Hx1 and Hy6 may have resulted from slippage in the replication of a related biparental gene. We found that both symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization could promote the emergence of novel alleles. We discussed the origination of allelic variation of HMW-GS genes in somatic hybridization, which might be the result from the response to genomic shock triggered by the merger and interaction of biparent genomes. PMID:19902245

  7. Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Florant, Gregory L; Porst, Heather; Peiffer, Aubrey; Hudachek, Susan F; Pittman, Chris; Summers, Scott A; Rajala, Michael W; Scherer, Philipp E

    2004-11-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes in lipid mass. We collected serum and tissue samples from marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in different seasons while measuring changes in fat mass, including fat-cell size. We found that leptin is positively associated with increasing fat mass and fat-cell size, while adiponectin is negatively associated with increasing lipid mass. These findings are consistent with the putative roles of these adipokines: leptin increases with fat mass and is involved in enhancing lipid oxidation while adiponectin appears to be higher in summer when hepatic insulin sensitivity should be maintained since the animals are eating. Our data suggest that during autumn/winter animals have switched from a lipogenic condition to a lipolytic state, which may include leptin resistance. PMID:15517283

  8. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Vajihe; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key words: Healthy dietary pattern, mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary pattern, diet intervention and adiponectin and adipokines. Then, we recruited 10 articles to review in the present study. Results: Cohort studies that are examined this relationship among women showed the strong positive association in this regard. According to cross-sectional studies adherence to healthy dietary pattern like Mediterranian intervention with moderate weight loss had a positive association with concentration of adiponectin. Conclusion: It seems that adherents to the healthy dietary patterns have great levels of circulating adiponectin. However, it is not clear that whether the separate components of healthy dietary patterns like good sources of fats or protein or fibers mostly have important roles in these beneficial effects of such dietary patterns or not. PMID:25983773

  9. Adiponectin and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Medhavi Jogi; Mandeep Bajaj

    Adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipose tissue, enhances insulin sensitivity and inhibits vascular inflammation.\\u000a Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular\\u000a complications. Furthermore, enhancing adiponectin concentrations by lifestyle changes or pharmacological therapy can have\\u000a cardiovascular-protective effects. In this chapter, we review the association between adiponectin and cardiovascular disease\\u000a and discuss treatment strategies to ameliorate

  10. Identification of chromosome arms influencing expression of the HMW glutenins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wanous, M K; Munkvold, J D; Kruse, J D; Brachman, E E; Klawiter, M A; Fuehrer, K J

    2003-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes, located on the group 1L chromosome arms, are a major determinant for baking quality in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). In addition, the HMW glutenin genes provide a valuable model system for studying the evolution and regulation of orthologous and paralogous genes in polyploid species. The goal of this study was to identify loci that modify the expression of the HMW glutenins, and to map them to specific chromosome arms. Comparisons were made between endosperms with zero versus three (or three versus six) doses for each of the 42 chromosome arms of wheat. SDS-PAGE and scanning densitometry were used to quantify the protein expression levels of the four HMW glutenin genes in cv. Chinese Spring, for each of the dosage comparisons. Fifteen chromosome arms were found to have significant effects on Glu-B1-1, excluding the structural gene dosage effect: eight positive effects on 1AL, 2AS, 2BL, 2DS, 5DS, 6AL, 6DL, and 7AL and seven negative effects on 1BS, 1DS, 1DL, 4DL, 6BS, 6DS, and 7AS. Nineteen chromosome arms had significant effects on Glu-B1-2, excluding the structural gene dosage effect: eight positive effects on 1AL, 2AS, 2BS, 3AL, 4BL, 6DS, 7BL and 7DS and 11 negative effects on 1AS, 1BS, 1DS, 1DL, 2AL, 2BL, 3DS, 4BS, 4DL, 5BL, and 6BS. Twenty chromosome arms had significant effects on Glu-D1-1, excluding the structural gene dosage effect: 11 positive effects on 1AL, 1BL, 2BS, 2DS, 5BS, 5DS, 6AL, 6DS, 6DL, 7AL, and 7BL and nine negative effects on 1AS, 1BS, 1DS, 2BL, 4DL, 5BL, 5DL, 6BL, and 7DS. Twenty-five chromosome arms had significant effects on Glu-D1-2, excluding the structural gene dosage effect: 17 positive effects on 1BL, 2AS, 2BS, 2DS, 2DL, 3AS, 3AL, 3BS, 5AS, 5BS, 5DL, 6AL, 6DL, 7AL, 7BS, 7BL, and 7DL and eight negative effects on 1DS, 4DL, 5AL, 5BL, 6BS, 6BL, 6DS and 7DS. Of the 164 gene-chromosome arm tests performed, about 52% (85/164) showed no significant effects, and 48% (79/164) showed significant effects, excluding the structural gene dosage effects. Of the significant effects, 56% (44/79) were positive effects, and 44% (35/79) were negative effects. Comparisons of dosage effects on orthologous loci (both x-type or both y-type HMW glutenins) showed that orthologous HMW glutenin genes are largely influenced by the same regulatory systems. Less correlation was found for comparisons between paralogous genes, although considerable conservation was observed at this level as well. These observations suggest that after polyploidization, many of the duplicated orthologous regulatory loci were inactivated by mutation, thus consolidating control over the HMW glutenin genes. Possible candidates for orthologous regulatory genes were identified in maize and barley. This study represents the first comprehensive search of the wheat genome for regulators of the HMW glutenins. PMID:12582846

  11. The wheat D-genome HMW-glutenin locus: BAC sequencing, gene distribution, and retrotransposon clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Anderson; C. Rausch; O. Moullet; E. S. Lagudah

    2003-01-01

    .   A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y-type high-molecular-weight\\u000a (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur in the same orientation, are 51,893 bp apart, and the separating DNA includes\\u000a a 31,000-bp cluster of

  12. Adiponectin and Arterial Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azra Mahmud; John Feely

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, is reduced in hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Arterial stiffness, as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in hypertension and diabetes, and as augmentation index (AIx) in CAD, is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. We explored the relationship between adiponectin and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.Methods: Seventy-six untreated patients, 34 women, aged 47 ±

  13. Quality differences between NILs of wheat variety Long 97-586 possessing HMW-GS 7+8 and 7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, LiLi; Zhang, YanBin; Li, JiLin; Zhao, HaiBin; Song, QingJie; Yu, HaiYang; Zhang, ChunLi; Xin, WenLi; Xiao, ZhiMin

    2010-02-01

    The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 7+8 were introduced into the Long 97-586 (1, 7, 2+12) wheat variety (Triticum aestivum) by 5 consecutive backcrosses with biochemical marker-assisted selection. Nearly isogenic lines (NILs) of HMW-GS 7 and 7+8 were obtained, and the NILs were planted in the experimental field at the Crop Breeding Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science in 2004-2006. The field experiments were designed using the two-column contrast arrangement method with six replicates in 2004-2005 and four replicates in 2006. The result of three years experiments showed that the differences between NILs of Long 97-586 with subunit 7 and those with subunits 7+8 in the quality parameters of flour protein content and dry gluten content were negligible (P>0.1). However, the differences in some of the quality parameters were remarkably significant (P<0.01), including wet gluten content, ratio of wet gluten/dry gluten, gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, ratio of sedimentation/dry gluten, and the farinogram parameters of water absorption, development time, stability, breakdown time and degree of softening. The difference between NILs with subunits 7+8 and subunit 7 was significant (P<0.05) on the alveogram W value and had a critical value (P=0.05) on the alveogram P value in 2006. The results show that HMW-GS 7+8 is far superior to HMW-GS 7 in terms of baking quality. The possibilities of using subunits 7+8 and subunit 7 in breeding strong and weak gluten wheat varieties are discussed in this paper. PMID:20596839

  14. Composition of HMW and LMW Glutenin Subunits and Their Effects on Dough Properties, Pan Bread, and Noodle Quality of Chinese Bread Wheats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. He; L. Liu; X. C. Xia; J. J. Liu; R. J. Peña

    2005-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 82(4):345-350 Knowledge of composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and their associations with pan bread and noodle quality will contribute to gen- etically improving processing quality of Chinese bread wheats. Two trials including a total of 158 winter and facultative cultivars and advanced lines were conducted to detect the

  15. Physiological, Pharmacological, and Nutritional Regulation of Circulating Adiponectin Concentrations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone that links visceral adiposity with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. It is unique among adipocyte-derived hormones in that its circulating concentrations are inversely proportional to adiposity, and low adiponectin concentrations predict the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, in the decade since its discovery, adiponectin has generated immense interest as a potential therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. This review summarizes current research regarding the regulation of circulating adiponectin concentrations by physiological, pharmacological, and nutritional factors, with an emphasis on human studies. In humans, plasma adiponectin concentrations are influenced by age and gender, and are inversely proportional to visceral adiposity. In vitro studies suggest that adiponectin production may be determined primarily by adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity, with larger, insulin-resistant adipocytes producing less adiponectin. While adiponectin concentrations are unchanged after meal ingestion, they are increased by significant weight loss, such as after bariatric surgery. In addition, adiponectin production is inhibited by a number of hormones, including testosterone, prolactin, glucocorticoids and growth hormone, and by inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Smoking decreases, while moderate alcohol consumption increases, circulating adiponectin concentrations. Dietary fatty acid composition in rodents influences adiponectin production via ligand-activated nuclear receptors (PPARs); however, current evidence in humans is equivocal. In addition to PPAR agonists (such as thiazolidinediones and fibrates), a number of pharmacological agents (angiotensin receptor type 1 blockers, ACE inhibitors, and cannabinoid receptor antagonists) used in treatment of the metabolic syndrome also increase adiponectin concentrations in humans. PMID:18510434

  16. Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Ikuko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was examined in the diet-induced obese mouse model. Mulberry DNJ was administered to the obese mice for 12 weeks. As a result, DNJ decreased both the visceral fat weight and adipocyte size. To determine the influence of DNJ on lipid metabolism, lipid parameters of the plasma and the liver and the activities of several molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver were measured. DNJ activated the ?-oxidation system, suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced plasma triacylglycerol. Since it was thought that the factor activated in the ?-oxidation system was adiponectin, plasma adiponectin levels were measured and it was shown that plasma adiponectin was increased with DNJ. Therefore, it was suggested that DNJ promoted an increase in plasma adiponectin and activated the ?-oxidation system. Overall, it was shown that DNJ prevents diet-induced obesity through an increase in adiponectin. PMID:23561072

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Adiponectin through 20-Year Type 1 Diabetes Duration

    PubMed Central

    LeCaire, Tamara J.; Palta, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Little information exists on the trajectory and determinants of adiponectin, a possible insulin sensitizer and marker for inflammation and endothelial function, across the duration of type 1 diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study followed an incident cohort ?30 years of age when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1987–1992 up to 20-year duration. Adiponectin was concurrently and retrospectively (from samples frozen at ?80°C) measured for those participating in a 20-year exam (n = 304), during 2007–2011. Adiponectin levels were higher in females, declined through adolescence, and increased with age thereafter. Lower levels were associated with greater body weight and waist circumference and with higher insulin dose, especially at longer diabetes durations. Higher levels were associated with higher HbA1c and, at longer durations, with higher albumin-creatinine ratio. Adiponectin levels showed consistency within individuals that was not explained by these factors. We conclude that markers for insulin resistance are associated with lower adiponectin, and markers for potential microvascular complications are associated with higher adiponectin. The previously reported relationship with HbA1c remains largely unexplained. Additional individual specific factors likely also influence adiponectin level. The relationship between adiponectin and urinary protein excretion may enable identification of those predisposed to kidney disease earlier in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25950008

  18. Two quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits in a somatic hybrid line between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Deshun; Xia, Guangmin; Zhao, Shuangyi; Chen, Fanguo

    2004-12-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) from hybrid line II-12 between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nivski were characterized with SDS-PAGE. Out of these HMW-GSs, two subunits, h1Bx and h1By, had mobilities similar to the subunits 1Bx13 and 1By16 from common wheat 4072, which was used as control. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) of h1Bx and h1By were prepared, and Western blotting showed that the pAbs had strong affinities for h1Bx and h1By, separately. The specificity of h1Bx-pAb was further checked; it preferentially recognized subunits h1Bx and 1Bx13. HMW-GS gene coding sequences were amplified by genomic polymerase chain reaction from hybrid II-12. Two of the five amplicons, marked II2a and II31b, were sequenced. Their coding sequences are clustered to Glu-1Bx7 and Glu-1By9 of common wheat. Three discrepant regions in deduced amino acid sequences of II2a and 31b repeated one time more than Glu-1Bx7 and Glu-1By9. N-terminal sequences of h1Bx and h1By were determined, which were identical to the published sequences of 1Bx13 and 1By16 and in agreement with that deduced from II2a and II31b, respectively. These results indicated that the two novel genes separated from the hybrid wheat derived from the allelic variation of 1Bx7 and 1By9 of the parent wheat. There is an additional cysteine residue positioned at 271st amino acid of the mature peptide of II2a, which may be related to the high quality of the flour. PMID:15551037

  19. The Effect of Low Calorie Diet on Adiponectin Concentration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salehi-Abargouei, A; Izadi, V; Azadbakht, L

    2015-07-01

    Adiponectin secreted from adipose tissue is proposed to be inversely related to the body fat mass. However, the magnitude of the effect of low calorie diet on adiponectin concentrations remains unknown. The present study was aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical trials that access the effect of low calorie diet on adiponectin concentration. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, ISI web of science, and Google scholar for RCTs until January 2015. Totally, 13 trials were found, which examined the effect of low calorie diet on adiponectin concentration compared control group without low calorie diet.Our meta-analysis showed that weight loss diet can substantially increase the adiponectin concentration in overall (Hedges' g=0.34, 95% CI:0.17-0.50, p<0.001). Subgroup analysis also revealed that the low calorie diet can substantially enhance adiponectin concentrations when prescribed for ?16 weeks (Hedges' g=0.48, 95% CI: 0.12-0.83, p=0.01) compared to >16 weeks (Hedges' g=0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.48, p=0.002). Weight loss diet beneficially affects blood adiponectin concentrations. More clinical trials are recommended to clear this effect among different genders and nationalities, and assess the magnitude of the effect based on changes in fat mass. PMID:25985324

  20. Resting energy expenditure, adiponectin and changes in body composition of young children (EarlyBird 34).

    PubMed

    Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Gardner, Daphne; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely related to adiposity and resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults yet may protect against excess weight gain. Little is known of these associations in children, in whom obesity is rising. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relationships between REE, adiponectin and weight gain in young children. METHODS. Adiponectin by ELISA, REE by indirect calorimetry, fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by DEXA were measured at 6.9 years, and repeated one year later in 151 healthy children, aged 7.9±0.3 years. RESULTS. There were no significant correlations between REE and adiponectin at 6.9 years or at 7.9 years (boys r=-0.02, p=0.88 and r=0.05, p=0.69, respectively; girls r=-0.11, p=0.35 and r=0.05, p=0.70, respectively). There was no link between REE at 6.9 years and subsequent weight gain or adverse change in body composition (all r<0.20, all p>0.08). Similarly, there were no correlations between adiponectin and weight change, but there was a significant inverse association between adiponectin at 6.9 years and FFM gain in boys (r=-0.27, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS. The relationship between adiponectin and REE has yet to appear in young children. REE is not a significant predictor of future weight gain or adverse change in body composition and, although the period of follow-up was limited, adiponectin seems unlikely to confound such a relationship in healthy young children. PMID:17852541

  1. Recombinant Adiponectin Does Not Lower Plasma Glucose in Animal Models of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tullin, Søren; Sams, Anette; Brandt, Jakob; Dahl, Kirsten; Gong, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Krogh, Thomas Nylandsted; Olsen, Grith Skytte; Liu, Yun; Pedersen, Anette Amstrup; Petersen, Jørn Meidahl; Rolin, Bidda; Wahlund, Per-Olof; Kalthoff, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Several studies have shown that adiponectin can lower blood glucose in diabetic mice. The aim of this study was to establish an effective adiponectin production process and to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of the different adiponectin forms in diabetic mice and sand rats. Methods Human high molecular weight, mouse low molecular weight and mouse plus human globular adiponectin forms were expressed and purified from mammalian cells or yeast. The purified protein was administered at 10–30 mg/kg i.p. b.i.d. to diabetic db/db mice for 2 weeks. Furthermore, high molecular weight human and globular mouse adiponectin batches were administered at 5–15 mg/kg i.p. b.i.d. to diabetic sand rats for 12 days. Results Surprisingly, none of our batches had any effect on blood glucose, HbA1c, plasma lipids or body weight in diabetic db/db mice or sand rats. In vitro biological, biochemical and biophysical data suggest that the protein was correctly folded and biologically active. Conclusions/Interpretation Recombinant adiponectin is ineffective at lowering blood glucose in diabetic db/db mice or sand rats. PMID:23049674

  2. Protective vascular and myocardial effects of adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry J Goldstein; Rosario G Scalia; Xin L Ma

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an abundant plasma protein secreted from adipocytes that elicits protective effects in the vasculature and myocardium. In obesity and insulin-resistant states, adiponectin levels are reduced and loss of its protective effects might contribute to the excess cardiovascular risk observed in these conditions. Adiponectin ameliorates the progression of macrovascular disease in rodent models, consistent with its correlation with improved

  3. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

  4. Adiponectin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by counteracting angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Guangyu; Guo, Meizi; Cheung, Alfred K; Huang, Yufeng; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine with insulin?sensitizing, anti?inflammatory, and vasoprotective properties. Epidemiology studies have, however, shown that high levels of serum adiponectin are associated with kidney disease progression. We, therefore, examined the effect of adiponectin administration on the progression of glomerulosclerosis in the obese diabetic (db/db) mouse, a model of type II diabetes. Recombinant human adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 or 150 ?g per day from weeks 18 to 20. Rosiglitazone administered by gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily served as a therapeutic control. Untreated uninephrectomized db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerular matrix expansion, associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI?1), collagen I (Col I), and fibronectin (FN). Treatment with adiponectin at either dose reduced the increases in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis seen in db/db mice, without affecting BW and blood glucose. Renal expressions of tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and monocyte?chemoattractant protein?1 (MCP?1) and urinary TNF?? levels, the markers of renal inflammation, were increased in diabetic mice, whereas adiponectin treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Furthermore, adiponectin obliterated the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), but not the total effect of TGF?1, on the mRNA expression of PAI?1, Col I, and FN by cultured glomerular mesangial cells. These observations suggest that adiponectin treatment reduces glomerulosclerosis resulting from type II diabetes probably through its anti?inflammatory and angiotensin–antagonistic effects. Thus, adiponectin has therapeutic implications in the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24744899

  5. Adiponectin lowers glucose production by increasing SOGA.

    PubMed

    Cowherd, Rachael B; Cowerd, Rachael B; Asmar, Melissa M; Alderman, J McKee; Alderman, Elizabeth A; Garland, Alaina L; Busby, Walker H; Bodnar, Wanda M; Rusyn, Ivan; Medoff, Benjamin D; Tisch, Roland; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Swenberg, James A; Zeisel, Steven H; Combs, Terry P

    2010-10-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone that lowers glucose production by increasing liver insulin sensitivity. Insulin blocks the generation of biochemical intermediates for glucose production by inhibiting autophagy. However, autophagy is stimulated by an essential mediator of adiponectin action, AMPK. This deadlock led to our hypothesis that adiponectin inhibits autophagy through a novel mediator. Mass spectrometry revealed a novel protein that we call suppressor of glucose by autophagy (SOGA) in adiponectin-treated hepatoma cells. Adiponectin increased SOGA in hepatocytes, and siRNA knockdown of SOGA blocked adiponectin inhibition of glucose production. Furthermore, knockdown of SOGA increased late autophagosome and lysosome staining and the secretion of valine, an amino acid that cannot be synthesized or metabolized by liver cells, suggesting that SOGA inhibits autophagy. SOGA decreased in response to AICAR, an activator of AMPK, and LY294002, an inhibitor of the insulin signaling intermediate, PI3K. AICAR reduction of SOGA was blocked by adiponectin; however, adiponectin did not increase SOGA during PI3K inhibition, suggesting that adiponectin increases SOGA through the insulin signaling pathway. SOGA contains an internal signal peptide that enables the secretion of a circulating fragment of SOGA, providing a surrogate marker for intracellular SOGA levels. Circulating SOGA increased in parallel with adiponectin and insulin activity in both humans and mice. These results suggest that adiponectin-mediated increases in SOGA contribute to the inhibition of glucose production. PMID:20813965

  6. Quercetin enhances adiponectin secretion by a PPAR-? independent mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Wein; Norma Behm; Rasmus K. Petersen; Karsten Kristiansen; Siegfried Wolffram

    2010-01-01

    To study possible insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the flavonol quercetin, rats were fed a high-fat diet (19%, w\\/w) with (HFQ) or without (HF) 0.03% quercetin or a flavonoid-poor low-fat (5%, w\\/w) maintenance diet (LF) over 4 weeks. Body weight was measured weekly, and plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, as well as of

  7. Isolation and characterization of five novel high molecular weight subunit of glutenin genes from Triticum timopheevi and Aegilops cylindrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wan; D. Wang; P. R. Shewry; N. G. Halford

    2002-01-01

    Analysis by SDS-PAGE of total protein fractions from single seeds of Aegilops cylindrica (genomes C and D) and Triticum timopheevi (genomes A and G) showed the presence of three bands corresponding to high molecular weight subunits of glutenin (HMW subunits) in the former and two major bands and a minor band corresponding to HMW subunits in the latter. Three Ae.

  8. Effects of specific domains of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits’ on dough properties by an in vitro assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal do...

  9. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kusunoki, Natsuko [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Kakiuchi, Terutaka [Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suguro, Toru [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, Shinichi [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan)], E-mail: skawai@med.toho-u.ac.jp

    2009-01-09

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Adiponectin and cardiovascular inflammatory responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiro Takemura; Kenneth Walsh; Noriyuki Ouchi

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a cause of many metabolic and cardiovascular disorders through its ability to promote chronic systemic\\u000a inflammation. Recent studies have found that adipose tissues secrete numerous cytokines that are referred to as adipokines.\\u000a Although most adipokines induce inflammation, adiponectin inhibits inflammatory reactions and protects against metabolic and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on the anti-inflammatory properties of

  11. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Yang, Ya-Ling; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N = 121) were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1?g/20?mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%), insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%), HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%), and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%). The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r = 0.221, P < 0.05), insulin (r = 0.184, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038. PMID:26063948

  12. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N = 121) were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1?g/20?mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%), insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%), HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%), and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%). The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r = 0.221, P < 0.05), insulin (r = 0.184, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038. PMID:26063948

  13. A Role for Adiponectin in Trophoblast Function

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Emily

    2010-07-28

    in a macrosomic fetus and delivery complications (Gilbert, 1949, The Hapo Study Cooperative Research Group, 2008). Pregnancies complicated by GDM frequently result in a fetus that is hyperinsulinemic (Desoye and Hauguel-de Mouzon, 2007.... Adiponectin………………………………………………………52 5. Study Significance……………………………………………….66 VI. Chapter Two: Adiponectin Attenuation of Endocrine Function within Human Term Trophoblast Cells………………………………………….71 1. Abstract…………………………………………………………..72 2. Introduction...

  14. Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism with Adiponectin Levels And Risk for Insulin Resistance Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Mittal, Balraj; Awasthi, Shally; Srivastava, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin is an abundant adipose tissue–derived protein with anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease and low adiponectin levels also predict insulin resistance (IR). Methods: Case-control study in which 642 male and female subjects were participated from the North Indian population. Lipid, insulin, leptin and adiponectin level were estimated using standard protocols by commercially available test kits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms +45T>G and +276G>T of the AMP1 (adiponectin) gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Levels of adiponectin, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR index), systolic blood pressure and fat mass showed significant differences between male and female subjects. Serum adiponectin level showed highly significant association with both the +45 and the +276 genotypes. The common haplotype triglyceride (TG) showed a significantly lower adiponectin value than other haplotypes (P = 0.0001). A clear trend of decreasing adiponectin levels per copy of the common haplotype was observed. Nonobese insulin sensitive subjects showed a higher adiponectin value (P = 0.0006) than nonobese insulin resistant subjects. The values of blood pressure, adiponectin, insulin, HOMA-IR, total-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly associated with TG haplotype. Conclusions: We observed the very strong association of the adiponectin 45-276 genotypes and haplotypes with adiponectin levels in healthy north Indian population and TG haplotypes also associated with metabolic parameters of the IR syndrome. PMID:25949781

  15. Serum adiponectin concentrations in relation to maternaland perinatal characteristics in newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Mantzoros; Eleni Petridou; Delia-Marina Alexe; Alkistis Skalkidou; Nick Dessypris; Eugenia Papathoma; Heraklis Salvanos; Greeshma Shetty; Alina Gavrila; Simos Kedikoglou; George Chrousos; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess serum adiponectin levels of neonates in relation to ponderal index and birth length with and without adjustment for potential confounding factors including maternal factors and peri- natal characteristics. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Three hundred and three newborns (Caucasian, singleton, full term, with a birth weight of $ 2500 g, and apparently healthy) were included in the

  16. The interactive effects of transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 with various HMW-GS combinations on dough quality by introgression of exogenous subunits into an elite Chinese Wheat variety.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiang; Li, Yin; Zhao, Shasha; Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs. PMID:24167625

  17. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  18. Effect of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) on Tortilla Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tortillas are the most popular non-bread wheat based product. Flour used in tortilla production has been typically optimized for bread making. The flour properties that determine good quality bread do not necessarily provide good quality tortillas. In this study, the influence of high molecular wei...

  19. Adiponectin Trajectories Before Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tabák, Adam G.; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991–1993, 1997–1999, and 2003–2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year0) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. RESULTS Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187–10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535–12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P < 0.0001). Control subjects showed a modest decline in adiponectin throughout follow-up (0.3% per year, P < 0.0001) at higher levels in women than in men (difference at year0: 5,358 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Female case and early-onset case (age at diagnosis <52 years) subjects had a steeper decline than control subjects (slope difference ?1.1% per year, P = 0.001 in females, ?1.6% per year in early-onset case subjects, P = 0.034). In men, adiponectin slopes for case and noncase subjects were parallel. The slope differences by diabetes onset were largely attenuated after adjustment for changes in obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. CONCLUSIONS Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development. PMID:22933430

  20. Characterization of the multigene family coding for HMW glutenin subunits in wheat using cDNA clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Thompson; D. Bartels; N. P. Harberd; R. B. Flavell

    1983-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding wheat HMW glutenin subunits have been isolated from a cDNA bank made to poly A+ RNA from developing wheat endosperm var. Chinese Spring. One such clone, pTag 1290, has enabled us to identify the HMW glutenin mRNA species. The DNA sequence of this clone has been partially determined and it contains several tandem DNA repeats. The sequence

  1. A common variant in the CLDN7/ELP5 locus predicts adiponectin change with lifestyle intervention and improved fitness in obese individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Papandonatos, George D; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Peter, Inga; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Erar, Bahar; Allred, Nicholette D; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bowden, Donald W; Brautbar, Ariel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M; Huggins, Gordon S

    2015-06-01

    Overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes have low adiponectin levels, which may improve with lifestyle changes. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with adiponectin levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) would also be related with adiponectin changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), potentially through mechanisms altering the adipose microenvironment via weight loss and/or improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Look AHEAD was a randomized trial comparing the cardiovascular benefits of ILI-induced weight loss and physical activity compared with diabetes support and education among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. In a subsample of Look AHEAD with adiponectin data and genetic consent (n = 1,351), we evaluated the effects of 24 genetic variants, demonstrated by GWAS to be cross-sectionally associated with adiponectin, on adiponectin change 1-yr postintervention. We explored via mediational analyses whether any differential effects by treatment arm were occurring through weight loss and/or improved fitness. A variant, rs222857, in the CLDN7 locus, potentially associated with epithelial barrier integrity and tight junction physiology, and a putative cis expression quantitative trail locus for elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 (ELP5), predicted adiponectin increases within ILI (log-adiponectin in overall sample per copy: ? ± SE = 0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.008; in non-Hispanic whites: 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.009). The favorable effects of rs222857 (minor allele frequency 45.5%) appeared to be mediated by mechanisms associated with improved fitness, and not weight loss. This is the first study to identify a genetic variant that modifies adiponectin response to lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. PMID:25759378

  2. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  3. Adiponectin receptor signalling in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Thundyil, John; Pavlovski, Dale; Sobey, Christopher G; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-derived hormone that regulates metabolism of lipids and glucose, and its receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, T-cadherin) appear to exert actions in peripheral tissues by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase, p38-MAPK, PPAR? and NF-kappa B. Adiponectin has been shown to exert a wide range of biological functions that could elicit different effects, depending on the target organ and the biological milieu. There is substantial evidence to suggest that adiponectin receptors are expressed widely in the brain. Their expression has been detected in regions of the mouse hypothalamus, brainstem, cortical neurons and endothelial cells, as well as in whole brain and pituitary extracts. While there is now considerable evidence for the presence of adiponectin and its receptors in the brain, their precise roles in brain diseases still remain unclear. Only a few research studies have looked at this facet of adiponectins in brain disorders. This brief review will describe the evidence for important functions by adiponectin, its structure and known actions, evidence for expression of AdipoRs in the brain, their involvement in brain disorders and the therapeutic potential of agents that could modify AdipoR signalling. PMID:21718299

  4. A Comparative Study on the Expression, Purification and Functional Characterization of Human Adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rothan, Hussin A.; Teh, Ser Huy; Haron, Kamariah; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP) as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP) expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL) was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL) and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes. PMID:22489167

  5. Adiponectin and IGFBP-1 in the development of gestational diabetes in obese mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Vanessa I; Miller, Evelyn; Meireles, Christiane L; Gelfond, Jonathan; Krummel, Debra A; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is more common in pregnancies complicated by obesity and both diseases increase the risk for fetal overgrowth and long-term adverse health consequences for the mother and child. Previous studies have linked low maternal serum adiponectin to GDM in normal and overweight women. We hypothesized that lower adiponectin, in particular the high-molecular-weight form, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein (IGFBP-1) are associated with GDM in pregnant obese Hispanic women. Methods 72 obese, predominantly Hispanic (92%), women were recruited at 24–28?weeks of gestation. Adiposity was assessed, fasting serum samples were collected, and glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, adipokines, and hormones associated with obesity and insulin resistance were measured. 30 women had been recently diagnosed with GDM. Results Gestational weeks, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, serum leptin, IGF-I, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interleukin-6 did not differ in the two groups. Obese women with GDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, A1C, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGFBP-1 compared to obese women without GDM. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated to IGF-I and negatively correlated to adiponectin. Conclusions Obese pregnant women with recently diagnosed GDM had a significantly exacerbated metabolic profile, low serum adiponectin and IGFBP-1 levels at 24–28?weeks of gestation, as compared to women with obesity alone. Because low adiponectin is well established to cause insulin resistance and decreased IGFBP-1 indicates increased IGF-I bioavailability, we propose that these changes are mechanistically linked to the development of GDM in obese Hispanic women. PMID:25452858

  6. Decreased serum levels of adiponectin in subjects with autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azusa Fujita-Shimizu; Katsuaki Suzuki; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Taishi Miyachi; Hideo Matsuzaki; Masanobu Kajizuka; Chie Shinmura; Yasuhide Iwata; Shiro Suda; Kenji J. Tsuchiya; Kaori Matsumoto; Genichi Sugihara; Keiko Iwata; Shigeyuki Yamamoto; Masatsugu Tsujii; Toshiro Sugiyama; Nori Takei; Norio Mori

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiological basis for autism remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that adipokines, such as adiponectin, may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we examined whether serum levels of adiponectin are altered in subjects with autism. We measured serum levels of adiponectin in male subjects with autism (n=31) and age-matched healthy male subjects (n=31). The serum

  7. Adiponectin and Leptin Trajectories in Mexican-American Children from Birth to 9 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Vitaly; Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Davé, Veronica; Tyler, Kristin; Vedar, Michelle; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines), over childhood. Subjects and Design Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. Results Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0–2, 2–5, and 5–9-year periods increased for both leptin (r?=?0.06, 0.31 and 0.62) and adiponectin (r?=?0.25, 0.41 and 0.46). Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable]) and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]). While leptin groups were most separated over the 2–9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR?=?1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L). Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR?=?1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A). Conclusion Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to be further explored. PMID:24205046

  8. Adiponectin and depression: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HU, YAOZHI; DONG, XIAOMENG; CHEN, JINBO

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin has been indicated to be linked with depression. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between adiponectin levels and depression. Six studies with a total of 4,220 subjects were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The references were retrieved via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase, and the following Chinese databases: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wan Fang Data. The analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.2 software. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was assessed following pooling the collected data for analysis. A significant association was detected between adiponectin levels and depression in European populations. In the European group of patients with depression, improvements were observed in adiponectin levels (SMD, ?5.00 µg/ml, 95% CI, ?7.13 to ?2.88). The current meta-analysis indicates that patients with patients had a lower adiponectin level when compared to healthy patients in European groups. PMID:25469244

  9. Isolation and characterization of five novel high molecular weight subunit of glutenin genes from Triticum timopheevi and Aegilops cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y.; Wang, D.; Shewry, R.; Halford, G.

    2002-04-01

    Analysis by SDS-PAGE of total protein fractions from single seeds of Aegilops cylindrica (genomes C and D) and Triticum timopheevi (genomes A and G) showed the presence of three bands corresponding to high molecular weight subunits of glutenin (HMW subunits) in the former and two major bands and a minor band corresponding to HMW subunits in the latter. Three Ae. cylindrica and two T. timopheevi HMW subunit gene sequences, each comprising the entire coding region, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their complete nucleotide sequences determined. A combination of N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the proteins identified by SDS-PAGE and alignments of the derived amino acid sequences of the proteins encoded by the PCR products identified the Ae. cylindrica HMW subunits as 1Cx, 1Cy and 1Dy, and the T. timopheevi HMW subunits as 1Gx, 1Ax and 1Ay. It was not clear whether or not a 1Gy HMW subunit was present in T. timopheevi. The PCR products from Ae. cyclindrica were derived from 1Cy and 1Dy genes and a silent 1Dx gene containing an in-frame internal stop codon, while those from T. timopheevi were derived from 1Ax and 1Ay genes. The 1Cx, 1Gx and 1Gy sequences were not amplified successfully. The proteins encoded by the five novel genes had similar structures to previously characterized HMW subunits of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum). Differences and similarities in sequence and structure, and in the distribution of cysteine residues (relevant to the ability of HMW subunits to form high M(r) polymers) distinguished the HMW subunits of x- and y-type and of each genome rather than those of the different species. There was no evidence of a change in HMW subunit expression or structure resulting from selective breeding of bread wheat. The novel 1Ax, 1Ay, 1Cy and 1Dy HMW subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed proteins were shown to have very similar mobilities to the endogenous HMW subunits on SDS-PAGE. The truncated 1Dx gene from Ae. cylindrica failed to express in E. coli, and no HMW subunit-related protein of the size predicted for the truncated 1Dx subunit could be identified by immunodetection in seed extracts. PMID:12582643

  10. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1?Enterobacter sp. FbP2?Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study could advance our understanding of HMW PAHs biodegradation and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102148), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110091120063).

  11. Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine as a non-viral vector for DNA delivery: comparison of physicochemical properties, transfection efficiency and in vivo distribution with high-molecular-weight polyethylenimine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Kunath; Anke von Harpe; Dagmar Fischer; Holger Petersen; Ulrich Bickel; Karlheinz Voigt; Thomas Kissel

    2003-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (LMW-PEI) was synthesized by the acid-catalyzed, ring-opening polymerization of aziridine and compared with commercially available high-molecular-weight PEI (HMW-PEI) of 25 kDa. Molecular weights were determined by size-exclusion chromatography in combination with multi-angle laser light scattering. The weight average molecular weight (Mw) of synthesized LMW-PEI was determined as 5.4±0.5 kDa, whereas commercial HMW-PEI showed a Mw of 48±2 kDa.

  12. Associations between perinatal factors and adiponectin and leptin in 9-year-old Mexican-American children

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Vitaly; Harley, Kim G.; Aguilar, Raul S.; Rosas, Lisa G.; Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Davé, Veronica; Phan, Nguyet; Lustig, Robert H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine whether perinatal factors (including maternal anthropometry and nutrition and early life growth measures) are associated with adiponectin and leptin levels in 9-year-old children, and 2) assess relationships between adiponectin, leptin and concurrent lipid profile in these children. Methods We measured plasma adiponectin and leptin for 146 mother - 9-year-old child pairs from the ongoing longitudinal birth cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). Data on perinatal factors, including sociodemographics, maternal anthropometry and nutrition, and early life child growth were collected during pregnancy, birth and 6-month visits. Results Greater rate of weight and length gain during the first 6 months of life were associated with lower adiponectin in 9-year-olds (?=?2.0, P=0.04; ?=?8.2, P=0.02, respectively) adjusting for child BMI. We found no associations between child adipokine levels and either maternal calorie, protein, total fat, saturated fat, fiber, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy or children’s concurrent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food intake. Lipid profile in 9-year-old children closely reflected adiponectin but not leptin levels after adjustment for child BMI. Additionally, we report that child adipokine levels were closely related to their mothers’ levels at the 9-year-visit. Conclusion Overall, our results support the hypothesis that early life factors may contribute to altered adipokine levels in children. PMID:23325579

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of HMW Glutenin Subunits from 1Sl Genome of Aegilops longissima Positively Affecting Wheat Breadmaking Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Weißgerber, H.; Zeller, Friedrich; Hsam, Sai; Yan, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    A wheat cultivar “Chinese Spring” chromosome substitution line CS-1Sl(1B), in which the 1B chromosome was substituted by 1Sl from Aegilops longissima, was developed and found to possess superior dough and breadmaking quality. The molecular mechanism of its super quality conformation is studied in the aspects of high molecular glutenin genes, protein accumulation patterns, glutenin polymeric proteins, protein bodies, starch granules, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like protein expressions. Results showed that the introduced HMW-GS 1Sl×2.3* and 1Sly16* in the substitution line possesses long repetitive domain, making both be larger than any known x- and y-type subunits from B genome. The introduced subunit genes were also found to have a higher level of mRNA expressions during grain development, resulting in more HMW-GS accumulation in the mature grains. A higher abundance of PDI and PDI-like proteins was observed which possess a known function of assisting disulfide bond formation. Larger HMW-GS deposited in protein bodies were also found in the substitution line. The CS substitution line is expected to be highly valuable in wheat quality improvement since the novel HMW-GS are located on chromosome 1Sl, making it possible to combine with the known superior D×5+Dy10 subunits encoded by Glu-D1 for developing high quality bread wheat. PMID:23593125

  14. Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Catherine; Fiquet, Samuel; Boudet, Julie; Dardevet, Mireille; Vincent, Jonathan; Merlino, Marielle; Michard, Robin; Martre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs) in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs) and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator). In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression. PMID:25429295

  15. Effect of a combined estrogen and progesterone oral contraceptive on circulating adipocytokines adiponectin, resistin and DLK-1 in normal and obese female rhesus monkeys?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kate A.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Edelman, Alison B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hormonal contraception is the most common medication used by reproductive aged women but there is little understanding of the impact of hormonal contraception on obesity and metabolism. Adipokine levels (adiponectin, resistin) and markers of adipocyte development (DLK-1) are altered in obese animals and humans and are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine the effect of combined hormonal oral contraceptive pills (COCs) on circulating adiponectin, resistin and DLK-1 levels in obese and normal-weight rhesus macaque monkeys. Methods Serum adiponectin, resistin and DLK-1 levels in reproductive-age female rhesus macaques of normal (n = 5, mean = 5.76 kg) and inherently obese (n = 5, mean = 8.11 kg) weight were determined before, during and 2 months after cessation of 8 months of continuous treatment with COCs. Results The obese group alone showed a significant decrease (p<.01) in weight with COC use, which returned to baseline after COC cessation. Baseline adiponectin levels prior to COC treatment were lower in the obese group (p<.05). Adiponectin levels increased from baseline in both groups, but more so in the obese group (p<.05). Resistin levels were similar at baseline, with an increase in both groups following treatment. Circulating resistin remained elevated above baseline levels after COC cessation, particularly in the obese group (p<.05). While DLK-1 levels did not change significantly in either group, a trend for higher levels in obese animals was observed. Conclusions COC use may alter metabolic processes via direct (resistin) or indirect (adiponectin) means, while unchanging DLK1 levels suggest they do not affect adipocyte development. COCs may directly increase resistin levels, as observed in both groups. As adiponectin is inversely related to adipocyte mass, increased levels in the obese group are likely attributed to weight loss. PMID:23218850

  16. Adiponectin Ameliorates Experimental Periodontitis in Diet-Induced Obesity Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Meng, Shu; Tu, Qisheng; Yu, Liming; Tang, Yin; Dard, Michel M.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Valverde, Paloma; Zhou, Xuedong; Chen, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that sensitizes the body to insulin. Low levels of adiponectin have been reported in obesity, diabetes and periodontitis. In this study we established experimental periodontitis in male adiponectin knockout and diet-induced obesity mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and aimed at evaluating the therapeutic potential of adiponectin. We found that systemic adiponectin infusion reduced alveolar bone loss, osteoclast activity and infiltration of inflammatory cells in both periodontitis mouse models. Furthermore, adiponectin treatment decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue of diet-induced obesity mice with experimental periodontitis. Our in vitro studies also revealed that forkhead box O1, a key transcriptional regulator of energy metabolism, played an important role in the direct signaling of adiponectin in osteoclasts. Thus, adiponectin increased forkhead box O1 mRNA expression and its nuclear protein level in osteoclast-precursor cells undergoing differentiation. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling decreased nuclear protein levels of forkhead box O1. Furthermore, over-expression of forkhead box O1 inhibited osteoclastogenesis and led to decreased nuclear levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1. Taken together, this study suggests that systemic adiponectin application may constitute a potential intervention therapy to ameliorate type 2 diabetes-associated periodontitis. It also proposes that adiponectin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis involves forkhead box O1. PMID:24836538

  17. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    This study explores the geochronological utility and analytical reproducibility of separating the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMW) from eggshells of the extinct late Pleistocene ratite, Genyornis, using disposable, prepacked gel-filtration columns. The superior integrity of ratite eggshell for the retention of amino acids indicates that this biomineral is better suited for this type of investigation than previously studied molluscan shell. To evaluate the reproducibility of the gel-filtration technique, we analyzed triplicate subsamples of three eggshells of different ages. The reproducibility, based on the average intrashell variation (coefficient of variation; CV) in the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile) in the HMW (enriched in molecules ca. >10,000 MW) is 3%, well within the range appropriate for geochronological purposes. The average intrashell variation in the total amino acid concentration (?[aa]) of the HMW is 5%, somewhat better than for the total acid hydrolysate (TOTAL) of the same samples (7%). To evaluate the relation between molecular weight and the rate of isoleucine epimerization, three molecular-weight fractions were separated using gel filtration, plus the naturally hydrolyzed free fraction (FREE), for each of four fossil eggshells. AIle/Ile increases with decreasing molecular weight in all shells, with a ca. sixfold to ninefold difference in ratios between the HMW andFREE, and a ca. fivefold difference between the HMW andTOTAL. Although linear correlations between aIle/Ile measured in each molecular-weight fraction and in theTOTAL are all highly significant (r ? 0.951), the relation between the extent of epimerization in the HMW and in the TOTAL is best expressed as an exponential function (r = 0.951). This relation is consistent with the idea that, as the epimerization reaction approaches equilibrium in theTOTAL (ca. aIle/Ile > 1.1), its rate decreases beyond that of the HMW. The amino acid composition (relative percent of eight amino acids or combinations of amino acids) is more uniform in the HMW of the four samples compared to lower-molecular-weight fractions. The greater "compositional stability" of the HMW indicates that it contains a residuum of macromolecules that have not been affected by the diagenetically driven changes observed in lower-molecular-weight fractions.

  18. Identification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits from Agropyron intermedium

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1?4 and Glu-1Aiy1?3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  19. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Agropyron intermedium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1 ? 4 and Glu-1Aiy1 ? 3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  20. Role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sewon; Kwak, Hyo-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Under disease conditions including obesity (insulin resistance) and diabetes, dysregulation of adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin contribute to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Unlike other adipokines, adiponectin has been shown to be a therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Circulating levels of adiponectin are markedly reduced in obese, diabetic, hypertensive, and coronary artery disease patients as well as experimental animal models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Recently, the small molecule adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) agonist was discovered and suggested that the agonist is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes linked to obesity in an experimental mouse model. This review will focus on signaling pathways involved in adiponectin and its receptors and the role of adiponectin in metabolic and cardiovascular disease including insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:24877038

  1. Tissue levels of adiponectin in breast cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Karaduman; Ahmet Bilici; Ahmet Ozet; Ali Sengul; Ugur Musabak; Melih Alomeroglu

    2007-01-01

    Background  Adiponectin is a new adipocyte-secreted protein and associated with insulin-resistant status, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus\\u000a and obesity. The inverse correlation between serum adiponectin levels and breast cancer risk was recently documented. On the\\u000a other hand, the association of tissue adiponectin levels with breast cancer has not been previously reported. Thus, in the\\u000a present study, the relationship between tissue

  2. Associations between Endothelin1 and Adiponectin in Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hsian Yin; Yung-Hsiang Chen; Jeng Wei; Hsu-Lung Jen; Wen-Ping Huang; Mason Shing Young; Der-Cherng Chen; Po-Len Liu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces cardiac hypertrophy, whereas adiponectin may elicit protective effects in the vasculature and myocardium. We therefore evaluated the relationship between plasma ET-1 and adiponectin levels in heart failure (HF) patients, and the association between adiponectin expression and ET-1-induced hypertrophy of human cardiomyocytes (HCM) in vitro. Methods: One hundred seventeen patients with chronic HF were enrolled into this

  3. Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism, and plasma adiponectin levels in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Varady; D. J. Roohk; Y. C. Loe; B. K. McEvoy-Hein; M. K. Hellerstein

    2007-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) affects adipocyte function and reduces body weight. However, the effects of alternate- day fasting (ADF) on adipose biology remain unclear. This study examined the effects of ADF and modified ADF regi- mens on adipocyte size, triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and adiponectin levels in relation to changes in body weight and adipose mass. Twenty-four male C57BL\\/6J mice were ran-

  4. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. PMID:25653535

  5. Adiponectin Reduces Lipid Accumulation in Macrophage Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ling; Luo, Nanlan; Klein, Richard L.; Chung, B Hong; Garvey, W. Timothy; Fu, Yuchang

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of several, important metabolically active cytokines secreted from adipocytes. Low circulating levels of this adipokine have been associated epidemiologically with obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine if adiponectin can modulate lipid metabolism in macrophages, we expressed the adiponectin gene in human THP-1 macrophage foam cells using a lentiviral vector expression system and demonstrated that macrophages transduced with the adiponectin gene had decreased lipid accumulation compared with control macrophages transduced with the LacZ gene. Macrophages transduced with the adiponectin gene also exhibited decreased oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake and increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Additional studies suggest two potential mechanisms for the reduced lipid accumulation in these adiponectin-transduced macrophage foam cells. The first mechanism involves the PPAR? and LXR signaling pathways which up-regulate the expression of ABCA1 and promote lipid efflux from these cells. The second mechanism involves decreased lipid uptake and increased lipid hydrolysis which may result from decreased SR-AI and increased SR-BI and HSL gene activities in the transformed macrophage foam cells. We demonstrated also that the expression of two proatherogenic cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF?, were decreased in the adiponectin transduced macrophage foam cells. These results suggest that adiponectin may modulate multiple pathways of lipid metabolism in macrophages. Our studies provide new insights into potential mechanisms of adiponectin-mediated alterations in lipid metabolism and macrophage foam cell formation which may impact the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:18511057

  6. Adiponectin gene SNP 276G --> T, nutrient intakes, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean type 2 DM patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, So Young; Ryu, Han Kyoung; Park, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in adiponectin gene has been associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was performed to investigate the association of SNP 276G-->T at adiponectin gene with CVD risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The subjects were 351 type 2 DM patients visited a DM clinic in Seoul, and the patients with known CVD were excluded. The adiponectin SNP 276G-->T was analyzed and dietary intakes were assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of G/G, G/T, and T/T genotype was 47.6%, 43.3%, and 9.1%, respectively. Male subjects with T/T genotype showed significantly lower level of adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol and significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level compared to G/G and G/T genotypes. In G/G genotype, protein intake was negatively correlated to body weight, BMI, and waist circumference, and there were positive correlation between carbohydrate intake and BMI, waist-hip ratio, and ApoB/apoA-1 ratio in G/T genotype. However, in T/T genotype, there was no significant association between macronutrient intakes and anthropometric and hematological values. In conclusion, CVD risk would be high in type 2 DM patients with T/T genotype, and the association of macronutrient intakes with anthropometric and hematologic factors was different among the three adiponectin genotypes. These results may imply the need for different dietary management regime according to adiponectin genotype to lower CVD complications in Korean type 2 DM patients. PMID:20368963

  7. Tracing the movement of adiponectin in a parabiosis model of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is exclusively synthesized by adipocytes and exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated in obese individuals with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for hypoadiponectinemia remain unclear. Here, we investigated adiponectin movement using hetero parabiosis model of wild type (WT) and adiponectin-deficient (KO) mice. WT mice were parabiosed with WT mice (WT–WT) or KO mice (WT–KO) and adiponectin levels were measured serially up to 63 days after surgery. In the WT–KO parabiosis model, circulating adiponectin levels of the WT partners decreased rapidly, on the other hand, those of KO partners increased, and then these reached comparable levels each other at day 7. Circulating adiponectin levels decreased further to the detection limit of assay, and remained low up to day 63. However, adiponectin protein was detected in the adipose tissues of not only the WT partner but also WT–KO mice. In the diet-induced obesity model, high adiponectin protein levels were detected in adipose stromal vascular fraction of diet-induced obese KO partner, without changes in its binding proteins. The use of parabiosis experiments shed light on movement of native adiponectin among different tissues such as the state of hypoadiponectinemia in obesity. PMID:24918039

  8. Tracing the movement of adiponectin in a parabiosis model of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is exclusively synthesized by adipocytes and exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated in obese individuals with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for hypoadiponectinemia remain unclear. Here, we investigated adiponectin movement using hetero parabiosis model of wild type (WT) and adiponectin-deficient (KO) mice. WT mice were parabiosed with WT mice (WT-WT) or KO mice (WT-KO) and adiponectin levels were measured serially up to 63 days after surgery. In the WT-KO parabiosis model, circulating adiponectin levels of the WT partners decreased rapidly, on the other hand, those of KO partners increased, and then these reached comparable levels each other at day 7. Circulating adiponectin levels decreased further to the detection limit of assay, and remained low up to day 63. However, adiponectin protein was detected in the adipose tissues of not only the WT partner but also WT-KO mice. In the diet-induced obesity model, high adiponectin protein levels were detected in adipose stromal vascular fraction of diet-induced obese KO partner, without changes in its binding proteins. The use of parabiosis experiments shed light on movement of native adiponectin among different tissues such as the state of hypoadiponectinemia in obesity. PMID:24918039

  9. Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-04-16

    Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of G-protein-coupled receptors, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may have a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the carboxy-terminal tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

  10. Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced exclusively by adipose tissue, is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children participating in the VVA...

  11. Generation of Novel Long-Acting Globular Adiponectin Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongfei Ge; Yumei Xiong; Bryan Lemon; Ki Jeong Lee; Jay Tang; Ping Wang; Jennifer Weiszmann; Nessa Hawkins; John Laudemann; Xiaoshan Min; David Penny; Tom Wolfe; Qiang Liu; Richard Zhang; Weh-Chen Yeh; Wenyan Shen; Richard Lindberg; Zhulun Wang; Jackie Sheng; Yang Li

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis. It exists as homotrimers or complexes containing multiple homotrimer units in plasma. The recombinant adiponectin proteins have been difficult to produce, making it challenging for both research as well as potential therapeutic development. Here, we show a novel approach

  12. Adiponectin Improves Cardiomyocyte Contractile Function in db\\/db Diabetic Obese Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Dong; Jun Ren

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of adiponectin, a fat-derived hormone, are found to be correlated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance. Conversely, high adiponectin levels are predictive of reduced coronary risk in long-term epidemiologic studies. However, the precise role of adiponectin in cardiomyocyte function is still not clear. This study was designed to examine the role of adiponectin

  13. Generation of high frequency of novel alleles of the high molecular weight glutenin in somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Shuwei; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-04-01

    Somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) has generated fertile introgression progenies with novel combinations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). Most of these novel HMW-GS alleles were stably inherited. Sixteen HMW-GS sequences were PCR amplified from three introgression progeny lines and sequenced. The alignment of these sequences indicated that five, probably derived from point mutations of the parental genes, whereas eight likely represent the product of replication slippage. Three Glu-1Ay sequences appear to have lost the transposon presented in the parental gene. Two subunits carry an additional cysteine residue, which may be favorable to the quality of end-use product. We demonstrate that novel HMW-GS alleles can be rapidly generated via asymmetric somatic hybridization. PMID:19199095

  14. Adiponectin Action: A Combination of Endocrine and Autocrine/Paracrine Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadson, Keith; Liu, Ying; Sweeney, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and works in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin level and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectin’s beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways, and its principal physiological effects (i.e., metabolic and cardiovascular). The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed. PMID:22649379

  15. Adiponectin and the control of female reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Palin, Marie-France; Bordignon, V Vilceu; Murphy, Bruce D

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant protein secreted by the white adipose tissue. It circulates at high levels in the bloodstream and its serum concentration is inversely correlated with body fat mass. The wide distribution of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin) in peripheral tissues and organs allows adiponectin to exert pleiotropic effects on whole-body metabolism. Besides its well-known antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, accumulating evidence suggests a direct role for adiponectin in reproductive tissues. The mammalian ovary and the ovarian follicle express AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and treating pig granulosa cells with adiponectin induces changes characteristic of the periovulatory period. Moreover, additive effects are observed between adiponectin and insulin in induction of granulosa cell gene expression, thus suggesting that adiponectin actions on the ovary may be mediated through its insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin receptors are also detected in the uterus. In women, higher AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression was observed during the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, suggesting that adiponectin is implicated in the endometrial changes in preparation for embryo implantation. Adiponectin receptors are found in oocytes and early developing pig, rabbit, and mice embryos, and it has been demonstrated that adiponectin can increase the success of porcine embryo development to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Moreover, adiponectin concentration is two to three times greater in human fetal circulation and in umbilical cord blood, compared to adult plasma. This further indicates a role for adiponectin in fetal growth. It has been further suggested that adipose-derived and locally produced adiponectin may act as a key neuromodulator of reproductive functions. For example, the inhibition of LH and GnRH release from rat pituitary and hypothalamic cells following treatment with adiponectin provides evidence that adiponectin may also act on the release of gonadotropins. Adipose tissue is now recognized as an important factor in the complex equation by which the nutritional status regulates female reproductive functions. For example, underweight women have delayed puberty and higher risk of premature delivery, whereas overweight and obese women have early puberty and are prone to develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and preeclampsia. Because hypoadiponectinemia is often associated with the abovementioned disorders, it has been suggested that this adipokine might play a role in the development of these pregnancy-related complications. Moreover, as these reproductive disorders often come with metabolic complications such as insulin and glucose resistance, the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin may explain the observed association of this adipokine with PCOS, GDM, and preeclampsia. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of adiponectin in female reproductive tissues and highlights mechanisms where information is available. We also discuss about the known and potential roles of adiponectin in the development of reproductive disorders. PMID:23017719

  16. Association Between Adiponectin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Levels at Eight to Fourteen Weeks Gestation and Maternal Glucose Tolerance: The Parity, Inflammation, and Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nae Yuh; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Chang, Yi-Ting; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Inflammation may influence gestational hyperglycemia, but to date, the data from observational studies is largely limited to results from the third trimester of pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate first trimester adipocytokine levels. We sought to determine whether first trimester adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha concentrations were independently associated and predictive of maternal glucose tolerance, as measured by the 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT), after adjustment for maternal lifestyle behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Material and Methods Prospective study of pregnant women (n=211) enrolled in the Parity, Inflammation, and Diabetes Study. Nonfasting serum levels of adiponectin and TNF-r2 were measured at 8–14 weeks of pregnancy. GCT results were abstracted from electronic prenatal records. Multiple linear regression models were developed to determine the association of adiponectin and TNF-r2 levels with response to the GCT, adjusting for demographics, pregravid dietary intake and physical activity, first trimester BMI, and gestational weight gain. Results At baseline, higher adiponectin concentrations were inversely and statistically significantly associated with maternal response to the GCT [regression coefficient (?) ?0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?1.29, ?0.06). Adjustment for lifestyle factors did not alter the association of adiponectin with the GCT (? ?0.74; 95% CI: ?1.43, ?0.05). After adjustment for first trimester BMI, the association of adiponectin was attenuated and no longer significant (? ?0.46; 95% CI: ?1.15, 0.24). TNF-r2 levels were not associated with the GCT (? ?0.003; 95% CI: ?0.011, 0.005). Conclusions First trimester adiponectin levels are not predictive of the 1-hour GCT response, but may be a marker for the effect of maternal BMI on glucose response to the GCT. PMID:23480316

  17. Mendelian Randomization Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A.; Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Warren, Liling L.; Stancáková, Alena; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Henneman, Peter; Wu, Ying; Cheung, Chloe Y.Y.; Pankow, James S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Xie, Weijia; Bergman, Richard N.; Boehnke, Michael; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Collins, Francis S.; Dunn, Sandra H.; Dupuis, Josee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gillson, Christopher; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hong, Jaeyoung; Kähönen, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kronenberg, Florian; Doria, Alessandro; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Ferrannini, Ele; Hansen, Torben; Hao, Ke; Häring, Hans; Knowles, Joshua W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Nolan, John J.; Paananen, Jussi; Pedersen, Oluf; Quertermous, Thomas; Smith, Ulf; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liu, Ching-Ti; Loos, Ruth J.F.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Morris, Andrew D.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Spector, Tim D.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Viikari, Jorma S.; Zhu, Na; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Semple, Robert K.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Walker, Mark; Lam, Karen S.L.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Mohlke, Karen L.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Raitakari, Olli T.; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Wareham, Nick J.; Laakso, Markku; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Meigs, James B.; Richards, J. Brent; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants at the ADIPOQ gene as instruments to calculate a regression slope between adiponectin levels and metabolic traits (up to 31,000 individuals) and a combination of instrumental variables and summary statistics–based genetic risk scores to test the associations with gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (2,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 case subjects and 64,731 control subjects). In conventional regression analyses, a 1-SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31-SD (95% CI 0.26–0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34-SD (0.30–0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity, and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 (1.47–2.13). The instrumental variable analysis revealed no evidence of a causal association between genetically lower circulating adiponectin and higher fasting insulin (0.02 SD; 95% CI ?0.07 to 0.11; N = 29,771), nominal evidence of a causal relationship with lower insulin sensitivity (?0.20 SD; 95% CI ?0.38 to ?0.02; N = 1,860), and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.75–1.19; N = 2,777 case subjects and 13,011 control subjects). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores, we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin-lowering alleles and insulin sensitivity (effect per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: ?0.03 SD; 95% CI ?0.07 to 0.01; N = 2,969) or type 2 diabetes (OR per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: 0.99; 95% CI 0.95–1.04; 15,960 case subjects vs. 64,731 control subjects). These results do not provide any consistent evidence that interventions aimed at increasing adiponectin levels will improve insulin sensitivity or risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23835345

  18. Mendelian randomization studies do not support a causal role for reduced circulating adiponectin levels in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Warren, Liling L; Stancáková, Alena; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Henneman, Peter; Wu, Ying; Cheung, Chloe Y Y; Pankow, James S; Jackson, Anne U; Gustafsson, Stefan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ballantyne, Christie M; Xie, Weijia; Bergman, Richard N; Boehnke, Michael; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Collins, Francis S; Dunn, Sandra H; Dupuis, Josee; Forouhi, Nita G; Gillson, Christopher; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hong, Jaeyoung; Kähönen, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kronenberg, Florian; Doria, Alessandro; Assimes, Themistocles L; Ferrannini, Ele; Hansen, Torben; Hao, Ke; Häring, Hans; Knowles, Joshua W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Nolan, John J; Paananen, Jussi; Pedersen, Oluf; Quertermous, Thomas; Smith, Ulf; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liu, Ching-Ti; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew D; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Spector, Tim D; Teslovich, Tanya M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Viikari, Jorma S; Zhu, Na; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Semple, Robert K; Sinaiko, Alan R; Palmer, Colin N A; Walker, Mark; Lam, Karen S L; Paulweber, Bernhard; Mohlke, Karen L; van Duijn, Cornelia; Raitakari, Olli T; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Wareham, Nick J; Laakso, Markku; Waterworth, Dawn M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Meigs, James B; Richards, J Brent; Frayling, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants at the ADIPOQ gene as instruments to calculate a regression slope between adiponectin levels and metabolic traits (up to 31,000 individuals) and a combination of instrumental variables and summary statistics-based genetic risk scores to test the associations with gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (2,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 case subjects and 64,731 control subjects). In conventional regression analyses, a 1-SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31-SD (95% CI 0.26-0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34-SD (0.30-0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity, and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 (1.47-2.13). The instrumental variable analysis revealed no evidence of a causal association between genetically lower circulating adiponectin and higher fasting insulin (0.02 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.11; N = 29,771), nominal evidence of a causal relationship with lower insulin sensitivity (-0.20 SD; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02; N = 1,860), and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.75-1.19; N = 2,777 case subjects and 13,011 control subjects). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores, we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin-lowering alleles and insulin sensitivity (effect per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: -0.03 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.01; N = 2,969) or type 2 diabetes (OR per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: 0.99; 95% CI 0.95-1.04; 15,960 case subjects vs. 64,731 control subjects). These results do not provide any consistent evidence that interventions aimed at increasing adiponectin levels will improve insulin sensitivity or risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23835345

  19. Epidemiologic Evidence on Serum Adiponectin Level and Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Vajihe; Farabad, Elaheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of adiponectin, a hormone which is secreted from adipose tissue, is inversely correlated with body fat mass. This hormone has anti inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. Its concentration reduces in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This study reviews the evidence on the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and lipid profile. In this study former clinical trials, cross sectional and prospective studies have been reviewed. The PubMed search engine has been used to find related research for the topic by considering dyslipidemia, total cholesterol (TC), high and low density protein (HDL and LDL), triglyceride (TG), lipid profile (LP) and adiponectin as the key words. Finally, 25 articles were recruited to review in the present article. Serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with plasma HDL cholestrol concentrations. There was a significant inverse relationship between plasma triglyceride and serum adiponectin. An inverse correlation between very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL levels and adiponectin was reported from the studies. So, Adiponectin has an important role in the metabolism of lipid profile including HDLc. PMID:23543874

  20. Epidemiologic evidence on serum adiponectin level and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Vajihe; Farabad, Elaheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of adiponectin, a hormone which is secreted from adipose tissue, is inversely correlated with body fat mass. This hormone has anti inflammatory and anti atherogenic properties. Its concentration reduces in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This study reviews the evidence on the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and lipid profile. In this study former clinical trials, cross sectional and prospective studies have been reviewed. The PubMed search engine has been used to find related research for the topic by considering dyslipidemia, total cholesterol (TC), high and low density protein (HDL and LDL), triglyceride (TG), lipid profile (LP) and adiponectin as the key words. Finally, 25 articles were recruited to review in the present article. Serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with plasma HDL cholestrol concentrations. There was a significant inverse relationship between plasma triglyceride and serum adiponectin. An inverse correlation between very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL levels and adiponectin was reported from the studies. So, Adiponectin has an important role in the metabolism of lipid profile including HDLc. PMID:23543874

  1. The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  2. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases.

  3. Improved isolation protocol to detect high molecular weight polysaccharide structures of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit K; Fels?, Péter; Em?dy, Levente; Schneider, György; Kocsis, Béla

    2014-12-01

    Simple detection of high molecular weight, LPS-like structures of Campylobacter jejuni is still an unsolved problem. A phenol-free extraction method for the detection of HMW polysaccharide was developed without the need for Western blot. This method provides a reliable technique for large-scale screening and comparative characterization study of different isolates. PMID:25229649

  4. Author's personal copy Chemical and isotopic composition of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic

    E-print Network

    Guo, Laodong

    of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in the mixing zone of the Mississippi River polysaccharide contents in lower salinity areas but higher polysaccharide and low phenol contents in coastal to -21.86 at an offshore station in the Gulf of Mexico. Changes in stable isotope composition resemble

  5. Decreased plasma adiponectin concentration in patients with essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Adamczak; Andrzej Wi; Tohru Funahashi; Jerzy Chudek; Franciszek Kokot; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2003-01-01

    Adipocytes secrete several biologically active substances that are presumed to be involved in obesity-related hypertension. There are no reports that deal with the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and blood pressure (BP).To evaluate the role of adiponectin in essential hypertension 33 patients with essential hypertensive (EHP) (12 women, 21 men) and 33 body mass index-matched normotensive healthy subjects (NHS) (13

  6. [Evolution of partial promoter region of HMW glutenin genes from E and E1 genome of Agropyron elongatum].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xiang-Qi

    2004-05-01

    The partial promoter regions of HMW glutenin subunit genes were cloned form the genomes E (in diploid Agropyron elongatum) and E1 (in tetraploid Agropyron elongatum) by PCR approach. There was only one nucleotide acid difference in the promoter sequences of x-type subunits between the two genomes; moreover, the promoter sequences of the two y-type subunits were completely identical. Although these promoter regions were very similar to each other, differences still existed in sequence size and the kind of nucleotide acid between the x-type and y-type subunits. It was speculated that the E1 genome in tetraploid Agropyron elongatum was probably originated from E genome in diploid species. The comparisons of these subunits with some of those from A, B, D and G genome of Triticeae demonstrated that the sequences of their partial promoter regions were conserved and shared a high homology more than 90%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences in this region indicated that the y-type HMW glutenin subunits of Agropyron elongatum species were different from other subunits, whereas the x-type subunits of them were most closely related to that from the B genome. PMID:15640012

  7. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dobek, Aleksandra; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

  8. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States) [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  9. The liposuction-induced effects on adiponectin and selected cytokines are not affected by exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fábio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF- ? , IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training. PMID:24527033

  10. Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 in the porcine uterus, conceptus, and trophoblast during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Kiezun, Marta; Szeszko, Karol; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-15

    Adiponectin, one of the several adipocytokines secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and controls female fertility. Female reproductive functions are closely associated with nutritional status, and adiponectin seems to be an important factor linking the regulation of metabolic homeostasis with reproductive processes. The biological activity of adiponectin is mediated by two distinct receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy and on Days 10 to 11 of the estrous cycle and in the conceptus and trophoblast. The highest level of adiponectin transcript was observed on Days 15 to 16 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 15 to 16 of gestation in the myometrium. The highest expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes was detected on Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the endometrium, and Days 12 to 13 in the myometrium. The highest content of adiponectin protein was noted on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32 of gestation in the endometrium and Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the myometrium. The expression of adiponectin protein was higher on Days 27 to 28 and 30 to 32 in the conceptuses. AdipoR1 protein content in the myometrium was highest on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32. In contrast, in the endometrium, it was more constant. The highest content of AdipoR2 protein was detected on Days 15 to 16 and 30 to 32 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the myometrium. In the conceptuses, the highest AdipoR1 protein content was observed on Days 15 to 16, and the highest AdipoR2 protein expression was determined on Days 15 to 16 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, AdipoR1 protein content was higher on Days 27 to 28 than on Days 30 to 32, whereas the expression of AdipoR2 was higher on Days 30 to 32. This study demonstrated the presence of adiponectin and its receptors in the uteri, conceptuses, and trophoblasts of pregnant pigs and that the local adiponectin system is dependent on the stage of pregnancy. PMID:25129870

  11. Common polymorphisms in the adiponectin and its receptor genes, adiponectin levels and the risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Preet K.; Penney, Kathryn L.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Rider, Jennifer R.; Sesso, Howard D.; Pollak, Michael; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Finn, Stephen; Loda, Massimo; Rifai, Nader; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J.; Ma, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, is inversely associated with adiposity and prostate cancer risk and progression. However, the role of genetic variation in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and receptor genes (ADIPOR1/R2) in prostate cancer is largely unknown. Methods In a nested case-control study of 1286 cases and 1267 controls within the Physicians' Health Study, we evaluated 29 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ (n=13), ADIPOR1(n=5) and ADIPOR2(n=11) in relation to the risk of prostate cancer. In subgroups, we also evaluated the association of genotype and circulating adiponectin levels (n=951) and prostate tumor expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R) receptor (n=181). Results Among the 12 tagging polymorphisms in ADIPOQ, four (rs266729, rs182052, rs822391, rs2082940) were significantly associated (p<0.05) with overall prostate cancer risk, with no significant difference by tumor grade or clinical stage. Two of the risk SNPs (rs266729, rs182052) plus four other SNPs (rs16861209, rs17366568, rs3774261, rs7639352) were also associated with plasma adiponectin levels and three of these (rs1686109, rs17366568, rs3774261) were also significantly associated with IR expression in prostate tumor tissue. One additional SNP was associated with IGF1-R tumor tissue expression (rs16861205). None of the 16 variants in ADIPOR1/R2 were related to cancer risk or circulating adiponectin levels. Conclusions Common variants in the adiponectin gene were associated with prostate cancer risk, plasma adiponectin levels, and IR or IGF-1R expression in the prostate tumor. Impact These genotype-phenotype associations support the biological relevance of adiponectin for prostate carcinogenesis, particularly in earlier stages of development. PMID:21960694

  12. Molecular characterization of HMW-GS 1Dx3(t) and 1Dx4(t) genes from Aegilops tauschii and their potential value for wheat quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Wang, K; An, X L; Pan, L P; Dong, K; Gao, L Y; Wang, S L; Xie, Z Z; Zhang, Z; Appels, R; Ma, W; Yan, Y M

    2012-02-01

    Two x-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in Aegilops tauschii, 1Dx3(t) and 1Dx4(t) were identified by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Their complete coding sequences were isolated by AS-PCR. 1Dx3(t) and 1Dx4(t) genes consist of 2535 bp and 2508 bp and encode 845 and 836 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced molecular masses of 1Dx3(t) and 1Dx4(t) gene products are 87655.26 Da and 86664.24 Da, respectively, well corresponding to the molecular masses measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. A total of 18 SNPs were identified between 1Dx3(t) and 1Dx4(t). Comparing with 1Dx5 subunit, 1Dx3(t) had a six amino acid insertion at 146-151 while the 1Dx4(t) had a nine amino acid deletion when compared with 1Dx3(t) subunit. The authenticity of the cloned 1Dx3(t) and 1Dx4(t) genes were confirmed by successful expression of their ORFs in E. coli. Comparison and phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid and nucleotide sequences confirmed that 1Dx3(t) was most closely related to 1Dx5 subunit that is widely accepted as a superior subunit for bread-making property. The secondary structure prediction demonstrated that 1Dx3(t) subunit has significantly high ?-helix and ?-strand contents, suggesting it might have positive effects on dough quality. PMID:22458440

  13. The Effects of High-Fat Diet Exposure In Utero on the Obesogenic and Diabetogenic Traits Through Epigenetic Changes in Adiponectin and Leptin Gene Expression for Multiple Generations in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic changes under malnutrition in utero might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero may cause a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Because an association of obesity between mother and offspring endured in multiple generations, we examined whether HFD exposure in utero might affect the metabolic status of female offspring through multigenerational epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes and whether a normal diet in utero for multiple generations might abolish such epigenetic changes after exposure to a HFD in utero using ICR mice. We observed that the effect of maternal HFD on offspring over multiple generations in metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon such as weight and fat mass gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adiponectin and leptin levels, and hypertension, were accumulated with expression and epigenetic changes in Adiponectin and Leptin genes. A normal diet in utero in the subsequent generations after HFD exposure in utero diminished, and a normal diet in utero for 3 generations completely abolished, the effect of HFD in utero on weight and fat mass gain, insulin resistance, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and leptin levels, with epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Exposure to a HFD in utero might affect glucose and lipid metabolism of female offspring through epigenetic modifications to Adiponectin and Leptin genes for multiple generations. Obesogenic and diabetogenic traits were abolished after a maternal normal diet for 3 generations. PMID:25853666

  14. Adiponectin Cardioprotection After Myocardial Ischemia\\/Reperfusion Involves the Reduction of Oxidative\\/Nitrative Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Tao; Erhe Gao; Xiangying Jiao; Yuexing Yuan; Shuzhuang Li; Theodore A. Christopher; Bernard L. Lopez; Walter Koch; Lawrence Chan; Barry J. Goldstein; Xin L. Ma

    Background—Several clinical studies have demonstrated that levels of adiponectin are significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes and that adiponectin levels are inversely related to the risk of myocardial ischemia. The present study was designed to determine the mechanism by which adiponectin exerts its protective effects against myocardial ischemia\\/reperfusion. Methods and Results—Adiponectin\\/ or wild-type mice were subjected to 30

  15. ASSOCIATION OF THE 276GT POLYMORPHISM OF THE ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN NONDIABETIC KOREANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin gene is known to modulate adiponectin levels and development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We wanted to determine whether two SNPs (45T>G/276G>T) at the adiponectin (ACDC) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and CVD risk factors in response to a we...

  16. Metabolic profiling of transgenic wheat over-expressing the high-molecular weight Dx5 glutenin subunit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aim of this work was to evaluate potential changes in the metabolic network of transgenic wheat grain due to over-expression of the gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin Dx5-subunit. We used GC-MS and multivariate analyses to compare the metabolite profiles of developing...

  17. The role of the picoeukaryote Aureococcus anophagefferens in cycling of marine high-molecular weight dissolved organic nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Mine Berg; Daniel J. Repeta; Julie LaRoche

    2003-01-01

    Environmental evidence suggests that Aureococcus anophagefferens(Pelagophyceae), a eukaryotic picoplankton that blooms in coastal seawaters, can outcompete other organisms because of its ability to use abundant dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). To test this hypothesis, we isolated A. anophagefferens in axenic culture and monitored its growth on high-molecular weight (HMW) DON collected from sediment pore waters, a putative source for DON in

  18. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

  19. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  20. Adiponectin reduces thermogenesis by inhibiting brown adipose tissue activation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liping; Yoo, Hyung sun; Bosco, Chris; Lee, Bonggi; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Schaack, Jerome; Chi, Nai-Wen; Shao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether or not adiponectin regulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and thermogenesis. Methods Core body temperatures (CBTs) of genetic mouse models were monitored at room temperature and during cold exposure. Cultured brown adipocytes and viral vector-mediated gene transduction were used to study the regulatory effects of adiponectin on Ucp1 gene expression and the underlying mechanisms. Results The CBTs of adiponectin knockout mice (Adipoq?/?) were significantly higher than those of wild type (WT) mice both at room temperature and during the cold (4°C) challenge. Conversely, reconstitution of adiponectin in Adipoq?/? mice significantly blunted ? adrenergic receptor agonist-induced thermogenesis of interscapular BAT. After 10 days of intermittent cold exposure, Adipoq?/? mice exhibited higher UCP1 expression and more brown-like structure in inguinal fat than WT mice. Paradoxically, we found that the anti-thermogenic effect of adiponectin requires neither AdipoR1 nor AdipoR2, two well-known adiponectin receptors. In sharp contrast to the anti-thermogenic effects of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and especially AdipoR2 promote BAT activation. Mechanistically, adiponectin was found to inhibit Ucp1 gene expression by suppressing ?3-adrenergic receptor expression in brown adipocytes. Conclusions/interpretation This study demonstrates that adiponectin suppresses thermogenesis, which is likely to be a mechanism whereby adiponectin reduces energy expenditure. PMID:24531262

  1. Adiponectin Expression in the Porcine Ovary during the Oestrous Cycle and Its Effect on Ovarian Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Anna; Smolinska, Nina; Nitkiewicz, Anna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szwaczek, Hubert; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and is also involved in the control of the reproductive system. The goal of the present study was to investigate changes in adiponectin gene and protein expression in porcine ovarian structures during the oestrous cycle and to examine the effects of in vitro administration of adiponectin on basal and gonadotrophin- and/or insulin-induced secretion of ovarian steroid hormones. Both gene and protein expression of adiponectin were enhanced during the luteal phase of the cycle. Adiponectin affected basal secretion of progesterone by luteal cells, oestradiol by granulosa cells, and testosterone by theca interna cells. The gonadotrophin/insulin-induced release of progesterone from granulosa and theca interna cells and the release of oestradiol and androstenedione from theca cells was also modified by adiponectin. In conclusion, the presence of adiponectin mRNA and protein in the porcine ovary coupled with our previous results indicating adiponectin receptors expression suggest that adiponectin may locally affect ovarian functions. The changes in adiponectin expression throughout the oestrous cycle seem to be dependent on the hormonal status of pigs related to the stage of the oestrous cycle. The effect of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis suggests that this adipokine influences reproductive functions in pigs. PMID:24790602

  2. Adiponectin regulates psoriasiform skin inflammation by suppressing IL-17 production from ??-T cells.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Sayaka; Tada, Yayoi; Hau, Carren Sy; Mitsui, Aya; Kamata, Masahiro; Asano, Yoshihide; Sugaya, Makoto; Kadono, Takafumi; Masamoto, Yosuke; Kurokawa, Mineo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sato, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating epidemiologic evidence has revealed that metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for psoriasis development and is associated with more severe psoriasis. Adiponectin, primarily recognized as a metabolic mediator of insulin sensitivity, has been newly drawing attention as a mediator of immune responses. Here we demonstrate that adiponectin regulates skin inflammation, especially IL-17-related psoriasiform dermatitis. Mice with adiponectin deficiency show severe psoriasiform skin inflammation with enhanced infiltration of IL-17-producing dermal V?4+??-T cells. Adiponectin directly acts on murine dermal ??-T cells to suppress IL-17 synthesis via AdipoR1. We furthermore demonstrate here that the adiponectin level of skin tissue as well as subcutaneous fat is decreased in psoriasis patients. IL-17 production from human CD4- or CD8-positive T cells is also suppressed by adiponectin. Our data provide a regulatory role of adiponectin in skin inflammation, which would imply a mechanism underlying the relationship between psoriasis and metabolic disorders. PMID:26173479

  3. Up-regulation of rat adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression by long-term but not by short-term food restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Turyn; Justyna Korczynska; Malgorzata Presler; Ewa Stelmanska; Elzbieta Goyke; Julian Swierczynski

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial effects of food restriction as well as elevated circulating adiponectin concentration on the cardiovascular system,\\u000a lipid metabolism and non-insulin dependent diabetes have been reported. The present article indicates that the reduction in\\u000a rat body and adipose tissue weight after long-term (1 month) food restriction (either 75% or 50% of ad libitum food intake)\\u000a was accompanied by the increase in serum

  4. Biological effects of high molecular weight lignin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pessala, Piia; Schultz, Eija; Kukkola, Jukka; Nakari, Tarja; Knuutinen, Juha; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko

    2010-10-01

    A number of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin derivatives possessing varied chemical properties were screened for their biological effects in order to obtain more information on the possible structural features of HMW lignin-related effects. The studied compounds were both commercial and in-house extracted lignin derivatives. Bioassays used include reverse electron transport (RET), Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. The studied lignin derivatives inhibited the in vitro systems and luminescence of V. fischeri bacteria to some extent-daphnids were not affected. It seems that, at least in the RET assay, certain pH-dependent functional groups in lignin may be of importance regarding the biological effects. PMID:20494440

  5. Adiponectin-mediated antilipotoxic effects in regenerating pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Risheng; Wang, Miao; Wang, Qiong A; Scherer, Philipp E

    2015-06-01

    Pathways that stimulate ?-cell regeneration remain of great clinical interest, yet effective therapeutic avenues that promote survival or reconstitution of ?-cell mass remain elusive. Using a mouse model with inducible ?-cell apoptosis followed by adiponectin-mediated regeneration, we aimed to identify key molecules boosting ?-cell viability. In the regenerating pancreatic islets, we examined changes within the transcriptome and observed an extensive up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport and metabolism. The most prominent targets were further confirmed by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Among the upstream regulators predicted by pathway analysis of the transcriptome, we detected enhanced levels of 2 key transcription factors, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4? and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor?. Our data suggest that improving pancreatic islet lipid metabolism as an important antilipotoxic phenomenon to boost ?-cell regeneration. This is primarily mediated by the adipokine adiponectin that exerts its action on both the beta-cell directly as well as on the adipocyte. Adiponectin induces lipid metabolism gene expression in regenerating islets through Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4? and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor?. Adiponectin also modulates leptin levels via preserving adipose tissue mass in the insulinopenic state. PMID:25815422

  6. Augmented Plasma Adiponectin after Prolonged Fasting During Ramadan in Men

    PubMed Central

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Rasuli, Javad; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting during Ramadan entails major changes in metabolism and energy expenditure. This study sought to determine effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) as two inter-related peptides involved in cells sensitivity to insulin and glucose metabolism. Methods: Total of seventy healthy men, with age range equal or greater than 30, with at least three type2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk factors were selected. Serum lipid profile, anthropometric indices and plasma glucose levels were determined using conventional methods. Also, serum adiponectin and TNF- ? concentra­tions were assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Ramadan fasting resulted in a significant increase of serum adiponectin (P< 0.000), fasting glucose (P< 0.000) and triglycride (P< 0.001). Body mass index was lowered during the fasting (P< 0.000). Finally, no remarkable decrease was found in serum TNF-? levels (P= 0.100). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting resulted in augmented adipo­nectin levels which may help in improving metabolic stress induced by insulin resistance in men with predisposing factors of type2 DM. PMID:25097840

  7. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ghantous, C. M.; Azrak, Z.; Hanache, S.; Abou-Kheir, W.; Zeidan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin's generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system.

  8. Resistin, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Leptin, and Proinflammatory Cytokines: Relationships in Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Vendrell; Montserrat Broch; Nuria Vilarrasa; Ana Molina; Jose Manuel Gómez; Cristina Gutiérrez; Immaculada Simón; Joan Soler; Cristóbal Richart

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate interactions among leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs), interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in nonmorbid and morbid obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: We measured these hormones by immunoenzyme or radiometric assays in 117 nonmorbid and 57 morbidly obese patients, and in a subgroup of 34 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after gastric bypass

  9. Divergent Roles for Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2 in Mediating Revascularization and Metabolic Dysfunction in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Zuriaga, Maria A.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Aprahamian, Tamar R.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a well described anti-inflammatory adipokine that is highly abundant in serum. Previous reports have found that adiponectin deficiency promotes cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction in murine models, whereas its overexpression is protective. Two candidate adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are uncharacterized with regard to cardiovascular tissue homeostasis, and their in vivo metabolic functions remain controversial. Here we subjected AdipoR1- and AdipoR2-deficient mice to chronic hind limb ischemic surgery. Blood flow recovery in AdipoR1-deficient mice was similar to wild-type; however, revascularization in AdipoR2-deficient mice was severely attenuated. Treatment with adiponectin enhanced the recovery of wild-type mice but failed to rescue the impairment observed in AdipoR2-deficient mice. In view of this divergent receptor function in the hind limb ischemia model, AdipoR1- and AdipoR2-deficient mice were also evaluated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Strikingly, AdipoR1-deficient mice developed severe metabolic dysfunction compared with wild type, whereas AdipoR2-deficient mice were protected from diet-induced weight gain and metabolic perturbations. These data show that AdipoR2, but not AdipoR1, is functionally important in an in vivo model of ischemia-induced revascularization and that its expression is essential for the revascularization actions of adiponectin. These data also show that, in contrast to revascularization responses, AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2 deficiency, leads to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, revealing that these receptors have highly divergent roles in vascular and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:24742672

  10. A robust new strategy for high-molecular-weight proteome research: a 2-hydroxyethyl agarose/polyacrylamide gel enhanced separation and ZnO-PMMA nanobeads assisted identification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenwen; Shen, Chengpin; Xiong, Huanming; Lu, Haojie; Yang, Pengyuan

    2010-09-15

    A new mass spectrometry based analysis strategy has been established here for high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteome research. First, a 2-hydroxyethyl agarose/polyacrylamide (HEAG/PAM) electrophoresis gel was designed for the first time to realize an easy-handling separation method with high spatial resolution for HMW proteins, good reproducibility and mass spectrometry-compatible silver staining. Second, ZnO-polymethyl methacrylate (ZnO-PMMA) nanobeads were applied here for enriching and desalting the peptides from the HMW proteins. Third, the peptides were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with the presence of the ZnO-PMMA nanobeads, and their MS signals were enhanced markedly. The success rate of identification for HMW proteins was significantly increased due to high enriching efficiency and salt tolerance capability as well as signal enhancing capability of the ZnO-PMMA nanobeads. We believe that this analysis strategy will inspire and accelerate the HMW proteome studies. PMID:20801378

  11. Adiponectin: key role and potential target to reverse energy wasting in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Van Berendoncks, An M; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Conraads, Viviane M

    2013-09-01

    The concept of skeletal muscle myopathy as a main determinant of exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) is gaining acceptance. Symptoms that typify HF patients, including shortness of breath and fatigue, are often directly related to the abnormalities of the skeletal muscle in HF. Besides muscular wasting, alterations in skeletal muscle energy metabolism, including insulin resistance, have been implicated in HF. Adiponectin, an adipocytokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, receives increasing interest in HF. Circulating adiponectin levels are elevated in HF patients, but high levels are paradoxically associated with poor outcome. Previous analysis of m. vastus lateralis biopsies in HF patients highlighted a striking functional adiponectin resistance. Together with increased circulating adiponectin levels, adiponectin expression within the skeletal muscle is elevated in HF patients, whereas the expression of the main adiponectin receptor and genes involved in the downstream pathway of lipid and glucose metabolism is downregulated. In addition, the adiponectin-related metabolic disturbances strongly correlate with aerobic capacity (VO2 peak), sub-maximal exercise performance and muscle strength. These observations strengthen our hypothesis that adiponectin and its receptors play a key role in the development and progression of the "heart failure myopathy". The question whether adiponectin exerts beneficial rather than detrimental effects in HF is still left unanswered. This current research overview will elucidate the emerging role of adiponectin in HF and suggests potential therapeutic targets to tackle energy wasting in these patients. PMID:23090715

  12. Adiponectin stimulates human osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via the MAPK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Xianghang [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China); Guo Lijuan [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China); Yuan Lingqing [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China); Xie Hui [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China); Zhou Houde [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China); Wu Xianping [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China); Liao Eryuan [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 86 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011 (China)]. E-mail: eyliao1207@21cn.com

    2005-09-10

    Adipocytes can highly and specifically express adiponectin, and the adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) has been detected in bone-forming cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the action of adiponectin on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. AdipoR1 protein was detected in human osteoblasts. Adiponectin promoted osteoblast proliferation and resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin and type I collagen production, and an increase in mineralized matrix. Suppression of AdipoR1 with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the adiponectin-induced cell proliferation and ALP expression. Adiponectin induces activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), but not ERK1/2 in osteoblasts, and these effects were blocked by suppression of AdipoR1 with siRNA. Furthermore, pretreatment of osteoblasts with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished the adiponectin-induced cell proliferation. p38 inhibitor SB203580 blocked the adiponectin-induced ALP activity. These data indicate that adiponectin induces human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and the proliferation response is mediated by the AdipoR/JNK pathway, while the differentiation response is mediated via the AdipoR/p38 pathway. These findings suggest that osteoblasts are the direct targets of adiponectin.

  13. Adiponectin Regulation of Stellate Cell Activation via PPAR?-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Mahnoush S.; Shetty, Shoba; Scherer, Philipp E.; Rockey, Don C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which adiponectin modulates hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice receiving thioacetamide were resistant to fibrosis, compared with controls. In contrast, adiponectin-null animals developed severe fibrosis. Expression of collagen ?1(I) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) mRNAs were significantly lower in adiponectin-overexpressing mice, compared with controls. In wild-type stellate cells exposed to a lentivirus encoding adiponectin, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), SREBP1c, and CEBP? mRNAs was significantly increased (3.2-, 4.1-, and 2.2-fold, respectively; n = 3; P < 0.05, adiponectin virus versus control), consistent with possible activation of an adipogenic transcriptional program. Troglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, strongly suppressed up-regulation of collagen ?1(I) and ?-SMA mRNA in stellate cells isolated from wild-type mice; however, stellate cells from adiponectin-null animals failed to respond to troglitazone. Furthermore, in isolated stellate cells in which PPAR? was depleted using an adenovirus-Cre-recombinase system and in which adiponectin was also overexpressed, collagen ?1(I) and ?-SMA were significantly inhibited. We conclude that the PPAR? effect on stellate cell activation and the fibrogenic cascade appears to be adiponectin-dependent; however, the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on stellate cell activation was not dependent on PPAR?, suggesting the presence of PPAR?-dependent as well as independent pathways in stellate cells. PMID:21641391

  14. Enhanced Fatty Acid Flux Triggered by Adiponectin Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shoba; Ramos-Roman, Maria A.; Cho, You-Ree; Brown, Jonathan; Plutzky, Jorge; Muise, Eric S.; Horton, Jay D.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin overexpression in mice increases insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Here, we combined stable isotope infusion and in vivo measurements of lipid flux with transcriptomic analysis to characterize fatty acid metabolism in transgenic mice that overexpress adiponectin via the aP2-promoter (ADNTg). Compared with controls, fasted ADNTg mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentrations (P = 0.008), a doubling of ketones (P = 0.028), and a 68% increase in free fatty acid turnover in plasma (15.1 ± 1.5 vs. 25.3 ± 6.8 mg/kg · min, P = 0.011). ADNTg mice had 2-fold more brown adipose tissue mass, and triglyceride synthesis and turnover were 5-fold greater in this organ (P = 0.046). Epididymal white adipose tissue was slightly reduced, possibly due to the approximately 1.5-fold increase in the expression of genes involved in oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1?, and uncoupling protein 3). In ADNTg liver, lipogenic gene expression was reduced, but there was an unexpected increase in the expression of retinoid pathway genes (hepatic retinol binding protein 1 and retinoic acid receptor beta and adipose Cyp26A1) and liver retinyl ester content (64% higher, P < 0.02). Combined, these data support a physiological link between adiponectin signaling and increased efficiency of triglyceride synthesis and hydrolysis, a process that can be controlled by retinoids. Interactions between adiponectin and retinoids may underlie adiponectin's effects on intermediary metabolism. PMID:22045665

  15. Circulating leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Delfini, Enrica; Petramala, Luigi; Caliumi, Chiara; Cotesta, Darlo; De Toma, Giorgio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Panzironi, Giuseppe; Diacinti, Daniele; Minisola, Savatore; D' Erasmo, Emilio; Mazzuoli, Gian Franco; Letizia, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Moreover, many metabolic abnormalities are frequently present in patients with PHPT. Several substances (such as leptin and adiponectin) are secreted from adipocytes, which may contribute to regulate energy homeostasis and the development of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the relationship between leptin and adiponectin levels and metabolic disorders in 67 newly diagnosed never-treated patients with PHPT and in 46 healthy subjects (HS). Twenty (29.8%) patients with PHPT presented a metabolic syndrome (as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria). Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in HS were 6.28 +/- 3.3 ng/mL (range, 1.7-19.2 ng/mL) and 6.65 +/- 1.7 microg/mL (range, 3.72-10.86 microg/mL), respectively. In all patients with PHPT, the mean leptin levels (34.28 +/- 20.4 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those of HS (P < .01) and, in particular, in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (52.63 +/- 31.2 ng/mL) and positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and cholesterol. The mean adiponectin level was significantly lower (4.34 +/- 3.5 mug/mL) only in PHPT patients with metabolic syndrome (P < .005) and negatively correlated with waist circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that increased serum level of leptin and decreased serum level of adiponectin coexist in patients with PHPT and may represent a pathogenetic factor for cardiovascular disease in this condition. PMID:17161223

  16. Marker-Assisted Selection for Recognizing Wheat Mutant Genotypes Carrying HMW Glutenin Alleles Related to Baking Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Mohammad Javad; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Naserian Khiabani, Behnam; Tahernezhad, Zahra; Hallajian, Mohammad Taher; Shamsi, Marzieh Varasteh

    2014-01-01

    Allelic diversity of HMW glutenin loci in several studies revealed that allelic combinations affect dough quality. Dx5 + Dy10 subunits are related to good baking quality and Dx2 + Dy12 are related to undesirable baking quality. One of the most regular methods to evaluate the baking quality is SDS-PAGE which is used to improve baking quality labs. Marker-assisted selection is the method which can recognize the alleles related to baking quality and this method is based on polymerase chain reaction. 10 pairs of specific primers related to Dx2, Dx2.1, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits were used for recognizing baking quality of some wheat varieties and some mutant genotypes. Only 5 pairs of them could show the specific bands. All subunits were recognized by the primers except Dx2.1. Some of the primers were extracted from previous studies and the others were designed based on D genome subunits of wheat. SDS-PAGE method accomplished having confidence in these marker's results. To realize the effect of mutation, seed storage proteins were measured. It showed that mutation had effect on the amount of seed storage protein on the mutant seeds (which showed polymorphism). PMID:24883389

  17. DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique wit...

  18. Mitotic Illegitimate Recombination Is a Mechanism for Novel Changes in High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits in Wheat-Rye Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongwei; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Wenjie; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang; Zhang, Huaigang; Yen, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Wide hybrids can have novel traits or changed expression of a quantitative trait that their parents do not have. These phenomena have long been noticed, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are seed storage proteins encoded by Glu-1 genes that only express in endosperm in wheat and its related species. Novel HMW-GS compositions have been observed in their hybrids. This research elucidated the molecular mechanisms by investigating the causative factors of novel HMW-GS changes in wheat-rye hybrids. HMW-GS compositions in the endosperm and their coding sequences in the leaves of F1 and F2 hybrids between wheat landrace Shinchunaga and rye landrace Qinling were investigated. Missing and/or additional novel HMW-GSs were observed in the endosperm of 0.5% of the 2078 F1 and 22% of 36 F2 hybrid seeds. The wildtype Glu-1Ax null allele was found to have 42 types of short repeat sequences of 3-60 bp long that appeared 2 to 100 times. It also has an in-frame stop codon in the central repetitive region. Analyzing cloned allele sequences of HMW-GS coding gene Glu-1 revealed that deletions involving the in-frame stop codon had happened, resulting in novel ?1.8-kb Glu-1Ax alleles in some F1 and F2 plants. The cloned mutant Glu-1Ax alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the HMW-GSs produced matched the novel HMW-GSs found in the hybrids. The differential changes between the endosperm and the plant of the same hybrids and the data of E. coli expression of the cloned deletion alleles both suggested that mitotic illegitimate recombination between two copies of a short repeat sequence had resulted in the deletions and thus the changed HMW-GS compositions. Our experiments have provided the first direct evidence to show that mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism that produces novel phenotypes in wide hybrids. PMID:21887262

  19. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

  20. Adiponectin, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease: emerging data on complex interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan M. Lo; Mark Mitsnefes

    Over the past decade, adiponectin has been a subject of interest in many fields of medicine. The effect of adiponectin in\\u000a metabolism and inflammation has been described for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal studies and the general population,\\u000a generally as a protective factor. Extensive literature pertaining to adult studies indicates that low adiponectin levels are\\u000a associated with increased CVD morbidity

  1. The Rab11 Effector Protein FIP1 Regulates Adiponectin Trafficking and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Mora, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by white adipocytes involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Secretion of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the endosomal system, however, the intracellular machinery involved in mediating adiponectin release is unknown. We have previously reported that intracellular adiponectin partially compartmentalizes with rab 5 and rab11, markers for the early/sorting and recycling compartments respectively. Here we have examined the role of several rab11 downstream effector proteins (rab11 FIPs) in regulating adiponectin trafficking and secretion. Overexpression of wild type rab11 FIP1, FIP3 and FIP5 decreased the amount of secreted adiponectin expressed in HEK293 cells, whereas overexpression of rab11 FIP2 or FIP4 had no effect. Furthermore shRNA-mediated depletion of FIP1 enhanced adiponectin release whereas knock down of FIP5 decreased adiponectin secretion. Knock down of FIP3 had no effect. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, endogenous FIP1 co-distributed intracellularly with endogenous adiponectin and FIP1 depletion enhanced adiponectin release without altering insulin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut4. While adiponectin receptors internalized with transferrin receptors, there were no differences in transferrin receptor recycling between wild type and FIP1 depleted adipocytes. Consistent with its inhibitory role, FIP1 expression was decreased during adipocyte differentiation, by treatment with thiazolidinediones, and with increased BMI in humans. In contrast, FIP1 expression increased upon exposure of adipocytes to TNF?. In all, our findings identify FIP1 as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release. PMID:24040321

  2. DsbA-L Alleviates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Induced Adiponectin Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lijun; Liu, Meilian; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Hongzhi; Dong, Lily Q.; Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity impairs adiponectin expression, assembly, and secretion, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the molecular mechanisms by which obesity impairs adiponectin multimerization and stability, and 2) to determine the potential role of disulfide-bond-A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a recently identified adiponectin interactive protein that promotes adiponectin multimerization and stability in obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adiponectin downregulation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, was used to study the mechanism underlying obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation in db/db mice, high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and in ER-stressed 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The cellular levels of DsbA-L were altered by RNAi-mediated suppression or adenovirus-mediated overexpression. The protective role of DsbA-L in obesity- and ER stress–induced adiponectin downregulation was characterized. RESULTS Treating db/db mice and diet-induced obese mice with TUDCA increased the cellular and serum levels of adiponectin. In addition, inducing ER stress is sufficient to downregulate adiponectin levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which could be protected by treating cells with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or by overexpression of DsbA-L. CONCLUSIONS ER stress plays a key role in obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation. In addition, DsbA-L facilitates adiponectin folding and assembly and provides a protective effect against ER stress–mediated adiponectin downregulation in obesity. PMID:20699416

  3. Plasma Concentrations of a Novel, Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kikuko Hotta; Tohru Funahashi; Yukio Arita; Masahiko Takahashi; Morihiro Matsuda; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Hiromi Iwahashi; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Noriyuki Ouchi; Kazuhisa Maeda; Makoto Nishida; Shinji Kihara; Naohiko Sakai; Tadahisa Nakajima; Kyoichi Hasegawa; Masahiro Muraguchi; Yasukazu Ohmoto; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.660.4

  4. Pharmacological ceramide reduction alleviates alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Correnti, Jason M.; Juskeviciute, Egle; Swarup, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatosteatosis, the ectopic accumulation of lipid in the liver, is one of the earliest clinical signs of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Alcohol-dependent deregulation of liver ceramide levels as well as inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) activity are thought to contribute to hepatosteatosis development. Adiponectin can regulate lipid handling in the liver and has been shown to reduce ceramide levels and activate AMPK and PPAR-?. However, the mechanisms by which adiponectin prevents alcoholic hepatosteatosis remain incompletely characterized. To address this question, we assessed ALD progression in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or isocaloric control diet. Adiponectin KO mice relative to WT had increased alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly, similar modest increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced liver TNF. Restoring circulating adiponectin levels using recombinant adiponectin ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin KO mice. Alcohol-fed WT and adiponectin KO animals had equivalent reductions in AMPK protein and PPAR-? DNA binding activity compared with control-fed animals. No difference in P-AMPK/AMPK ratio was detected, suggesting that alcohol-dependent deregulation of AMPK and PPAR-? in the absence of adiponectin are not primary causes of the observed increase in hepatosteatosis in these animals. By contrast, alcohol treatment increased liver ceramide levels in adiponectin KO but not WT mice. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis in adiponectin KO mice abrogated alcohol-mediated increases in liver ceramides, steatosis, and hepatomegaly. These data suggest that adiponectin reduces alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly through regulation of liver ceramides, but its absence does not exacerbate alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID:24742988

  5. Effects of weight loss in obese cats on biochemical analytes related to inflammation and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Holden, S L; Morris, P J; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related biochemical analytes in obese cats before and after weight loss. Thirty-seven overweight neutered cats were studied, median body weight 6.85 kg (range, 4.70 to 10.30 kg), representing a range of ages and both sexes. An individualized weight-loss program was devised for each cat and monitored until completion. Body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whereas plasma concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs; eg, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), hormones (eg, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin), and enzymes (eg, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase type 1 [PON-1]) associated with inflammation and metabolic compounds (eg, glucose) were also measured. No significant changes were found in APPs after weight loss (P > 0.3), but significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P = 0.021) and IGF-1 (P = 0.036) were seen, whereas insulin (P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.005) decreased significantly. Plasma concentrations before weight loss of PON-1 (P = 0.004), adiponectin (P = 0.02), and IGF-1 (P = 0.048) were less in cats that failed to complete weight loss than cats that were successful, whereas glucose concentration was greater. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R = 0.71, P < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R = -0.52, P = 0.023). In conclusion, various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity, and these can be linked to outcomes of weight-loss programs. The changes that occur with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status. PMID:22177629

  6. Adiponectin primes human monocytes into alternative anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lovren, Fina; Pan, Yi; Quan, Adrian; Szmitko, Paul E.; Singh, Krishna K.; Shukla, Praphulla C.; Gupta, Milan; Chan, Lawrence; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Teoh, Hwee

    2010-01-01

    Altered macrophage kinetics is a pivotal mechanism of visceral obesity-induced inflammation and cardiometabolic risk. Because monocytes can differentiate into either proatherogenic M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, approaches that limit M1 while promoting M2 differentiation represent a unique therapeutic strategy. We hypothesized that adiponectin may prime human monocytes toward the M2 phenotype. Adiponectin promoted the alternative activation of human monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages as opposed to the classically activated M1 phenotype. Adiponectin-treated cells displayed increased M2 markers, including the mannose receptor (MR) and alternative macrophage activation-associated CC chemokine-1. Incubation of M1 macrophages with adiponectin-treated M2-derived culture supernatant resulted in a pronounced inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion. Activation of human monocytes into M2 macrophages by adiponectin was mediated, in addition to AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, via PPAR-?. Furthermore, macrophages isolated from adiponectin knockout mice demonstrated diminished levels of M2 markers such as MR, which were restored with adiponectin treatment. We report a novel immunoregulatory mechanism through which adiponectin primes human monocyte differentiation into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Conditions associated with low adiponectin levels, such as visceral obesity and insulin resistance, may promote atherosclerosis, in part through aberrant macrophage kinetics. PMID:20622108

  7. Adiponectin promotes endothelial cell differentiation from human peripheral CD14+ monocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Rongxin; Mu, Hong; Li, Min; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2006-01-01

    Adiponectin was revealed to have anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and has been recently found to stimulate angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of adiponectin in endothelial differentiation remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether adiponectin can promote peripheral CD14+ monocytes differentiation into endothelial cells (ECs). Human peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes were cultured with or without adiponectin (10 ?g/ml) for 10 days. Adiponectin significantly promoted EC morphology formation from CD14+ monocytes. By flow cytometery analysis, cells treated with adiponection substantially increased mean fluorescence intensity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), two specific endothelial markers, by 49.2% and 53.9%, respectively, as compared to control cells. By real time PCR analysis, the mRNA level of eNOS in adiponectin-treated cells was also increased by 31.9% of that of the control cells. However, the mRNA levels of calponin and SMMHC, two specific SMC markers, in adiponectin-treated cells were decreased by 81.1% and 79.7% of that of the control cells, respectively. These data demonstrated that adiponectin could promote endothelial differentiation from peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes by morphology change, upregulation of EC markers and downregulation of SMC markers. Adiponectin-promoted EC differentiation may contribute to vascular healing and angiogenesis. PMID:16796811

  8. Hypoadiponectinemia in lean lactating women: Prolactin inhibits adiponectin secretion from human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Okamoto, Machi; Endo, Masaya; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Murase, Mariko; Ikeda, Mario; Sakakibara, Hideya; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2006-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. A low plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerosis. In women, energy homeostasis is remarkably changed during gestation and lactation in order to supply sufficient nutrition for a fetus or newborn. In this study we aimed to elucidate the physiological impact of gestation and lactation on the plasma adiponectin levels and the influence of reproduction-related hormones on adiponectin secretion. We studied the longitudinal changes in plasma adiponectin concentration during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester) and lactation (3 days and 1 month after the delivery) in lean healthy women (n = 22). The plasma adiponectin level declined slightly as the pregnancy advanced and reached its lowest level during lactation (12.25 +/- 0.182 microg/ml at early pregnancy vs. 6.88 +/- 0.375 microg/ml at 3 days postpartum, p < 0.001). In order to investigate the role of the lactogenic hormone prolactin in the decrease of plasma adiponectin levels during lactation, we further performed in vitro experiments using human primary cultured adipocytes. Western blotting of the adipocyte lysate and ELISA of the culture medium revealed that exogenous prolactin inhibited both production and secretion of adiponectin in a dose-dependent manner. Our results thus suggests that prolactin affects the regulation of maternal metabolism through suppression of adiponectin. PMID:16849835

  9. Adiponectin promotes syncytialisation of BeWo cell line and primary trophoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In human pregnancy, a correct placentation depends on trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. These processes are highly regulated by placental hormones, growth factors and cytokines. Recently, we have shown that adiponectin, an adipokine, has anti-proliferative effects on trophoblastic cells. Here, we complete this study by demonstrating that adiponectin modulates BeWo and human villous cytotrophoblast cell differentiation. Results We showed that hCG secretion was up-regulated by adiponectin treatment in both BeWo cells and human cytotrophoblasts from very early placentas (5-6 weeks). The expression of two trophoblast differentiation markers, leptin and syncytin 2, was also up-regulated by adiponectin in BeWo cells. Moreover, adiponectin treatment induced a loss of E-cadherin staining in these cells. In parallel, we demonstrated that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are up-regulated during forskolin induced BeWo cell differentiation, reinforcing the role of adiponectin in trophoblast syncytialization. SiRNA mediated down-regulation of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was used to demonstrate that adiponectin effects on differentiation were essentially mediated by these receptors. Finally, using a specific inhibitor, we demonstrated that the PKA signalling pathway could be one pathway involved in adiponectin effects on trophoblast differentiation. Conclusion Adiponectin enhances the differentiation process of trophoblast cells and could thus be involved in functional syncytiotrophoblast formation. PMID:21034435

  10. Effects of Deletions of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles on Dough Properties and Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality 

    E-print Network

    Tuncil, Yunus

    2012-10-19

    .............................................. 51 6 Effect of deletions and variations in high molecular weight glutenin allelic composition on tortilla deformation modulus ................................. 56 7 Effect of deletions and variations in high molecular weight glutenin allelic... of wheat cultivars with optimum gluten functionality for tortillas. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1) Determine the effect of deletions at different HMW -GS alleles at homologous loci on A, B, and D genomes, on dough properties 3 2) Evaluate the tortilla...

  11. Human genetics of adiponectin in the metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Shiung Yang; Lee-Ming Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose-derived plasma protein, has been well established to be an important biomarker for metabolic syndrome\\u000a and its complications after exhausted studies in humans. Animal and cell culture experiments also support most claims from\\u000a human observations of its roles in the metabolic syndrome. Reproducible results of human genetic studies of diverse ethnic\\u000a origin and by different investigators may provide

  12. Prognostic Value of Adiponectin for Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline M. Dekker; Tohru Funahashi; Giel Nijpels; Stefan Pilz; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Marieke B. Snijder; Lex M. Bouter; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura; Robert J. Heine

    the risk of nonfatal CVD in women (HR with 95% confidence interval 0.72 (0.61-0.90) in women and 0.92 (0.79-1.06) in men), but not the risk of all-cause or CVD mortality. In contrast, after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, higher adiponectin was a significant predictor of all- cause and CVD mortality (HR for CVD mortality 1.45 (1.10-1.92) in women and 1.30

  13. Myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction in mice lacking adiponectin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Koentges, Christoph; König, Alexandra; Pfeil, Katharina; Hölscher, Maximilian E; Schnick, Tilman; Wende, Adam R; Schrepper, Andrea; Cimolai, Maria C; Kersting, Sophia; Hoffmann, Michael M; Asal, Judith; Osterholt, Moritz; Odening, Katja E; Doenst, Torsten; Hein, Lutz; Abel, E Dale; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-07-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, impairs mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, and has been linked to the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. In models of Type 2 diabetes, myocardial mitochondrial function is impaired, which is improved by increasing serum adiponectin levels. We aimed to define the roles of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) in adiponectin-evoked regulation of mitochondrial function in the heart. In isolated working hearts in mice lacking AdipoR1, myocardial oxygen consumption was increased without a concomitant increase in cardiac work, resulting in reduced cardiac efficiency. Activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes were reduced, accompanied by reduced OXPHOS protein levels, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1 activity, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) signaling. Decreased ATP/O ratios suggested myocardial mitochondrial uncoupling in AdipoR1-deficient mice, which was normalized by lowering increased mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal levels following treatment with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin. Lack of AdipoR2 did not impair mitochondrial function and coupling in the heart. Thus, lack of AdipoR1 impairs myocardial mitochondrial function and coupling, suggesting that impaired AdipoR1 signaling may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial uncoupling in Type 2 diabetic hearts. PMID:25982881

  14. Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, a fat tissue-derived adipokine, exhibits beneficial effects against insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Circulating adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature correlates with increased risk of developing several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Thus, pharmacological replacement of adiponectin might prove clinically beneficial, especially for the obese patient population. At present, adiponectin-based therapeutics are not available, partly due to yet unclear structure/function relationships of the cytokine and difficulties in converting the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug. Results We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and clinical development as a cancer therapeutic. Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254), we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. Three-dimensional modeling of the active site and functional screening of additional 330 peptide analogs covering this region resulted in the development of a lead peptidomimetic, ADP 355 (H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2). In several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, ADP 355 restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 100 nM-10 ?M concentrations (exceeding the effects of 50 ng/mL globular adiponectin). Furthermore, ADP 355 modulated several key signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2) in an adiponectin-like manner. siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that ADP 355 effects can be transmitted through both adiponectin receptors, with a greater contribution of AdipoR1. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg/day ADP 355 for 28 days suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts by ~31%. The peptide displayed excellent stability (at least 30 min) in mouse blood or serum and did not induce gross toxic effects at 5-50 mg/kg bolus doses in normal CBA/J mice. Conclusions ADP 355 is a first-in-class adiponectin receptor agonist. Its biological activity, superior stability in biological fluids as well as acceptable toxicity profile indicate that the peptidomimetic represents a true lead compound for pharmaceutical development to replace low adiponectin levels in cancer and other malignancies. PMID:21974986

  15. Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Aleidi, Shereen; Issa, Ala; Bustanji, Haidar; Khalil, Mohammad; Bustanji, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    The adipose tissue is not only an inert storage depot for lipids, but also it secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, known as adipokines, which affect whole-body homeostasis. Adiponectin is the most abundant of these adipocytokines and is known to have a regulatory effect on the metabolism of glucose and lipid. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin and to establish a correlation between adiponectin serum levels and the degree of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty participants were enrolled in this study; 61 type 2 diabetic patients and 19 apparently healthy subjects. Serum level of adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each participant. Data collection sheet was filled with all required information for each participant. Adiponectin level in the diabetic patients (5.05 ± 2.61 ?g/ml) was lower than in non-diabetic healthy controls (5.71 ± 2.35 ?g/ml). When the results were compared according to gender, diabetic females showed significantly higher adiponectin levels (5.76 ± 2.64 ?g/ml) than diabetic males (4.366 ± 2.43 ?g/ml, P = 0.035). In addition, female diabetic patients with abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) ? 88 cm) had lower adiponectin levels (5.58 ± 2.58 ?g/ml) than diabetic females without abdominal obesity (6.96 ± 3.12 ?g/ml). The correlation analysis indicated that adiponectin had a significant positive correlation with age (r = ?0.450, P < 0.001). In conclusion, female diabetic patients had a statistically significant higher adiponectin level than male diabetic patients which could indicate a gender effect. Adiponectin levels were inversely related to insulin resistance; as patients with abdominal obesity had lower serum levels of adiponectin.

  16. Modulation by Adjuvants and Carriers of the Immunogenicity in Xenogeneic Hosts of Mouse Anti-idiotypic Monoclonal Antibody MK2-23, an Internal Image of Human High Molecular Weight-MelanomaAssociated Antigen1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Jian Chen; Hong Yang; Chang Chin Liu; Shunji Hirai; Soldano Ferrane

    The mouse anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody i niAhi MK2-23 recog nizes an idiotope in the antigen-combining site of the immunizing anti- human high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW- MAA) ni Ali 763.74. Administration with an adjuvant of mAb MK2-23 conjugated to a carrier has been shown to induce anti-HMW-MAA anti bodies both in syngeneic hosts and in patients with malignant melanoma. Adjuvant and

  17. Human High Molecular Weight-Melanoma Associated Antigen Mimicry by an Anti-Idiotypic Antibody: Characterization of the Immunogenicity and the Immune Response to the Mouse Monoclonal Antibody IMel-1l

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panchanon Chattopadhyay; Srinivas-Venkatesh Kaveri; Noelene Byars; Jean Starkey; Soldano Ferrone; Syamal Raychaudhuri

    The mouse anti-idiotype (anti-id) monoclonal antibody (mAb) IMel-1 recognizes an idiotope in the antigen combining site of the immunizing anti-human high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (11\\\\I\\\\V- MAA) mAb 225.28. The mAb IMel-1 is able to induce an immune response against self cross-reacting HMW-MAA in rabbits that express HMW-MAA in normal tissues. Most of the rabbit anti-anti-id antibodies recognize a spatially

  18. Adiponectin promotes pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting apoptosis via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1? signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Meiyu; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhi; Li, Min; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine with pleiotropic actions. Clinical evidence has shown that serum adiponectin levels are increased and that adiponectin can protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis, which suggests that adiponectin may play an anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on PC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Adiponectin deficiency markedly attenuated pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. We found that adiponectin significantly inhibited the apoptosis of both human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells via adipoR1, but not adipoR2. Furthermore, adiponectin can increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) of PC cells. Knockdown of AMPK or Sirt1 can increase the apoptosis in PC cells. AMPK up-regulated Sirt1, and Sirt1 can inversely phosphorylate AMPK. Further studies have shown that Sirt1 can deacetylate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), which can increase the expression levels of mitochondrial genes. Thus, adiponectin exerts potent anti-apoptotic effects on PC cells via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? signaling. Finally, adiponectin can elevate ?-catenin levels. Taken together, these novel findings reveal an unconventional role of adiponectin in promoting pancreatic cancers, and suggest that the effects of adiponectin on tumorigenesis are highly tissue-dependent. PMID:25051362

  19. Markers of Endothelial Cell Activation\\/Injury: CD146 and Thrombomodulin Are Related to Adiponectin in Kidney Allograft Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szymon Brzosko

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin may be used for assessing the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and may be related to the development of acute coronary syndrome. Decreased adiponectin has been associated with some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as male sex, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Adiponectin has antiatherogenic properties and attenuates endothelial inflammatory responses. CD146, a novel cell adhesion molecule,

  20. Obesity-induced DNA hypermethylation of the adiponectin gene mediates insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A. Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Pan, Xuebo; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Kwak, Soo-Heon; Bassas, Abdulelah F.; Sallam, Reem M.; Park, Kyong Soo; Alfadda, Assim A.; Xu, Aimin; Kim, Jae Bum

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular region of the adiponectin promoter suppresses adiponectin expression through epigenetic control and, in turn, exacerbates metabolic diseases in obesity. Obesity-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote DNMT1 expression and its enzymatic activity. Activated DNMT1 selectively methylates and stimulates compact chromatin structure in the adiponectin promoter, impeding adiponectin expression. Suppressing DNMT1 activity with a DNMT inhibitor resulted in the amelioration of obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in an adiponectin-dependent manner. These findings suggest a critical role of adiponectin gene epigenetic control by DNMT1 in governing energy homeostasis, implying that modulating DNMT1 activity represents a new strategy for the treatment of obesity-related diseases. PMID:26139044

  1. Neurogenesis-independent antidepressant-like effects of enriched environment is dependent on adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Sarah; Veyssière, Julie; Gandin, Carine; Zsürger, Nicole; Pietri, Mariel; Heurteaux, Catherine; Glaichenhaus, Nicolas; Petit-Paitel, Agnès; Chabry, Joëlle

    2015-07-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) that combines voluntary physical exercise, sensory and social stimuli, causes profound changes in rodent brain at molecular, anatomical and behavioral levels. Here, we show that EE efficiently reduces anxiety and depression-like behaviors in a mouse model of depression induced by long-term administration of corticosterone. Mechanisms underlying EE-related beneficial effects remain largely unexplored; however, our results point toward adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein, as a main contributor. Indeed, adiponectin-deficient (adipo(-/-)) mice did not benefit from all the EE-induced anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by their differential responses in a series of behavioral tests. Conversely, a single intravenous injection of exogenous adiponectin restored the sensitivity of adipo(-/-) mice to EE-induced behavioral benefits. Interestingly, adiponectin depletion did not prevent the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by EE. Therefore, antidepressant properties of adiponectin are likely to be related to changes in signaling in the hypothalamus rather than through hippocampal-neurogenesis mechanisms. Additionally, EE did not modify the plasma levels of adiponectin but may favor the passage of adiponectin from the blood to the cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings provide advances in the understanding of the anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of EE and highlight adiponectin as a pivotal mediator. PMID:25889841

  2. Enhanced carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice lacking adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kamada; Shinji Tamura; Shinichi Kiso; Hitoshi Matsumoto; Yukiko Saji; Yuichi Yoshida; Koji Fukui; Norikazu Maeda; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Hiroyuki Nagaretani; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Shinji Kihara; Jun-ichiro Miyagawa; Yasuhisa Shinomura; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Obesity is one of the risk factors for liver fibrosis, in which plasma adiponectin, an adipocytokine, levels are decreased. Hepatic stellate cells play central roles in liver fibrosis. When they are activated, they undergo transformation to myofibroblast-like cells. Adiponectin suppresses the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, whose characteristics are similar to those of hepatic

  3. Adiponectin exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis via enhancing Th17 response and prompting RANKL expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoxuan; Feng, Xiaoke; Tan, Wenfeng; Lin, Na; Hua, Minhui; Wei, Yu; Wang, Fang; Li, Ningli; Zhang, Miaojia

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported adiponectin (AD) is highly expressed in the inflamed synovial joint tissue and correlates closely with progressive bone erosion in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Here, we investigate the role of adiponectin in regulating Th17 response and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) in mice with CIA mice by intraarticularly injection of adiponectin into knee joints on day 17, day 20 and day 23 post first collagen immunization. The increased adiponectin expression was found in inflamed joint tissue of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Adiponectin injection resulted in an earlier onset of arthritis, an aggravated arthritic progression, more severe synovial hyperplasia, bone erosion and osteoporosis in CIA mice. CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells, IL-17?mRNA and RANKL mRNA expression were markedly increased in the joint tissue of adiponectin treated CIA mice. Moreover, adiponectin treatment markedly enhanced Th17 cell generation from naive CD4+ T cells in vitro, which accompanied by the high expression of Th17 transcription factor ROR-?t, and Th17 cytokine genes included IL-22 and IL-23. This study reveals a novel effect of adiponectin in exacerbating CIA progression by enhancing Th17 cell response and RANKL expression. PMID:26063682

  4. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FASTING SERUM ADIPONECTIN IN HISPANIC CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties, adiponectin may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic and environmental factors influencing fasting serum adiponectin were investigated in 805 Hispanic non-overweight and ...

  5. Globular adiponectin reduces vascular calcification via inhibition of ER-stress-mediated smooth muscle cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Bian, Yunfei; Wang, Yueru; Bai, Rui; Wang, Jiapu; Xiao, Chuanshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the mechanism of globular adiponectin inhibiting vascular calcification. Methods: We established drug-induced rat vascular calcification model, globular adiponectin was given to observe the effect of globular Adiponectin on the degree of calcification. The markers of vascular calcification and apoptosis were also investigated. Meanwhile, the in vitro effect of globular Adiponectin on vascular calcification was also evaluated using primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Results: We found that globular adiponectin could inhibit drug-induced rat vascular calcification significantly in vivo. The apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells was also reduced. The possible mechanism could be the down-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by globular adiponectin. Experiments in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells also confirmed that globular adiponectin could reduce cell apoptosis to suppress vascular calcification via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Conclusions: This study confirmed that globular adiponectin could suppress vascular calcification; one of the mechanisms could be inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress to reduce cell apoptosis. It could provide an effective method in the therapy of vascular calcification-associated diseases.

  6. Adiponectin exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis via enhancing Th17 response and prompting RANKL expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxuan; Feng, Xiaoke; Tan, Wenfeng; Lin, Na; Hua, Minhui; Wei, Yu; Wang, Fang; Li, Ningli; Zhang, Miaojia

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported adiponectin (AD) is highly expressed in the inflamed synovial joint tissue and correlates closely with progressive bone erosion in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Here, we investigate the role of adiponectin in regulating Th17 response and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) in mice with CIA mice by intraarticularly injection of adiponectin into knee joints on day 17, day 20 and day 23 post first collagen immunization. The increased adiponectin expression was found in inflamed joint tissue of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Adiponectin injection resulted in an earlier onset of arthritis, an aggravated arthritic progression, more severe synovial hyperplasia, bone erosion and osteoporosis in CIA mice. CD4(+)IL-17(+) Th17 cells, IL-17?mRNA and RANKL mRNA expression were markedly increased in the joint tissue of adiponectin treated CIA mice. Moreover, adiponectin treatment markedly enhanced Th17 cell generation from naive CD4(+) T cells in vitro, which accompanied by the high expression of Th17 transcription factor ROR-?t, and Th17 cytokine genes included IL-22 and IL-23. This study reveals a novel effect of adiponectin in exacerbating CIA progression by enhancing Th17 cell response and RANKL expression. PMID:26063682

  7. Adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effect on human placenta via modulation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haitian; Chen, Hanqing; Wu, Yanxin; Liu, Bin; Li, Zhuyu; Wang, Zilian

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of adiponectin on human placenta during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and on high glucose (HG)-induced BeWo cell proliferation. We examined the expression levels of adiponectin in control and GDM placenta using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using a colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8), PCNA immunocytochemical staining, and Western blot analysis of cyclin D1. Transfection of siRNA against c-jun was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell cycle analysis was performed using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Results show a decreased expression of adiponectin and an increased degree of trophoblast cell proliferation in GDM placenta compared to the normal placenta. Similarly, HG can promote BeWo cell proliferation that is associated with adiponectin down-regulation. This proliferation could be depressed by addition of exogenous adiponectin, i.e. adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effects on HG-induced trophoblast cells. Adiponectin suppresses the HG-induced BeWo cell proliferation by inhibiting the activation of JNK/c-jun. In conclusion, adiponectin inhibits HG-induced proliferation of BeWo cells through down-regulation of JNK/c-jun phosphorylation. PMID:25031708

  8. Adiponectin Normalization, A Clue To Anti-Metabolic Syndrome Action of Rimonabant

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adiponectin Normalization, A Clue To Anti-Metabolic Syndrome Action of Rimonabant Magali Gary: obesity, metabolic syndrome, adipose tissue, adiponectin, rimonabant. Teaser: This review describes on the success of an anti-obesity and anti-metabolic syndrome drug as rimonabant. 1 inserm-00338419,version1

  9. Obesity-induced DNA hypermethylation of the adiponectin gene mediates insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, A Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Pan, Xuebo; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Kwak, Soo-Heon; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Sallam, Reem M; Park, Kyong Soo; Alfadda, Assim A; Xu, Aimin; Kim, Jae Bum

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular region of the adiponectin promoter suppresses adiponectin expression through epigenetic control and, in turn, exacerbates metabolic diseases in obesity. Obesity-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote DNMT1 expression and its enzymatic activity. Activated DNMT1 selectively methylates and stimulates compact chromatin structure in the adiponectin promoter, impeding adiponectin expression. Suppressing DNMT1 activity with a DNMT inhibitor resulted in the amelioration of obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in an adiponectin-dependent manner. These findings suggest a critical role of adiponectin gene epigenetic control by DNMT1 in governing energy homeostasis, implying that modulating DNMT1 activity represents a new strategy for the treatment of obesity-related diseases. PMID:26139044

  10. Adiponectin promotes syncytialisation of BeWo cell line and primary trophoblast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delphine Benaitreau; Esther Dos Santos; Marie-Christine Leneveu; Philippe De Mazancourt; René Pecquery; Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In human pregnancy, a correct placentation depends on trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. These processes are highly regulated by placental hormones, growth factors and cytokines. Recently, we have shown that adiponectin, an adipokine, has anti-proliferative effects on trophoblastic cells. Here, we complete this study by demonstrating that adiponectin modulates BeWo and human villous cytotrophoblast cell differentiation. RESULTS: We

  11. Adiponectin and leptin in human severe insulin resistance - diagnostic utility and biological insights.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, M P; Huang-Doran, I; Semple, R K

    2012-10-01

    There is an intimate interplay between systemic insulin action and the actions of the adipocyte-derived proteins leptin and adiponectin. Concordant findings in humans and rodents demonstrate that leptin gates critical physiological functions to the prevailing nutritional state, however the physiological functions of adiponectin are less convincingly established. Murine evidence suggests that adiponectin can exert insulin-sensitising effects, plasma concentrations of adiponectin in humans correlate in most populations with insulin sensitivity, and increasingly strong evidence suggests an association between common genetic variation around the adiponectin gene and diabetes. However rare and severe genetic variants lowering adiponectin levels have not been convincingly associated with insulin resistance, and the discordant and sometimes extreme hyperadiponectinaemia seen in patients with severe insulin resistance due to loss of insulin receptor function poses a challenge to the widely held view that low adiponectin in humans plays a role in causing prevalent insulin resistance. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be elucidated, but the best available evidence implicates increased production of adiponectin in states of insulin receptor dysfunction, attributable at least in part to increased transcription of the ADIPOQ gene. Further investigation of the cellular basis of insulin receptoropathy-related hyperadiponectinaemia may shine further light on the human pathobiology of this most abundant and enigmatic product of adipose tissue. PMID:22342226

  12. Effect of repeated US stimulation on adiponectin secretion by adipocytes of obese human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Irie, Takasuke; Itoh, Kouichi

    2006-05-01

    To clarify the effect of the repeated sonication on the adiponectin secretion by adipocytes obtained from obese subjects. Using 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound at an intensity of 0.50 or 2.1 W/cm2, we sonicated culture flasks of subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from obese human subjects, in a series of 3 sessions of US stimulation applied for a daily total of 15 min. For the measurement of adiponectin secretion, 50 ?l of the culture medium was collected from each flask every 24 h after the 1st stimulation. Quantification of adiponectin protein levels in cell culture supernatants was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit recommended by the manufacturer. The adiponectin concentrations in the culture medium of the US stimulation groups rose significantly (p<0.05). Repeated US stimulation may accelerate adiponectin secretion in obese human adipocytes.

  13. MicroRNA-378 Regulates Adiponectin Expression in Adipose Tissue: A New Plausible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Masayoshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Yagi, Shusuke; Nishimoto, Sachiko; Kozuka, Chisayo; Fukuda, Daiju; Soeki, Takeshi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Tsutsui, Masato; Sata, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Aims Mechanisms regulating adiponectin expression have not been fully clarified. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in biological processes, including obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated whether the miRNA-378 pathway is involved in regulating adiponectin expression. Methods and Results First, we determined a putative target site for miRNA-378 in the 3 prime untranslated region (3'UTR) of the adiponectin gene by in silico analysis. The levels of adiponectin mRNA and protein were decreased in 3T3-L1 cells overexpressing the mimic of miRNA-378. Luminescence activity in HEK293T cells expressing a renilla-luciferase-adiponectin-3'UTR sequence was inhibited by overexpressing the mimic of miRNA-378, and the decrease was reversed by adding the inhibitor of miRNA-378. Moreover, we confirmed the inhibitory effects of the mimic were cancelled in a deleted mutant of the miR-378 3?-UTR binding site. Addition of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) led a upregulation of miR-378 and downregulation of adiponectin at mRNA and protein levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Level of miR-378 was higher and mRNA level of adiponectin was lower in diabetic ob/ob mice than those of normal C57BL/6 mice and levels of miR378 and adiponectin were negatively well correlated (r?=??0.624, p?=?0.004). Conclusions We found that levels of miRNA-378 could modulate adiponectin expression via the 3'UTR sequence-binding site. Our findings warrant further investigations into the role of miRNAs in regulating the adiponectin expression. PMID:25379946

  14. Induction of human adiponectin gene transcription by telmisartan, angiotensin receptor blocker, independently on PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Moriuchi, Akie [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan); Yamasaki, Hironori [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Health Center, Nagasaki University (Japan)]. E-mail: f1195@cc.nagasaki-u-ac.jp; Shimamura, Mika [Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Kita, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Hironaga; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Tsuyoshi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Fujishima, Keiichiro; Fukushima, Keiko [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan); Fukushima, Tetsuya; Abiru, Norio; Eguchi, Katsumi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Hayakawa, Takao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki [Project III, National Institute of Health Sciences, Osaka Branch, Fundamental Research Laboratories for Development of Medicine (Japan); Nagayama, Yuji [Department of Medical Gene Technology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Nagasaki University (Japan); Kawasaki, Eiji [Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2007-05-18

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, has been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and inhibit the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, several reports have stated that angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), increase adiponectin plasma level, and ameliorate insulin resistance. Telmisartan, a subclass of ARBs, has been shown to be a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}, and to increase the plasma adiponectin level. However, the transcriptional regulation of the human adiponectin gene by telmisartan has not been determined yet. To elucidate the effect of telmisartan on adiponectin, the stimulatory regulation of human adiponectin gene by telmisartan was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, utilizing adenovirus-mediated luciferase reporter gene-transferring technique. This study indicates that telmisartan may stimulate adiponectin transcription independent of PPAR-{gamma}.

  15. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter from four U.S. estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Chen; Altabet, Mark A.; Callahan, Julie; Chen, Robert F.

    2004-06-01

    High molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) represents an important component of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in seawater and fresh-waters. In this paper, we report measurements of stable carbon (? 13C) isotopic compositions in total lipid, total hydrolyzable amino acid (THAA), total carbohydrate (TCHO) and acid-insoluble "uncharacterized" organic fractions separated from fourteen HMW-DOM samples collected from four U.S. estuaries. In addition, C/N ratio, ? 13C and stable nitrogen (? 15N) isotopic compositions were also measured for the bulk HMW-DOM samples. Our results indicate that TCHO and THAA are the dominant organic compound classes, contributing 33-46% and 13-20% of the organic carbon in HMW-DOM while total lipid accounts for only <2% of the organic carbon in the samples. In all samples, a significant fraction (35-49%) of HMW-DOM was included in the acid-insoluble fraction. Distinct differences in isotopic compositions exist among bulk samples, the compound classes and the acid-insoluble fractions. Values of ? 13C and ? 15N measured for bulk HMW-DOM varied from -22.1 to -30.1‰ and 2.8 to 8.9‰, respectively and varied among the four estuaries studied as well. Among the compound classes, TCHO was more enriched in 13C (? 13C = -18.5 to -22.8‰) compared with THAA (? 13C = -20.0 to -29.6‰) and total lipid (? 13C = -25.7 to -30.7‰). The acid-insoluble organic fractions, in general, had depleted 13C values (? 13C = -23.0 to -34.4‰). Our results indicate that the observed differences in both ? 13C and ? 15N were mainly due to the differences in sources of organic matter and nitrogen inputs to these estuaries in addition to the microbial processes responsible for isotopic fractionation among the compound classes. Both terrestrial sources and local sewage inputs contribute significantly to the HMW-DOM pool in the estuaries studied and thus had a strong influence on its isotopic signatures.

  16. A disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) regulates adiponectin multimerization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meilian; Zhou, Lijun; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen S. L.; Wetzel, Michael D.; Xiang, Ruihua; Zhang, Jingjing; Xin, Xiaoban; Dong, Lily Q.; Liu, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in adiponectin multimerization lead to defects in adiponectin secretion and function and are associated with diabetes, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We have identified an adiponectin-interacting protein, previously named GST-kappa, by yeast 2-hybrid screening. The adiponectin-interacting protein contains 2 thioredoxin domains and has very little sequence similarity to other GST isoforms. However, this protein shares high sequence and secondary structure homology to bacterial disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase (DsbA) and is thus renamed DsbA-like protein (DsbA-L). DsbA-L is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and its expression level is negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans. DsbA-L expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is stimulated by the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone and inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine TNF?. Overexpression of DsbA-L promoted adiponectin multimerization while suppressing DsbA-L expression by RNAi markedly and selectively reduced adiponectin levels and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results identify DsbA-L as a key regulator for adiponectin biosynthesis and uncover a potential new target for developing therapeutic drugs for the treatment of insulin resistance and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:19011089

  17. Increased levels of adiponectin and resistin in alcohol dependence--possible link to craving.

    PubMed

    Hillemacher, Thomas; Weinland, Christian; Heberlein, Annemarie; Gröschl, Michael; Schanze, Anja; Frieling, Helge; Wilhelm, Julia; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggested a role of appetite regulating peptides like leptin and ghrelin in alcohol dependence and particularly in the neurobiology of alcohol craving. Aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of the adipocytokines adiponectin and resistin in alcohol-dependent patients. We analyzed a sample of 88 patients at admission for alcohol detoxification and after 1 week of withdrawal treatment in comparison to 89 healthy controls. Adiponectin and resistin serum levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. The extent of alcohol craving was obtained using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Adiponectin and resistin serum levels were significantly elevated in patients with alcohol dependence at both dates (admission and after 1 week of treatment) compared to healthy controls. Adiponectin decreased significantly during the course of withdrawal (T=3.44, p=0.001) while resistin serum levels showed a slight increase (T=-1.83, p=0.071). In a multivariate approach the extent of alcohol craving was significantly associated with adiponectin but not with resistin serum levels in male patients (Beta=-0.255, p=0.025). Results for female patients were not significant. Our findings provide first evidence for an alteration of the adipocytokines adiponectin and resistin during alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, adiponectin may be involved in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, possibly via its effects on the hypothalamic circuits. PMID:18818026

  18. Adiponectin: merely a bystander or the missing link to cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Hatzis, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Tsounis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, a newly discovered adipose-tissue secreting hormone, is a major regulator of a wide spectrum of physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, inflammation and vascular homeostasis. Emerging data suggest that adiponectin is the link between obesity and obesity-related disorders with cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is a dominant insulin-sensitive adipokine and, in contrast to other adipose-tissue derived cytokines, it has major anti-diabetic, antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin has been extensively studied in the context of several aspects and risk factors of cardiovascular disease such as obesity, diabetes type I and II, coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease and smoking. The aim of this article is to summarize the acquired so far knowledge on adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease, to review its main biological and biochemical characteristics, to highlight the main mechanisms of adiponectin-driven beneficial effects on vasculature and briefly to refer to the basic correlations of adiponectin with the important aforementioned aspects of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23470075

  19. Effects of fenofibrate on adiponectin expression in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Jung; Wang, Lu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression. PMID:25525608

  20. Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ying-Jung; Wang, Lu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression. PMID:25525608

  1. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  2. Nicotinic acid increases adiponectin secretion from differentiated bovine preadipocytes through G-protein coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  3. Regulation of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis by Adiponectin: Effects on Hepatocytes, Pancreatic ? Cells and Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Caroline; Sifuentes, Angelica; Holland, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin has received considerable attention for its potential anti-diabetic actions. The adipokine exerts control of glucose and lipid homeostasis via critical effects within the liver, adipose, and pancreas. By stimulating adipogenesis, opposing inflammation, and influencing rates of lipid oxidation and lipolysis, adiponectin critically governs lipid spillover into non-adipose tissues. Ceramide, a cytotoxic and insulin desensitizing lipid metabolite formed when peripheral tissues are exposed to excessive lipid deposition, is potently opposed by adiponectin. Via adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, adiponectin stimulates the deacylation of ceramide- yielding sphingosine for conversion to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase. The resulting conversion from ceramide to S1P promotes survival of functional beta cell mass, allowing for insulin production to meet insulin demands. Alleviation of ceramide burden on the liver allows for improvements in hepatic insulin action. Here, we summarize how adiponectin-induced changes in these tissues lead to improvements in glucose metabolism, highlighting the sphingolipid signaling mechanisms linking adiponectin to each action. PMID:24417945

  4. 11?-HSD1 reduces metabolic efficacy and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun Hee; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kim, Hyunshik; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Hye-Sun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Hyuk-Joong; Kim, Bum Joong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Oh, Jin Sun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Jang, Jung Eun; Leem, Jaechan; Cho, Myung Hwan; Lee, Ki-Up

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophic adipocytes can reduce adiponectin synthesis. We investigated whether 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) expression is increased in hypertrophic adipocytes and whether this is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced adiponectin synthesis. Differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes were cultured for up to 21 days. The effect of AZD6925, a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, on metabolism was examined. db/db mice were administered 600?mg/kg AZD6925 daily for 4 weeks via gastric lavage. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mRNA expression levels of 11 ? -H sd1 and mitochondrial biogenesis factors, adiponectin synthesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), oxygen consumption rate and glycolysis were measured. Adipocyte hypertrophy in 3T3L1 cells exposed to a long duration of culture was associated with increased 11 ? -Hsd1 mRNA expression and reduced mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis factor expression and adiponectin synthesis. These cells displayed reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis. Treatment of these cells with AZD6925 increased adiponectin synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. Inhibition of FAO by etomoxir blocked the AZD6925-induced increase in adiponectin synthesis, indicating that 11?-HSD1-mediated reductions in FAO are responsible for the reduction in adiponectin synthesis. The expression level of 11 ? -Hsd1 was higher in adipose tissues of db/db mice. Administration of AZD6925 to db/db mice increased the plasma adiponectin level and adipose tissue FAO. In conclusion, increased 11?-HSD1 expression contributes to reduced mitochondrial respiration and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes. PMID:25869616

  5. The Aporphine Alkaloid Boldine Induces Adiponectin Expression and Regulation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (100??M) or tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) (1?ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5–100??M). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPAR?, and C/EBP? to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or TNF? and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5–25??M) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50–100??M). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H2O2 or TNF? was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  6. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  7. Adiponectin Enhances Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Promotes Monocyte Adhesion in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Shih, James Meng-Kun; Chen, Yen-Jen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes and is involved in energy homeostasis. Adiponectin expression is significantly high in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important adhesion molecule that mediates monocyte adhesion and infiltration during OA pathogenesis. Adiponectin-induced expression of ICAM-1 in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) was examined by using qPCR, flow cytometry and western blotting. The intracellular signaling pathways were investigated by pretreated with inhibitors or transfection with siRNA. The monocyte THP-1 cell line was used for an adhesion assay with OASFs. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors (AraA and compound C) or transfection with siRNA against AMPK?1 and two AMPK upstream activator- liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) diminished the adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of LKB1, CaMKII, AMPK, and c-Jun, resulting in c-Jun binding to AP-1 element of ICAM-1 promoter. In addition, adiponectin-induced activation of the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, and AP-1 pathway increased the adhesion of monocytes to the OASF monolayer. Our results suggest that adiponectin increases ICAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. Adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression promoted the adhesion of monocytes to human OASFs. These findings may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and can utilize this knowledge to design a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24667577

  8. Relation of plasma adiponectin levels and aortic stiffness after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, SJ; Klug, G; Feistritzer, HJ; Mayr, A; Bader, K; Mair, J; Esterhammer, R; Schocke, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulse wave velocity is a measure of aortic stiffness and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is involved in atherosclerosis and inflammation. In the present study we aimed to explore the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and pulse wave velocity in the acute phase after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Forty-six consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 57±11 years) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma adiponectin was measured 2 days after index event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was calculated by the transit-time method with the use of a velocity-encoded, phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance protocol. Results: Median plasma adiponectin concentration was 2385 ng/ml (interquartile range 1735–5403). Males had lower plasma adiponectin values than females and current smokers had lower values than non-smokers (all p<0.02). Adiponectin was significantly associated with PWV (r=0.505, p<0.001), age (r=0.437, p=0.002), and total cholesterol (r=0.468, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin as a predictor of PWV independently of age, sex, smoking status, total cholesterol, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p=0.027). Conclusions: Plasma adiponectin concentrations are strongly associated with aortic stiffness in patients after acute STEMI treated with primary PCI. Our data support a possible role for adiponectin as an independent risk marker for increased aortic stiffness in STEMI patients. PMID:24337918

  9. The effect of molecular weight on the biodistribution of hyaluronic acid radiolabeled with 111 In after intravenous administration to rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Svanovsky; V. Velebny; A. Laznickova; M. Laznicek

    2008-01-01

    Summary  Hyaluronic acid (HA), is a high molecular weight (HMW) glucosaminoglycan with significant acitivity, and which influences\\u000a a number of physiological and pathological processes such as tumorogenesis, arthritis, etc. The aim of this study was to determine\\u000a the difference in the biodistributional pathways of111in-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-hyaluronic acid (111In-DTPA-HA) molecule of three different MWs (10, 100 and 450 kDA) in a rat

  10. Methylation of high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 determines post-translational increases in molecular weight and affects its intracellular distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Pintucci, G; Quarto, N; Rifkin, D B

    1996-01-01

    The high molecular weight (HMW) forms (24, 22.5, and 22 kDa) of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) contain an N-terminal extension responsible for their predominantly nuclear localization. These forms of FGF-2 are post-translationally modified, resulting in a 1- to 2-kDa increase in apparent molecular mass. Here we show that this post-translational modification is inhibited by methionine starvation and by the methyltransferase inhibitors 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) and 3-deaza-adenosine. Inhibition of the methylation-dependent modification results in a significant decrease in HMW FGF-2 nuclear accumulation, suggesting that methylation is relevant to the intracellular distribution of these forms of FGF-2. Treatment with MTA does not affect either the synthesis or the intracellular fate of another nuclear protein, the SV40 large T antigen, demonstrating that this drug does not have a generalized effect on nuclear protein accumulation. These results link HMW FGF-2 post-translational modification to its intracellular distribution. Images PMID:8856668

  11. Adiponectin Corrects High-Fat Diet–Induced Disturbances in Muscle Metabolomic Profile and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Turdi, Subat; Park, Taesik; Morris, Nicholas J.; Deshaies, Yves; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We provide here a detailed and comprehensive analysis of skeletal muscle metabolomic profiles in response to adiponectin in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) mice after high-fat–diet (HFD) feeding. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed that adiponectin administration corrected HFD-induced defects in post/basal insulin stimulated Rd and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Lipidomic profiling of skeletal muscle from HFD-fed mice indicated elevated triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species (16:0–18:1, 18:1, and 18:0–18:2) as well as acetyl coA, all of which were mitigated by adiponectin. HFD induced elevated levels of various ceramides, but these were not significantly altered by adiponectin. Adiponectin corrected the altered branched-chain amino acid metabolism caused by HFD and corrected increases across a range of glycerolipids, fatty acids, and various lysolipids. Adiponectin also reversed induction of the pentose phosphate pathway by HFD. Analysis of muscle mitochondrial structure indicated that adiponectin treatment corrected HFD-induced pathological changes. In summary, we show an unbiased comprehensive metabolomic profile of skeletal muscle from AdKO mice subjected to HFD with or without adiponectin and relate these to changes in whole-body glucose handling, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial structure and function. Our data revealed a key signature of relatively normalized muscle metabolism across multiple metabolic pathways with adiponectin supplementation under the HFD condition. PMID:23238294

  12. Adiponectin Expression Protects against Angiotensin II-Mediated Inflammation and Accelerated Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    van Stijn, Caroline M. W.; Kim, Jason; Barish, Grant D.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipocytokine produced by adipose tissue, exerts pleiotropic actions regulating inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. APN levels are inversely correlated with obesity, type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation in these interrelated metabolic syndrome components increases angiotensin II (AngII) levels leading to vascular damage, it is unknown whether APN under these conditions provides atheroprotection. We investigated whether increasing plasma APN provides atheroprotection in a hypertensive and accelerated atherosclerosis model. Using adenoviral gene transfer, sustained APN expression increased plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight APN, leading to a significant elevation of plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Elevated APN levels were strongly atheroprotective, yet had no impact on blood pressure. Notably, gene expression analyses revealed that APN significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and atherogenic genes while it increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 and the cholesterol efflux transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the artery wall. These findings suggest that increasing APN levels may be an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis associated with RAS activation in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24466075

  13. Adiponectin Inhibits Insulin Function in Primary Trophoblasts by PPAR?-Mediated Ceramide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPAR?. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPAR?, because activation of PPAR? with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPAR?-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPAR? and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability. PMID:24606127

  14. Adiponectin as an independent predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy in nondiabetic patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peer, Maya; Mashavi, Margarita; Matas, Zipora; Harpaz, David; Shargorodsky, Marina

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated novel and traditional biomarkers as well as hemodynamic parameters associated with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. Nondiabetic patients with hypertension (n = 86) were evaluated for lipids, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, aldosterone, renin, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and endothelin. Arterial elasticity was evaluated using pulse wave contour. The LVH parameters were assessed echographically. Adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with left ventricular mass (LVM; P = .032). The aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) was significantly, positively associated with LVM (P = .031). Fasting insulin as well as HOMA-IR was significantly, positively associated with LVM (P = .036 and P = .025, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, adiponectin and ARR remained a significant predictor of LVM. The present study found that adiponectin and ARR are important independent determinants of LVH in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. PMID:24576986

  15. Leptin and Adiponectin in the HIV Associated Metabolic Syndrome: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos

    2006-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414

  16. Chronic activity-based therapy does not improve body composition, insulin-like growth factor-I, adiponectin, or myostatin in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Harness, Eric T; Witzke, Kara A

    2014-08-17

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces dramatic changes in body composition including reductions in fat-free mass (FFM) and increases in fat mass (FM). Objective To examine changes in body composition in response to chronic activity-based therapy (ABT) in persons with SCI. Design Longitudinal exercise intervention. Methods Seventeen men and women with SCI (mean age = 36.1 ± 11.5 years) completed 6 months of supervised ABT consisting of load bearing, resistance training, locomotor training, and functional electrical stimulation. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of ABT, body weight, body fat, and FFM were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood samples were obtained to assess changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), adiponectin, and myostatin. Results Across all subjects, there was no change (P > 0.05) in body weight, percent body fat, or FFM of the leg, arm, or trunk, whereas whole-body FFM declined (P = 0.02, 50.4 ± 8.4 to 49.2 ± 7.4 kg). No changes (P = 0.21-0.41) were demonstrated in IGF-I, adiponectin, or myostatin during the study. Conclusions Chronic ABT focusing on the lower extremity does not slow muscle atrophy or alter body fat, body mass, or regional depots of FFM in persons with SCI. Further, it does not induce beneficial changes in adiponectin, myostatin, or IGF-I. Alternative exercise-based therapies are needed in SCI to reverse muscle atrophy and minimize the onset of related health risks. PMID:25130192

  17. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS) has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET) as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10) or HFD (n = 37). After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF), LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group). After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019). In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019), serum insulin (P = 0.022) and TNF-? (P = 0.044). Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021) levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042). Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration. PMID:21899736

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Variants in ARL15 that Influence Adiponectin Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brent Richards; Dawn Waterworth; Stephen ORahilly; Marie-France Hivert; Ruth J. F. Loos; John R. B. Perry; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas John Timpson; Robert K. Semple; Nicole Soranzo; Kijoung Song; Nuno Rocha; Elin Grundberg; Josée Dupuis; Jose C. Florez; Claudia Langenberg; Inga Prokopenko; Richa Saxena; Robert Sladek; Yurii Aulchenko; David Evans; Gerard Waeber; Jeanette Erdmann; Mary-Susan Burnett; Naveed Sattar; Joseph Devaney; Christina Willenborg; Aroon Hingorani; Jaquelin C. M. Witteman; Peter Vollenweider; Beate Glaser; Christian Hengstenberg; Luigi Ferrucci; David Melzer; Klaus Stark; John Deanfield; Janina Winogradow; Martina Grassl; Alistair S. Hall; Josephine M. Egan; John R. Thompson; Sally L. Ricketts; Inke R. König; Wibke Reinhard; Scott Grundy; H-Erich Wichmann; Phil Barter; Robert Mahley; Y. Antero Kesaniemi; Daniel J. Rader; Muredach P. Reilly; Stephen E. Epstein; Alexandre F. R. Stewart; Cornelia M. Van Duijn; Heribert Schunkert; Keith Burling; Panos Deloukas; Tomi Pastinen; Nilesh J. Samani; Ruth McPherson; George Davey Smith; Timothy M. Frayling; Nicholas J. Wareham; James B. Meigs; Vincent Mooser; Tim D. Spector

    2009-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202). Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their

  19. A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brent Richards; Dawn Waterworth; Stephen O'Rahilly; Marie-France Hivert; Ruth J. F. Loos; John R. B. Perry; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas John Timpson; Robert K. Semple; Nicole Soranzo; Kijoung Song; Nuno Rocha; Elin Grundberg; Josée Dupuis; Jose C. Florez; Claudia Langenberg; Inga Prokopenko; Richa Saxena; Robert Sladek; Yurii Aulchenko; David Evans; Gerard Waeber; Jeanette Erdmann; Mary-Susan Burnett; Naveed Sattar; Joseph Devaney; Christina Willenborg; Aroon Hingorani; Jaquelin C. M. Witteman; Peter Vollenweider; Beate Glaser; Christian Hengstenberg; Luigi Ferrucci; David Melzer; Klaus Stark; John Deanfield; Janina Winogradow; Martina Grassl; Alistair S. Hall; Josephine M. Egan; John R. Thompson; Sally L. Ricketts; Inke R. König; Wibke Reinhard; Scott Grundy; H-Erich Wichmann; Phil Barter; Robert Mahley; Y. Antero Kesaniemi; Daniel J. Rader; Muredach P. Reilly; Stephen E. Epstein; Alexandre F. R. Stewart; P. Tikka-Kleemola; Heribert Schunkert; Keith Burling; Panos Deloukas; Tomi Pastinen; Nilesh J. Samani; Ruth McPherson; George Davey Smith; Timothy M. Frayling; Nicholas J. Wareham; James B. Meigs; Vincent Mooser; Tim D. Spector

    2009-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202). Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their

  20. Correlation between Plasma Adiponectin Levels and the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amirzadegan, Alireza; Shakarami, Amir; Borumand, Mohammad Ali; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Jalali, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Background: The existing evidence suggests that plasma adiponectin concentrations can be indicative of the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the results of the studies conducted hitherto on this subject are inconsistent. We sought to investigate the possible correlation between plasma adiponectin levels and the presence and severity of CAD in patients undergoing non-urgent coronary angiography. Methods: In 399 consecutive patients undergoing non-urgent coronary angiography for CAD survey, plasma adiponectin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar levels were measured and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, Body Mass Index, diabetes mellitus history, systemic hypertension history, and family history of CAD were collected. According to the angiography results, the patients were divided into two groups of CAD and non-CAD. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis in the CAD group was defined using the Gensini score system. Results: Average age was 61.4 ± 9.94 years in the CAD group and 57.9 ± 10.75 years in the non-CAD group. Also, 73.7% of the CAD group and 55.4% of the non-CAD group were male. Totally, 278 (69.7%) patients were found to have CAD. Patients without CAD did not have higher mean plasma adiponectin concentrations than did those with CAD (13.38 ± 11.96 vs. 14.95 ± 14.11 mcg/ml; p value = 0. 896). After adjustment for CAD conventional risk factors, plasma adiponectin levels still were not associated with CAD. No association was found between plasma adiponectin levels and the Gensini score. Furthermore, in contrast to the fairly strong correlation previously reported, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and conventional CAD risk factors. Conclusion: We could not observe any relationship between plasma adiponectin concentrations and the presence or severity of CAD in patients undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:24396363

  1. Relationship of serum adiponectin and resistin to glucose intolerance and fat topography in south-Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wasim, Hanif; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Chetty, Raja; McTernan, Phillip G; Barnett, A H; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2006-01-01

    Objectives South-Asians have lower adiponectin levels compared to Caucasians. It was not clear however, if this intrinsic feature is related to aspects of glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and adipocytokine in South-Asian subjects by measuring serum adipocytokines, adiposity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance levels. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 150 South-Asians (80 males, 70 females) were included, 60 had NGT (Control group, Age 51.33 ± 11.5, BMI 27 ± 2.3), 60 had IGT (Age 57.7 ± 12.5, BMI 27.2 ± 2.7), 30 had type 2 DM (Age 49.5 ± 10.9, BMI 28 ± 1.7). Measures of adiposity, adipocytokines and other metabolic parameters were determined. Parameters were measured using the following: a) Plasma glucose by glucose oxidase method b) CRP by immunoturbidimetric method (Roche/Hitachi analyser) c) insulin by Medgenix INS-ELISA immunoenzymetric assay by Biosource (Belgium) d) Leptin, Adiponectin by radioimmunoassay kits by Linco Research (St. Charles MO) e) Resistin by immunoassay kits by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals INC (530 Harbor Boulevard, Belmont CA 94002, USA). Results Adiponectin concentrations were highest in NGT, decreased in IGT and lowest in DMT2, (both p < 0.01). Leptin was significantly higher in DMT2 than IGT and NGT p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively. There was a significant positive relationships between log adiponectin and 2-hr insulin values, p = 0.028 and history of hypertensions and a ischemic heart disease p = 0.008 with R = 0.65. There was a significant inverse correlation between log adiponectin and resistin, p < 0.01. Conclusion Resistin levels had an inverse correlation with adiponectin levels, indicating an inverse relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin. Adiponectin levels were related to glucose tolerance. PMID:16669997

  2. Estrogen receptor-? drives adiponectin effects on cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Loredana; Pellegrino, Michele; Giordano, Francesca; Ricchio, Emilia; Rizza, Pietro; De Amicis, Francesca; Catalano, Stefania; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Panno, Maria Luisa; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, largely due to altered expression of various adipocytokines. As it concerns adiponectin, there are not univocal results regarding its role in breast cancer occurrence and progression. Here, we demonstrate that in animals injected with human estrogen receptor (ER)-?-negative MDA-MB-231 cells pretreated with adiponectin (1 and 5 µg/ml), a significant reduction (60 and 40%, respectively) in tumor volume is observed, whereas an increased tumor growth (54 and 109%, respectively) is evidenced in the animals receiving human ER-?-positive MCF-7 cells. Moreover, cyclin D1 (CD1) mRNA and protein levels are decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas they are up-regulated in ER-?-positive cells by adiponectin. These findings fit with the opposite effects of adiponectin on CD1 promoter: 0.44- and 0.34-fold decrease in MDA-MB-231 cells and 0.63- and 0.95-fold increase in MCF-7 cells, treated with 1 and 5 µg/ml, respectively. Functional studies indicate that these effects are mediated by the specific protein 1 motif located in the CD1 promoter. In the absence of ER-?, the adiponectin-mediated down-regulation of CD1 involves the recruitment of corepressors. In the presence of ER-?, the adiponectin-induced expression of CD1 requires the involvement of an activator complex. In conclusion, we propose that a possible mechanism through which adiponectin differently affects breast cancer growth is the opposite modulation of CD1 levels accordingly to ER-? expression.-Mauro, L., Pellegrino, M., Giordano, F., Ricchio, E., Rizza, P., De Amicis, F., Catalano, S., Bonofiglio, D., Panno, M. L., Andò, S. Estrogen receptor-? drives adiponectin effects on cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells. PMID:25657113

  3. Novel Modulator for Endothelial Adhesion Molecules Adipocyte-Derived Plasma Protein Adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yukio Arit; Kazuhisa Maeda; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Kikuko Hott; Makoto Nishida; Masahiko Takahashi; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

    Background—Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated whether adiponectin could modulate endothelial function and relate to coronary disease.

  4. Adiponectin moderates the relationship between adiposity and leptin in adolescents regardless of gender or race

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, Vanessa; Johnson, Maribeth; Gutin, Bernard; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine gender or race differences in associations between adiposity and leptin, and whether adiponectin moderates these relationships. Methods Subjects were 441 adolescents, 14–18 years old (44% black; 50% female). Percent body fat (%BF) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and adiponectin were measured using immunoassays. Results Among the four groups (white boys, white girls, black boys and black girls), white girls had the highest adiponectin (p=0.0017) and black girls had the highest leptin (p=0.0164). Percent BF and leptin were positively correlated (p=0.0164). The %BF-leptin relationship was stronger in boys than girls (p<0.0001). Those with lower adiponectin had a stronger %BF-leptin relationship than those with high adiponectin in the entire sample (p=0.0220). Statistical models were adjusted for age, race, gender and the interaction between race and gender. Conclusion Our data suggest a protective metabolic interaction for adiponectin and lend additional support for obesity prevention strategies in adolescents. PMID:21648277

  5. Adiponectin -11377C/G and +276G/T Polymorphisms affect Adiponectin Levels but do not Modify Responsiveness to Therapy in Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Ana Paula C; Modolo, Rodrigo; Sabbatini, Andréa R; Barbaro, Natália R; Corrêa, Nathália B; Brunelli, Veridiana; Tanus-Santos, José E; Fontana, Vanessa; Moreno, Heitor

    2015-07-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease, frequently associated with obesity. Low plasma adiponectin levels, a hormone produced by the adipose tissue, were associated with RHTN. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -11377C/G (rs266729) and +276G/T (rs1501299) in ADIPOQ (adiponectin gene) were associated with hypertension. This study evaluated the association between two SNPs (-11377C/G and +276G/T) and adiponectin levels in RHTN. This study comprised 109 patients with RHTN genotyped for both polymorphisms. A cross-sectional study was designed to compare features of CC homozygous versus G allele carriers for -11377C/G and GG homozygous versus T allele carriers for +276G/T. Office and ambulatory BP measurements were similar among genotypes subgroups in both SNPs as well as the markers of target organ damage (arterial stiffness, left ventricular mass index and microalbuminuria). Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in CC compared to G carrier for -11377C/G (CC:7.0 (4.0-10.2) versus G allele:5.5 (2.5-7.9), p = 0.04) and lower in GG compared to T carrier for +276G/T (GG:5.3 (2.3-7.7) versus T allele:7.1 (3.6-10.5), p = 0.04). Adjusting for systolic ambulatory BP, body mass index, age, gender, race and presence of type 2 diabetes, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the minor alleles G (?-coefficient= -0.14, SE=0.07, p = 0.03) and T (?-coefficient=0.12, SE=0.06, p = 0.04) were independent predictors of adiponectin. The -11377C/G and +276G/T SNPs in ADIPOQ were associated with adiponectin levels in RHTN individuals. PMID:25546819

  6. Endothelial Dysfunction in Adiponectin Deficiency and its Mechanisms Involved

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Tao, Ling; Yuan, Yuexing; Jiao, Xiangying; Lau, Wayne Bond; Wang, Yajing; Christopher, Theodore; Lopez, Bernard; Chan, Lawrence; Goldstein, Barry; Ma, Xin L.

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest pathologic alteration in diabetic vascular injury and plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma levels of adiponectin (APN), a novel vasculoprotective adipocytokine, are significantly reduced in diabetic patients, but its relationship with endothelial dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aims to determine whether APN deficiency may cause endothelial dysfunction and to investigate the involved mechanisms. Vascular rings were made from the aortic vessels of wild type (WT) or APN knockout (APN-/-) mice. Endothelial function, total NO production, eNOS expression/phosphorylation, superoxide production, and peroxynitrite formation were determined. ACh and acidified NaNO2 (endothelial dependent and independent vasodilators, respectively) caused similar concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in WT vascular rings. APN-/- rings had a normal response to acidified NaNO2, but a markedly reduced response to ACh (>50% reduction vs. WT, P<0.01). Both superoxide and peroxynitrite production were increased in APN-/- vessels (P<0.01 vs. WT). Pretreatment with superoxide scavenger Tiron significantly, but incompletely restored vascular vasodilatory response to ACh. In APN-/- vessels, eNOS expression was normal, but NO production and eNOS phosphorylation was significantly reduced (P<0.01 vs. WT). Treatment of APN-/- mice in vivo with the globular domain of adiponectin reduced aortic superoxide production, increased eNOS phosphorylation, and normalized vasodilatory response to ACh. Increased NO inactivation combined with decreased basal NO production contribute to endothelial dysfunction development when there is a paucity of APN production. Interventions directed towards increasing plasma APN levels may improve endothelial function, and reduce cardiovascular complications suffered by diabetic patients. PMID:19027750

  7. ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

    2013-12-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

  8. Structure characterization of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight gluten proteins. II. Characterization in solution and in the dry state.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, A A; De Boef, E; Bekkers, A; Van Wijk, L L; Van Swieten, E; Hamer, R J; Robillard, G T

    1997-03-01

    The structure of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight HMW) wheat gluten proteins was characterized in solution and in the dry state using HMW proteins Bx6 and Bx7 and a subcloned, bacterially expressed part of the repetitive domain of HMW Dx5. Model studies of the HMW consensus peptides PGQGQQ and GYYPTSPQQ formed the basis for the data analysis (van Dijk AA et al., 1997, Protein Sci 6:637-648). In solution, the repetitive domain contained a continuous nonoverlapping series of both type I and type II II beta-turns at positions predicted from the model studies; type II beta-turns occurred at QPGQ and QQGY sequences and type I beta-turns at YPTS and SPQQ. The subcloned part of the HMW Dx5 repetitive domain sometimes migrated as two bands on SDS-PAGE; we present evidence that this may be caused by a single amino acid insertion that disturbs the regular structure of beta-turns. The type I beta-turns are lost when the protein is dried on a solid surface, probably by conversion to type II beta-turns. The homogeneous type II beta-turn distribution is compatible with the formation of a beta-spiral structure, which provides the protein with elastic properties. The beta-turns and thus the beta-spiral are stabilized by hydrogen bonds within and between turns. Reformation of this hydrogen bonding network after, e.g., mechanical disruption may be important for the elastic properties of gluten proteins. PMID:9070447

  9. Structure characterization of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight gluten proteins. II. Characterization in solution and in the dry state.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, A. A.; De Boef, E.; Bekkers, A.; Van Wijk, L. L.; Van Swieten, E.; Hamer, R. J.; Robillard, G. T.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight HMW) wheat gluten proteins was characterized in solution and in the dry state using HMW proteins Bx6 and Bx7 and a subcloned, bacterially expressed part of the repetitive domain of HMW Dx5. Model studies of the HMW consensus peptides PGQGQQ and GYYPTSPQQ formed the basis for the data analysis (van Dijk AA et al., 1997, Protein Sci 6:637-648). In solution, the repetitive domain contained a continuous nonoverlapping series of both type I and type II II beta-turns at positions predicted from the model studies; type II beta-turns occurred at QPGQ and QQGY sequences and type I beta-turns at YPTS and SPQQ. The subcloned part of the HMW Dx5 repetitive domain sometimes migrated as two bands on SDS-PAGE; we present evidence that this may be caused by a single amino acid insertion that disturbs the regular structure of beta-turns. The type I beta-turns are lost when the protein is dried on a solid surface, probably by conversion to type II beta-turns. The homogeneous type II beta-turn distribution is compatible with the formation of a beta-spiral structure, which provides the protein with elastic properties. The beta-turns and thus the beta-spiral are stabilized by hydrogen bonds within and between turns. Reformation of this hydrogen bonding network after, e.g., mechanical disruption may be important for the elastic properties of gluten proteins. PMID:9070447

  10. Expression of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine hypothalamus during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Smolinska, N; Maleszka, A; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Czerwinska, J; Szeszko, K; Nitkiewicz, A

    2014-06-01

    Adiponectin is a hormonal link between obesity and reproduction, and its actions are mediated by two types of receptors: adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). This study compares the expression levels of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins in selected areas of the porcine hypothalamus responsible for GnRH production and secretion: the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), pre-optic area (POA) and stalk median eminence (SME). The tissue samples were harvested on days 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. Adiponectin mRNA expression in MBH was significantly lower on days 14-16, whereas in SME, the most pronounced gene expression was found on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein in MBH was most abundant on days 17-19 and in POA on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein expression in SME was at similar level throughout the most of the cycle with a statistically significant drop (p < 0.05) on days 14-16. AdipoR1 gene expression in POA was potentiated on days 2-3 and 10-12 of the oestrous cycle (p < 0.05). In SME, the highest AdipoR1 mRNA expression was noted on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The concentrations of the AdipoR1 protein in POA were similar throughout the luteal phase (days 2-14 of the cycle), and they decreased on days 17-19 (p < 0.05). In SME, AdipoR1 protein expression peak occurred on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The expression patterns of the AdipoR2 gene in MBH, POA and SME revealed the highest mRNA levels on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). The highest content of AdipoR2 protein in MBH was reported on days 2-3 (p < 0.05), while in POA on days 17-19 and in SME on days 10-12 and 14-16 (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins are present in the porcine hypothalamus and that their expression levels are determined by the pig's endocrine status related to the oestrous cycle. PMID:24592982

  11. Rheokinetic Study of Concentrated High Molecular Weight Emeraldine Base in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone Solutions Containing 2-Methyl-Aziridine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dali Yang; Benjamin Mattes

    2000-01-01

    Concentrated solutions of ultra-high molecular weight (HMW) emeraldine base (EB) are obtained when near stoichiometric quantities of 2-methyl-aziridine (2MA) per polymer repeat unit are co-dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). Hydrogen bonds are formed between the secondary and tertiary EB nitrogen atoms found in the polymer repeat unit, and both the 2MA additive and the NMP solvent molecules. The rheological behavior of

  12. The Adiponectin variants contribute to the genetic background of type 2 diabetes in Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Hilal; Ozdemir, Hulya; Kaya, Dudu Erkoc; Ipekci, Suleyman Hilmi; Arslan, Ahmet; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Gonen, Mustafa Sait

    2014-01-15

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue specific protein encoded by the Adiponectin gene, modulates insulin sensitivity and plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Many studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adiponectin gene are associated with low plasma Adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the Adiponectin gene polymorphisms in genetic background of type 2 diabetes in a Turkish population. In total, 169 unrelated and non-obese diabetic patients and 119 age- and BMI-matched nondiabetic individuals with no family history of diabetes were enrolled in this study. We detected a significant association between type 2 diabetes and two SNPs: SNP ?11391G N A, which is located in the promoter region of the Adiponectin gene, and SNP +276G N T, which is found in intron 2 of the gene (P b 0.05). The silence SNP G15G (+45TN G) in exon 1 and SNP+349ANG in intron 2 also showed a weak association with type 2 diabetes (P=0.06 and P=0.07, respectively),while SNPs?3971ANG in intron 1 and Y111H, R112C and H241P in exon 3 showed no association (P N 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that Adiponectin gene polymorphisms might be effective on susceptibility for type 2 diabetes development which emerged from the interactions between multiple genes, variants and environmental factors. PMID:24404592

  13. The Adiponectin Variants Contribute to the Genetic Background of Type 2 Diabetes in Turkish Population.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Hilal; Ozdemir, Hulya; Kaya, Dudu Erkoc; Ipekci, Suleyman Hilmi; Arslan, Ahmet; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Gonen, Mustafa Sait

    2013-10-26

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue specific protein encoded by the Adiponectin gene, modulates insulin sensitivity and plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Many studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adiponectin gene are associated with low plasma adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the Adiponectin gene polymorphisms in genetic background of type 2 diabetes in a Turkish population. In total, 169 unrelated and non-obese diabetic patients and 119 age- and BMI-matched non-diabetic individuals with no family history of diabetes were enrolled in this study. We detected a significant association between type 2 diabetes and two SNPs: SNP -11391G>A, which is located in the promoter region of the Adiponectin gene, and SNP +276G>T, which is found in intron 2 of the gene (P<0.05). The silence SNP G15G (+45T>G) in exon 1 and SNP +349A>G in intron 2 also showed a weak association with type 2 diabetes (P=0.06 and P=0.07, respectively), while SNPs -3971A>G in intron 1 and Y111H, R112C and H241P in exon 3 showed no association (P>0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that Adiponectin gene polymorphisms might be effective on susceptibility for type 2 diabetes development which emerged from the interactions between multiple genes, variants and environmental factors. PMID:24513330

  14. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Variants in ARL15 that Influence Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J. Brent; Waterworth, Dawn; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Hivert, Marie-France; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Perry, John R. B.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas John; Semple, Robert K.; Soranzo, Nicole; Song, Kijoung; Rocha, Nuno; Grundberg, Elin; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C.; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Saxena, Richa; Sladek, Robert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Evans, David; Waeber, Gerard; Erdmann, Jeanette; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Sattar, Naveed; Devaney, Joseph; Willenborg, Christina; Hingorani, Aroon; Witteman, Jaquelin C. M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Glaser, Beate; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ferrucci, Luigi; Melzer, David; Stark, Klaus; Deanfield, John; Winogradow, Janina; Grassl, Martina; Hall, Alistair S.; Egan, Josephine M.; Thompson, John R.; Ricketts, Sally L.; König, Inke R.; Reinhard, Wibke; Grundy, Scott; Wichmann, H-Erich; Barter, Phil; Mahley, Robert; Kesaniemi, Y. Antero; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Schunkert, Heribert; Burling, Keith; Deloukas, Panos; Pastinen, Tomi; Samani, Nilesh J.; McPherson, Ruth; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Meigs, James B.

    2009-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n?=?8,531) and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 additional cohorts (n?=?6,202). Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P?5×10?8). We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P?0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined?=?9.2×10?19 for lead SNP, rs266717, n?=?14,733). A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15) gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined?=?2.9×10?8, n?=?14,733). This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.12, P?=?8.5×10?6, n?=?22,421) more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR?=?1.11, P?=?3.2×10?3, n?=?10,128), and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk. PMID:20011104

  15. Adiponectin receptor genes: mutation screening in syndromes of insulin resistance and association studies for type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits in UK populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Collins; J. Luan; A. J. Thompson; A. Daly; R. K. Semple; S. O’Rahilly; N. J. Wareham; I. Barroso

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic properties. Several reports suggest that genetic\\u000a variants in the adiponectin gene are associated with circulating levels of adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes\\u000a risk. Recently two receptors for adiponectin have been cloned. Genetic studies have yielded conflicting results on the role\\u000a of these genes and type 2 diabetes predisposition. In this

  16. Is adiponectin a bystander or a mediator in heart failure? The tangled thread of a good-natured adipokine in aging and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Shinmura

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokine abundant in human plasma. Increasing evidence from experimental studies\\u000a suggests that adiponectin plays a protective role in the cardiovascular system. However, epidemiological studies revealed\\u000a that high levels of adiponectin were associated with increased mortality and severity of congestive heart failure. Furthermore,\\u000a several prospective studies indicated that high levels of adiponectin were positively correlated with

  17. Adiponectin, a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the functions of macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Yokota; Kenji Oritani; Isao Takahashi; Jun Ishikawa; Akifumi Matsuyama; Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Tohru Funahashi; Andrea J. Tenner; Yoshiaki Tomiyama; Yuji Matsuzawa

    2000-01-01

    These results suggest that adiponectin predominantly inhibits proliferation of my- elomonocytic lineage cells. At least one mechanism of the growth inhibition is induction of apoptosis because treat- ment of acute myelomonocytic leukemia lines with adiponectin induced the appear- ance of subdiploid peaks and oligonucleo- somal DNA fragmentation. Aside from inhibiting growth of myelomonocytic pro- genitors, adiponectin suppressed mature macrophage functions.

  18. Plasma adiponectin is inversely associated with antenatal anxiety: Results from a Brazilian cohort.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Fernanda; de Jesus Pereira Pinto, Thatiana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Lepsch, Jaqueline; Benaim, Camila; Struchiner, Claudio José; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal anxiety may increase the risk of undesirable birth outcomes. Studies have demonstrated an association between adiponectin and anxiety, but this issue has not been investigated during pregnancy. This study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma adiponectin, measured throughout gestation, and the occurrence of anxiety at late pregnancy (30-36th weeks). A prospective cohort was investigated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Healthy pregnant women, aged 20-40 years, were evaluated between gestational weeks 5-13, 22-26 and 30-36. State anxiety was measured using a validated version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and women were categorized as high (score?50, n=30) or low anxiety (score<50, n=129). Plasma samples for all trimesters were analyzed using commercial ELISA kits to determine adiponectin concentrations (U/mL). Statistical analysis involved student's t-tests, chi-square, Pearson correlation, multiple logistic regression and linear mixed effects (LME) regression to model longitudinal trends of adiponectin, stratified for anxiety categories. Women with higher anxiety scores had lower mean concentrations of 3rd trimester adiponectin compared with those with lower scores (7.9; 95% CI: 7.0-8.9 vs. 9.9; 95% CI: 9.1-10.7). Women with 3rd trimester adiponectin values within the third tertile (10.47-26.57U/mL) were less likely to have high antenatal anxiety (adjusted OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.09-0.98) compared with those within the first tertile (2.25-7.08U/mL). Unlike women with low levels of anxiety, those with high levels had a significant decrease of plasma adiponectin throughout pregnancy (?=-0.07; 95% CI: -0.13-[-0.01] vs. ?=-0.01; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.03). Multiple LME model indicated higher adiponectin throughout pregnancy for women with low anxiety (?=-1.57; 95% CI: -2.78-[-0.37]). In conclusion, plasma adiponectin throughout pregnancy was inversely associated with antenatal anxiety. PMID:25305545

  19. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men

    PubMed Central

    Tureck, Luciane Viater; Leite, Neiva; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Alle, Lupe Furtado

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT) showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018), while the rare homozygous genotype (TT) gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005) and total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005) compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively), the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044). We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study.

  20. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men.

    PubMed

    Tureck, Luciane Viater; Leite, Neiva; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Alle, Lupe Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT) showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018), while the rare homozygous genotype (TT) gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005) and total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005) compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively), the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044). We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study. PMID:26137445

  1. Changes in the interrelationship between leptin, resistin and adiponectin in early neonatal life.

    PubMed

    Marinoni, Emanuela; Corona, Giovanna; Ciardo, Francesca; Letizia, Claudio; Moscarini, Massimo; Di Iorio, Romolo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between leptin,adiponectin and resistin in the fetal and early postnatal period and the association of these hormones with anthropometric and metabolic indexes. Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were measured in maternal and neonatal circulation at delivery and on the 3rd day after birth in 40 healthy newborns and their mothers Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in fetuses that in newborn infants on 3rd day after delivery, whereas concentration of adiponectin and resistin were maintained in either maternal and neonatal circulation after delivery. Leptin serum concentrations correlated with those of adiponectin in the fetal circulation, but not in neonatal life. On the other hand no correlation was found between leptin and resistin levels in cord blood, whereas a positive correlation between leptin and resistin concentrations was present in the neonatal circulation on 3rd day. Fetal leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels are largely independent of maternal influences and immediately after birth, important changes in the relation among adipokines occurred compared to intrauterine life. PMID:20036853

  2. Association of ADIPOQ gene with obesity and adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-05-01

    Studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ADIPOQ gene have been linked with obesity and with adiponectin levels in various populations. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and rs3774261 SNPs with obesity and with adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays. Obesity parameters and adiponectin levels were measured in 574 subjects. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Sequenom MassARRAY. A significant genotypic association was observed between ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity. The frequencies of AG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in the obese group (11%) than in the non-obese group (5%) (P=0.024). The odds of A alleles occurring among the obese group were twice those among the non-obese group (odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval 1.13-4.09). However, no significant association was found between allelic frequencies of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity after Bonferroni correction (P>0.025) or between ADIPOQ rs3774261 and obesity both at allelic and genotypic levels. ADIPOQ SNPs were not significantly associated with log-adiponectin levels. GA, GG, and AG haplotypes of the ADIPOQ gene were not associated with obesity. We confirmed the previously reported association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 with the risk of obesity. ADIPOQ SNPs are not important modulators of adiponectin levels in this population. PMID:24449366

  3. Vanadyl acetylacetonate upregulates PPAR? and adiponectin expression in differentiated rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaling; Huang, Meiling; Zhao, Pan; Yang, Xiaoda

    2013-08-01

    Vanadium compounds are promising agents in the therapeutic treatment of diabetes mellitus, but their mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. The current work investigated the effects of vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO(acac)2, on peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and adiponectin, which are important targets of antidiabetic drugs. The experimental results revealed that vanadyl complexes increased the expression and multimerization of adiponectin in differentiated rat adipocytes. VO(acac)2 caused activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevation of PPAR? levels. The specific inhibitors SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and T0070907 (PPAR? inhibitor) decreased the expression of adiponectin; however, compound C (AMPK inhibitor) did not significantly reduce the expression of adiponectin. In addition, vanadyl complexes induced protein-protein interaction between PPAR? and a vanadium-binding chaperone, heat shock protein 60 kDa. Overall, our results suggest that vanadyl complexes may upregulate PPAR? by suppressing PPAR? degradation, and thus stimulate adiponectin expression and multimerization. The present work has provided new insights into the mechanism of the antidiabetic actions of vanadium compounds. PMID:23737070

  4. Metabolic dysfunction associated with adiponectin deficiency enhances kainic acid-induced seizure severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward B; Warmann, Genevieve; Dhir, Ravindra; Ahima, Rexford S

    2011-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome has deleterious effects on the CNS, and recent evidence suggests that obesity rates are higher at presentation in children who develop epilepsy. Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and acts in the brain and peripheral organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin deficiency predisposes toward metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and seizures, wild-type C57BL/6J and adiponectin knock-out mice were fed a high-fat diet, followed by treatment with low doses of kainic acid to induce seizures. Adiponectin deficiency in mice fed a high-fat diet resulted in greater fat accumulation, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, increased seizure severity, and increased hippocampal pathology. In contrast, there were no adverse effects of adiponectin deficiency on metabolic phenotype or seizure activity in mice fed a normal (low-fat) chow diet. These findings demonstrate that metabolic syndrome modulates the outcome of seizures and brain injury. PMID:21976521

  5. Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Meier; Axel M. Gressner

    2004-01-01

    Background: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. Approach: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobio- chemistry and

  6. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 26–81 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  7. Circulating Adiponectin: Associations with Risk Factors and the Reynolds Risk Score in Women without Prior Major Cardiovascular Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicoleta Calomfirescu; Calin Popa; Ruxandra Jurcut; Marinela Serban; Carmen Ginghina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adiponectin may play an important role in the interplay between metabolic changes and cardiovascular risks. Our aim was to establish if plasma adiponectin can be used to detect the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women without a history of major cardiovascular events and to evaluate its correlation with the global cardiovascular risk expressed by the Reynolds risk score (RRS). Methods:

  8. The Adipokine Profile of Metabolically Benign Obese and At-Risk Normal Weight Postmenopausal Women: The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Xu, Linzhi; Wang, Dan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Allison, Matthew A.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly a third of obese individuals, termed metabolically benign obese, have a low burden of adiposity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities, while a substantial proportion of normal weight individuals possess risk factors. In cross-sectional analyses of 699 normal weight and 1294 overweight/obese postmenopausal women enrolled in a nested case-control stroke study ancillary to the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, we compared levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin among metabolically benign normal weight, at-risk normal weight, metabolically benign obese, and at-risk obese women using components of the ATP III definition of the metabolic syndrome (metabolically benign: ?1 of the 4 components; at-risk phenotype: ?2 components or diabetes). Overall, 382/699 normal weight women (54.6%) and 328/1194 overweight/obese women (27.5%) were metabolically benign. Among normal weight women, at-risk women had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to metabolically benign women; multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were significant for having leptin (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.28–5.01) and resistin (1.46; 1.03–2.07) in the top tertile and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.64; 1.81–3.84). Compared to metabolically benign overweight/obese women, at-risk obese women had higher odds of having leptin in the top tertile (1.62; 1.24–2.12) and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.78; 2.04–3.77). Overall, metabolically benign overweight/obese women had an intermediate adipokine profile (between at-risk obese and metabolically benign normal weight women), while at-risk normal weight women had a less favorable profile compared to metabolically benign normal weight women. As adiponectin was the only adipokine independent of BMI, it may be most likely to have a role in the etiological pathway of these phenotypes. PMID:24357553

  9. Higher levels of adiponectin in vascular endothelial cells are associated with greater brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Luttrell, Meredith J; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S; Christou, Demetra D

    2015-03-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects on the vascular endothelium. Recently adiponectin protein has been reported in murine vascular endothelial cells, however, whether adiponectin is present in human vascular endothelial cells remains unexplored. We sought to examine 1) adiponectin protein in vascular endothelial cells collected from older adults free of overt cardiovascular disease; 2) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin and in vivo vascular endothelial function; and 3) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin, circulating (plasma) adiponectin and related factors. We measured vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation using ultrasonography), vascular endothelial cell adiponectin (biopsy coupled with quantitative immunofluorescence) and circulating adiponectin (Mercodia, ELISA) in older, sedentary, non-smoking, men and women (55-79 years). We found that higher endothelial cell adiponectin was related with greater flow-mediated dilation (r = 0.43, P < 0.05) and greater flow-mediated dilation normalized for shear stress (r = 0.56, P < 0.01), but was not related with vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide (r = 0.04, P = 0.9). Vascular endothelial cell adiponectin was not related with circulating adiponectin (r = -0.14, P = 0.6). Endothelial cell and circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with adiposity, metabolic and other factors, but both were inversely associated with renal function (r = 0.44 to 0.62, P ? 0.04). In conclusion, higher endothelial cell adiponectin levels are associated with higher vascular endothelial function, independent of circulating adiponectin levels in older adults. PMID:25572013

  10. Adiponectin resistance and vascular dysfunction in the hyperlipidemic state

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xin Liang

    2010-01-01

    Insulin plays an important role in the stimulation of vascular nitric oxide production, with both short term (vasomotility and anti-thrombotic effects) and long term (smooth muscle cell growth and migration inhibition) benefits. Impaired vasodilatory response to insulin, the hallmark of vascular insulin resistance (IR), has important implications for circulatory pathophysiology. An association between adipokines and IR has been observed in both diabetic and nondiabetic states. Adiponectin (APN) is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine known to stimulate skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) oxidation and reduce lipid accumulation. Recent demonstrations of potential cross-talk between APN and insulin in vascular function regulation are particularly interesting. The lipid accumulation observed after chronic high-fat (HF) diets and in the obese state may reduce vascular response to APN, a pathologic state termed as APN resistance. This review highlights the importance of insulin sensitivity and APN activity in the maintenance of endothelial function. It explores the relationships between vascular IR and APN resistance in the hyperlipidemic pathological condition, representative of the metabolic syndrome. The investigation of vascular insulin and APN resistance provides not only better understanding of vascular pathophysiology, but also an opportunity for therapeutic targeting in individuals affected by the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20802503

  11. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI. PMID:24763046

  12. Disease modifying effect of adiponectin in model of ?-synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Sekiyama, Kazunari; Waragai, Masaaki; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Sugama, Shuei; Takenouchi, Takato; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Fujita, Masayo; Sekigawa, Akio; Rockenstein, Edward; Inoue, Satoshi; La Spada, Albert R; Masliah, Eliezer; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Growing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative diseases are associated with metabolic disorders, but the mechanisms are still unclear. Better comprehension of this issue might provide a new strategy for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated possible roles of adiponectin (APN), the antidiabetes protein, in the pathogenesis of ?-synucleinopathies. Methods Using biochemical and histological methods, we investigated autopsy brain of ?-synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and analyzed the effects of APN in cellular and in mouse models of ?-synucleinopathies. Results We observed that APN is localized in Lewy bodies derived from ?-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. In neuronal cells expressing ?-synuclein (?S), aggregation of ?S was suppressed by treatment with recombinant APN in an AdipoRI-AMP kinase pathway-dependent manner. Concomitantly, phosphorylation and release of ?S were significantly decreased by APN, suggesting that APN may be antineurodegenerative. In transgenic mice expressing ?S, both histopathology and movement disorder were significantly improved by intranasal treatment with globular APN when the treatment was initiated in the early stage of the disease. In a mouse model, reduced levels of guanosine and inosine monophosphates, both of which are potential stimulators of aggregation of ?S, might partly contribute to suppression of aggregation of ?S by APN. Interpretation Taken together, APN may suppress neurodegeneration through modification of the metabolic pathway, and could possess a therapeutic potential against ?-synucleinopathies. PMID:25126588

  13. Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network

    PubMed Central

    Aslibekyan, S; An, P; Frazier-Wood, AC; Kabagambe, EK; Irvin, MR; Straka, RJ; Tiwari, HK; Tsai, MY; Hopkins, PN; Borecki, IB; Ordovas, JM; Arnett, DK

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role for genetic mediators. This is the first genome-wide association study of fenofibrate effects on circulating adiponectin. Methods and Results Plasma adiponectin was measured in participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (n=793) before and after a 3-week daily treatment with 160 mg of fenofibrate. Associations between variants on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 and adiponectin were assessed using mixed linear models, adjusted for age, sex, site, and family. We observed a statistically significant (P=5×10?8) association between rs2384207 in 12q24, a region previously linked to several metabolic traits, and the fenofibrate-induced change in circulating adiponectin. Additionally, our genome-wide analysis of baseline adiponectin levels replicated the previously reported association with CDH13 and suggested novel associations with markers near the PCK1, ZBP1, TMEM18, and SCUBE1 genes. The findings from the single marker tests were corroborated in gene-based analyses. Biological pathway analyses suggested a borderline significant association between the EGF receptor signaling pathway and baseline adiponectin levels. Conclusions We present preliminary evidence linking several biologically relevant genetic variants to adiponectin levels at baseline and in response to fenofibrate therapy. Our findings provide support for fine-mapping of the 12q24 region to investigate the shared biological mechanisms underlying levels of circulating adiponectin and susceptibility to metabolic disease. PMID:23149075

  14. Metaproteomic characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in surface seawaters in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hong-Po; Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Dai, Min-Han; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important reservoir of carbon and energy in the marine environment and plays a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle. This study characterized proteins of high-molecular-weight DOM (size between 5 kDa and <0.2 ?m, HMW-DOM) collected from the surface seawaters in the South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach in combination with the global ocean sampling combined assembly protein database. A total of 367 protein groups matched by 993 unique peptides from 1991 spectra were identified from four surface HMW-DOM samples. Proteins with unknown taxonomic classification and function dominated the dissolved protein pool (43-53%) while the remaining proteins presented close similarity in biological origin among the four sampling sites. Rhodospirillaceae, Prochlorococcus, SAR11 clade and viruses were the major contributors to dissolved proteins in the HMW-DOM from surface seawaters while very few proteins were from the eukaryotic phytoplankton and no archaeal proteins were detected. Transporters with substrate specificities for nitrogen- and carbon-containing compounds (1.5% of the total spectra for each) were highly detected while no phosphate transporters were found, suggesting that carbon and nitrogen might be more limiting than phosphorus in the surface seawater. Viral proteins were assigned into three families: Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae, and the Myoviridae proteins were the most abundant. Among them, structure proteins were the most abundant viral proteins. This study indicated that the dissolved proteins of HMW-DOM presented compositional and biologically original homogeneity in the surface seawaters of the South China Sea, and bacteria and viruses dominated the dissolved protein pool.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue expression of adiponectin is lower in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Teijeira-Fernandez, E; Eiras, S; Grigorian-Shamagian, L; Fernandez, A; Adrio, B; Gonzalez-Juanatey, J R

    2008-12-01

    Low plasma adiponectin levels are related to a higher risk of development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension (HT). To date, there have been no studies supporting the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) expression of adiponectin and HT. We collected samples of EAT from 116 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery, mostly for coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 54), valve surgery (n = 49) or both (n = 12). Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were harvested from 85 patients. After RNA isolation, the expression of adiponectin was analysed by real-time retrotranscriptase (RT)-PCR. Baseline clinical data were obtained from medical records. The diagnosis of HT was established mostly by the patients' general physicians following current guidelines. We included 84 hypertensive and 32 non-hypertensive patients. Mean (+/-s.d.) age was 70.3+/-7.9 years. EAT expression levels of adiponectin were lower in hypertensives (14.0+/-3.6 vs 15.3+/-3.6 arbitrary units (a.u.), P = 0.06). This difference was statistically significant (odds ratio (OR) 0.828 per a.u., P = 0.020) after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, coronary artery disease (CAD), total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. However, SAT adiponectin mRNA levels were similar in hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients (15.3+/-4.2 vs 15.3+/-5.0 a.u., P > 0.99). Adjustment for potential confounding factors hardly altered this result. Our findings indicate that EAT expression of adiponectin may be associated with HT status independently of CAD or other comorbidities, whereas SAT expression does not. These results support the hypothesis that EAT is actively implicated in global cardiovascular risk, describing its association with HT. PMID:18650840

  16. Optimization of adiponectin-derived peptides for inhibition of cancer cell growth and signaling.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Laszlo; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Coroniti, Roberta; Knappe, Daniel; Nollmann, Friederike I; Hoffmann, Ralf; Wade, John D; Lovas, Sandor; Surmacz, Eva

    2015-05-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-excreted adipokine plays protective roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and exerts anti-cancer activities, partially by interfering with leptin-induced signaling. Previously we identified the active site in the adiponectin protein, and generated both a nanomolar monomeric agonist of the adiponectin receptor (10-mer ADP355) and an antagonist (8-mer ADP400) to modulate various adiponectin receptor-mediated cellular functions. As physiologically circulating adiponectin forms multimeric complexes, we also generated an agonist dimer with improved biodistribution and in vitro efficacy. In the current report, we attempted to optimize the monomeric agonist structure. Neither extension of the peptide up to 14-mer analogs nor reinstallation of native residues in permissible positions enhanced significantly the activity profile. The only substitutions that resulted in 5-10-fold improved agonistic activity were the replacement of turn-forming Gly4 and Tyr7 residues with Pro and Hyp, respectively, yielding the more active native ?-sheet structure. All peptides retained good stability in human serum exhibiting half-lives >2 h. The cellular efficacy and stability rankings among the peptides followed expected structure-activity relationship trends. To investigate whether simultaneous activation of adiponectin pathways and inhibition of leptin-induced signals can result in cytostatic and anti-oncogenic signal transduction processes, we developed a chimera of the leptin receptor antagonist peptide Allo-aca (placed to the N-terminus) and ADP355 (at the C-terminus). The in vitro anti-tumor activity and intracellular signaling of the chimera were dominated by the more active Allo-aca component. The ADP355 part, however, reversed unfavorable in vivo metabolic effects of the leptin receptor antagonist. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 104: 156-166, 2015. PMID:25683126

  17. Weight and metabolic effects of cpap in obstructive sleep apnea patients with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rapidly mitigates OSA in obese subjects but its metabolic effects are not well-characterized. We postulated that CPAP will decrease IR, ghrelin and resistin and increase adiponectin levels in this setting. Methods In a pre- and post-treatment, within-subject design, insulin and appetite-regulating hormones were assayed in 20 obese subjects with OSA before and after 6 months of CPAP use. Primary outcome measures included glucose, insulin, and IR levels. Other measures included ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels. Body weight change were recorded and used to examine the relationship between glucose regulation and appetite-regulating hormones. Results CPAP effectively improved hypoxia. However, subjects had increased insulin and IR. Fasting ghrelin decreased significantly while leptin, adiponectin and resistin remained unchanged. Forty percent of patients gained weight significantly. Changes in body weight directly correlated with changes in insulin and IR. Ghrelin changes inversely correlated with changes in IR but did not change as a function of weight. Conclusions Weight change rather than elimination of hypoxia modulated alterations in IR in obese patients with OSA during the first six months of CPAP therapy. PMID:21676224

  18. Modulation by adjuvants and carriers of the immunogenicity in xenogeneic hosts of mouse anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody MK2-23, an internal image of human high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z J; Yang, H; Liu, C C; Hirai, S; Ferrone, S

    1993-01-01

    The mouse anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mAb) MK2-23 recognizes an idiotope in the antigen-combining site of the immunizing anti-human high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA) mAb 763.74. Administration with an adjuvant of mAb MK2-23 conjugated to a carrier has been shown to induce anti-HMW-MAA antibodies both in syngeneic hosts and in patients with malignant melanoma. Adjuvant and carrier are required for the induction of anti-HMW-MAA immunity in BALB/c mice immunized with mAb MK2-23. Whether both adjuvant and carrier are required also in patients with malignant melanoma is not known and cannot be deduced from results obtained in a syngeneic animal model system. Therefore the present study has evaluated for the first time the effect of a carrier and an adjuvant on the immunogenicity of mAb MK2-23 in a xenogeneic host. Rabbits were selected for this purpose, since they have a constitutive expression of HMW-MAA in their normal tissues with a distribution similar to that in humans. The combined use of an adjuvant and a carrier enhances the immunogenicity of mAb MK2-23 in rabbits markedly more than each of them individually. Specifically, all the rabbits immunized with mAb MK2-23 conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and mixed with Freund's adjuvant (FA) produced antibodies which were shown with serological and immunochemical assays to be specific for HMW-MAA and to be both IgG and IgM. In contrast anti-HMW-MAA antibodies were detected in only one of the 3 rabbits immunized with mAb MK2-23 mixed with FA and were not detected in the rabbits immunized with mAb MK2-23 conjugated to KLH or with mAb MK2-23 without KLH and FA. These results indicate that active specific immunotherapy with mAb MK2-23 in patients with malignant melanoma is likely to benefit from the use of a carrier and an adjuvant, provide additional evidence that mAb MK2-23 bears the internal image of HMW-MAA, and suggest that the immune response elicited by mAb MK2-23 is T-cell dependent. PMID:8416734

  19. Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-05-12

    Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

  20. Characterization of a new wheat-Aegilops biuncialis addition line conferring quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Yao, C H; Yang, E N; Yin, M Q; Liu, C; Ren, Z L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new disomic addition line, 12-5-2, with 44 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. 12-5-2 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and C-banding revealed that 12-5-2 was a 1U(b) disomic addition line (ADL1U(b)). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-2 presented all high molecular weight glutenin subunits (7 + 8 and 2 + 12) of CN19 and 2 new subunits that were designated Ux and Uy. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness of 12-5-2 were significantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1U(b)-specific polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1041, TNAC1071, TNAC1-01, and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new ADL1U(b) 12-5-2 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end-product quality and resistance to disease. PMID:24615031

  1. Adiponectin ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by concomitantly activating Nrf2 and Brg1.

    PubMed

    Li, Haobo; Yao, Weifeng; Irwin, Michael G; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Liangqing; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy in diabetes that is associated with reduced adiponectin (APN) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) assists nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to activate HO-1 to increase myocardial antioxidant capacity in response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that reduced adiponectin (APN) impairs HO-1 induction which contributes to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and that supplementation of APN may ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy by activating HO-1 through Nrf2 and Brg1 in diabetes. Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were untreated or treated with APN adenovirus (1×10(9) pfu) 3 weeks after diabetes induction and examined and terminated 1 week afterward. Rat left ventricular functions were assessed by a pressure-volume conductance system, before the rat hearts were removed to perform histological and biochemical assays. Four weeks after diabetes induction, D rats developed cardiac hypertrophy evidenced as increased ratio of heart weight to body weight, elevated myocardial collagen I content, and larger cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (all P<0.05 vs C). Diabetes elevated cardiac oxidative stress (increased 15-F2t-isoprostane, 4-hydroxynonenal generation, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and superoxide anion generation), increased myocardial apoptosis, and impaired cardiac function (all P<0.05 vs C). In D rats, myocardial HO-1 mRNA and protein expression were reduced which was associated with reduced Brg1 and nuclear Nrf2 protein expression. All these changes were either attenuated or prevented by APN. In primarily cultured cardiomyocytes (CMs) isolated from D rats or in the embryonic rat cardiomyocytes cell line H9C2 cells incubated with high glucose (HG, 25 mM), supplementation of recombined globular APN (gAd, 2?g/mL) reversed HG-induced reductions of HO-1, Brg1, and nuclear Nrf2 protein expression and attenuated cellular oxidative stress, myocyte size, and apoptotic cells. Inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP (10?M) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) canceled all the above gAd beneficial effects. Moreover, inhibition of Nrf2 (either by the Nrf2 inhibitor luteolin or siRNA) or Brg1 (by siRNA) canceled gAd-induced HO-1 induction and cellular protection in CMs and in H9C2 cells incubated with HG. In summary, our present study demonstrated that APN reduced cardiac oxidative stress, ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and prevented left ventricular dysfunction in diabetes by concomitantly activating Nrf2 and Brg1 to facilitate HO-1 induction. PMID:25795513

  2. Tumor expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and lethal prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Kelly, Rachel; Gerke, Travis; Jordahl, Kristina; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A; Finn, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the role of adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) in aggressive prostate cancer we used immunohistochemistry to characterize AdipoR2 protein expression in tumor tissue for 866 men with prostate cancer from the Physicians' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. AdipoR2 tumor expression was not associated with measures of obesity, pathological tumor stage or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. However, AdipoR2 expression was positively associated with proliferation as measured by Ki-67 expression quartiles (P-trend < 0.0001), with expression of fatty acid synthase (P-trend = 0.001), and with two measures of angiogenesis (P-trend < 0.1). An inverse association was observed with apoptosis as assessed by the TUNEL assay (P-trend = 0.006). Using Cox proportional hazards regression and controlling for age at diagnosis, Gleason score, year of diagnosis category, cohort and baseline BMI, we identified a statistically significant trend for the association between quartile of AdipoR2 expression and lethal prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.02). The hazard ratio for lethal prostate cancer for the two highest quartiles, as compared to the two lowest quartiles, of AdipoR2 expression was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.0). Results were similar when additionally controlling for categories of PSA at diagnosis and Ki-67 expression quartiles. These results strengthen the evidence for the role of AdipoR2 in prostate cancer progression. PMID:25863129

  3. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in the Cylindropyrum and Vertebrata section of the Aegilops genus and identification of subunits related to those encoded by the Dx alleles of common wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wan; K. Liu; D. Wang; P. R. Shewry

    2000-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glute-nin subunit composition of seven species from the Cylindropyrum and Vertebrata sections of the Aegilops genus was studied using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Two subunits were detected in Ae. caudata and three in Ae. cylindrica. In both species, subunits showing electrophoretic mobility similar to that of 1Dx2 were present. Western blot analysis using\\u000a a monoclonal antibody

  4. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Georgoulidou, Anastasia; Roumeliotis, Athanasios; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; Giannakopoulou, Efstathia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Passadakis, Ploumis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Vargemezis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.002), on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P < 0.001). cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P = 0.022). Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (? = ?5.45, P = 0.023), independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought. PMID:26064982

  5. Adiponectin upregulates ABCA1 expression through liver X receptor alpha signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhiming; Bai, Rui; Liu, Ming; Xiao, Chuanshi; Bian, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and anti-atherosclerosis. Liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) can stimulate cholesterol efflux through ABCA1. It has been well known that adiponectin has cardiovascular protection. In this study, we attempted to clarify the effect of adiponectin on expression of ABCA1, and explored the role of LXR? in the regulation of ABCA1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results showed that adiponectin increased ABCA1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Consequently, adiponectin promoted cholesterol efflux and decreased cholesterol content in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, adiponectin up-regulated the expression of LXR? in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LXR? small interfering RNA completely abolished the promotion effects of adiponectin. In summary, adiponectin up-regulates ABCA1 expression via the LXR? pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This novel insight could prove useful for developing new treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25755733

  6. Weight set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-12-11

    Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

  7. High adiponectin levels fail to protect against the risk of hypertension and, in women, against coronary disease: involvement in autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Onat, Altan; Ayd?n, Mesut; Can, Günay; Köro?lu, Bayram; Karagöz, Ahmet; Altay, Servet

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether serum adiponectin protects against cardiometabolic risk in a population sample with prevailing metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Middle-aged adults representative of a general population with baseline circulating adiponectin measurements (n = 1224) were analyzed prospectively at a mean of 3.8 years’ follow-up, using continuous values or sex-specific tertiles. Total adiponectin was assayed by an ELISA kit. Type-2 diabetes was identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ? 140 mmHg and/or ? 90 mmHg and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Outcomes were predicted using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that were controlled for potential confounders. RESULTS: In models of multiple linear regression, sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting insulin (inverse) and, in men, age were significant independent covariates of serum adiponectin which further tended in women to be positively associated with serum creatinine. Cox regression analyses for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusted for sex, age, non-HDL cholesterol, waist circumference and C-reactive protein, revealed significant inverse association with adiponectin tertiles in men but not women (HR = 0.66; 95%CI: 0.32-1.38 for highest tertile). Cox regression for type-2 diabetes in a similar model (wherein glucose replaced non-HDL cholesterol), adiponectin tertiles appeared to protect in each gender. HR for incident hypertension roughly displayed unity in each of the adiponectin tertiles (P-trend = 0.67). CONCLUSION: High adiponectin levels failed to protect against the development of hypertension and, in women, against CHD, presumably paralleling impairment in renal function as well. Involvement of adiponectin in autoimmune complex with loss of antioxidative-antiatherogenic properties may be underlying. PMID:24147206

  8. Polymerization of Kraft lignin via ultrasonication for high-molecular-weight applications.

    PubMed

    Wells, Tyrone; Kosa, Matyas; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    Kraft lignin is an inexpensive and abundant byproduct of pulp mills that can be used in the synthesis of adhesives and carbon fibers along with energy production. Some of these material applications favor the utilization of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin. This study investigates the use of ultrasonics as a means to increase the degree of polymerization (DP) of highly purified Kraft lignin. Treated samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After 15 min of sustained cavitation, ultrasonicated lignin generated a high molecular-weight fraction (~35%) that had a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) over 450-fold greater than the initial Kraft lignin sample. (13)C-NMR and (31)P-NMR analysis indicated that the highly-polymerized fraction was enriched with C5 condensed phenolic structures. PMID:23714331

  9. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  10. Designer adiponectin receptor agonist stabilizes metabolic function and prevents brain injury caused by HIV protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pepping, Jennifer K; Otvos, Laszlo; Surmacz, Eva; Gupta, Sunita; Keller, Jeffrey N; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J

    2014-06-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (PI) are fundamental to combination antiretroviral therapy, which has revolutionized HIV clinical care and produced significant reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. However, PI administration is frequently associated with severe metabolic impairment, including lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance; all of which can contribute to cardiovascular and neurologic co-morbidities. Experimental and epidemiological data support a potentially important role for the adipokine adiponectin in both metabolic and neurologic physiology. This study examined if ADP355, a novel, peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist, could neutralize the detrimental effects of PI treatment in experimental animal models. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a clinically relevant, 4-week regimen of lopinavir/ritonavir, with daily injections of ADP355 administered only during the final 2 weeks of PI exposure. Comprehensive metabolic, neurobehavioral, and biochemical analyses revealed that ADP355 administration partially reversed PI-induced loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue, attenuated PI-induced hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoadiponectinemia, and prevented PI-induced cognitive impairment and brain injury. Collectively, these data reinforce the link between metabolic co-morbidities and cognitive impairment and suggest that pharmacological reactivation of adiponectin pathways could remediate key aspects of PI-induced metabolic syndrome in clinical settings. Furthermore, therapeutic targeting of adiponectin receptors could show utility in reducing the prevalence and/or severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:24562631

  11. Globular Adiponectin as a Complete Mesoangioblast Regulator: Role in Proliferation, Survival, Motility, and Skeletal Muscle Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Tania; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Giannoni, Elisa; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Parri, Matteo; Cossu, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Mesoangioblasts are progenitor endowed with multipotent mesoderm differentiation ability. Despite the promising results obtained with mesoangioblast transplantation in muscle dystrophy, an improvement of their efficient engrafting and survival within damaged muscles, as well as their ex vivo activation/expansion and commitment toward myogenic lineage, is highly needed and should greatly increase their therapeutic potential. We show that globular adiponectin, an adipokine endowed with metabolic and differentiating functions for muscles, regulates vital cues of mesoangioblast cell biology. The adipokine drives mesoangioblasts to entry cell cycle and strongly counteracts the apoptotic process triggered by growth factor withdrawal, thereby serving as an activating and prosurvival stem cell factor. In addition, adiponectin provides a specific protection against anoikis, the apoptotic death due to lack of anchorage to extracellular matrix, suggesting a key protective role for these nonresident stem cells after systemic injection. Finally, adiponectin behaves as a chemoattractive factor toward mature myotubes and stimulates their differentiation toward the skeletal muscle lineage, serving as a positive regulator in mesoangioblast homing to injured or diseased muscles. We conclude that adiponectin exerts several advantageous effects on mesoangioblasts, potentially valuable to improve their efficacy in cell based therapies of diseased muscles. PMID:20089845

  12. REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the chicken testis

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the chicken testis: influence, and ADIPOR2 expressions in the chicken testis and to determine whether sexual maturation affects in the chicken testis, where they are likely to influence steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell function

  13. Ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin as possible predictors of the hedonic value of odors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sokratis Trellakis; Sefik Tagay; Cornelia Fischer; Alena Rydleuskaya; André Scherag; Kirsten Bruderek; Sandra Schlegl; Jens Greve; Ali E. Canbay; Stephan Lang; Sven Brandau

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to a close relationship between the hormones of energy homeostasis and the olfactory system. Examples are the localization of leptin and adiponectin receptors in the olfactory system or increased activation of brain regions related to the palatability and the hedonic value of food in response to food pictures after application of ghrelin.In this preliminary study,

  14. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

  15. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. PMID:24001137

  16. Adiponectin and Leptin Induce VCAM-1 Expression in Human and Murine Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; López, Verónica; Gómez, Rodolfo; Lago, Francisca; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common rheumatic diseases, are characterized by irreversible degeneration of the joint tissues. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and adhesion molecules. Objective Up to now, the relationship between adipokines and adhesion molecules at cartilage level was not explored. Thus, the aim of this article was to study the effect of leptin and adiponectin on the expression of VCAM-1 in human and murine chondrocytes. For completeness, intracellular signal transduction pathway was also explored. Methods VCAM-1 expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis upon treatment with leptin, adiponectin and other pertinent reagents in cultured human primary chondrocytes. Signal transduction pathways have been explored by using specific pharmacological inhibitors in the adipokine-stimulated human primary chondrocytes and ATDC5 murine chondrocyte cell line. Results Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that leptin and adiponectin increase VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes. In addition, both adipokines have additive effect with IL-1?. Finally, we demonstrate that several kinases, including JAK2, PI3K and AMPK are at a play in the intracellular signalling of VCAM-1 induction. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that leptin and adiponectin could perpetuate cartilage-degrading processes by inducing also factors responsible of leukocyte and monocyte infiltration at inflamed joints. PMID:23285079

  17. L-4F treatment reduces adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    bone marrow (P , 0.039) and in cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchy- mal stem cells (P , 0 are associated with an inflammatory response in these cells. Adipose tissue plays an important role in insulinL-4F treatment reduces adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity

  18. Differential BBB interactions of three ingestive peptides: Obestatin, ghrelin, and adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihong Pan; Hong Tu; Abba J. Kastin

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous compounds, including ingestive peptides, can interact with the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in different ways. Here we used in vivo and in vitro techniques to examine the BBB permeation of the newly described satiety peptide obestatin. The fate of obestatin in blood and at the BBB was contrasted with that of adiponectin. By the sensitive multiple time-regression method, obestatin appeared

  19. Genetic Influences of Adiponectin on Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Menzaghi; Vincenzo Trischitta; Alessandro Doria

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence points to molecules secreted by the adi- pose tissue, or adipokines, as possible links between in- creased adipose mass and metabolic abnormalities. Among these molecules, adiponectin has drawn much attention because of its insulin-sensitizing and antiatherogenic ac- tions, suggesting that genetic deficits in its production or action may contribute to insulin resistance and coronary artery disease (CAD). A

  20. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

  1. The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with underlying biological mechanisms in the future. PMID:23991180

  2. Epistatic interaction between adiponectin and survivin gene polymorphisms in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Shahrabi-Farahani, Maryam; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Parvin; Fereidooni, Forozande; Larijani, Bagher; Shafiee, Gita; Amoli, Mahsa M

    2015-04-01

    Adiponectin appears to play an important role in the development and progression of several obesity-related malignancies. Also, overexpression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is associated with increased risk of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We also investigated whether epistasis between surviving and adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with EC risk in an Iranian population. The samples comprised formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections obtained from the archive of the pathology department, Imam-Khomeini Hospital and Firouzgar hospital. After DNA extraction the genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin (rs1063539, rs2241766) and survivin (rs9904341) gene were evaluated in the study. The increased frequency of ADIPOQ rs1063539C allele (CC+CG genotype) was associated with decreased EC risk [OR: 0.39(0.17-0.90)]. Survivin rs9904341C allele (CC+CG genotype) was associated with increased EC risk [crude OR: 2.75(1.27-5.95), adjusted OR: 2.93(1.27-6.76)]. We observed an epistatic interaction between survivin rs9904341 CC+CG genotype and ADIPOQ rs1063539 GG genotype increasing the risk of EC compared to those with other genotypes [OR: 4.86(1.88-12.54), P=0.001]. Our findings indicate that adiponectin might have a modulatory effect on survivin role and function in EC, which requires further investigation. PMID:25613698

  3. Phycocyanin prevents hypertension and low serum adiponectin level in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Mayuko; Kato, Shigeko; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Matsutake, Sachiko; Kamogawa, Mai; Hirao, Eri; Miyata, Ayako; Mori, Sawako; Yamaguchi, Noriaki; Suruga, Kazuhito; Omagari, Katsuhisa

    2013-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. Phycocyanin is a pigment found in the blue-green algae, Spirulina, which possesses antihypertensive effect. In this study, we hypothesized that phycocyanin derived from Spirulina exerts antihypertensive actions by improving endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. Spontaneously hypertensive/NIH-corpulent (SHR/NDmcr-cp) rats were divided into 4 groups then fed a normal diet with or without phycocyanin (2500-, 5000-, or 10,000-mg/kg diet) for 25 weeks. At 34 weeks of age, although systolic blood pressure was not significantly different among groups, phycocyanin-fed groups exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure. Serum levels of adiponectin and messenger RNA levels of adiponectin and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? in the adipose tissue of rats fed diets containing phycocyanin tended to be higher than those of rats fed a normal diet, but the differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed a significant and positive correlation between aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression levels, a downstream target of the adiponectin receptor, and serum adiponectin levels, although there were no significant differences in eNOS expression among groups. There was also no significant correlation between eNOS expression levels and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that long-term administration of phycocyanin may ameliorate systemic blood pressure by enhancing eNOS expression in aorta that is stimulated by adiponectin. Phycocyanin may be beneficial for preventing endothelial dysfunction-related diseases in metabolic syndrome. PMID:23684441

  4. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  5. Sleep fragmentation during late gestation induces metabolic perturbations and epigenetic changes in adiponectin gene expression in male adult offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Mutskov, Vesco; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2014-10-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF) is a common condition among pregnant women, particularly during late gestation. Gestational perturbations promote the emergence of adiposity and metabolic disease risk in offspring, most likely through epigenetic modifications. Adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression inversely correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The effects of SF during late gestation on metabolic function and AdipoQ expression in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) of offspring mice are unknown. Male offspring mice were assessed at 24 weeks after dams were exposed to SF or control sleep during late gestation. Increased food intake, body weight, VWAT mass, and insulin resistance, with reductions in AdipoQ expression in VWAT, emerged in SF offspring. Increased DNMT3a and -b and global DNA methylation and reduced histone acetyltransferase activity and TET1, -2, and -3 expression were detected in VWAT of SF offspring. Reductions in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and H3K4m3 and an increase in DNA 5-methylcytosine and H3K9m2 in the promoter and enhancer regions of AdipoQ emerged in adipocytes from VWAT and correlated with AdipoQ expression. SF during late gestation induces epigenetic modifications in AdipoQ in male offspring mouse VWAT adipocytes along with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Thus, altered gestational environments elicited by SF impose the emergence of adverse, long-lasting metabolic consequences in the next generation. PMID:24812424

  6. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard A.; Robeson, Michael S.; Shakya, Migun; Moberly, James G.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Gu, Baohua; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.22±2.33 µg DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46±0.25 µg DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio). Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1–V3 region) pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ?80% and ?400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU) recovered. PMID:25033199

  7. Competitive Stereocomplexation, Homocrystallization, and Polymorphic Crystalline Transition in Poly(l-lactic acid)/Poly(d-lactic acid) Racemic Blends: Molecular Weight Effects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pengju; Han, Lili; Bao, Jianna; Xie, Qing; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong

    2015-05-28

    Competitive crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and transition of poly(l-lactic acid)/poly(d-lactic acid) (PLLA/PDLA) racemic blends with a wide range of molecular weights (MWs) were symmetrically investigated. Stereocomplex (sc) crystallites are exclusively formed in the low-MW racemic blends. However, stereocomplexation is remarkably depressed, and homocrystallization becomes prevailing with increasing MWs of PLLA and PDLA. Suppressed stereocomplexation in high-MW (HMW) racemic blends is proposed to be due to the low chain diffusion ability and restricted intermolecular crystal nucleation/growth. Equilibrium melting point of sc crystallites first increases and then decreases as MW increases. Crystallinity and relative fraction of sc crystallites in racemic blends enhance with crystallization temperature (Tc), and the sc crystallites are merely formed at Tc > 170 °C because of their higher thermodynamic stability. In situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis reveals that the stereocomplexation and homocrystallization are successive rather than completely simultaneous, and the stereocomplexation is preceding homocrystallization in isothermal crystallization of HMW racemic blends. Both initial crystalline structure of homocrystallites (hc) and MW influence the heating-induced hc-to-sc transition of HMW racemic blend drastically; the hc-to-sc transition becomes easier with decreasing Tc and MW. After crystallization at the same temperature, sc crystallites show smaller long period than their hc counterparts. PMID:25940864

  8. Troglitazone and ?2Troglitazone Enhance Adiponectin Expression in Monocytes/Macrophages through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (?2troglitazone, (?2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-dependent pathway whereas ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and ?2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-?-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and ?2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and ?2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis. PMID:25328285

  9. Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maïmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2014-01-01

    Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported. PMID:24240086

  10. Adiponectin stimulates autophagy and reduces oxidative stress to enhance insulin sensitivity during high-fat diet feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Rai, Esther; Park, Min; Gabor, Tim V; Scheid, Michael P; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have characterized the antidiabetic effects of adiponectin, yet the precise cellular mechanisms in skeletal muscle, in particular, changes in autophagy, require further clarification. In the current study, we used a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type (WT) or adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) mice with and without adiponectin replenishment. Temporal analysis of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle insulin receptor substrate and Akt phosphorylation demonstrated exaggerated and more rapid HFD-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of Ad-KO mice. Superoxide dismutase activity, the reduced glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide ratio, and lipid peroxidation indicated that HFD-induced oxidative stress was corrected by adiponectin. Gene array analysis implicated several antioxidant enzymes, including Gpxs, Prdx, Sod, and Nox4, in mediating this effect. Adiponectin also attenuated palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species production in cultured myotubes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary muscle cells. Increased LC3-II and decreased p62 expression suggested that HFD induced autophagy in muscle of WT mice; however, these changes were not observed in Ad-KO mice. Replenishing adiponectin in Ad-KO mice increased LC3-II and Beclin1 and decreased p62 protein levels, induced fibroblast growth factor-21 expression, and corrected HFD-induced decreases in LC3, Beclin1, and ULK1 gene expression. In vitro studies examining changes in phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), LC3-II, and lysosomal enzyme activity confirmed that adiponectin directly induced autophagic flux in cultured muscle cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. We overexpressed an inactive mutant of Atg5 to create an autophagy-deficient cell model, and together with pharmacological inhibition of autophagy, demonstrated reduced insulin sensitivity under these conditions. In summary, adiponectin stimulated skeletal muscle autophagy and antioxidant potential to reduce insulin resistance caused by HFD. PMID:25071026

  11. Plasma adiponectin levels and incident glucose intolerance in Japanese–Brazilians: A seven-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcio F. Vendramini; Sandra R. G. Ferreira; Suely G. A. Gimeno; Teresa S. Kasamatsu; Walkiria L. Miranda; Regina S. Moisés

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether decreased baseline adiponectin levels are an independent risk factor for development of glucose intolerance in a population-based study of Japanese–Brazilians, a group with one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes worldwide. We examined 210 Japanese–Brazilians (97 male and 113 female, aged 56.7±10.1 years) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Plasma adiponectin,

  12. Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2013-10-01

    In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, ?13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

  13. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)] [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  14. Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 18–65?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35?±?6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

  15. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Hayley K; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2010-02-01

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2beta, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling. PMID:20074551

  16. Plasma adiponectin and serum advanced glycated end-products increase and plasma lipid concentrations decrease with increasing duration of type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gottsater; B Szelag; M Kangro; M Wroblewski; G Sundkvist

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively follow the concentrations of plasma adiponectin (p-adiponectin) and serum advanced glycation end-products (s-AGE) in relation to plasma lipids and retinopathy over 3 years in type 2 diabetic patients. Design and methods: P-adiponectin, s-AGE, plasma lipids and diabetic retinopathy were prospectively evaluated in 61 type 2 diabetic patients at baseline and at follow up 3 years later. Results:

  17. Novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) and insulin resistance (IRAR) indexes are useful integrated diagnostic biomarkers for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cia-Hin Lau; Sekaran Muniandy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and

  18. Genetic Variation in the Gene Encoding Adiponectin Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Japanese Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Hara; Philippe Boutin; Yasumichi Mori; Kazuyuki Tobe; Christian Dina; Kazuki Yasuda; Toshimasa Yamauchi; Shuichi Otabe; Terumasa Okada; Kazuhiro Eto; Hiroko Kadowaki; Ryoko Hagura; Yasuo Akanuma; Yoshio Yazaki; Ryozo Nagai; Matsuo Taniyama; Koichi Matsubara; Madoka Yoda; Yasuko Nakano; Satoshi Kimura; Motowo Tomita; Chikako Ito; Philippe Froguel; Takashi Kadowaki

    2002-01-01

    An adipocyte-derived peptide, adiponectin (also known as GBP28), is decreased in subjects with type 2 diabe- tes. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a diabetes susceptibility locus to chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene (APM1) is located. Herein, we present evidence of an association between frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene and type 2

  19. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n?=?2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55?±?11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9?±?3.0 ?g/mL vs. 6.0?±?4.4 ?g/mL; p?adiponectin (??=?? 0.13; p?adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (??=?0.18; p?=?0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of SAT. Insulin resistance mediated the association of SAT with adiponectin in women. Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men. PMID:23433085

  20. Weight Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods Eating smaller portions Drinking water instead of sugary drinks Being physically active Eating ...

  1. The Effects of Adiponectin and Leptin on Human Endothelial Cell Proliferation: A Live-Cell Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Granada Álvarez; M. Visitación Bartolomé; María Miana; Raquel Jurado-López; Ruben Martín; Pilar Zuluaga; Ernesto Martinez-Martinez; M. Luisa Nieto; Luis A. Alvarez-Sala; Jesús Millán; Vicente Lahera; Victoria Cachofeiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of adiponectin and leptin on the proliferation of the human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) was studied in the absence or presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). The participation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase\\/Akt (PI-3K\\/Akt) pathways in this effect were evaluated. We studied the effect of both adipokines on the motility, mitosis, proliferation and cell

  2. Genetic analysis of adiponectin and obesity in Hispanic families: the IRAS Family Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth S. Sutton; Stefanie Weinert; Carl D. Langefeld; Adrienne H. Williams; Joel K. Campbell; Mohammed F. Saad; Steven M. Haffner; Jill M. Norris; Donald W. Bowden

    2005-01-01

    Adiponectin, coded for by the APM1 gene, is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone implicated in energy homeostasis and obesity. Several genetic studies have observed evidence of association between APM1 gene polymorphisms and features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance and obesity. As part of a comprehensive genetic analysis of the APM1 gene, we have screened 96 unrelated individuals for

  3. Leptin/Adiponectin Ratio Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Nondiabetic Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Tak; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kim, Seung Jun; Yoo, Dong Eun; Lee, Mi Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Han, Seung Hyeok; Han, Dae-Suk; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    ? Background: The leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been suggested to be an atherosclerotic index for diabetic patients and a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with and without diabetes. Even though end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are well characterized by abnormal adipocytokine metabolism, the significance of alterations in the L/A ratio is largely unexplored in these patients. In this prospective study, we investigated the associations of leptin, adiponectin, and the L/A ratio with clinical outcomes in nondiabetic PD patients. ? Methods: The study included 131 stable nondiabetic ESRD patients who had been on PD for more than 3 months. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined at baseline. Mortality was evaluated over a 5-year follow-up period. ? Results: During the follow-up period, 22 patients died (16.8%), including 10 (45.5%) as a result of cardiovascular disease. The L/A ratio showed a significant positive correlation with body mass index [BMI (r = 0.47, p < 0.001)], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.32, p < 0.001), and triglycerides (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). In addition, we observed significant inverse correlations between the L/A ratio and percentage lean body mass (r = -0.30, p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.31, p = 0.001). In contrast to individual leptin and adiponectin levels, the L/A ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased mortality risk (relative risk: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.27; p = 0.003) even after adjustments for age and BMI. ? Conclusions: The L/A ratio might be better related to patient outcomes than adipocytokines are individually in nondiabetic patients undergoing PD. PMID:22855891

  4. Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Susceptibility and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ahasic, Amy M.; Zhao, Yang; Su, Li; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined for relationships with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and to circulating adipokine levels, but many gaps in knowledge remain. The current study aims to assess the association between potentially functional polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) risk and mortality. Methods Consecutive patients with risk factors for ARDS admitted to the ICU were enrolled and followed prospectively for development of ARDS. ARDS cases were followed through day 60 for all-cause mortality. 2067 patients were successfully genotyped using the Illumina CVD BeadChip high-density platform. Of these, 567 patients developed ARDS. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 9 SNPs were hypothesized to be functional based on their location (promoter, exon, or 3? untranslated region). These 9 SNPs were analyzed for association with ARDS case status and mortality among ARDS cases. Results After multivariable analysis and adjustment for multiple comparisons, no SNPs were significantly associated with ARDS case status. Among ARDS cases, homozygotes for the minor allele of rs2082940 (ADIPOQ) had increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.36–5.00, p?=?0.0039) after adjustment for significant covariates. The significance of this association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR_q?=?0.029). Conclusions A common and potentially functional polymorphism in ADIPOQ may impact survival in ARDS. Further studies are required to replicate these results and to correlate genotype with circulating adiponectin levels. PMID:24586568

  5. Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Imatoh; S. Tanihara; M. Miyazaki; Y. Momose; Y. Uryu; H. Une

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant\\u000a inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms are still\\u000a not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study to clarify the relationship between coffee consumption\\u000a and adiponectin levels in Japanese males. We also

  6. Increased serum adiponectin levels in type 1 diabetic patients with microvascular complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frystyk; L. Tarnow; T. Krarup Hansen; H.-H. Parving; A. Flyvbjerg

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Low serum adiponectin (ADPN) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetic patients, the relationship between ADPN and the presence of vascular complications is largely unknown.Methods  We investigated the relationship between serum ADPN and the presence of retinopathy, nephropathy and CVD in patients with type 1

  7. Adiponectin Deficiency Blunts Hypoxia-Induced Mobilization and Homing of Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Everaert, Bert R.; Nijenhuis, Vincent J.; Reith, Florence C. M.; Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the effects of adiponectin deficiency on circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) mobilization, homing, and neovascularization in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods & Results. AMI was induced in wild-type (WT) (n = 10) and adiponectin knockout (Adipoq?/?) mice (n = 7). One week after AMI, bone marrow (BM) concentration and mobilization of Sca-1+ and Lin?Sca-1+ progenitor cells (PCs) were markedly attenuated under Adipoq?/? conditions, as assessed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of HIF-1-dependent chemotactic factors, such as Cxcl12 (P = 0.005) and Ccl5 (P = 0.025), and vascular adhesion molecules, such as Icam1 (P = 0.010), and Vcam1 (P = 0.014), was significantly lower in the infarction border zone of Adipoq?/? mice. Histologically, Adipoq?/? mice evidenced a decrease in neovascularization capacity in the infarction border zone (P < 0.001). Overall, capillary density was positively correlated with Sca-1+ PC numbers in BM (P = 0.01) and peripheral blood (PB) (P = 0.005) and with the expression of the homing factors Cxcl12 (P = 0.013), Icam1 (P = 0.034) and Vcam1 (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Adiponectin deficiency reduced the BM reserve and mobilization capacity of CACs, attenuated the expression of hypoxia-induced chemokines and vascular adhesion molecules, and impaired the neovascularization capacity one week after AMI. PMID:24288546

  8. Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Megan R.; Port, Ava M.; Shah, Mitali; Bourland, Ashley C.; Istfan, Nawfal W.; Nelson, Kerrie P.; Gokce, Noyan; Apovian, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity. Methods Obese subjects (29.0–44.6 kg/m2) recruited from Boston Medical Center were randomized to a hypocaloric LFHC (n=26) or HFLC (n=29) diet for 12 weeks. Results The age range of subjects was 21–62 years. As a percentage of daily calories, the HFLC group consumed 33.5% protein, 56.0% fat and 9.6% carbohydrate and the LFHC group consumed 22.0% protein, 25.0% fat and 55.7% carbohydrate. The change in percent body weight, lean and fat mass, blood pressure, flow mediated dilation, hip:waist ratio, hemoglobin A1C, fasting insulin and glucose, and glucose and insulin response to a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test did not differ (P>0.05) between diets after 12 weeks. The HFLC group had greater mean decreases in serum triglyceride (P=0.07), and hs-CRP (P=0.03), and greater mean increases in HDL cholesterol (P=0.004), and total adiponectin (P=0.045) relative to the LFHC. Secreted adipose tissue adiponectin or TNF-? did not differ after weight loss for either diet. Conclusions Relative to the LFHC group, the HFLC group had greater improvements in blood lipids and systemic inflammation with similar changes in body weight and composition. This small-scale study suggests that HFLC diets may be more beneficial to cardiovascular health and inflammation in free-living obese adults compared to LFHC diets. PMID:24075505

  9. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  10. Inverse correlation between serum adiponectin and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Bo; Li, Wen-Juan; Fu, Fang-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Jiao, Lei; Cao, Li-Jun; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study was set out to determine the association of serum adiponectin and oxidative stress in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. 106 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were recruited. Simultaneously scanning of the extracranial carotid arteries, common iliac arteries and femoral arteries were performed for measurement of intima media thickness (IMT) in all subjects. Atherosclerotic plaque was defined as IMT value >1.3 mm. The serum levels of adiponectin and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?), a marker of oxidative stress, were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metabolic parameters were detected by clinical chemistry. According to the results, all of 106 patients with type 2 diabetes were newly diagnosed within 12 months, and aged 60.68±4.32 years. The level of serum adiponectin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients was lower than that in healthy subjects. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerotic plaques had lower serum adiponectin level than those without atherosclerotic plaques. Serum 8-iso-PGF2? level in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients was higher than that in healthy subjects. Further analyses showed that serum adiponectin level was reversely associated with serum 8-iso-PGF2? in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. Additionally, the atherosclerotic plaques in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were positively correlated with total cholesterol, but negatively correlated with serum adiponectin level. Taken together, this study suggests that in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, serum adiponectin levels are probably associated with oxidative stress and also with the severity of atherosclerosis.

  11. Effects of short-term lifestyle activity modification on adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations were reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known, whether exercise - induced change in AT, increases adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term lifestyle activity modification (LAM) on adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations. Sixteen obese and overweight middle-aged men (age, 35-50 years) with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to LAM group (n=8) or control group (n=8). The subjects in LAM group walked two miles in 30 min on a treadmill on 4 days per week for 12 weeks according to the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Sports Medicine. The results showed that body mass, body mass index, central visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume and hip and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (hip and thigh SAT) volume were decreased in the LAM group compared to the control group (P<0.05). Adiponectin mRNA in abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous AT were increased significantly in the LAM group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while plasma adiponectin concentrations, hs-CRP and insulin resistance did not change significantly. In conclusion, adiponectin mRNA levels increase after 12 weeks of LAM; however, plasma adiponectin levels were not affected by this protocol in obese and overweight middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23834543

  12. Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1? Regulates a SOCS3-STAT3-Adiponectin Signal Transduction Pathway in Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changtao; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Li, Fei; Qu, Aijuan; Gavrilova, Oksana; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) regulates pathways in energy metabolism that become dysregulated in obesity. Earlier studies revealed that HIF1? in adipose tissue is markedly elevated in high-fat diet-fed mice that are obese and insulin-resistant. Genetic ablation of HIF1? in adipose tissue decreased insulin resistance and obesity, accompanied by increased serum adiponectin levels. However, the exact mechanism whereby HIF1? regulates adiponectin remains unclear. Here, acriflavine (ACF), an inhibitor of HIF1?, induced the expression of adiponectin and reduced the expression of SOCS3 in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that HIF1? suppressed the expression of adiponectin through a SOCS3-STAT3 pathway. Socs3 was identified as a novel HIF1? target gene based on chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays. STAT3 directly regulated adiponectin in vitro in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACF was found to prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In vivo, ACF also regulated the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway, and inhibition of HIF1? in adipose tissue was essential for ACF to improve the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway to counteract insulin resistance. This study provides evidence for a novel target gene and signal transduction pathway in adipocytes and indicates that inhibitors of HIF1? have potential utility for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23255598

  13. Development, validation, and pilot application of a semiquantitative Western blot analysis and an ELISA for bovine adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, M; Mielenz, B; Singh, S P; Kopp, C; Heinz, J; Häussler, S; Sauerwein, H

    2013-04-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived glycoprotein circulating as highly abundant multimers. It regulates glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In ruminants, valid data about serum concentrations and tissue-specific protein expression are lacking, and we, therefore, aimed to generate a polyclonal antibody against bovine adiponectin to apply it in immunodetection. The specificity of the purified anti-adiponectin antibody was established by Western blot analysis with the use of reducing and denaturing conditions applied to both the purified protein and the bovine serum samples. Besides bovine serum, the applicability of the antibody for immunodetection of adiponectin was confirmed for the supernatant fluid of in vitro-differentiated bovine adipocytes, for protein extracts from bovine adipose tissue, and also in a multispecies comparison: bands comparable in size with monomeric bovine adiponectin were obtained under denaturing conditions in serum of camel, horse, human, mouse, pig, roe deer, and sheep. In addition, when used in immunohistochemistry on bovine adipose tissue sections, a characteristic adipocyte-specific staining pattern was obtained with this antibody. The antibody was used for establishing a semiquantitative Western blot procedure and the development of an ELISA. Both methods were extensively validated and were first applied to characterize the serum adiponectin concentrations in multiparous dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, that is, 3 wk before until 5 wk after calving. With both assays a time effect (P = 0.017, P = 0.026, respectively) with lowest values at the day of parturition was observed. We thus established 2 useful tools to validly assess bovine adiponectin at the protein level. PMID:23291015

  14. Effect of dietary lipids on circulating adiponectin: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Silva, Flávia M; de Almeida, Jussara C; Piccoli, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Filipe V; Sost, Mônica M; Leitão, Cristiane B; Remonti, Luciana L R; Umpierre, Daniel; Reis, André F; Canani, Luis H; de Azevedo, Mirela J; Gerchman, Fernando

    2014-10-28

    Different dietary interventions have been identified as potential modifiers of adiponectin concentrations, and they may be influenced by lipid intake. We identified studies investigating the effect of dietary lipids (type/amount) on adiponectin concentrations in a systematic review with meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted until July 2013 using databases such as Medline, Embase and Scopus (MeSH terms: 'adiponectin', 'dietary lipid', 'randomized controlled trials (RCT)'). Inclusion criteria were RCT in adults analysing adiponectin concentrations with modification of dietary lipids. Among the 4930 studies retrieved, fifty-three fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were grouped as follows: (1) total dietary lipid intake; (2) dietary/supplementary n-3 PUFA; (3) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation; (4) other dietary lipid interventions. Diets with a low fat content in comparison to diets with a high-fat content were not associated with positive changes in adiponectin concentrations (twelve studies; pooled estimate of the difference in means: -0·04 (95% CI -0·82, 0·74) ?g/ml). A modest increase in adiponectin concentrations with n-3 PUFA supplementation was observed (thirteen studies; 0·27 (95% CI 0·07, 0·47) ?g/ml). Publication bias was found by using Egger's test (P= 0·01) and funnel plot asymmetry. In contrast, CLA supplementation reduced the circulating concentrations of adiponectin compared with unsaturated fat supplementation (seven studies; -0·74 (95% CI -1·38, -0·10) ?g/ml). However, important sources of heterogeneity were found as revealed by the meta-regression analyses of both n-3 PUFA and CLA supplementation. Results of new RCT would be necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:25192422

  15. Adiponectin may contribute to synovitis and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis by stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes more than proinflammatory mediators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Mi Choi; Yeon-Ah Lee; Sang-Hoon Lee; Seung-Jae Hong; Dae-Hyun Hahm; Sang-Yun Choi; Hyung-In Yang; Myung Chul Yoo; Kyoung Soo Kim

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of arthritis is still controversial. This study was performed to examine whether adiponectin is involved in joint inflammation and destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). METHODS: Synovial cells from RA patients were treated with adiponectin or interleukin (IL)-1?

  16. Cut-Off Value of Total Adiponectin for Managing Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Male Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Akiko; Yonemoto, Koji; Shikama, Yosuke; Aki, Nanako; Kosugi, Chisato; Tamura, Ayako; Ichihara, Takako; Minagawa, Takako; Kuwamura, Yumi; Miyoshi, Masashi; Nakao, Takayuki; Funaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the optimal cut-off value of serum total adiponectin for managing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in male Japanese workers. Methods A total of 365 subjects without MetS aged 20–60 years were followed up prospectively for a mean of 3.1 years. The accelerated failure-time model was used to estimate time ratio (TR) and cut-off value for developing MetS. Results During follow-up, 45 subjects developed MetS. Age-adjusted TR significantly declined with decreasing total adiponectin level (? 4.9, 5.0–6.6, 6.7–8.8 and ? 8.9 ?g/ml, P for trend = 0.003). In multivariate analyses, TR of MetS was 0.12 (95% CI 0.02–0.78; P = 0.03) in subjects with total adiponectin level of 5.0–6.6 ?g/ml, and 0.15 (95% CI 0.02–0.97; P = 0.047) in subjects with total adiponectin level ? 4.9 ?g/ml compared with those with total adiponectin level ? 8.9 ?g/ml. The accelerated failure-time model showed that the optimal cut-off value of total adiponectin for managing the risk of developing MetS was 6.2 ?g/ml. In the multivariate-adjusted model, the mean time to the development of MetS was 78% shorter for total adiponectin level ? 6.2 ?g/ml compared with > 6.2 ?g/ml (TR 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08–0.64, P = 0.005). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the cut-off value for managing the risk of developing MetS is 6.2 ?g/ml in male Japanese workers. Subjects with total adiponectin level ? 6.2 ?g/ml developed MetS more rapidly than did those with total adiponectin level > 6.2 ?g/ml. PMID:25705909

  17. Fish oil N-3 fatty acids increase adiponectin and decrease leptin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ? 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ? 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ? 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  18. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Colado Simão, Andréa Name; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ? 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ? 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ? 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  19. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

  20. The Myocyte Expression of Adiponectin Receptors and PPAR? Is Highly Coordinated and Reflects Lipid Metabolism of the Human Donors

    PubMed Central

    Ordelheide, Anna-Maria; Heni, Martin; Gommer, Nadja; Gasse, Lisa; Haas, Carina; Guirguis, Alke; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Muscle lipid oxidation is stimulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? or adiponectin receptor signalling. We studied human myocyte expression of the PPAR? and adiponectin receptor genes and their relationship to lipid parameters of the donors. The mRNA levels of the three adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin, were highly interrelated (r ? 0.91). However, they were not associated with GPBAR1, an unrelated membrane receptor. In addition, the adiponectin receptors were positively associated with PPAR? expression (r ? 0.75). However, they were not associated with PPAR?. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, PPAR? was a significant determinant of T-cadherin (P = .0002). However, pharmacological PPAR? activation did not increase T-cadherin expression. The myocyte expression levels of AdipoR1 and T-cadherin were inversely associated with the donors' fasting plasma triglycerides (P < .03). In conclusion, myocyte expression of PPAR? and the adiponectin receptors are highly coordinated, and this might be of relevance for human lipid metabolism in vivo. PMID:21331343

  1. Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Aged Male Adiponectin Knockout Mice Is Associated With Autophagy Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jahng, James Won Suk; Turdi, Subat; Kovacevic, Vera; Dadson, Keith; Li, Ren-Ke; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, especially in the elderly or obese and diabetic populations. Various remodeling events have been characterized, which collectively contribute to the progression of heart failure. Of particular interest, autophagy has recently emerged as an important determinant of cardiac remodeling and function. Here, we used aged, 13-month-old, male adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) or wild-type (wt) mice subjected to aortic banding to induce pressure overload (PO). Cardiac strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography indicated significant dysfunction at an earlier stage in Ad-KO than wt. Analysis of autophagy by Western blotting for Light Chain 3 or microtubule-associated proteins 1B and Sequestosome 1 together with transmission electron microscopy of left ventricular tissue indicated a lack of PO-induced cardiac autophagy in Ad-KO compared with wt mice. Associated with this was mitochondrial degeneration and evidence of enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Western blotting for Light Chain 3 or microtubule-associated proteins 1B, examination of flux using tandem fluoresent tagged-Light Chain 3, and analysis of lysosomal activity in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts treated with adiponectin indicated that adiponectin enhanced autophagy flux. In conclusion, adiponectin directly stimulates autophagic flux and the lack of autophagy in response to PO in aged mice lacking adiponectin may contribute to cellular events which exacerbate the development of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25961840

  2. The Effect of Adiponectin on Osteonectin Gene Expression by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein-Treated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niknam, Sara; Ghatreh-Samani, Keihan; Farrokhi, Effat

    2015-01-01

    Osteonectin is a bone- associated protein involved in vascular calcification. Adiponectin may protect against cardiovascular disease but possible effects on vascular calcification have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of adiponectin on oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)- induced expression of osteonectin in human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (HA/VSMCs). HA/VSMCs were cultured in F12K media and then treated with oxLDL (100 µg/mL) in the presence or absence of adoponectin (5 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 hours. mRNA expression and protein level of osteonectin were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. After exposure to oxLDL, osteonectin expression increased 1.62 ± 0.23- and 6.62 ± 0.48-fold after 24 and 48 hours respectively compared to the control. Adiponectin increased oxLDL- induced osteonectin expression in a time-dependent manner after 24 and 48 hours (3.24 ± 0.39- and 24.93 ± 2.15-fold, respectively). Western blotting confirmed that osteonectin protein was upregulated by adiponectin.Our data suggest that OxLDL might cause the increase of osteonectin expression both at mRNA and protein level. This upregulation is intensified by adiponectin. PMID:25815284

  3. Relationship between Birth Weight and Metabolic Status in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Jackman, Michelle; Mahmud, Farid H.; Clarson, Cheril

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10–16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64?g (range 1899–4990?g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (? Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and ? insulin = 10?pmol/L for birth weight <2.5?kg versus >4.5?kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance. PMID:24555145

  4. Comparative evaluation of angiotensin II receptor blockers on HOMA-R and adiponectin release in hypertensive patients with mild type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Tomonaga; Yasuhiko Iwamoto

    2010-01-01

    Hypertensive patients with diabetes have been reported to be considered at higher risk for the onset of cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin, an anti-atherogenic adipocytokine, has been reported to improve insulin resis- tance. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effects of the angiotensin II receptor blockers, valsartan and telmisartan, on insulin resistance and adiponectin release in hypertensive patients

  5. Clear detection of ADIPOQ locus as the major gene for plasma adiponectin: Results of genome-wide association analyses including 4659 European individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris M. Heid; Peter Henneman; Andrew Hicks; Stefan Coassin; Thomas Winkler; Yurii S. Aulchenko; Christian Fuchsberger; Kijoung Song; Marie-France Hivert; Dawn M. Waterworth; Nicholas J. Timpson; J. Brent Richards; John R. B. Perry; Toshiko Tanaka; Najaf Amin; Barbara Kollerits; Irene Pichler; Ben A. Oostra; Barbara Thorand; Rune R. Frants; Thomas Illig; Josée Dupuis; Beate Glaser; Tim Spector; Jack Guralnik; Josephine M. Egan; Jose C. Florez; David M. Evans; Nicole Soranzo; Stefania Bandinelli; Olga D. Carlson; Timothy M. Frayling; Keith Burling; George Davey Smith; Vincent Mooser; Luigi Ferrucci; James B. Meigs; Peter Vollenweider; Ko Willems van Dijk; Peter Pramstaller; Florian Kronenberg; Cornelia M. van Duijn

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivePlasma adiponectin is strongly associated with various components of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are highly heritable and differ between men and women. We therefore aimed to investigate the genetics of plasma adiponectin in men and women.

  6. Adiponectin inhibits spontaneous and catecholamine-induced lipolysis in human adipocytes of non-obese subjects through AMPK-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wedellová, Z; Dietrich, J; Siklová-Vítková, M; Kološtová, K; Ková?iková, M; Dušková, M; Brož, J; Vedral, T; Stich, V; Polák, J

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine increasing glucose and fatty acid metabolism and improving insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of adiponectin in the regulation of adipocyte lipolysis. Human adipocytes isolated from biopsies obtained during surgical operations from 16 non-obese and 17 obese subjects were incubated with 1) human adiponectin (20 microg/ml) or 2) 0.5 mM AICAR - activator of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase). Following these incubations, isoprenaline was added (10(-6) M) to investigate the influence of adiponectin and AICAR on catecholamine-induced lipolysis. Glycerol concentration was measured as lipolysis marker. We observed that adiponectin suppressed spontaneous lipolysis by 21 % and isoprenaline-induced lipolysis by 14 % in non-obese subjects. These effects were not detectable in obese individuals, but statistically significant differences in the effect of adiponectin between obese and non-obese were not revealed by two way ANOVA test. The inhibitory effect of AICAR and adiponectin on lipolysis was reversed by Compound C. Our results suggest, that adiponectin in physiological concentrations inhibits spontaneous as well as catecholamine-induced lipolysis. This effect might be lower in obese individuals and this regulation seems to involve AMPK. PMID:20945960

  7. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  8. Chemokine and Free Fatty Acid Levels in Insulin-Resistant State of Successful Pregnancy: A Preliminary Observation

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Katsuhiko; Noguchi, Taketoshi; Sado, Toshiyuki; Tsunemi, Taihei; Shigetomi, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Seiji; Akasaka, Juria; Koike, Natsuki; Oi, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Increased insulin resistance and inflammatory action are observed in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), but similar insulin resistance is observed also in successful pregnancy. To estimate insulin resistance and inflammatory activity in normal pregnancy and PIH, serum concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA; corrected with albumin to estimate unbound FFA), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured in severe PIH patients with a BMI less than 25?kg/m2 and were measured 3 times during the course of pregnancy in women with normal pregnancies. FFA/albumin, MCP-1, and HMW adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in PIH patients than in women with normal pregnancies. The 3 measurements of FFA/albumin showed a significant increase through the course of uncomplicated pregnancies. In contrast, MCP-1 and HMW adiponectin were significantly decreased during the course of pregnancy. These results suggest that the reduced MCP-1 concentration in normal pregnancy may be a pathway to inhibit the induction of pathological features from physiological insulin resistance and homeostatic inflammation. PMID:22496600

  9. The Association of Adiponectin Gene Promoter Variations with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Shi, Li; Zhou, Jingxian; Ma, Qianli; Yao, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in vitro studies have demonstrated that adiponectin has antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties. Additionally, serum adiponectin levels have been associated with the risk of several cancers; specifically, serum adiponectin was significantly lower in lung cancer patients with advanced-stage disease. In this study, we examined the association of adiponectin gene promoter variations associated with adiponectin gene expression and plasma levels in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Han Chinese population. A total of 319 patients with NSCLC and 489 healthy individuals were recruited to evaluate the association of four adiponectin gene promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (SNP-12140G>A, SNP-11426A>G, SNP-11391G>A and SNP-11377C>G) with NSCLS risk. Additionally, we constructed haplotypes of these four SNPs and evaluated the association of these haplotypes with NSCLS risk. Our results showed that among these four SNPs, only SNP-12140G>A was associated with NSCLC risk(P<0.05). The haplotype analysis showed that no haplotype was associated with NSCLC after performing a Bonferroni correction (P>0.05). Additionally, an association analysis of the four SNPs stratified into pathologic stages I+II and III+IV showed that these SNPs did not exhibit significant differences between pathologic stages I+II and III+IV. Moreover, we did not observe any differences in allele and genotype frequency for these SNPs between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Our results indicated that the G allele of SNP-12140may be a risk factor for NSCLC (OR = 1.516; 95% CI: 1.098–2.094) in this Han Chinese population. PMID:26018909

  10. Correlation study on adiponectin gene SNP45 and long-term oxidative stress in patients with diabetes and carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Piao, Lianshan; Han, Yanhua; Li, Dan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the adiponectin gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)45 T/G and long-term oxidative stress in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with T2DM were divided into non-carotid atherosclerosis and carotid atherosclerosis groups, which were then subsequently divided into TT and TG + GG groups according to the adiponectin SNP45 T/G genotypes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, TaqMan probe quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-TaqMan, color Doppler and other methods were used to determine the adiponectin levels, gene polymorphisms, acquired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A3243G somatic cell mutation rates and the carotid intima-media thickness. The somatic cell mutation rate of acquired mtDNA A3243A/G in the T2DM carotid atherosclerosis group was significantly higher compared with the group without carotid atherosclerosis. In addition, the acquired mtDNA A3243A/G somatic cell mutation rate in the T2DM carotid atherosclerosis group with the adiponectin gene SNP45 TT genotype was significantly lower compared with the SNP45 TG/GG genotype group. T2DM combined with carotid atherosclerosis was associated with long-term oxidative stress. In addition, adiponectin gene SNP45 T/G was associated with increased mtDNA A3243A/G somatic mutation rates in T2DM patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Therefore, adiponectin gene polymorphisms may lead to diabetes atherosclerosis through oxidative stress. PMID:25120586

  11. Overexpression of the Adiponectin Receptor AdipoR1 in Rat Skeletal Muscle Amplifies Local Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S. A.; Hoehn, K. L.; Lawrence, R. T.; Sawbridge, L.; Talbot, N. A.; Tomsig, J. L.; Turner, N.; Cooney, G. J.; Whitehead, J. P.; Kraegen, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine whose plasma levels are inversely related to degrees of insulin resistance (IR) or obesity. It enhances glucose disposal and mitochondrial substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle and its actions are mediated through binding to receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). However, the in vivo significance of adiponectin sensitivity and the molecular mechanisms of muscle insulin sensitization by adiponectin have not been fully established. We used in vivo electrotransfer to overexpress AdipoR1 in single muscles of rats, some of which were fed for 6 wk with chow or high-fat diet (HFD) and then subjected to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. After 1 wk, the effects on glucose disposal, signaling, and sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in test vs. contralateral control muscles. AdipoR1 overexpression (OE) increased glucose uptake and glycogen accumulation in the basal and insulin-treated rat muscle and also in the HFD-fed rats, locally ameliorating muscle IR. These effects were associated with increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3?. AdipoR1 OE also caused increased phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase, and acetyl-coA carboxylase as well as increased protein levels of adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif-1 and adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, and uncoupling protein-3, indicative of increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Although neither HFD feeding nor AdipoR1 OE caused generalized changes in sphingolipids, AdipoR1 OE did reduce levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate, ceramide 18:1, ceramide 20:2, and dihydroceramide 20:0, plus mRNA levels of the ceramide synthetic enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase and sphingolipid ?-4 desaturase, changes that are associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data demonstrate that enhancement of local adiponectin sensitivity is sufficient to improve skeletal muscle IR. PMID:22989629

  12. Additive Regulation of Adiponectin Expression by the Mediterranean Diet Olive Oil Components Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-?. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 ?mol/L OA, 0.1-20 ?mol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-?. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-?-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-? alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-? alone). HT and OA also prevented—by 35%—TNF-?-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR?. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPAR? expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPAR? suppression by TNF-?, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-?-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPAR? suppression. PMID:26030149

  13. Additive regulation of adiponectin expression by the mediterranean diet olive oil components oleic Acid and hydroxytyrosol in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-?. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 ?mol/L OA, 0.1-20 ?mol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-?. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-?-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-? alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-? alone). HT and OA also prevented-by 35%-TNF-?-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR?. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPAR? expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPAR? suppression by TNF-?, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-?-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPAR? suppression. PMID:26030149

  14. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT). Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) in 15 patients (4 males), age (years) 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD) with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1) and in 20 subjects (2 males), treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2), where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1), seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2), and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3). Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p<0.001). In Group 2 RIT did not cause any acute change in serum MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 or adiponectin (V1 vs V2). However, there was a significant increase in serum adiponectin [from 15201±8860 ng/ml (V1) to 19373±8657 ng/ml (at V3), p<0.05], and TIMP-2 at V3 [from 129±45 ng/ml (V1) to 149±38 ng/ml (V3), p<0.01]. There was no significant change MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 between V1 and V3. There was a decrease in FT4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1) to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3), and from 10.0±5.65 (V1) to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2), p<0.01, for FT4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin might reflect favourable effects of radioiodine administration on cardiovascular risk factors, while an increase in TIMP-2 (principal MMP-2 inhibitor) might lead to a decrease in free MMP-2 concentrations. PMID:23107223

  15. Globular adiponectin increases GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake but reduces glycogen synthesis in rat skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Ceddia; R. Somwar; A. Maida; X. Fang; G. Bikopoulos; G. Sweeney

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to determine whether adiponectin elicits glucose uptake via increased GLUT4 translocation and to investigate the metabolic fate of glucose in skeletal muscle cells treated with globular adiponectin.Materials and methods  Basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-d-[3H]glucose uptake, cell surface myc-tagged GLUT4 content, production of 14CO2 by oxidation of d-[U-14C]glucose and [1-14C]oleate, and incorporation of d-[U-14C]glucose into glycogen and

  16. Smoking and Diabetes: Is the Association Mediated by Adiponectin, Leptin, or C-reactive Protein?

    PubMed Central

    Hilawe, Esayas Haregot; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Li, Yuanying; Uemura, Mayu; Wang, Chaochen; Chiang, Chifa; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Zhang, Yan; Kawazoe, Nobuo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between cigarette smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes is well established, its mechanisms are yet to be clarified. This study examined the possible mediating effects of adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on the smoking-diabetes association. Methods Between 2002 and 2011, we followed 3338 Japanese workers, aged 35–66 years, who were enrolled in the second Aichi workers’ cohort study. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to determine the hazard ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between smoking status and risk of diabetes. A multiple mediation model with bootstrapping was used to estimate the magnitude and the respective bias-corrected (BC) 95% CIs of the indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through the three biomarkers. Results Relative to never smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly elevated in current (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.25–2.46) and ex-smokers (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.22). The indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through adiponectin levels were statistically significant among light (point estimate 0.033, BC 95% CI 0.005–0.082), moderate (point estimate 0.044, BC 95% CI 0.010–0.094), and heavy smokers (point estimate 0.054, BC 95% CI 0.013–0.113). In contrast, neither the indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through leptin nor CRP levels were significant, as the corresponding BC 95% CIs included zero. Conclusions In our analysis, adiponectin concentration appeared to partially mediate the effect of smoking on diabetes, while leptin and CRP levels did not. PMID:25400076

  17. Myofibroblasts in Murine Cutaneous Fibrosis Originate From Adiponectin-Positive Intradermal Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Roberta Goncalves; Korman, Benjamin D.; Wei, Jun; Wood, Tammara A.; Graham, Lauren V.; Whitfield, Michael L.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Varga, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of myofibroblasts in fibrotic skin is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), but the origins of these cells remain unknown. Because loss of intradermal adipose tissue is a consistent feature of cutaneous fibrosis, we sought to examine the hypothesis that myofibroblasts populating fibrotic dermis derive from adipocytic progenitors. Methods We performed genetic fate mapping studies to investigate the loss of intradermal adipose tissue and its potential role in fibrosis in mice with bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Modulation of adipocytic phenotypes ex vivo was investigated in adipose tissue–derived cells in culture. Results A striking loss of intradermal adipose tissue and its replacement with fibrous tissue were consistently observed in mice with bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Loss of adipose tissue and a decline in the expression of canonical adipogenic markers in lesional skin preceded the onset of dermal fibrosis and expression of fibrogenic markers. Ex vivo, subcutaneous adipocytes were driven by transforming growth factor ? to preferentially undergo fibrogenic differentiation. Cell fate mapping studies in mice with the adiponectin promoter–driven Cre recombinase transgenic construct indicated that adiponectin-positive progenitors that are normally confined to the intradermal adipose tissue compartment were distributed throughout the lesional dermis over time, lost their adipocytic markers, and expressed myofibroblast markers in bleomycin-treated mice. Conclusion These observations establish a novel link between intradermal adipose tissue loss and dermal fibrosis and demonstrate that adiponectin-positive intradermal progenitors give rise to dermal myofibroblasts. Adipose tissue loss and adipocyte–myofibroblast transition might be primary events in the pathogenesis of cutaneous fibrosis that represent novel potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25504959

  18. Weighting Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Wettschereck I; David W. Aha

    1995-01-01

    . Many case-based reasoning algorithms retrieve cases using aderivative of the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, whose similarityfunction is sensitive to irrelevant, interacting, and noisy features. Manyproposed methods for reducing this sensitivity parameterize k-NN's similarityfunction with feature weights. We focus on methods that automaticallyassign weight settings using little or no domain-specific knowledge.Our goal is to predict the relative capabilities of these

  19. Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, coronary artery disease and adiponectin in a Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) around the heart has been identified as an independent predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD), potentially through local release of inflammatory cytokines. Ethnic differences have been observed, but no studies have investigated this relationship in the Mexican population. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a relationship exist between EAT thickness assessed via echocardiography with CAD and adiponectin levels in a Mexican population. Methods We studied 153 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). EAT thickness on the free wall of the right ventricle was measured at the end of systole from parasternal long and short axis views of three consecutive cardiac cycles. Coronary angiograms were analyzed for the presence, extent and severity of CAD. Serum adiponectin, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were determined. Results EAT thickness was greater in patients with CAD than in those without CAD from both parasternal long (5.39?±?1.75 mm vs 4.00?±?1.67 mm p?adiponectin or with the severity of CAD. Conclusions EAT thickness was greater in patients with CAD. However, no correlation was observed with the severity of the disease or with serum adiponectin levels. EAT thickness measured by echocardiography might provide additional information for risk assessment and prediction of CAD. PMID:25200587

  20. Adiponectin, Leptin, and Chemerin in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Close Linkage with Obesity and Length of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandão Proença, Jorge; Neuparth, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and aging are closely associated and adipokines seem to have a crucial role in their pathophysiology. We aim to study the relationship between aging and chemerin, adiponectin, and leptin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Age correlated positively with chemerin and leptin and inversely with adiponectin. Body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with leptin (in males) and chemerin and inversely with adiponectin. The patients with ?65 years (n = 34) showed significantly higher leptin and chemerin and lower adiponectin levels than middle-aged (38–64 years) patients (n = 39) and controls (n = 20). After statistical adjustment for length of disease, there was a loss of significance, between T2DM groups, for adiponectin and, in female, for leptin. In the older group, BMI correlated with adiponectin and with leptin, but not with chemerin. Adiponectin and leptin levels in elderly T2DM patients seem to be closely linked to obesity and to length of the disease. In elderly T2DM patients, chemerin concentrations are increased and seem to be independent of length of disease and BMI, suggesting that adipocyte dysfunction is enhanced with aging. The understanding of the glucose homeostasis impairment in the elderly is mandatory in order to achieve ways to improve their quality of life and longevity. PMID:25105135

  1. Adiponectin affects vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis through modulation of the mitofusin-2-mediated Ras-Raf-Erk1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbo; Shu, Chang; Li, Quanming; Li, Ming; Li, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo cell biological changes in response to a variety of cytokines and growth factors. Adiponectin inhibits neointimal formation through suppressing the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of adiponectin on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis require further investigation. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of adiponectin on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, focusing on the mitofusin?2 (MFN2) mediated Ras?Raf?extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 signaling pathway. The results of western blot analysis revealed that adiponectin increased the expression of MFN2 in a concentration?dependent manner. Adiponectin also suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced VSMC apoptosis. However, transfection of the VSMCs with small interfering (si)RNA, to knock down the expression of MFN2 attenuated the effect of adiponectin on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis. The decreased expression levels of Ras, phosphorlated (p)?c?Raf and p?Erk1/2, observed in the VSMCs treated with adiponectin were also reversed by the transfection of the VSMCs with MFN2 siRNA to knock down the expression of MFN2. The results of the present study demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that adiponectin exhibits an inhibitory effect on VSMC proliferation and induces cell proliferation via regulation of the expression levels of MFN2. Adiponectin upregulated the expression of MFN2, inhibiting the Ras?Raf?Erk1/2 signaling pathway, which led to the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and the induction of VSMC apoptosis. The results of the present study may provide a novel basis for the therapy of vascular disease. PMID:26059448

  2. Relationship Between Plasma Adiponectin Level With Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin (ADPN) is an important anti-inflammatory marker with anti-atherogenic effects. However, its role in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be determined. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma adiponectin level with some inflammatory and metabolic markers in CKD patients. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma ADPN level in 42 CKD patients and 46 healthy persons with the same age and sex as control group. Then, we investigated the association between plasma ADPN level with some inflammatory and metabolic determinants in CKD patients. Results: Plasma ADPN level was significantly higher in CKD patients than control group (P = 0.04). It was directly correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.599, P < 0.001) and serum creatinine levels (r = 0.675, P < 0.001) and inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.570, P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.318, P = 0.04), C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.548, P < 0.001) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) in CKD patients. Conclusions: These findings suggested that plasma ADPN level is inversely associated with GFR and directly correlate with HDL-cholesterol and inversely with some, but not all metabolic factors of CKD patients who were not undergone dialysis. PMID:24719803

  3. Globular Adiponectin Activates Motility and Regenerative Traits of Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

  4. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance. PMID:24705360

  5. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in High Risk African-Americans with Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwame Osei; Trudy Gaillard; Dara Schuster

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We studied plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before and after oral glucose challenge in normal glucose tolerant, impaired glucose tolerant, and type 2 diabetic first degree relatives of African-American patients with type 2 diabetes.Research Methods and Procedures: We studied 19 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 8 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 with type 2

  6. Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a,c,

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, Level 7, Playford Building, City East Campus, Frome Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia c Unit for Experimental Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology

  7. Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels and Risk of Barrett's Esophagus and Intestinal Metaplasia of the Gastroesophageal Junction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia M. Thompson; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Elizabeth A. Kirk; Mary P. Bronner; Thomas L. Vaughan

    2010-01-01

    Persons diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus (BE) are at increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Obesity is a major risk factor for both BE and EA. The primary purposes of this study were to determine whether circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin, both of which are deregulated in obese states, predict risk of specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) occurring in the

  8. Adiponectin, a downstream target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, controls hepatitis B virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sarah; Jung, Jaesung; Kim, Taeyeung; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin, E-mail: kimkm@ajou.ac.k

    2011-01-20

    In this study, HepG2-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-stable cells that did not overexpress HBx and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells were analyzed for their expression of HBV-induced, upregulated adipogenic and lipogenic genes. The mRNAs of CCAAT enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), adiponectin, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were expressed at higher levels in HepG2-HBV and lamivudine-treated stable cells and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells than in the HepG2 cells. Lamivudine treatment reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha}. Conversely, HBV replication was upregulated by adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone treatments and was downregulated by adiponectin siRNAs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HBV replication and/or protein expression, even in the absence of HBx, upregulated adipogenic or lipogenic genes, and that the control of adiponectin might prove useful as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  9. Green Weight 

    E-print Network

    Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.

    2010-01-01

    Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement its lighting needs with natural sunlight. David Fisher has proposed an ingenious method to harness the wind...

  10. Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sushil K; Croad, Jennifer L; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Rains, Justin L; Bull, Rebeca

    2010-09-01

    Chromium and cysteine supplementation can improve glucose metabolism in animal studies. This study examined the hypothesis that a cysteinate complex of chromium is significantly beneficial than either of them in lowering blood glucose and vascular inflammation markers in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Starting at the age of 6 wk, ZDF rats were supplemented orally (daily gavages for 8 more weeks) with saline-placebo (D) or chromium (400 microg Cr/Kg body weight) as chromium dinicocysteinate (CDNC), chromium dinicotinate (CDN) or chromium picolinate (CP) or equimolar L-cysteine (LC, img/Kg body weight), and fed Purina 5008 diet for 8 wk. ZDF rats of 6 wk age before any supplementations and onset of diabetes were considered as baseline. D rats showed elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA(1), CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and lower adiponectin and vitamin C, when compared with baseline rats. In comparison to D group, CDNC group had significantly lower blood glucose, HbA(1), CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and lipid peroxidation and increased vitamin C and adiponectin levels. CDN, CP or LC showed significantly less or no effect on these biomarkers. Only CDNC lowered blood creatinine levels in comparison to D. While CDN and CP had no effect, activation of NFkappaB, Akt and glucose transporter-2 levels were decreased, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) activation increased in livers of CDNC-rats. CDNC effect on glycemia, NFkappaB, Akt and IRS-1 in liver was significantly greater compared with LC. Blood chromium levels did not differ between Cr-groups. Exogenous vitamin C supplementation significantly inhibited MCP-1 secretion in U937 monocytes cultured in high-glucose-medium. CDNC is a potent hypoglycemic compound with anti-inflammatory activity apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 and increased IRS-1 activation in livers of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:20306473

  11. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. I. Small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Stefan U; van Swieten, Eric; Bosma, Tjibbe; de Boef, Esther; van Dijk, Alard A; Robillard, George T

    2003-07-01

    The solution structure of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat gluten proteins has been investigated for a range of concentrations and temperatures using mainly small-angle neutron scattering. A representative part of the repetitive domain (dB1) was studied as well as an "oligomer" basically consisting of four dB1 units, which has a length similar to the complete central domain. The scattering data over the entire angular range of both proteins are in quantitative agreement with a structural model based on a worm-like chain, a model frequently used in polymer theory. This model describes the "supersecondary structure" of dB1 and dB4 as a semiflexible cylinder with a length of about 235 and 900 A, respectively, and a cross-sectional diameter of about 15 A. The flexibility of both proteins is characterized by a persistence length of about 13 A. Their structures are thus quantitatively identical, which implies that the central HMW domain can be elongated while retaining its structural characteristics. It seems conceivable that the flexible cylinder results from a helical structure, which resembles the beta-spiral observed in earlier studies on gluten proteins and elastin. However, compared to the previously proposed structure of a (stiff) rod, our experiments clearly indicate flexibility of the cylinder. PMID:12833258

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management.

    PubMed

    Stern, Judith S; Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-06-01

    The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m². Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m²; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  13. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Deficiency Enhances Myocardial Ischemia\\/Reperfusion Injury but Has Minimal Effect on the Antioxidant\\/Antinitrative Protection of Adiponectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajing Wang; Erhe Gao; Ling Tao; Wayne Bond Lau; Yuexin Yuan; Barry J. Goldstein; Bernard L. Lopez; Theodore A. Christopher; Rong Tian; Walter Koch; Xin-Liang Ma

    2010-01-01

    Background—Diabetes increases the morbidity\\/mortality of ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Deficiency of both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and adiponectin occurs in diabetes, but whether AMPK is cardioprotective or a central mediator of adiponectin cardioprotection in vivo remains unknown. Methods and Results—Male adult mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of a mutant AMPK2 subunit (AMPK-DN) or wild-type (WT)

  14. Novel Loci for Adiponectin Levels and Their Influence on Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Traits: A MultiEthnic Meta-Analysis of 45,891 Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zari Dastani; Marie-France Hivert; Nicholas Timpson; John R. B. Perry; Xin Yuan; Robert A. Scott; Peter Henneman; Iris M. Heid; Jorge R. Kizer; Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen; Christian Fuchsberger; Toshiko Tanaka; Andrew P. Morris; Kerrin Small; Aaron Isaacs; Marian Beekman; Stefan Coassin; Kurt Lohman; Lu Qi; Stavroula Kanoni; James S. Pankow; Hae-Won Uh; Ying Wu; Aurelian Bidulescu; Laura J. Rasmussen-Torvik; Celia M. T. Greenwood; Martin Ladouceur; Jonna Grimsby; Alisa K. Manning; Ching-Ti Liu; Jaspal Kooner; Vincent E. Mooser; Peter Vollenweider; Karen A. Kapur; John Chambers; Nicholas J. Wareham; Claudia Langenberg; Rune Frants; Ko Willems-vanDijk; Ben A. Oostra; Sara M. Willems; Claudia Lamina; Thomas W. Winkler; Bruce M. Psaty; Russell P. Tracy; Jennifer Brody; Ida Chen; Jorma Viikari; Mika Kähönen; Peter P. Pramstaller; David M. Evans; Beate St. Pourcain; Naveed Sattar; Andrew R. Wood; Stefania Bandinelli; Olga D. Carlson; Josephine M. Egan; Stefan Böhringer; Diana van Heemst; Lyudmyla Kedenko; Kati Kristiansson; Marja-Liisa Nuotio; Britt-Marie Loo; Tamara Harris; Melissa Garcia; Alka Kanaya; Margot Haun; Norman Klopp; H.-Erich Wichmann; Panos Deloukas; Efi Katsareli; David J. Couper; Bruce B. Duncan; Margreet Kloppenburg; Linda S. Adair; Judith B. Borja; James G. Wilson; Solomon Musani; Xiuqing Guo; Toby Johnson; Robert Semple; Tanya M. Teslovich; Matthew A. Allison; Susan Redline; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Karen L. Mohlke; Ingrid Meulenbelt; Christie M. Ballantyne; George V. Dedoussis; Frank B. Hu; Yongmei Liu; Bernhard Paulweber; Timothy D. Spector; P. Eline Slagboom; Luigi Ferrucci; Antti Jula; Markus Perola; Olli Raitakari; Jose C. Florez; Veikko Salomaa; Johan G. Eriksson; Timothy M. Frayling; Andrew A. Hicks; Terho Lehtimäki; George Davey Smith; David S. Siscovick; Florian Kronenberg; Cornelia van Duijn; Ruth J. F. Loos; Dawn M. Waterworth; James B. Meigs; Josee Dupuis; J. Brent Richards

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2

  15. A novel association of a polymorphism in the first intron of adiponectin gene with type 2 diabetes, obesity and hypoadiponectinemia in Asian Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karani S. Vimaleswaran; Venkatesan Radha; Kandaswamy Ramya; Hunsur Narayan Sathish Babu; Nageshappa Savitha; Venkataramaiah Roopa; Dhar Monalisa; Raj Deepa; Saurabh Ghosh; Partha P. Majumder; M. R. Sathyanarayana Rao; Viswanathan Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue specific protein that is decreased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The objective\\u000a of the present study was to examine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the adiponectin gene contribute to type\\u000a 2 diabetes in Asian Indians. The study comprised of 2,000 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and 2,000 type 2 diabetic, unrelated

  16. Characterization of CIMMYT bread wheats for high- and low-molecular weight glutenin subunits and other quality-related genes with SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan LiangJianwei; Jianwei Tang; Roberto Javier Peña; Ravi Singh; Xinyao He; Xiaoyong Shen; Danian Yao; Xianchun Xia; Zhonghu He

    2010-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy-three CIMMYT bread wheat cultivars and advanced lines grown under irrigated conditions in Mexico during\\u000a the 2005-06 Yaqui crop cycle were characterized for quality-related genetic traits using gene-specific markers for some high-\\u000a and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) genes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phytoene synthase (PSY), and\\u000a waxy genes. Of them, 142 were analyzed for quality parameters

  17. ?-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pathological left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFA) up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1) assessed the effects of ?-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2) evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ?-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT) and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and were fed standard chow ± ?-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ?-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ?-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ?-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin. PMID:20819225

  18. Adiponectin inhibits neutrophil phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by inhibition of PKB and ERK 1/2 MAPK signalling and Mac-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandra; Lord, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Full length adiponectin is a potent immune modulatory adipokine, impacting upon the actions of several immune cells. Neutrophil oxidative burst has been shown to decrease in response to adiponectin, and we speculated that it could have other effects on neutrophil function. Here we report that adiponectin reduces the phagocytic ability of human neutrophils, decreasing significantly the ingestion of opsonised E. coli by these cells in whole blood (p<0.05) and as isolated neutrophils (p<0.05). We then determined the mechanisms involved. We observed that the activation of Mac-1, the receptor engaged in complement-mediated phagocytosis, was decreased by adiponectin in response to E. coli stimulation. Moreover, treatment of neutrophils with adiponectin prior to incubation with E. coli significantly inhibited signalling through the PI3K/PKB and ERK 1/2 pathways, with a parallel reduction of F-actin content. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors showed that inhibition of PI3K/PKB, but not ERK 1/2 signalling was able to prevent the activation of Mac-1. In conclusion, we propose that adiponectin negatively affects neutrophil phagocytosis, reducing the uptake of E. coli and inhibiting Mac-1 activation, the latter by blockade of the PI3K/PKB signal pathway. PMID:23935932

  19. Characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Eremopyrum bonaepartis and identification of a novel variant with unusual high molecular weight and altered cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Jian; Wei, Long; Zhao, Shan; Zhao, Quan-Zhi; Qi, Peng-Fei; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2014-04-01

    We characterized two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) variants from Eremopyrum bonaepartis, determined their complete open reading frames, and further expressed them in a bacterial system. The variants have many novel structural features compared with typical subunits encoded by Glu-1 loci: 1Fx3.7 and 1Fy1.5 exhibit hybrid properties of x- and y-type subunits. In addition, unusual molecular mass and altered number and distribution of cysteine residues were unique features of HMW-GSs encoded by Glu-F1 from E. bonaepartis. The mature 1Fx3.7 subunit has a full length of 1,223 amino acid residues, making it the largest subunit found thus far, while 1Fy1.5 is just 496 residues. In addition, the mutated PGQQ repeat motif was found in the repetitive region of 1Fx3.7. Although it has a similar molecular mass to that previously reported for 1Dx2.2, 1Dx2.2* and 1S(sh)x2.9 subunits, 1Fx3.7 appears to have had a different evolutionary history. The N-terminal and repetitive regions have a total of four additional cysteine residues, giving 1Fx3.7 a total of eight cysteines, while 1Fy1.5 has only six cysteines because the GHCPTSPQQ nonapeptide at the end of the repetitive region is deleted. With its extra cysteine residues and the longest repetitive region, features that are relevant to good wheat quality, the 1Fx3.7 subunit gene could be an excellent candidate for applications in wheat quality improvement. PMID:24395202

  20. Green Weight

    E-print Network

    Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.

    2010-01-01

    GREEN WIEGHT Ahmed KH. Al-Haji Ahmed A. Al-Omair Trainee Schlumberger U.A.E. Abu Dhabi ABSTRACT Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement... to acknowledge all of Dr. Ahmed BoShehri for being our supervisor in this project, Dr. Abdul-Aziz AlRashed for teaching us about the fiber optics, Dr.Mohammad BoShehri for helping us in the design of the blades, Eng. Ahmed ALSafi for giving us the wind...

  1. Adiponectin protects against paraquat-induced lung injury by attenuating oxidative/nitrative stress

    PubMed Central

    YAO, RONG; ZHOU, YAXIONG; HE, YARONG; JIANG, YAOWEN; LIU, PENG; YE, LEI; ZHENG, ZHIJIE; LAU, WAYNE BOND; CAO, YU; ZENG, ZHI

    2015-01-01

    The specific mechanisms underlying paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury remain unknown, which limits understanding of its cytotoxic potential. Although oxidative stress has been established as an important mechanism underlying PQ toxicity, multiple antioxidants have proven ineffective in attenuating the deleterious effects of PQ. Adiponectin, which shows anti-oxidative and antinitrative effects, may have the potential to reduce PQ-mediated injury. The present study determined the protective action of globular domain adiponectin (gAd) on PQ-induced lung injury, and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanism or mechanisms of action. BALB/c mice were administered PQ, with and without 12 or 36 h of gAd pre-treatment. The pulmonary oxidative/nitrative status was assessed by measuring pulmonary O2•?, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and 8-hydroxy-2-dydeoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) production, and blood 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT). At a dose of 20 mg/kg, PQ markedly increased O2•?, SOD, MDA, NO and 8-OHdG production 3 h post-administration, but did not significantly increase 3-NT levels until 12 h. gAd inhibited these changes in a dose-dependent manner, via transient activation of MDA, followed by attenuation of MDA formation from 6 h onwards. Histological analysis demonstrated that gAd decreased interstitial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration. These results suggest that gAd protects against PQ-induced lung injury by mitigating oxidative/nitrative stress. Furthermore, gAd may be a potential therapeutic agent for PQ-induced lung injury, and further pharmacological studies are therefore warranted. PMID:25452788

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to impairment of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Wang, Ching-Chu; Huang, Hsin-Chang; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2013-02-01

    Adipocytes play an integrative role in the regulation of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis in the human body. Functional defects in adipocytes may cause systemic disturbance of glucose homeostasis. Recent studies revealed mitochondrial abnormalities in the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, patients with mitochondrial diseases usually manifest systemic metabolic disorder. However, it is unclear how mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes affects the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study, we induced mitochondrial dysfunction and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by addition of respiratory inhibitors oligomycin A and antimycin A and by knockdown of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), respectively. We found an attenuation of the insulin response as indicated by lower glucose uptake and decreased phosphorylation of Akt upon insulin stimulation of adipocytes with mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the expression of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and secretion of adiponectin were decreased in adipocytes with increased ROS generated by defective mitochondria. Moreover, the severity of insulin insensitivity was correlated with the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that higher intracellular ROS levels elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in impairment of the function of adipocytes in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis through attenuation of insulin signaling, downregulation of Glut4 expression, and decrease in adiponectin secretion. Our findings substantiate the important role of mitochondria in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in adipocytes and also provide a molecular basis for the explanation of the manifestation of diabetes mellitus or insulin insensitivity in a portion of patients with mitochondrial diseases such as MELAS or MERRF syndrome. PMID:23253816

  3. Fat cell-secreted adiponectin mediates physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis: an alternative anti-depressive treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-fai

    2015-01-01

    Psychological depression is drawing accumulating attention nowadays, due to the skyrocketing incidence worldwide and the enormous burdens it incurs. Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, although knowledge of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. Suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis in adult brains has been regarded, at least partly, contributive to depression, whereas physical exercise that restores neurogenesis accordingly exerts the anti-depressive action. Several recent publications have suggested the potential role of adiponectin, a protein hormone secreted by peripheral mature adipocytes, in mediating physical exercise-triggered enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviation of depression. Here, we briefly review these novel findings and discuss the possibility of counteracting depression by modulating adiponectin signaling in the hippocampus with interventions including physical exercise and administration of pharmacological agents. PMID:25788905

  4. Plasma levels of adiponectin and soluble thrombomodulin in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine replacement therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiki Nagasaki; Masaaki Inaba; Yoshikazu Hiura; Hideki Tahara; Yasuro Kumeda; Kumi Shirakawa; Naoyoshi Onoda; Tetsuro Ishikawa; Eiji Ishimura; Yoshiki Nishizawa

    2005-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular disease, and adiponectin (ApN) is a newly-identified adipocytokine, which is expressed in human adipose cells and may have a protective effect against the development of coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of ApN secretion in hypothyroid patients with normal thyroid function following levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement

  5. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Hypertensive Children Is Associated with the Severity of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gackowska, Lidia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Trojanek, Joanna; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether peripheral blood leukocyte adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) protein expression patterns (flow cytometry) differ between the primary hypertension children (n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19) and if their expression levels are related to selected clinical parameters. The group of 26 patients [AdipoR(?)] showed lower and the group of 31 patients [AdipoR(+)] showed higher AdipoRs protein expression than the control and each other (P < 0.01 for neutrophils, P < 0.05 for monocytes). The AdipoR(+) leukocytes expressed higher AdipoR1 mRNA levels (RT-PCR) than AdipoR(?) ones and controls (P = 0.022 and P = 0.007, resp.). Despite greater BMI, the AdipoR(?) patients had unchanged serum adiponectin levels. In contrast, AdipoR(+) patients had lower serum adiponectin concentrations than the AdipoR(?) ones and controls (P < 0.001). The AdipoR(+) patients had higher blood pressure (P = 0.042) and greater carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.017) than the AdipoR(?) ones. The stage of hypertension was associated with increased neutrophil but not monocyte AdipoR1 density (AdipoR1 MFI) (P < 0.05). Severe ambulatory hypertension was presented more often in AdipoR(+) patients than in AdipoR(?) ones (51.6% versus 26.9%, resp.; P < 0.01). In conclusion, neutrophil AdipoRs upregulation was associated with early stages of vascular injury, hypertension severity, and low serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26146630

  6. Gender differences in the relationships among obesity, adiponectin and brachial artery distensibility in adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E M Urbina; P Khoury; L J Martin; D D'Alessio; L M Dolan; EM Urbina

    2009-01-01

    Background:Obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Obesity-related reduction in vascular protective adipose-derived proteins, such as adiponectin (APN), has an important role.Methods:We compared brachial artery distensibility (BrachD) with APN, the level of adiposity and other CV risk factors (CVRFs) in 431 post-pubertal subjects (mean 17.9 years). Gender differences in average values were examined by t-tests.

  7. Role of adiponectin and PBEF/visfatin as regulators of inflammation: involvement in obesity-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Tilg, Herbert; Moschen, Alexander R

    2008-02-01

    Obesity and obesity-related disorders play an important role in clinical medicine. Adipose tissue, with its soluble mediators called adipocytokines, has emerged as a major endocrine organ. These adipocytokines comprise many mediators such as adiponectin, PBEF (pre-B-cell-enhancing factor)/visfatin, leptin, resistin, retinol-binding protein-4 and others. They play major roles in key aspects of metabolism, such as insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, inflammation and immunity. Adiponectin, a prototypic adipocytokine, is of importance in the regulation of insulin resistance, as circulating levels are decreased in obesity and diseases associated with insulin resistance. Besides its major role in regulation of insulin sensitivity, recent evidence suggests potent anti-inflammatory functions for adiponectin. These effects are paralleled by other immune-regulatory properties, such as regulation of endothelial cell function. The in vitro effects of adiponectin have been corroborated by several studies demonstrating potent in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Many other adipocytokines, such as PBEF/visfatin, leptin, resistin or retinol binding protein-4, are involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of adipocytes, adipose tissue and related diseases. PBEF/visfatin, another recently characterized adipocytokine, has been linked to several inflammatory disease states beyond insulin resistance, such as acute lung injury or inflammatory bowel diseases. It has been recognized for many decades that obesity is accompanied by an increase in cancer and potentially some immune-mediated diseases. Understanding this new exciting world of adipocytokines will be of importance in the development of novel therapies for obesity-associated diseases. PMID:18194136

  8. Suppression of adiponectin by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in glomerular mesangial cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Takiue, Keiichi; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Ayu; Kikumoto, Yoko; Kitamura, Shinji; Maeshima, Yohei; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) may be associated with the mesangial deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1. To identify mediators affected by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs), we generated enzymatically modified desialylated and degalactosylated (deSial/deGal) IgA1. The state of deglycosylated IgA1 was confirmed by lectin binding to Helix aspersa (HAA) and Sambucus nigra (SNA). In the cytokine array analysis, 52 proteins were upregulated and 34 were downregulated in HMCs after stimulation with deSial/deGal IgA1. Among them, the secretion of adiponectin was suppressed in HMCs after stimulation with deSial/deGal IgA1. HMCs expressed mRNAs for adiponectin and its type 1 receptor, but not the type 2 receptor. Moreover, we revealed a downregulation of adiponectin expression in the glomeruli of renal biopsy specimens from patients with IgAN compared to those with lupus nephritis. We also demonstrated that aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was deposited in the mesangium of patients with IgAN by dual staining of HAA and IgA. Moreover, the urinary HAA/SNA ratio of lectin binding was significantly higher in IgAN compared to other kidney diseases. Since adiponectin has anti-inflammatory effects, including the inhibition of adhesion molecules and cytokines, these data suggest that the local suppression of this adipokine by aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 could be involved in the regulation of glomerular inflammation and sclerosis in IgAN. PMID:22457806

  9. Circulating adiponectin levels, body composition and obesity-related variables in Prader–Willi syndrome: comparison with obese subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Kennedy; D C Bittel; N Kibiryeva; S P Kalra; R Torto; M G Butler

    2006-01-01

    Background:People with obesity and\\/or the metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may have low adiponectin levels. The obesity associated with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) would be expected to have similar complications. However, it was recently reported that, despite their adiposity, people with PWS have reduced visceral fat and are less likely to develop diabetes

  10. Effect of adiponectin on kidney crystal formation in metabolic syndrome model mice via inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Hirose, Masahito; Kubota, Yasue; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to elucidate a possible mechanism of kidney crystal formation by using a metabolic syndrome (MetS) mouse model and to assess the effectiveness of adiponectin treatment for the prevention of kidney crystals. Further, we performed genome-wide expression analyses for investigating novel genetic environmental changes. Wild-type (+/+) mice showed no kidney crystal formation, whereas ob/ob mice showed crystal depositions in their renal tubules. However, this deposition was remarkably reduced by adiponectin. Expression analysis of genes associated with MetS-related kidney crystal formation identified 259 genes that were >2.0-fold up-regulated and 243 genes that were <0.5-fold down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the up-regulated genes belonged to the categories of immunoreaction, inflammation, and adhesion molecules and that the down-regulated genes belonged to the categories of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Expression analysis of adiponectin-induced genes related to crystal prevention revealed that the numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were 154 and 190, respectively. GO analyses indicated that the up-regulated genes belonged to the categories of cellular and mitochondrial repair, whereas the down-regulated genes belonged to the categories of immune and inflammatory reactions and apoptosis. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that the mechanism of kidney crystal formation in the MetS environment involves the progression of an inflammation and immunoresponse, including oxidative stress and adhesion reactions in renal tissues. This is the first report to prove the preventive effect of adiponectin treatment for kidney crystal formation by renoprotective activities and inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:23630583

  11. 1-Deoxynojirimycin isolated from a Bacillus subtilis stimulates adiponectin and GLUT4 expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Do, Hyun Ju; Shin, Min-Jeong; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kwon, Ohsuk; Jin, Taewon; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated that 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) isolated from Bacillus subtilis MORI could enhance the levels of adiponectin and its receptors in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which has been shown to be effective in lowering blood glucose levels and enhancing insulin sensitivity. DNJ was not toxic to differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes for up to a concentration of 5 microM. In terms of expression levels of adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), DNJ in concentrations as low as 0.5 microM elevated both mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and transcript levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In addition, DNJ increased phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK) in a statistically significant manner. Finally, treatment with DNJ resulted in increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), which encodes for a glucose transporter, along with a significant increase in glucose uptake into the adipocytes based on results of a 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake assay. Our findings indicate that DNJ may greatly facilitate glucose uptake into adipose tissues by increasing the action of adiponectin via its up-regulated expression as well as its receptor genes. In addition, the glucose-lowering effects of DNJ may be achieved by an increased abundance of GLUT4 protein in the plasma membrane, as a consequence of the increased transcript levels of the GLUT4 gene and the activation of AMPK. PMID:23648852

  12. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPAR? in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPAR? which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  13. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPAR? in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPAR? which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  14. Knockout of nuclear high molecular weight FGF2 isoforms in mice modulates bone and phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Homer-Bouthiette, Collin; Doetschman, Thomas; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M

    2014-12-26

    We previously reported that targeted overexpression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms in osteoblastic lineage cells in mice resulted in phenotypic changes, including dwarfism, rickets, osteomalacia, hypophosphatemia, increased serum parathyroid hormone, and increased levels of the phosphatonin FGF23 in serum and bone. This study examined the effects of genetically knocking out the FGF2HMW isoforms (HMWKO) on bone and phosphate homeostasis. HMWKO mice were not dwarfed and had significantly increased bone mineral density and bone mineral content in femurs and lumbar vertebrae when compared with the wild-type (WT) littermates. Micro-computed tomography analysis of femurs revealed increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and connective tissue density with decreased trabecular spacing compared with WT. In addition, there was significantly decreased cortical porosity and increased cortical thickness and sub-periosteal area in femurs of HMWKO. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated increased osteoblast activity and diminished osteoclast activity in the HMWKO. In vitro bone marrow stromal cell cultures showed there was a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase-positive colony number at 1 week in HMWKO. At 3 weeks of culture, the mineralized area was also significantly increased. There was increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and reduced expression of genes associated with impaired mineralization, including a significant reduction in Fgf23 and Sost mRNA. Normal serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone were observed in HMWKO mice. This study demonstrates a significant negative impact of HMWFGF2 on biological functions in bone and phosphate homeostasis in mice. PMID:25389287

  15. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan); Oishi, Yuichi, E-mail: y3oishi@nodai.ac.jp [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  16. Effect of maternal weight, adipokines, glucose intolerance and lipids on infant birth weight among women without gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Ye, Chang; Hanley, Anthony J.G.; Connelly, Philip W.; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hamilton, Jill K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The delivery of excess maternal nutrients to the fetus is known to increase the risk of macrosomia, even among infants of women without gestational diabetes mellitus. With the current obesity epidemic, maternal adiposity and its associated effects on circulating adipokines and inflammatory proteins may now have a greater impact on fetal growth. We sought to evaluate the independent effects of maternal glycemia, lipids, obesity, adipokines and inflammation on infant birth weight. Methods: We included 472 women who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy and were found not to have gestational diabetes; 104 (22.0%) had gestational impaired glucose tolerance. We also measured fasting levels of insulin, low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein. Obstetric outcomes were assessed at delivery. Results: The mean birth weight was 3481 g (standard deviation 493 g); 68 of the infants were large for gestational age. On multiple linear regression analysis, positive determinants of birth weight were length of gestation, male infant, weight gain during pregnancy up to the time of the oral glucose tolerance test, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels were each negatively associated with birth weight. On logistic regression analysis, the significant metabolic predictors of having a large-for-gestational-age infant were BMI before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.27, per 1 kg/m2 increase), weight gain during pregnancy up to the time of the oral glucose tolerance test (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19, per 1 kg increase) and leptin level (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.82, per 1 standard deviation change). Interpretation: Among women without gestational diabetes, maternal adiposity and leptin levels were the strongest metabolic determinants of having a large-for-gestational-age infant rather than glucose intolerance and lipid levels. PMID:22619341

  17. Structure characterization of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight gluten proteins. I. Model studies using cyclic and linear peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, A. A.; Van Wijk, L. L.; Van Vliet, A.; Haris, P.; Van Swieten, E.; Tesser, G. I.; Robillard, G. T.

    1997-01-01

    The high molecular weight (HMW) proteins from wheat contain a repetitive domain that forms 60-80% of their sequence. The consensus peptides PGQGQQ and GYYPTSPQQ form more than 90% of the domain; both are predicted to adopt beta-turn structure. This paper describes the structural characterization of these consensus peptides and forms the basis for the structural characterization of the repetitive HMW domain, described in the companion paper. The cyclic peptides cyclo-[PGQGQQPGQGQQ] (peptide 1), cyclo-[GYYPTSPQQGA] (peptide 2), and cyclo-[PGQGQQGYYPTSPQQ] (peptide 3) were prepared using a novel synthesis route. In addition, the linear peptides (PGQGQQ)n (n = 1, 3, 5) were prepared. CD, FTIR, and NMR data demonstrated a type II beta-turn structure at QPGQ in the cyclic peptide 1 that was also observed in the linear peptides 9PGQGQQ)n. A type I beta-turn was observed at YPTS and SPQQ in peptides 2 and 3, with additional beta-turns of either type I or II at GAGY (peptide 2) and QQGY (peptide 3). The proline in YPTS showed considerable cis/trans isomerization, with up to 50% of the population in the cis-conformation; the other prolines were more than 90% in the trans conformation. The conversion from trans to cis destroys the type I beta-turn at YPTS, but leads to an increase in turn character at SPQQ and GAGY (peptide 2) or QQGY (peptide 3). PMID:9070446

  18. Association between prehypertension, metabolic and inflammatory markers, decreased adiponectin and enhanced insulinemia in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with development of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of risk factors, such as insulin resistance, inflammatory response, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure that predispose affected individuals to well-characterized medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney chronic disease. The study was designed to establish relationship between metabolic and inflammatory disorder, renal sodium retention and enhanced blood pressure in a group of obese subjects compared with age-matched, lean volunteers. Methods The study was performed after 14 h overnight fast after and before OGTT in 13 lean (BMI 22.92?±?2.03 kg/m2) and, 27 obese (BMI 36.15?±?3.84 kg/m2) volunteers. Assessment of HOMA-IR and QUICKI index were calculated and circulating concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and C-reactive protein, measured by immunoassay. Results The study shows that a hyperinsulinemic (HI: 10.85?±?4.09 ?g/ml) subgroup of well-characterized metabolic syndrome bearers-obese subjects show higher glycemic and elevated blood pressure levels when compared to lean and normoinsulinemic (NI: 5.51?±?1.18 ?g/ml, P?adiponectin measured in basal period was significantly enhanced in NI subjects when compared to HI groups (P?adiponectin levels and dysfunctional inflammatory modulation associated with hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and renal dysfunction in a particular subgroup of obeses. PMID:24966877

  19. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  20. The ratio of serum leptin to adiponectin provides adjunctive information to the risk of metabolic syndrome beyond the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance: The Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ha Yoon; Jong Ku Park; Sung Soo Oh; Ki-Hyun Lee; Sung-Kyung Kim; In-Jung Cho; Jong-Koo Kim; Hee-Taik Kang; Sung Gyun Ahn; Jun-Won Lee; Seung-Hwan Lee; Aeyong Eom; Jang-Young Kim; Song Vogue Ahn; Sang Baek Koh

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundLeptin and adiponectin are adipokines, shown to have opposing functions for fat metabolism and development of metabolic syndrome. We determined if the ratio of serum leptin to adiponectin (L\\/A ratio) adjunctively contributes to the risk of metabolic syndrome beyond the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

  1. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

  2. Ectopic fat and Adipokines in Metabolically Benign Overweight/Obese Women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, AD.; Khan, UI.; McGinn, AP.; Zeb, I.; Budoff, MJ.; Harman, SM.; Miller, VM.; Brinton, EA.; Manson, JE.; Hodis, HN.; Merriam, GR.; Cedars, MI.; Taylor, HS.; Naftolin, F.; Lobo, RA.; Santoro, N.; Wildman, RP.

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is unclear why despite a comparable cardiometabolic risk profile, “metabolically benign” overweight/obese individuals show an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease compared to normal weight individuals. Design and Methods In cross-sectional analyses, we compared levels of ectopic fat (epicardial, pericardial, and hepatic fat) and adipokines (leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin) among metabolically benign (MBOO) and at-risk overweight/obese (AROO), and metabolically benign normal weight (MBNW) women, screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. We defined “metabolically benign” with ? 1, and “at-risk” with ?2 components of the metabolic syndrome. Results Compared to MBOO women, AROO women had significantly elevated odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR:1.76, 95%CI:1.04–2.99), hepatic fat (OR:1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and leptin (OR:2.15, 95%CI:1.23–3.76), and the bottom tertile of HMW-adiponectin (OR:2.90, 95%CI:1.62–5.19). Compared to MBNW women, MBOO women had significantly higher odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR:5.17, 95%CI:3.22–8.29), pericardial fat (OR:9.27, 95%CI:5.52–15.56) and hepatic fat (OR:2.72, 95%CI:1.77–4.19) and the bottom tertile of HMW adiponectin levels (OR:2.51, 95%CI:1.60–3.94). Conclusions Levels of ectopic fat and the adverse adipokine profile increase on a continuum of BMI, suggesting that the metabolically benign phenotype may be a transient state. PMID:23670850

  3. Adiponectin Alleviates Genioglossal Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Ning; Liu, Jiannan; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Xilong

    2014-01-01

    Background Genioglossal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea hypoxia syndrome (OSAHS) characterized by nocturnal chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The pathophysiology of genioglossal dysfunction and possible targeted pharmacotherapy for alleviation of genioglossal injury in CIH require further investigation. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats in the control group were exposed to normal air, while rats in the CIH group and CIH+adiponectin (AD) group were exposed to the same CIH condition (CIH 8 hr/day for 5 successive weeks). Furthermore, rats in CIH+AD group were administrated intravenous AD supplementation at the dosage of 10 µg, twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. We found that CIH-induced genioglossus (GG) injury was correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in the numbers of mitochondrias, impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure, and a reduction in type I fibers. Compared with the CIH group, impaired mitochondrial structure and function was significantly improved and a percentage of type I fiber was elevated in the CIH+AD group. Moreover, compared with the control group, the rats’ GG in the CIH group showed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of LKB1, AMPK, and PGC1-?, whereas there was significant rescue of such reduction in phosphorylation within the CIH+AD group. Conclusions CIH exposure reduces mitochondrial biogenesis and impairs mitochondrial function in GG, while AD supplementation increases mitochondrial contents and alleviates CIH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction possibly through the AMPK pathway. PMID:25329318

  4. Impaired adiponectin signaling contributes to disturbed catabolism of branched-chain amino acids in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kun; Du, Chaosheng; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Di; Yan, Wenjun; Zhang, Haifeng; Hong, Zhibo; Liu, Peilin; Zhang, Lijian; Pei, Haifeng; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Xin, Chao; Cheng, Hexiang; Xiong, Lize; Tao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) accumulated in type 2 diabetes are independent contributors to insulin resistance. The activity of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, rate-limiting enzyme in BCAA catabolism, is reduced in diabetic states, which contributes to elevated BCAA concentrations. However, the mechanisms underlying decreased BCKD activity remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial phosphatase 2C (PP2Cm), a newly identified BCKD phosphatase that increases BCKD activity, was significantly downregulated in ob/ob and type 2 diabetic mice. Interestingly, in adiponectin (APN) knockout (APN(-/-)) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HD), PP2Cm expression and BCKD activity were significantly decreased, whereas BCKD kinase (BDK), which inhibits BCKD activity, was markedly increased. Concurrently, plasma BCAA and branched-chain ?-keto acids (BCKA) were significantly elevated. APN treatment markedly reverted PP2Cm, BDK, BCKD activity, and BCAA and BCKA levels in HD-fed APN(-/-) and diabetic animals. Additionally, increased BCKD activity caused by APN administration was partially but significantly inhibited in PP2Cm knockout mice. Finally, APN-mediated upregulation of PP2Cm expression and BCKD activity were abolished when AMPK was inhibited. Collectively, we have provided the first direct evidence that APN is a novel regulator of PP2Cm and systematic BCAA levels, suggesting that targeting APN may be a pharmacological approach to ameliorating BCAA catabolism in the diabetic state. PMID:25071024

  5. Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Derived Adiponectin Inhibits Collar-Induced Carotid Atherosclerosis by Promoting Macrophage Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changlong; Wang, Zhijian; Wang, Chunxiao; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yingxin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adiponectin (APN) secreted from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is one of the important anti-inflammatory adipokines to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how APN regulates plaque formation in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results To assess the role of APN secreted by PVAT in atherosclerosis progression, we performed PVAT transplantation experiments on carotid artery atherosclerosis model: ApoE knockout (ApoE?/?) mice with a perivascular collar placement around the left carotid artery in combination with a high-fat diet feeding. Our results show that the ApoE?/? mice with PVAT derived from APN knockout (APN?/?) mice exhibited accelerated plaque volume formation compared to ApoE?/? mice transplanted with wild-type littermate tissue. Conversely, autophagy in macrophages was significantly attenuated in ApoE?/? mice transplanted with APN-/- mouse-derived PVAT compared to controls. Furthermore, in vitro studies indicate that APN treatment increased autophagy in primary macrophages, as evidenced by increased LC3-I processing and Beclin1 expression, which was accompanied by down-regulation of p62. Moreover, our results demonstrate that APN promotes macrophage autophagy via suppressing the Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway. Conclusions Our results indicate that PVAT-secreted APN suppresses plaque formation by inducing macrophage autophagy. PMID:26020520

  6. Gene cloning of porcine adiponectin gene from adipose tissue and construction of its eukaryotic expression vector.

    PubMed

    Luo, J-J; Song, H-W; Zhang, B; Li, L-L; Chen, Y-G; Peng, Y; Wu, L-Z; Fan, J-X; Zhan, J-S

    2014-06-01

    To clone adiponectin (ADPN) gene from Shaziling porcine adipocyte and construct its eukaryotic expression vector, total RNA was extracted from subcutaneous fatty tissue. One pair of specific primers was designed by Primer 5.0 software according to the sequence of ADPN gene of porcine available in GenBank. The ADPN gene was amplified by PCR from cDNA and cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct recombinant clonal vector pMD-ADPN, sequenced and analysed. A recombinant expression plasmid pPICZaA-ADPN was constructed by subcloning the cloned ADPN gene into the linearized pPICZaA vector. Then, the plasmid pPICZaA-ADPN was expressed in Pichia pastoris (GS115) by electrotransformation. Western blot and Bradford analysis were used to determine the target protein induced by methanol. Results showed that the genome size of ADPN was 732 bp and encoded 244 amino acid, the nucleotide sequence of ADPN shared 100% identity with that of porcine available in GenBank. Western blot and Bradford analysis showed that the recombinant ADPN was expressed in GS115 correctly and has certain immune activity. The expression level of ADPN was 28.5 ?g/ml. In conclusion, the recombinant ADPN could express in eukaryotic expression vector pPICZaA-ADPN constructed in this study effectively. PMID:23879259

  7. Effects of basal insulin application on serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI-DONG; XING, LIN; TENG, JUN-RU; LI, SHUO; MI, NA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of basal insulin application on the serum visfatin and adiponectin (APN) levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 200 patients with T2DM, who were diagnosed in The Third People's Hospital of Jinan (glycosylated hemoglobin ?7%), were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The patients used only oral hypoglycemic drugs and had never received insulin therapy. In the treatment group, basal insulin was administered in combination with the original application of oral hypoglycemic drugs, whereas the control group maintained the original use of oral hypoglycemic drugs or took other oral hypoglycemic agents. The body mass index and fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, visfatin, APN and blood lipid levels of the patients were examined prior to the treatment and six months later. The drug and insulin doses in the treatment group were adjusted according to the patients' blood glucose, which allowed the fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to attain the standards. The fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in the control group also achieved the standards. It was found that the six-month application of basal insulin could significantly decrease the glycosylated hemoglobin and significantly increase the serum APN levels; the serum visfatin levels, however, remained unchanged. The immediate application of basal insulin could facilitate the attainment of glycosylated hemoglobin standards in T2DM and could increase the plasma APN levels, preventing diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26136963

  8. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival.

    PubMed

    Rice, Dennis S; Calandria, Jorgelina M; Gordon, William C; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells' functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1(-/-) mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1(-/-) mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1(-/-) reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  9. Infant Body Composition and Adipokine Concentrations in Relation to Maternal Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Estampador, Angela C.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Renström, Frida; Nelson, Scott M.; Mogren, Ingrid; Persson, Margareta; Sattar, Naveed; Domellöf, Magnus; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of maternal gestational weight gain and body composition and their impact on offspring body composition and adipocytokine, glucose, and insulin concentrations at age 4 months. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective study including 31 mother-infant pairs (N = 62). Maternal body composition was assessed using doubly labeled water. Infant body composition was assessed at 4 months using air displacement plethysmography, and venous blood was assayed for glucose, insulin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and leptin concentrations. RESULTS Rate of gestational weight gain in midpregnancy was significantly associated with infant fat mass (r = 0.41, P = 0.03); rate of gestational weight in late pregnancy was significantly associated with infant fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Infant birth weight was also strongly correlated with infant fat-free mass at 4 months (r = 0.63, P = 0.0002). Maternal BMI and maternal fat mass were strongly inversely associated with infant IL-6 concentrations (r = ?0.60, P = 0.002 and r = ?0.52, P = 0.01, respectively). Infant fat-free mass was inversely related to infant adiponectin concentrations (r = ?0.48, P = 0.008) and positively correlated with infant blood glucose adjusted for insulin concentrations (r = 0.42, P = 0.04). No significant associations for leptin were observed. CONCLUSIONS Timing of maternal weight gain differentially impacts body composition of the 4-month-old infant, which in turn appears to affect the infant’s glucose and adipokine concentrations. PMID:24623025

  10. Adiponectin reduces carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE?/? mice: Roles of oxidative and nitrosative stress and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    CAI, XIAOJUN; LI, XUAN; LI, LI; HUANG, XIAO-ZHEN; LIU, YU-SHENG; CHEN, LIANG; ZHANG, KE; WANG, LIN; LI, XIAONAN; SONG, JIANTAO; LI, SHUZHEN; ZHANG, YUN; ZHANG, MEI

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is an important anti-atherogenic adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of adiponectin in atherosclerotic plaque formation and clarify its mechanisms. An atherosclerosis model was induced by in vivo perivascular constrictive silica collar placement on the left common carotid arteries in male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE?/?) mice. All of the mice were fed a high-fat diet, and divided into phosphate-buffered saline, adenovirus (Ad)-?-galactosidase and Ad-APN treatment groups. Compared with treatment of Ad-?-gal or PBS, Ad-APN treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, decreased in nitric oxide/superoxide production, blocked peroxynitrite formation and reversed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Adiponectin may be a natural molecule that reduces atherosclerosis by inhibiting iNOS and consequently diminishing oxidative/nitrative stress. PMID:25395016

  11. Adiponectin as a link between type 2 diabetes and vascular NADPH oxidase activity in the human arterial wall: the regulatory role of perivascular adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Margaritis, Marios; Coutinho, Patricia; Shirodaria, Cheerag; Psarros, Costas; Herdman, Laura; Sanna, Fabio; De Silva, Ravi; Petrou, Mario; Sayeed, Rana; Krasopoulos, George; Lee, Regent; Digby, Janet; Reilly, Svetlana; Bakogiannis, Constantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kessler, Benedikt; Casadei, Barbara; Channon, Keith M; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. We examined the effect of type 2 diabetes on NADPH oxidase in human vessels and explored the mechanisms of this interaction. Segments of internal mammary arteries (IMAs) with their perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and thoracic adipose tissue were obtained from 386 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery (127 with type 2 diabetes). Type 2 diabetes was strongly correlated with hypoadiponectinemia and increased vascular NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions (O2?(-)). The genetic variability of the ADIPOQ gene and circulating adiponectin (but not interleukin-6) were independent predictors of NADPH oxidase-derived O2?(-). However, adiponectin expression in PVAT was positively correlated with vascular NADPH oxidase-derived O2?(-). Recombinant adiponectin directly inhibited NADPH oxidase in human arteries ex vivo by preventing the activation/membrane translocation of Rac1 and downregulating p22(phox) through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-mediated mechanism. In ex vivo coincubation models of IMA/PVAT, the activation of arterial NADPH oxidase triggered a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-mediated upregulation of the adiponectin gene in the neighboring PVAT via the release of vascular oxidation products. We demonstrate for the first time in humans that reduced adiponectin levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes stimulates vascular NADPH oxidase, while PVAT "senses" the increased NADPH oxidase activity in the underlying vessel and responds by upregulating adiponectin gene expression. This PVAT-vessel interaction is identified as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25552596

  12. Effect of Therapeutic Dose of Vitamin D on Serum Adiponectin and Glycemia in Vitamin D-Insufficient or Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baziar, Nima; Jafarian, Kurosh; Shadman, Zhaleh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen; Abd Mishani, Mahshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower vitamin D status has been reported in diabetic patients. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adiponectin were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Vitamin D may involve in regulation of the adiponectin levels, which is directly related to insulin sensitivity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of therapeutic dose of vitamin D on serum adiponectin and insulin resistance in vitamin D-insufficient or deficient type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 81 type 2 diabetic patients with vitamin D level of 10-30 ng/mL. Intervention was 50000 IU vitamin D or placebo once a week for 8 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, blood samples were collected after 12 hours of fasting and serum glucose, insulin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and adiponectin were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results: After 8-week intervention, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased and reached the normal levels in patients receiving vitamin D (P < 0.001) and the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased (P = 0.04, 0.02 and 0.007, respectively). No significant changes were observed in these levels in the placebo group. Significant differences were observed in mean changes in the above-mentioned variables between the two groups (P = 0.01, 0.04 and 0.006, respectively). No significant changes were found in serum adiponectin in the vitamin D and placebo groups (P = 0.83). Conclusions: Therapeutic dose of vitamin D can improve vitamin D status and glycemic indicators. But it seems that an 8-week intervention period was not sufficient to reveal the possible effects of vitamin D on serum adiponectin levels. PMID:25593737

  13. Imidazoline-like drugs improve insulin sensitivity through peripheral stimulation of adiponectin and AMPK pathways in a rat model of glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maud; Bouchoucha, Soumaya; Aiad, Farouk; Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Bousquet, Pascal; Greney, Hugues; Niederhoffer, Nathalie

    2015-07-15

    Altered adiponectin signaling and chronic sympathetic hyperactivity have both been proposed as key factors in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that activation of I1 imidazoline receptors (I1R) improves several symptoms of the metabolic syndrome through sympathoinhibition and increases adiponectin plasma levels in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (Fellmann L, Regnault V, Greney H, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 346: 370-380, 2013). The present study was designed to explore the peripheral component of the beneficial actions of I1R ligands (i.e., sympathoinhibitory independent effects). Aged rats displaying insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were treated with LNP509, a peripherally acting I1R agonist. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and adiponectin signaling were assessed at the end of the treatment. Direct actions of the ligand on hepatocyte and adipocyte signaling were also studied. LNP509 reduced the area under the curve of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and enhanced insulin hypoglycemic action and intracellular signaling (Akt phosphorylation), indicating improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. LNP509 stimulated adiponectin secretion acting at I1R on adipocytes, resulting in increased plasma levels of adiponectin; it also enhanced AMPK phosphorylation in hepatic tissues. Additionally, I1R activation on hepatocytes directly enhanced AMPK phosphorylation. To conclude, I1R ligands can improve insulin sensitivity acting peripherally, independently of sympathoinhibition; stimulation of adiponectin and AMPK pathways at insulin target tissues may account for this effect. This may open a promising new way for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26015433

  14. Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Chavarria-Avila, Efrain; Munoz-Valle, Jose-Francisco; Armas-Ramos, Laura-Elizabeth; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Aldrete, Maria Elena Aguilar; Oregon-Romero, Edith; Mercado, Monica Vazquez-Del; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa-Elena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766) with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin), distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers. Subjects and methods In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI), were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold. Results sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046) GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL), TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL), and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL), but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T>G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05) with inflammation markers and distribution of body fat storage (Pearson’s r = ?0.169 to ?0.465) were found. Conclusion In this study, we have suggested that the ADIPOQ +45G allele could be associated with distribution of body fat storage in obesity. On the other hand, as no association was observed between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene polymorphism and obesity, it cannot be concluded that the ADIPOQ +45G allele is responsible for the increase of adiponectin levels. PMID:23118546

  15. Relation between Birth Weight and Placenta Weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Helena Sanin; Sandra Reza López; Edith Tufiño Olivares; Martha Corral Terrazas; Miguel Angel Robles Silva; Margarita Levario Carrillo

    2001-01-01

    With the goal to establish a model that relates birth weight to placenta weight, adjusted for the most documented predictors of birth weight, 300 live newborns were studied, all were products of single gestation. Inclusion criteria were newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or older according to the date of last menstruation, whose mothers did not have diabetes mellitus,

  16. Differentiation of human adipocytes at physiological oxygen levels results in increased adiponectin secretion and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Famulla, Susanne; Schlich, Raphaela; Sell, Henrike; Eckel, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia occurs in obese humans and mice. Acute hypoxia in adipocytes causes dysregulation of adipokine secretion with an increase in inflammatory factors and diminished adiponectin release. O2 levels in humans range between 3 and 11% revealing that conventional in vitro culturing at ambient air and acute hypoxia treatment (1% O2) are performed under non-physiological conditions. In this study, we mimicked physiological conditions by differentiating human primary adipocytes under 10% or 5% O2 in comparison to 21% O2. Induction of differentiation markers was comparable between all three conditions. Adipokine release by adipocytes differentiated at lower oxygen levels was altered, with a marked upregulation of adiponectin, IL-6 and DPP4 secretion, and reduced leptin levels compared with adipocytes differentiated at 21% O2. Isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly elevated in adipocytes differentiated at 10% and 5% compared with 21% O2. This effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of ?-1 and -2 adrenergic receptor, HSL and perilipin. Conditioned medium (CM) of adipocytes differentiated at the three different conditions was generated for stimulation of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) or smooth muscle cells (SMC). CM-induced insulin resistance in SkMC was comparable for the different CMs. However, the SMC proliferative effect of CM from adipocytes differentiated at 10% O2 was significantly reduced compared with 21% O2. This study demonstrates that oxygen levels during adipogenesis are important factors altering adipocyte functionality such as adipokine release, in particular adiponectin secretion, as well as the hormone-induced lipolytic pathway. PMID:23700522

  17. Supraphysiological triiodothyronine doses diminish leptin and adiponectin gene expression, but do not alter resistin expression in calorie restricted obese rats.

    PubMed

    Luvizotto, R A M; Síbio, M T; Olímpio, R M C; Nascimento, A F; Lima-Leopoldo, A P; Leopoldo, A S; Padovani, C R; Cicogna, A C; Nogueira, C R

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate energy balance and act on adipokines. However, while it is unclear what the effects are of calorie restriction and high doses of triiodothyronine (T(3)) on adipokines in obesity, thyroid hormones are illicitly administered in isolation or in association with a hypocaloric diet as an obesity treatment. The present study determined the effect of T(3) on serum concentrations and gene expression of the adipokines leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in calorie-restricted obese rats. Male Wistar rats received a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks followed by calorie restriction for 8 weeks. The animals were then randomly divided into 3 groups: calorie restriction (OR), OR with 5??g of T(3)/100?g BW (RS1), and OR with 25??g of T(3)/100?g BW (RS2) for 2 weeks. Blood and adipose tissue samples were collected for biochemical, hormonal, and gene expression analyses. Serum concentrations of leptin (OR: 3.7±0.6, RS1: 3.8±1, RS2 0.2±0.07?ng/dl) and resistin (OR: 2.5±0.6, RS1: 2.5±0.5, RS2 1.6±0.3?ng/dl) were diminished at the higher dose, while serum adiponectin (OR: 31±7, RS1: 24±5, RS2 26±7?ng/dl) levels were lower in the low dose group. Administration of T(3) reduced leptin gene expression (OR: 0.91±0.1, RS1: 0.95±0.1, RS2 0.22±0.1) only at the higher dose, resistin expression (OR: 1.06±0.2, RS1: 1.04±0.1, RS2 0.88±0.2) was not influenced by T(3) treatment, and adiponectin expression (OR: 1.55±0.5, RS1: 0.95±0.15, RS2 0.97±0.13) was diminished independent of the T(3) dose. These results indicate that T(3), directly or indirectly, inhibits the expression of leptin and adiponectin in calorie restricted obese animals. PMID:21557150

  18. Water extracts from Momordica charantia increase glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben W. C. Roffey; Avtar S. Atwal; Timothy Johns; Stan Kubow

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of Momordica charantia on glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in adipose cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with three concentrations (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4mg\\/ml) of water and ethanol extracts of Momordica charantia fruit and seeds alone and in combination with either 0.5nM or 50nM insulin. The treatment combination of 0.2mg\\/ml water extract and 0.5nM insulin was associated

  19. Modulatory effects of adiponectin on the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiao; Tsang, Julia Y; Ho, Derek H; Zhang, Ruizhong; Xiao, Haitao; Li, Daxu; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Fenghua; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lui, Vincent C; Xu, Aimin; Tam, Paul K; Lamb, Jonathan R; Xia, Huimin; Chen, Yan

    2015-08-15

    The plasticity of macrophages with selective functional phenotypes partially arises in respective to their microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may promote disease progression with tumor specific manner. Here we report that in pediatric malignant soft-tissue tumors, the presence of TAMs and expression of adiponectin (APN) are heterogeneous. Both APN and TAMs had high expression in rhabdomyosarcoma, especially in the malignant subtype, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. To investigate the mode of action of APN on TAM activation, a murine MN/MCA1 sarcoma model was used. The Results revealed that exogenous APN had no effect on MN/MCA1 proliferation but tumor size was markedly reduced in apn(-/-) mice versus WT controls. The accumulation of TAMs in apn(-/-) mice was also reduced which correlated to downregulated serum levels of MCP-1. Likewise, TAMs in apn(-/-) mice exhibited a M1-like phenotype, characterized by increase in MHC II(high) population and M1 phenotypic markers, such as iNOS gene and serum TNF-? accompanied by a decrease in M2 markers, namely YM1 gene and serum IL-10. In addition, APN deficiency increased the number of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells and NK cells in tumors and reduced tumor metastasis. The altered phenotype of TAMs in apn(-/-) mice was associated with a marked decrease in phospho-p38 and treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced tumor size and increased MHC II expression on TAMs in WT mice, implying p38 MAPK signaling pathway may contribute to APN-mediated TAM polarization. Collectively, our findings suggest that APN may have a potential role in regulating soft tissue sarcoma growth. PMID:25694398

  20. Adiponectin Activates AMP-activated Protein Kinase in Muscle Cells via APPL1/LKB1-dependent and Phospholipase C/Ca2+/Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase-dependent Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lijun; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S.; Etzler, Julie C.; Ryu, Jiyoon; Mao, Xuming; Fang, Qichen; Liu, Dianna D.; Torres, Jesus M.; Jia, Weiping; Lechleiter, James D.; Liu, Feng; Dong, Lily Q.

    2009-01-01

    The binding of the adaptor protein APPL1 to adiponectin receptors is necessary for adiponectin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle, yet the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that in muscle cells adiponectin and metformin induce AMPK activation by promoting APPL1-dependent LKB1 cytosolic translocation. APPL1 mediates adiponectin signaling by directly interacting with adiponectin receptors and enhances LKB1 cytosolic localization by anchoring this kinase in the cytosol. Adiponectin also activates another AMPK upstream kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase by activating phospholipase C and subsequently inducing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which plays a minor role in AMPK activation. Our results show that in muscle cells adiponectin is able to activate AMPK via two distinct mechanisms as follows: a major pathway (the APPL1/LKB1-dependent pathway) that promotes the cytosolic localization of LKB1 and a minor pathway (the phospholipase C/Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-dependent pathway) that stimulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. PMID:19520843

  1. Resistin, Visfatin, Adiponectin, and Leptin: Risk of Breast Cancer in Pre- and Postmenopausal Saudi Females and Their Possible Diagnostic and Predictive Implications as Novel Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Adel M. A.; Kamel, Hala F. M.; Hassanien, Mohamed F. R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of obesity-induced breast carcinogenesis are not clear. One hypothesis is that high levels of adipokines could promote breast cancer (BC) development. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin with BC risk in pre- and postmenopausal females. A total of 82 BC newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients and 68 age and BMI matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both groups were subdivided into post- and premenopausal subgroups. Resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured by ELISA. There were significantly higher levels of leptin, resistin, and visfatin in postmenopausal BC patients than their respective controls. Only in postmenopausal subgroups, leptin, resistin, and visfatin levels were positively correlated with TNM staging, tumor size, lymph node (LN) metastasis, and histological grading. In postmenopausal females, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and resistin were risk factors for BC. Our results suggested that serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels as risk factors for postmenopausal BC may provide a potential link with clinicopathological features and are promising to be novel biomarkers for postmenopausal BC. PMID:25838618

  2. THE EFFECT OF AEROBIC TRAINING ON SERUM ADIPONECTIN AND LEPTIN LEVELS AND INFLAMMATORY MARKERS OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN OBESE MEN

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin and on inflammatory markers of coronary heart disease in obese men. Sixteen non-athlete obese men were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. The experimental group underwent aerobic training consisting of three sessions per week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not participate in the training programme during the study period. Five millilitres of venous blood was taken from each participant at the beginning of the study, during week six and at the end of week 12 to measure the levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-?. The findings showed that aerobic training led to decreases in the levels of CRP (P = 0.002), IL-6 (P = 0.001) and leptin (P = 0.003) and an increase in the level of adiponectin (P = 0.002) in the experimental group relative to the control group. In addition, the level of TNF-? decreased in the experimental group after the 12-week aerobic training period, although this change was not statistically significant. According to the results of this study, regular aerobic exercise decreases the potential risk of coronary heart disease by improving the plasma levels of IL-6, adiponectin, leptin and CRP. Additionally, aerobic exercise can be used as effective non-pharmacological treatment to prevent diseases. PMID:24744461

  3. Regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-a) expression but not adiponectin by dietary protein in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary soy protein reduction and supplemental leucine (Leu) have been found to decrease leanness and increase muscle lipid content of pig carcasses respectively. Soy protein regulates adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-a) in some species, but the effect of dieta...

  4. Effects of pioglitazone on metabolic parameters, body fat distribution, and serum adiponectin levels in Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Hirose; Toshihide Kawai; Yukihiro Yamamoto; Matsuo Taniyama; Motowo Tomita; Koichi Matsubara; Yasunori Okazaki; Tatsuya Ishii; Yuko Oguma; Izumi Takei; Takao Saruta

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pioglitazone on clinical and metabolic parameters, body fat distribution, and serum adiponectin, a recently discovered antiatherosclerotic hormone, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ten male patients aged 40 to 66 (57.7 [plusmn] 7.4) years, who were being treated with dietary therapy alone (n = 7) or with a

  5. Serum Adiponectin is Related to Plasma HDL-Cholesterol but not to Plasma Insulin-Concentration in Healthy Children. The FLVS II Study.

    E-print Network

    . The relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance previously reported in obese or diabetic children were reported by case-control studies in obese subjects [3, 4] and patients with type 2 diabetes [5 in Healthy Children. The FLVS II Study. ADRIEN KETTANEH, BARBARA HEUDE, JEAN-MICHEL OPPERT, PHILIPP SCHERER

  6. Weighted Competition Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOSHIO SANO

    We introduce a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph of a digraph D = (V, A), denoted by Cw(D), is an edge-weighted graph (G, w) such that G = (V, E) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy ? E is the number of

  7. Strawkets and Weight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

  8. Associations among Endocrine, Inflammatory, and Bone Markers, Body Composition and Physical Activity to Weight Loss Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Labouesse, Marie A.; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Souza, Elaine C.; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Witbracht, Megan G.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Van Loan, Marta D.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. PURPOSE Our aims were to 1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; 2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; 3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC METHODS Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28–37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (?500 kcal/d; ?2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3–4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2 ± 8.8y) or low dairy (LD: ? 1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7 ± 8.4 y). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. RESULTS Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p= 0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post- body fat were negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r= ?0.28, p=0.04 to ?0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1?, TNF? and CRP ranging from r = ?0.29 (p=0.04) to r = ?0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss Factors. Pre-weight loss Factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss Factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the Factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. CONCLUSION AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD. Significant negative associations were observed between bone and inflammatory markers suggesting inflammation suppresses bone metabolism. Using Factor Analysis, 19.6% of total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD could be explained by endocrine, immune, and anthropometric variables, but not lumbar spine BMD. PMID:24709689

  9. Adiponectin Attenuates Lung Fibroblasts Activation and Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    He, Ya-rong; Lau, Wayne Bond; Zeng, Zhi; Liang, Zong-an

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ) poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN) may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-?1, CTGF and ?-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR). Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR) 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8) and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-?1, CTGF and ?-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Pretreatment with APN significantly attenuated the reduced cell viability and up-regulated collagen type III expression induced by PQ in lung fibroblasts, (p<0.05). APN pretreatment up-regulated AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, expression in WI-38 fibroblasts. AdipoR1 siRNA abrogated APN-mediated protective effects in PQ-exposed fibroblasts. Taken together, our data suggests APN protects against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, via suppression of lung fibroblast activation. Functional AdipoR1 are expressed by human WI-38 lung fibroblasts, suggesting potential future clinical applicability of APN against pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25945502

  10. Low molecular weight hyaluronan mediated CD44 dependent induction of IL-6 and chemokines in human dermal fibroblasts potentiates innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Vistejnova, Lucie; Safrankova, Barbora; Nesporova, Kristina; Slavkovsky, Rastislav; Hermannova, Martina; Hosek, Petr; Velebny, Vladimir; Kubala, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Complex regulation of the wound healing process involves multiple interactions among stromal tissue cells, inflammatory cells, and the extracellular matrix. Low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW HA) derived from the degradation of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW HA) is suggested to activate cells involved in wound healing through interaction with HA receptors. In particular, receptor CD44 is suggested to mediate cell response to HA of different MW, being the main cell surface HA receptor in stromal tissue and immune cells. However, the response of dermal fibroblasts, the key players in granulation tissue formation within the wound healing process, to LMW HA and their importance for the activation of immune cells is unclear. In this study we show that LMW HA (4.3kDa) induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokines IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6 and CCL8 gene expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) that was further confirmed by increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in cell culture supernatants. Conversely, NHDF treated by HMW HA revealed a tendency to decrease the gene expression of these cytokine and chemokines when compared to untreated control. The blockage of CD44 expression by siRNA resulted in the attenuation of IL-6 and chemokines expression in LMW HA treated NHDF suggesting the involvement of CD44 in LMW HA mediated NHDF activation. The importance of pro-inflammatory mediators produced by LMW HA triggered NHDF was evaluated by significant activation of blood leukocytes exhibited as increased production of IL-6 and TNF-?. Conclusively, we demonstrated a pro-inflammatory response of dermal fibroblasts to LMW HA that was transferred to leukocytes indicating the significance of LMW HA in the inflammatory process development during the wound healing process. PMID:25126764

  11. Losing Baby Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after baby > Losing baby weight Your body after baby Your body changes a lot after having a ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Losing baby weight You've carried your baby for several ...

  12. Maintaining a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... probably gain weight. That’s because metabolism (how you burn the calories you eat) can slow down with ... as you eat and drink. ? To lose weight, burn more calories than you eat and drink. ? To ...

  13. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spotlights Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links ... that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for ...

  14. Kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives promote adiponectin production during adipogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Jongho; Jung, Hyo-Il; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, John Hwan; Shin, Song Seok; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-05-01

    The subcutaneous fat tissue mass gradually decreases with age, and its regulation is a strategy to develop anti-aging compounds to ameliorate the photo-aging of human skin. The adipogenesis of human adipose tissue-mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) can be used as a model to discover novel anti-aging compounds. Cinnamomum cassia methanol extracts were identified as adipogenesis-promoting agents by natural product library screening. Cinnamates, the major chemical components of Cinnamomum cassia extracts, promoted adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We synthesized kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives to improve the pharmacological activity of cinnamates. Structure-activity studies of kojyl cinnamate derivatives showed that both the ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl ester group and the kojic acid moiety play core roles in promoting adiponectin production during adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We conclude that kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives provide novel pharmacophores that can regulate adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. PMID:24703658

  15. Influence of molecular weight on the phase behavior and structure formation of branched side-chain hairy-rod polyfluorene in bulk phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Lyons, B. P.; Ikonen, T. P.; Almásy, L.; Foreman, J. P.; Serimaa, R.; Güntner, R.; Scherf, U.; Monkman, A. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on an experimental study of the self-organization and phase behavior of hairy-rod ? -conjugated branched side-chain polyfluorene, poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl]—i.e., poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene] (PF2/6) —as a function of molecular weight (Mn) . The results have been compared to those of phenomenological theory. Samples for which Mn=3-147kg/mol were used. First, the stiffness of PF2/6 , the assumption of the theory, has been probed by small-angle neutron scattering in solution. Thermogravimetry has been used to show that PF2/6 is thermally stable over the conditions studied. Second, the existence of nematic and hexagonal phases has been phenomenologically identified for lower and higher Mn (LMW, MnHMW, Mn>Mn* ) regimes, respectively, based on free-energy argument of nematic and hexagonal hairy rods and found to correspond to the experimental x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for PF2/6 . By using the lattice parameters of PF2/6 as an experimental input, the nematic-hexagonal transition has been predicted in the vicinity of glassification temperature (Tg) of PF2/6 . Then, by taking the orientation parts of the free energies into account the nematic-hexagonal transition has been calculated as a function of temperature and Mn and a phase diagram has been formed. Below Tg of 80°C only (frozen) nematic phase is observed for MnMn* . The nematic-hexagonal transition upon heating is observed for the HMW regime depending weakly on Mn , being at 140-165°C for Mn>Mn* . Third, the phase behavior and structure formation as a function of Mn have been probed using powder and fiber XRD and differential scanning calorimetry and reasonable semiquantitative agreement with theory has been found for Mn?3kg/mol . Fourth, structural characteristics are widely discussed. The nematic phase of LMW materials has been observed to be denser than high-temperature nematic phase of HMW compounds. The hexagonal phase has been found to be paracrystalline in the (ab0) plane but a genuine crystal meridionally. We also find that all these materials including the shortest 10-mer possess the formerly observed rigid five-helix hairy-rod molecular structure.

  16. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from the extensive geochemical and analytical framework that was meticulo

  17. Intravenous Mycobacterium Bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese, Diabetic ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inafuku, Masashi; Matsuzaki, Goro; Oku, Hirosuke

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and immune response profoundly influence metabolic syndrome and fatty acid metabolism. To analyze influence of systemic inflammatory response to metabolic syndrome, we inoculated an attenuated vaccine strain of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) into leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. BCG administration significantly decreased epididymal white adipose tissue weight, serum insulin levels, and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Serum high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin level and HMW/total adiponectin ratio of the BCG treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation and macrovesicular steatosis were markedly alleviated, and the enzymatic activities and mRNA levels of lipogenic-related genes in liver were significantly decreased in the BCG injected mice. We also exposed human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to high levels of palmitate, which enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and impaired insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). BCG treatment ameliorated both of these detrimental events. The present study therefore suggested that BCG administration suppressed development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, at least partly, by alleviating fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in the liver. PMID:26039731

  18. Weighted quartets phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Avni, Eliran; Cohen, Reuven; Snir, Sagi

    2015-03-01

    Despite impressive technical and theoretical developments, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for enormous quantities of molecular data is still a challenging task. A key tool in analyses of large data sets has been the construction of separate trees for subsets (e.g., quartets) of sequences, and subsequent combination of these subtrees into a single tree for the full set (i.e., supertree analysis). Unfortunately, even amalgamating quartets into a supertree remains a computationally daunting task. Assigning weights to quartets to indicate importance or reliability was proposed more than a decade ago, but handling weighted quartets is even more challenging and has scarcely been attempted in the past. In this work, we focus on weighted quartet-based approaches. We propose a scheme to assign weights to quartets coming from weighted trees and devise a tree similarity measure for weighted trees based on weighted quartets. We also extend the quartet MaxCut (QMC algorithm) to handle weighted quartets. We evaluate these tools on simulated and real data. Our simulated data analysis highlights the additional information that is conveyed when using the new weighted tree similarity measure, and shows that extending QMC to a weighted setting improves the quality of tree reconstruction. Our analyses of a cyanobacterial data set with weighted QMC reinforce previous results achieved with other tools. PMID:25414175

  19. Associations of Insulin Resistance With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Inflammatory Cytokines in Normal-Weight Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Chantal A.; Burgos, Ximena; Ellis, Carla J.; Zubia, Raul Y.; Ontiveros, Diana; Reyes, Hector; Lozano, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of markers of insulin resistance with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-one normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) Hispanic women (age, 20–39 years) participated in a fasting blood draw for glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; a glucose tolerance test; anthropometric and blood pressure measurements; body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and measurements of cardiorespiratory fitness via Vo2max and daily physical activity by accelerometer. RESULTS Six percent of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 14% had impaired glucose tolerance, and 48% had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin were positively correlated with glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and were negatively correlated with adiponectin (P < 0.05). The 2-h insulin was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. HOMA-IR and fasting insulin remained significantly and positively related to glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure after adjustment for body composition. The relationships between markers of insulin resistance and adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were attenuated after adjustment for body composition. CONCLUSIONS Surrogate markers of insulin resistance were associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and inflammation in young, normal-weight, Hispanic women. Our findings suggest that HOMA-IR, fasting, and 2-h insulin may be important clinical markers for identifying young, normal-weight, Hispanic women who may be at risk for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our findings show the importance of early screening for prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:23275356

  20. An adiponectin receptor, T-cadherin, was selectively expressed in intratumoral capillary endothelial cells in hepatocellular carcinoma: possible cross talk between T-cadherin and FGF2 pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Adachi; Tamotsu Takeuchi; Hiroshi Sonobe; Yuji Ohtsuki

    2006-01-01

    T-cadherin is a unique receptor of adiponectin, which plays a critical role in various angiogenesis. In the present study, T-cadherin expression in tumor vessels of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, subsequently, the molecular mechanism, which induced T-cadherin expression in sinusoidal endothelial cells were investigated. Sinusoidal endothelium in nontumorous liver, chronic hepatitis, or liver cirrhosis expressed little or no T-cadherin. By contrast,

  1. Salsalate and Adiponectin Improve Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance via Inhibition of Selenoprotein P through the AMPK-FOXO1? Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Woo; Choi, Hae Yoon; Lee, So Young; Hong, Ho Cheol; Yang, Sae Jeong; Yoo, Hye Jin; Youn, Byung-Soo; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2013-01-01

    Selenoprotein P (SeP) was recently identified as a hepatokine that induces insulin resistance (IR) in rodents and humans. Recent clinical trials have shown that salsalate, a prodrug of salicylate, significantly lowers blood glucose levels and increases adiponectin concentrations. We examined the effects of salsalate and full length-adiponectin (fAd) on the expression of SeP under hyperlipidemic conditions and explored their regulatory mechanism on SeP. In palmitate-treated HepG2 cells as well as high fat diet (HFD)-fed male Spraque Dawley (SD) rats and male db/db mice, SeP expression and its regulatory pathway, including AMPK-FOXO1?, were evaluated after administration of salsalate and salicylate. Palmitate treatment significantly increased SeP expression and aggravated IR, while knock-down of SeP by siRNA restored these changes in HepG2 cells. Palmitate-induced SeP expression was inhibited by both salsalate and salicylate, which was mediated by AMPK activation, and was blocked by AMPK siRNA or an inhibitor of AMPK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) assay showed that salsalate suppressed SeP expression by AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1?. Moreover, fAd also reduced palmitate-induced SeP expression through the activation of AMPK, which results in improved IR. Both salsalate and salicylate treatment significantly improved glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity, accompanied by reduced SeP mRNA and protein expression in HFD-fed rats and db/db mice, respectively. Taken together, we found that salsalate and adiponectin ameliorated palmitate-induced IR in hepatocytes via SeP inhibition through the AMPK-FOXO1? pathway. The regulation of SeP might be a novel mechanism mediating the anti-diabetic effects of salsalate and adiponectin. PMID:23825542

  2. Adiponectin levels and its association with hyperglycaemia in adult Filipino participants in the 2003-04 National Nutrition and Health Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Paz-Pacheco; Mary Anne Lim-Abrahan; Rosa Allyn; G. Sy; Gabriel V. Jasul; Cherrie Mae; C. Sison; Aurora F. Laurel

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the association of serum adiponectin levels with the presence of IFG or DM in Filipinos. This case control study used sera of adult participants in the Philippines' NNHeS: 2003-04. Subjects were divided into: normoglycaemic control, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventy-seven prediabetic and 83 diabetic subjects were included in the prediabetic and

  3. Adiponectin levels and its association with hyperglycaemia in adult Filipino participants in the 2003—04 National Nutrition and Health Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Paz-Pacheco; Mary Anne Lim-Abrahan; Rosa Allyn G. Sy; Gabriel V. Jasul; Cherrie Mae C. Sison; Aurora F. Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the association of serum adiponectin levels with the presence of IFG or DM in Filipinos. This case control study used sera of adult participants in the Philippines’ NNHeS: 2003—04. Subjects were divided into: normoglycaemic control, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventy-seven prediabetic and 83 diabetic subjects were included in the prediabetic and

  4. Adiponectin expression and the cardioprotective role of the vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in ApoE-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kazim; Ferder, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one cause of death in the US. The adipokine adiponectin has been studied intensively for presenting and inversed association with almost every stage of CHD. For instance, the evaluation of molecules capable of enhancing endogenous adiponectin expression is well justified. In this study, we investigated the effect of the vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) paricalcitol and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril on adiponectin expression, lipid profiles, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), antioxidant capcity, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), Mn-SOD, NADPH p22phox subunits, inducible nitric oxidesynthase (iNOS), endothelial marker eNOS, and 81 atherosclerosis-related genes in ApoE-deficient mice. Method Seven-week-old ApoE-deficient mice were treated for 16 weeks as follows: Group 1, ApoE vehicle control (intraperitoneal [i.p.] 100 ?l propylene glycol); Group 2, ApoE-paricalcitol (200 ng i.p., 3/week); Group 3, ApoE-Enalapril (30 mg/kg daily); Group 4, ApoE-paricalcitol + enalapril (described dosing); and Group 5, wild-type control (C57BLV). Results All treated groups presented significant changes in circulating and cardiac adiponectin, cardiac cholesterol levels, AMPK, MCP-1, TNF-?, COX-2, iNOS, eNOS, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and p22phox. There were 15 genes that differed in their expression, 5 of which are involved in cardioprotection and antithrombotic mechanisms: Bcl2a1a, Col3a1, Spp1 (upregulated), Itga2, and Vwf (downregulated). Conclusion Together, our data presented a novel role for VDRA and ACEI in reducing factors associated with CHD that may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic venues. PMID:25037058

  5. Effects of different fatty acids and dietary lipids on adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells and C57BL\\/6J mice adipose tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allain Amador Bueno; Lila Missae Oyama; Cristiane de Oliveira; Luciana Pelegrini Pisani; Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro; Vera Lucia Flor Silveira; Cláudia Maria Oller do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is positively correlated to dietary lipid intake, and the type of lipid may play a causal role in the development\\u000a of obesity-related pathologies. A major protein secreted by adipose tissue is adiponectin, which has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic\\u000a properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different high-fat diets (enriched with soybean oil,\\u000a fish oil,

  6. Serum Adiponectin, TNF-?, IL12p70, and IL13 Levels in Multiple Sclerosis and the Effects of Different Therapy Regimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ugur Musabak; Seref Demirkaya; Gencer Genç; Rahsan Sagkan Ilikci; Zeki Odabasi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the human central nervous system. In the present study, we aimed to determine adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-13 levels in the sera of patients with MS and to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN), glatiramer acetate (GA), and immunosuppressive treatment regimens on these parameters. Methods: Fifty-seven patients

  7. Coexpression of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1 and Puroindoline Improves Dough Mixing Properties in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum wheat. PMID:23185532

  8. Amerindians show association to obesity with adiponectin gene SNP45 and SNP276: population genetics of a food intake control and "thrifty" gene.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Rey, Diego; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Arribas, Ignacio; Coca, Carmen; Algora, Manuel; Areces, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Adiponectin gene polymorphisms SNP45 and SNP276 have been related to metabolic syndrome (MS) and related pathologies, including obesity. However results of associations are contradictory depending on which population is studied. In the present study, these adiponectin SNPs are for the first time studied in Amerindians. Allele frequencies are obtained and comparison with obesity and other MS related parameters are performed. Amerindians were also defined by characteristic HLA genes. Our main results are: (1) SNP276 T is associated to low diastolic blood pressure in Amerindians, (2) SNP45 G allele is correlated with obesity in female but not in male Amerindians, (3) SNP45/SNP276 T/G haplotype in total obese/non-obese subjects tends to show a linkage with non-obese Amerindians, (4) SNP45/SNP276 T/T haplotype is linked to obese Amerindian males. Also, a world population study is carried out finding that SNP45 T and SNP276 T alleles are the most frequent in African Blacks and are found significantly in lower frequencies in Europeans and Asians. This together with the fact that there is a linkage of this haplotype to obese Amerindian males suggest that evolutionary forces related to famine (or population density in relation with available food) may have shaped world population adiponectin polymorphism frequencies. PMID:23108996

  9. Associations of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids with the concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and adiponectin in 1373 men.

    PubMed

    Takkunen, M J; de Mello, V D F; Schwab, U S; Ågren, J J; Kuusisto, J; Uusitupa, M I J

    2014-10-01

    Dietary and endogenous fatty acids could play a role in low-grade inflammation. In this cross-sectional study the proportions of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (EMFA) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and adiponectin were measured and their confounder-adjusted associations examined in 1373 randomly selected Finnish men aged 45-70 years participating in the population based Metsim study in Eastern Finland. The sum of n-6 EMFAs, without linoleic acid (LA), was positively associated with concentrations of CRP and IL-1Ra (r partial=0.139 and r partial=0.115, P<0.001). These associations were especially strong among lean men (waist circumference <94 cm; r partial=0.156 and r partial=0.189, P<0.001). Total n-3 EMFAs correlated inversely with concentrations of CRP (r partial=-0.098, P<0.001). Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) correlated positively with CRP (r partial=0.096, P<0.001). Cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) was associated with high concentrations of adiponectin (r partial=0.139, P<0.001). In conclusion, n-6 EMFAs, except for LA, correlated positively with the inflammatory markers. Palmitoleic acid was associated with CRP, whereas, interestingly, its elongation product, cis-vaccenic acid, associated with anti-inflammatory adiponectin. PMID:25087591

  10. On the total weight of weighted matchings of segment graphs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Given a matching, we put the weight x on each isolated vertex and the weight -1 or -a on each edge {i, iOn the total weight of weighted matchings of segment graphs Thomas Stoll School of Computer Science45, 05A15, 33C45 Abstract We study the total weight of weighted matchings in segment graphs, which

  11. Nutrition During Weight Gain

    E-print Network

    , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

  12. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  13. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  14. Adipokines, adiposity, and vasomotor symptoms during the menopause transition: findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Chang, Yuefang; Mancuso, Peter; Matthews, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test relationships between adipokines, adiposity, and vasomotor symptoms (VMS), including how these associations vary by menopause stage. Design A sub-cohort of the longitudinal cohort study the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation completed questionnaires, physical measures, and a fasting blood draw annually for 8 years. Associations between a poorer adipokine profile [lower adiponectin, lower high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, higher leptin, lower soluble leptin receptor, higher monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)] and VMS were tested using generalized estimating equations adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions by menopause stage (pre-/early perimenopause, late peri-/postmenopause) were tested. Setting Community Patients 536 women ages 42–52 at baseline Interventions None Main Outcome Measures VMS Results Associations between adipokines and hot flashes varied by menopause stage, with a poorer adipokine profile associated with higher odds of hot flashes early in the transition [adiponectinlog, OR(95% CI): 0.68 (0.51–0.90); HMW adiponectinlog, OR(95% CI): 0.70 (0.58–0.85); leptinlog, OR(95% CI): 1.23 (0.99–1.54), multivariable models including BMI], but not later in the transition. The direction of associations between BMI and VMS also varied by menopausal stage. Higher MCP-1 was associated with more night sweats [OR(95% CI): 1.37 (1.06–1.76)] across menopausal stages. Conclusions An adverse adipokine profile was associated with more VMS, particularly early in the menopause transition. PMID:23755948

  15. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  16. Adiponectin Protects Rat Myocardium against Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Injury via Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Hanpeng; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Shijiang; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Zhang, Xilong

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with many cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia and so on. Of the many associated factors, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in particular is the primary player in OSAS. To assess the effects of CIH on cardiac function secondary to OSAS, we established a model to study the effects of CIH on Wistar rats. Specifically, we examined the possible underlying cellular mechanisms of hypoxic tissue damage and the possible protective role of adiponectin against hypoxic insults. In the first treatment group, rats were exposed to CIH conditions (nadir O2, 5–6%) for 8 hours/day, for 5 weeks. Subsequent CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction was measured by echocardiograph. Compared with the normal control (NC) group, rats in the CIH-exposed group experienced elevated levels of left ventricular end-systolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic volume and depressed levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening (p<0.05). However, when adiponectin (Ad) was added in CIH + Ad group, we saw a rescue in the elevations of the aforementioned left ventricular function (p<0.05). To assess critical cardiac injury, we detected myocardial apoptosis by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) analysis. It was showed that the apoptosis percentage in CIH group (2.948%) was significantly higher than that in NC group (0.4167%) and CIH + Ad group (1.219%) (p<0.05). Protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved-caspase-12 validated our TUNEL results (p<0.05). Mechanistically, our results demonstrated that the proteins expressed with endoplasmic reticulum stress and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly elevated under CIH conditions, whereas Ad supplementation partially decreased them. Overall, our results suggested that Ad augmentation could improve CIH-induced left ventricular dysfunction and associated myocardial apoptosis by inhibition of ROS-dependent ER stress. PMID:24718591

  17. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Combination with Weight Loss on Inflammatory Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Catherine; de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Korde, Larissa; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and vitamin D deficiency are associated with risk for several cancers, possibly through inflammation and adipokine-related pathways. Two hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D; ?10-<32 ng/mL), were randomized to 12 months of either (i) weight-loss intervention + 2000 IU/day oral vitamin D3 or (ii) weight-loss intervention + daily placebo. Serum adiponectin, leptin, TNF?, IL6, IL1?, IL8, and IL10, were measured by immunoassay, and a composite inflammatory biomarker score calculated. Using generalized estimating equations, mean changes in outcomes were compared between arms (intent-to-treat), adjusted for possible confounders. Analyses were also stratified by weight-loss (gained/no weight-loss; <5%; 5% to 10%; ?10%). At 12 months, there were no significant differences in analyte changes between arms. In stratified analyses, participants randomized to vitamin D3 who lost 5% to 10% of baseline weight, versus participants who gained weight/had no weight-loss, had significantly greater decreases in levels of IL6 compared with those randomized to placebo: absolute change -0.75 pg/mL (-17.2%), placebo versus -1.77 pg/mL (-37.3%), vitamin D, P = 0.004. Similar but attenuated results were observed for participants who lost ?10% of baseline weight: -0.41 pg/mL (-13.6%), placebo versus -0.67 pg/mL (-17.3%), vitamin D, P = 0.02. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on levels of IL1? were inconsistent when stratified by weight loss. There were no intervention effects on IL10, TNF?, IL8, the composite score, adiponectin, or leptin, when stratified by weight-loss. In conclusion, vitamin D3 supplementation in combination with weight-loss of at least 5% of baseline weight was associated with significant reductions in levels of IL6. Cancer Prev Res; 8(7); 628-35. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25908506

  18. Plasma Adiponectin Levels Inversely Correlate to Clinical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Macrovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangya; Gao, Shuming; Su, Na; Xu, Jinxiu; Fu, Dongxia

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that adiponectin (APN) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are inversely involved in the regulation of atherosclerosis formation. However, the clinical impact of APN and PAI-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with macrovascular diseases (MVD) has not been investigated. In the present study, we found that plasma APN levels were significantly lower in T2DM patients than healthy donors, with a further decrease in T2DM patients with MVD. In contrast, plasma PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients than healthy donors, with a further increase in T2DM patients with MVD. We observed that plasma APN levels negatively correlated to values of BMI, FBG, FINS, TG, and PAI-1 in T2DM patients. In patients with MVD, plasma APN levels were negatively associated with values of BMI, SBP, FBG, FINS, TG, and PAI-1. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, we found that values of BMI, FCP, PAI-1, and FBG independently related to plasma levels of APN in T2DM patients with MVD. Taken together, our results indicate that APN might be a promising biomarker in patients with T2DM, especially in those with MVD. PMID:26116592

  19. Inverse Levels of Adiponectin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Are in Accordance with the State of Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Jazbec, Anamarija; Tomic, Martina; Piljac, Ante; Jurisic Erzen, Dubravka; Novak, Branko; Kastelan, Snjezana; Lovrencic, Marijana Vucic; Brkljacic, Neva

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the behaviour of adiponectin (ApN) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Methods. ApN and inflammatory and other markers of the metabolic syndrome were compared across diabetes types, albumin excretion rate (AER), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories in 219 type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Results. Significant differences among ApN levels according to AER were found in both types of diabetes (F = 8.45, df = 2, P < 0.001). With the progression of albuminuria, ApN increased in type 1 and decreased in type 2 diabetes. Patients with decreased CrCl had higher ApN levels than those with normal CrCl in either type of diabetes (F = 12.7, df = 1, P < 0.001). The best model for ApN (R2 = 0.9002) obtained from stepwise regression in type 1 diabetes included CrCl, BMI, WBC, CRP, and age, while in type 2 diabetes (R2 = 0.2882) it included ppPG, LDL, and UA. Conclusion. ApN behaved differently in relation to albuminuria, increasing with its progression in type 1 diabetes and decreasing in type 2 diabetes. It was however increased in the subgroups with decreased CrCl in both types of diabetes. Albuminuria seems to be more important than renal insufficiency in the definition of ApN levels in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  20. VERTEX COLORING EDGE WEIGHTINGS WITH INTEGER WEIGHTS AT MOST 6

    E-print Network

    Pfender, Florian

    VERTEX COLORING EDGE WEIGHTINGS WITH INTEGER WEIGHTS AT MOST 6 MACIEJ KALKOWSKI, MICHAL KARO of a graph G. This weighting is called vertex coloring if the weighted degrees w(v) = uN(v) w]). For any connected graph G with |G| 3, there is an edge weighting f : E(G) {1, 2, 3}, and a vertex

  1. Weights and Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson in multiple parts designed to explain the importance of standardized weights and measures and to demonstrate how governmental activities have changed standards and influenced commerce. (JDH)

  2. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression Some drugs used to treat diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive ...

  3. Healthy Weight during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weight gain is kept within a healthy range. Obesity during pregnancy is risky for both mother and child. Some risks include gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension (high blood pressure), Cesarean delivery, birth defects and ...

  4. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  5. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Planning Meals Cutting Calories Eat More, Weigh Less? Fruits and Vegetables Rethink Your Drink Portion Pitfalls Healthy Recipes Physical Activity for Healthy Weight Getting Started Success Stories Tips for Parents The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity Other Resources Related ...

  6. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ... Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: ( ...

  7. Weighted Temperature Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the differential heat conduction equation together with the boundary conditions can be recast as a sequence consisting of integral identities for the weighted temperature. Weight functions take into account the properties of the heat conduction equation and the boundary conditions. The sequence of identities was constructed on the basis of multiple differentiation or integration operators. Using the search for eigenvalues of the boundary value problem as an example, we have demonstrated the high efficiency of such systems.

  8. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  9. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  10. Weighted Domination on Cocomparability Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maw-shang Chang

    1995-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its two variants, the weighted connected domination and weighted total domination problems are NP-complete on cocomparability graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal to a constant c.

  11. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  12. Serum Concentrations of Fibroblast Growth Factors 19 and 21 in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Association with Insulin Resistance, Adiponectin, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome History

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongyu; Zhu, Wenjing; Li, Jieming; An, Chongyou; Wang, Zilian

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and FGF21 are considered to be novel adipokines that improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In the current study, we investigated serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and explored their relationships with anthropometric and endocrine parameters. Method Serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with GDM (n?=?30) and healthy pregnant controls (n?=?60) matched for maternal and gestational age. Serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels were correlated with anthropometric, metabolic, and endocrine parameters. Results Circulating levels of FGF19 were significantly reduced in patients with GDM relative to healthy pregnant subjects, whereas FGF21 levels were increased in GDM patients. Serum FGF19 levels independently and inversely correlated with insulin resistance (increased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and were positively related to serum adiponectin in both groups. In contrast, serum FGF21 levels independently and positively correlated with insulin resistance and serum triglycerides and were inversely related to serum adiponectin. In addition, in the combined population of both groups, those women with preconception polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) history had the lowest levels of FGF19, which were significantly lower than those in GDM patients without PCOS history and those in controls without PCOS history. Conclusions Circulating FGF19 levels are reduced in GDM patients, in contrast with FGF21 levels. Both serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels are strongly related to insulin resistance and serum levels of adiponectin. Considering the different situation between FGF19 and FGF21, we suggest that reduced serum FGF19 levels could be involved in the pathophysiology of GDM, while increased serum FGF21 levels could be in a compensatory response to this disease. PMID:24260557

  13. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m2 or ?27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  14. Carbohydrate Modified Diet & Insulin Sensitizers Reduce Body Weight & Modulate Metabolic Syndrome Measures in EMPOWIR (Enhance the Metabolic Profile of Women with Insulin Resistance): A Randomized Trial of Normoglycemic Women with Midlife Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Mogul, Harriette R.; Freeman, Ruth; Nguyen, Khoa; Frey, Michael; Klein, Lee-Ann; Jozak, Sheila; Tanenbaum, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Progressive midlife weight gain is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and may represent an early manifestation of insulin resistance in a distinct subset of women. Emerging data implicate hyperinsulinema as a proximate cause of weight gain and support strategies that attenuate insulin secretion. Objective To assess a previously reported novel hypocaloric carbohydrate modified diet alone (D), and in combination with metformin (M) and metformin plus low-dose rosiglitazone (MR), in diverse women with midlife weight gain (defined as >20lbs since the twenties), normal glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. Participants 46 women, mean age 46.6±1.0, BMI 30.5±0.04 kg/m2, 54.5% white, 22.7% black, 15.9% Hispanic, at 2 university medical centers. Methods A dietary intervention designed to reduce insulin excursions was implemented in 4 weekly nutritional group workshops prior to randomization. Main Outcome Measure Change in 6-month fasting insulin. Pre-specified secondary outcomes were changes in body weight, HOMA-IR, metabolic syndrome (MS) measures, leptin, and adiponectin. Results Six-month fasting insulin declined significantly in the M group: 12.5 to 8.0 µU/ml, p?=?.026. Mean 6-month weight decreased significantly and comparably in D, M, and MR groups: 4.7, 5.4, and 5.5% (p’s.049, .002, and.032). HOMA–IR decreased in M and MR groups (2.5 to 1.6 and 1.9 to 1.3, p’s?=?.054, .013). Additional improvement in MS measures included reduced waist circumference in D and MR groups and increased HDL in the D and M groups. Notably, mean fasting leptin did not decline in a subset of subjects with weight loss (26.15±2.01 ng/ml to 25.99±2.61 ng/ml, p?=?.907. Adiponectin increased significantly in the MR group (11.1±1.0 to 18.5±7.4, p<.001) Study medications were well tolerated. Conclusions These findings suggest that EMPOWIR’s easily implemented dietary interventions, alone and in combination with pharmacotherapies that target hyperinsulinemia, merit additional investigation in larger, long-term studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00618072 PMID:25259787

  15. Hemin therapy improves kidney function in male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of the heme oxygenase/atrial natriuretic peptide/adiponectin axis.

    PubMed

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Jadhav, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by elevated macrophage infiltration and inflammation. Although heme-oxygenase (HO) is cytoprotective, its role in macrophage infiltration and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is not completely elucidated. Administering the HO inducer, hemin, to streptozotocin-diabetic rats suppressed renal proinflammatory macrophage-M1 phenotype alongside several proinflammatory agents, chemokines, and cytokines including macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), macrophage-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and aldosterone, a stimulator of the inflammatory/oxidative transcription factor, NF-?B. Similarly, hemin therapy attenuated extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins implicated in renal injury including fibronectin, collagen-IV, and TGF-?1 and reduced several renal histopathological lesions such as glomerulosclerosis, tubular necrosis, tubular vacuolization, and interstitial macrophage infiltration. Furthermore, hemin reduced markers of kidney dysfunction like proteinuria and albuminuria but increased creatinine clearance, suggesting improved kidney function. Correspondingly, hemin significantly enhanced the antiinflammatory macrophage-M2 phenotype, IL-10, adiponectin, HO-1, HO activity, and atrial natriuretic-peptide (ANP), a substance that abates TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?, with parallel increase of urinary cGMP, a surrogate marker of ANP. Contrarily, coadministering the HO inhibitor, chromium-mesoporphyrin with the HO-inducer, hemin nullified the antidiabetic and renoprotective effects, whereas administering chromium-mesoporphyrin alone abrogated basal HO activity, reduced basal adiponectin and ANP levels, aggravated hyperglycemia, and further increased MCP-1, MIP-1?, aldosterone, NF-?B, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, proteinuria/albuminuria, and aggravated creatinine clearance, thus exacerbating renal dysfunction, suggesting the importance of the basal HO-adiponectin-ANP axis in renoprotection and kidney function. Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by selectively enhancing the antiinflammatory macrophage-M2 phenotype and IL-10 while concomitantly abating the proinflammatory macrophage-M1 phenotype and suppressing extracellular matrix/profibrotic factors with reduction of renal lesions including interstitial macrophage infiltration. Because aldosterone stimulate NF-?B, which activates cytokines like TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? that in turn stimulate chemokines such as MCP-1 and MIP-1? to promote macrophage-M1 infiltration, the hemin-dependent potentiation of the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis may account for reduced macrophage infiltration and inflammatory insults in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. PMID:24140713

  16. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  17. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  18. Generalized constructive tree weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  19. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  20. Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256

  1. Bogus Weight Loss Claims

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Battles, Carol

    The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

  2. Weighted interlace polynomials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Traldi

    2008-01-01

    The interlace polynomials introduced by Arratia, Bollobas and Sorkin extend to invariants of graphs with vertex weights, and these weighted interlace polynomials have several novel properties. One novel property is a version of the fundamental three-term formula q(G)=q(G-a)+q(G^{ab}-b)+((x-1)^{2}-1)q(G^{ab}-a-b) that lacks the last term. It follows that interlace polynomial computations can be represented by binary trees rather than mixed binary-ternary trees.

  3. Weighted Interlace Polynomials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Traldi

    2010-01-01

    The interlace polynomials introduced by Arratia, Bollobas and Sorkin extend\\u000ato invariants of graphs with vertex weights, and these weighted interlace\\u000apolynomials have several novel properties. One novel property is a version of\\u000athe fundamental three-term formula\\u000aq(G)=q(G-a)+q(G^{ab}-b)+((x-1)^{2}-1)q(G^{ab}-a-b) that lacks the last term. It\\u000afollows that interlace polynomial computations can be represented by binary\\u000atrees rather than mixed binary-ternary trees.

  4. Palmitate induces ER stress and autophagy in H9c2 cells: implications for apoptosis and adiponectin resistance.

    PubMed

    Park, Min; Sabetski, Anna; Kwan Chan, Yee; Turdi, Subat; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The association between obesity and heart failure is well documented and recent studies have indicated that understanding the physiological role of autophagy will be of great significance. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one component of cardiac remodeling which leads to heart failure and in this study we used palmitate-treated H9c2 cells as an in vitro model of lipotoxicity to investigate the role of autophagy in cell death. Temporal analysis revealed that palmitate (100??M) treatment induced a gradual increase of intracellular lipid accumulation as well as apoptotic cell death. Palmitate induced autophagic flux, determined via increased LC3-II formation and p62 degradation as well as by detecting reduced colocalization of GFP with RFP in cells overexpressing tandem fluorescent GFP/RFP-LC3. The increased level of autophagy indicated by these measures were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Upon inhibiting autophagy using bafilomycin we observed an increased level of palmitate-induced cell death assessed by Annexin V/PI staining, detection of active caspase-3 and MTT cell viability assay. Interestingly, using TEM and p-PERK or p-eIF2? detection we observed increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in response to palmitate. Autophagy was induced as an adaptive response against ER stress since it was sensitive to ER stress inhibition. Palmitate-induced ER stress also induced adiponectin resistance, assessed via AMPK phosphorylation, via reducing APPL1 expression. This effect was independent of palmitate-induced autophagy. In summary, our data indicate that palmitate induces autophagy subsequent to ER stress and that this confers a prosurvival effect against lipotoxicity-induced cell death. Palmitate-induced ER stress also led to adiponecin resistance. PMID:25164368

  5. Adiponectin is sufficient, but not required, for exercise-induced increases in the expression of skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Ian R W; MacDonald, Tara L; Wright, David C; Dyck, David J

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (Ad) has been proposed to be a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, and necessary for exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial content. We first confirmed that Ad could acutely increase the expression of mitochondrial proteins during a 10 h incubation in isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Next, we further examined the role of Ad as a regulator of mitochondrial content using Ad knockout (AdKO) mice. The AdKO animals showed no differences in resting , respiratory exchange ratio, or in time to exhaustion during exercise when compared to wild-type (WT) mice. There was a reduction in resting palmitate oxidation in isolated soleus from AdKO animals (?23%, P < 0.05) but not EDL, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-stimulated palmitate oxidation was similar in both genotypes regardless of muscle. There were no differences in protein markers of mitochondrial content (COX4, CORE1, CS, PDHE1?) in red and white gastrocnemius between WT and AdKO animals. A single bout of treadmill running increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mRNA expression of mitochondrial proteins in red and white gastrocnemius in both WT and AdKO animals, with no differences between genotypes. Finally, 8 weeks of chronic exercise training increased the protein content of mitochondrial markers similarly (?25–35%) in red gastrocnemius from both WT and AdKO mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the absence of Ad is not accompanied by reductions in mitochondrial protein content, or a reduction in aerobic exercise capacity. We conclude that Ad is not required for the maintenance of mitochondrial content, or for exercise-induced increases in skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins. PMID:24687585