Science.gov

Sample records for weight hmw adiponectin

  1. Relationship of adiponectin and its multimers to metabolic indices in cats during weight change.

    PubMed

    Witzel, A L; Kirk, C A; Kania, S A; Bartges, J W; Boston, R C; Moyers, T; Byrd, H; Lauten, S

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin is an important anti-inflammatory hormone secreted from adipose tissue. The high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin (HMW) closely correlates with insulin sensitivity in human beings. This study uses a novel method of size-exclusion gel chromatography combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure HMW feline adiponectin and determine its relationship to leptin, cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity as cats gain and lose weight. In addition, total adiponectin and its messenger RNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured. No correlations were found between total serum adiponectin and subcutaneous adipose messenger RNA expression, fat mass, or measures of insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrates that cats have high percentages of HMW adiponectin. Although weak correlations between HMW adiponectin and fat mass were detected, additional cats are needed to determine if the correlations are significant. PMID:26143302

  2. Correlation of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations with Anthropometric Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) and leptin are two important adipokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the two adipokines and anthropometric measurements of neonates at birth. Furthermore, we would like to explore whether HMW-adiponectin and leptin correlate with insulin sensitivity in neonates. Methods. Venous cord blood samples were obtained from 266 full-term healthy neonates consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. HMW-adiponectin, leptin, blood glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured. Results. HMW-adiponectin and leptin were significantly higher in females compared with males (P = 0.031 and P = 0.000, resp.). Univariate correlation analysis showed that leptin concentrations in cord blood were positively associated with gestational age, birth weight, body length, ponderal index, placenta weight, insulin, and insulin sensitivity (all P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal anthropometric measurements or foetal insulin sensitivity indicators (all P > 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that leptin (B = ?0.126, P = 0.045) in cord blood was independently associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Leptin concentrations, but not HMW-adiponectin, were positively associated with foetal anthropometric measurements. Leptin concentrations are significantly associated with foetal insulin sensitivity, and there were no significant correlations between HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal insulin sensitivity. PMID:25374599

  3. High Molecular Weight Adiponectin and Incident Ischemic Stroke in Postmenopausal Women: A Women’s Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Mancuso, Peter; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Allison, Matthew A.; Baird, Alison E.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose While low levels of adiponectin are associated with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, it is unclear whether adiponectin levels are related to the risk of developing ischemic stroke. Methods We examined the relationship between baseline high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and incident ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women, using data and specimens from the Hormones and Biomarkers Predicting Stroke Study, a case-control study nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Included were 855 incident ischemic stroke cases and 855 controls, matched for age, race-ethnicity, date of entry into the cohort, and follow-up time. Odds ratios of incident ischemic stroke associated with baseline HMW adiponectin levels were calculated using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusting for body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, LDL-C, HDL-C, physical activity, C-reactive protein, and aspirin use. Results Lower levels of HMW adiponectin were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, higher BMI, waist, glucose, and insulin levels, and lower HDL-C levels. The distribution of incident stroke cases by HMW adiponectin quartiles was 49.9%, 50.5%, 50.7%, and 48.9%, respectively (p =0.96). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of stroke associated with the top three quartiles of HMW adiponectin versus the first quartile were 0.99 (95%CI 0.71 to 1.37), 1.37 (0.99 to 1.91), and 1.25 (0.88 to 1.79), respectively (p-trend =0.14). Conclusion Despite moderate associations between HMW adiponectin and CVD risk factors, we found no evidence of an association between HMW adiponectin levels and incident ischemic stroke in these postmenopausal women. PMID:20508194

  4. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Argüelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin—an adipose tissue-derived protein—may provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case–control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68–1.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26–0.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60–1.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

  5. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin and ethnic-specific differences in adiposity and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic-specific differences in insulin resistance (IR) are well described but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing adipocytokine that circulates as multiple isoforms, with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin associated with greatest insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study is to determine if plasma total and HMW adiponectin concentrations underlie ethnic-specific differences in IR. Methods Healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults (N?=?634) were assessed for sociodemographics; lifestyle; fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and total and HMW adiponectin; and adiposity measures [BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (quantified by computed tomography)]. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed IR. Results South Asians had the greatest HOMA-IR, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations were lower in Chinese and South Asians than Aboriginal and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P?HMW adiponectin and HOMA-IR with stronger effects observed in Aboriginals (P?=?0.001), Chinese (P?=?0.002), and South Asians (P?=?0.040) compared to Europeans. This was not observed for total adiponectin (P?=?0.431). At mean total adiponectin concentrations South Asians had higher HOMA-IR than Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations a greater increase in HOMA-IR is observed in Aboriginals, Chinese, and South Asians than Europeans. Ethnic-specific differences in HMW adiponectin may account for differences in IR. PMID:24225161

  6. High molecular weight adiponectin reduces apolipoprotein B and E release in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Sigruener, Alexander; Eggenhofer, Elke; Weigert, Johanna; Weiss, Thomas S.; Schaeffler, Andreas; Schlitt, Hans J.; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Piso, Pompiliu; Langmann, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-01-12

    Low circulating levels of high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-Apm) have been linked to dyslipidaemia and systemic HMW-Apm negatively correlates with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and ApoE and is positively associated with ApoA-I. Therefore, it was investigated whether HMW-Apm alters the hepatic synthesis of ApoB, ApoE, and ApoA-I or the activity of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as the main determinant of plasma HDL. HMW-Apm reduces hepatic ApoB and ApoE release whereas ABCA1 protein, activity and ApoA-I were not altered. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hepatic nuclear factor 4-{alpha} (HNF4-{alpha}) and HNF4-{alpha} regulated genes like ApoB are downregulated by HMW-Apm and this was confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. Therefore it is concluded that HMW-adiponectin may ameliorate dyslipidaemia by reducing the hepatic release of ApoB and ApoE, whereas ABCA1 function and ApoA-I secretion are not influenced.

  7. The association of carotid intima media thickness with retinol binding protein-4 and total and high molecular weight adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is associated with serum level of retinol- binding protein-4 (RBP4) and total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) without clinical symptom of atherosclerotic disease. Method 101 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 53.63?±?8.42 years) and 42 body mass index (BMI) matched control (mean age 50.1?±?8.4) were recruited. The CIMT was assessed by using B-mode ultrasonography, while serum levels of RBP4 and total and HMW adiponectin were measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Linear regression analysis was performed with CIMT as dependent variable and adipokines and cardio metabolic risk factors as independent variables. Result The CIMT was higher in diabetic group compared to control group (p <0.05). The mean concentration of RBP4 and total and HMW adiponectin did not differ between two groups. Age (B?=?0.44 P <0.05), blood pressure (B?=?0.37 P?=?<0.05), waist circumference (B?=??0.21 P <0.05) and TG (B?=?0.1 P <0.05) were identified as independent predictors for CIMT in diabetic group, while RBP4 and adiponectin were not associated with CIMT neither in diabetic group nor in control group. Conclusion In conclusion, the present study showed that serum levels of RBP4 or total and HMW adiponectin were not potential predictors of CIMT in type 2 diabetic patients who exposed to this risk factor at least for nine years. PMID:23497488

  8. The influence of FGF2 high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms in the development of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Siyun; Bodmer, Janet R.; Azhar, Mohamad; Newman, Gilbert; Coffin, J. Douglas; Doetschman, Thomas; Schultz, Jo El J.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) consists of multiple protein isoforms (low [LMW] and high molecular weight [HMW]), which are localized to different cellular compartments, indicating unique biological activity. We previously showed that the LMW isoform is important in protecting the heart from myocardial dysfunction associated with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the roles of the HMW isoforms remain unknown. To elucidate the role of HMW isoforms in I/R and cardioprotection, hearts from novel mouse models,in which the murine FGF2 HMWs are knocked out (HMWKO) or the human FGF2 24 kDa HMW isoform is overexpressed (HMW Tg) and their wildtype (Wt) or non-transgenic (NTg) cohorts were subjected to an ex vivo work-performing heart model of I/R. There was a significant improvement in post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function in HMWKO hearts (76±5%, p<0.05) compared to Wt hearts (55±5%), with a corresponding decrease in HMW Tg function (line 20: 38±6% and line 28: 33±4%, p<0.05) compared to non-transgenic hearts (68±9%). FGF2 LMW isoform was secreted from Wt and HMWKO hearts during I/R, and a FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibitor, PD173074 caused a decrease in cardiac function when administered in I/R in Wt and FGF2 HMWKO hearts (p<0.05), indicating that FGFR is involved in FGF2 LMW isoform's biological effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, overexpression of HMW isoform reduced FGFR1 phosphorylation/activation with no further decrease in the phosphorylation state in the presence of the FGFR inhibitor. Overall, our data indicate that HMW isoforms have a detrimental role in the development of post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction. PMID:20116383

  9. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function

    PubMed Central

    Skalska, Urszula; Kontny, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW) and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW) adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGF?, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs. PMID:26681953

  10. Adiponectin Isoforms and Leptin Impact on Rheumatoid Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Function.

    PubMed

    Skalska, Urszula; Kontny, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin have recently emerged as potential risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effects of adiponectin and leptin on immunomodulatory function of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) derived from infrapatellar fat pad of RA patients. ASCs were stimulated with leptin, low molecular weight (LMW) and high/middle molecular weight (HMW/MMW) adiponectin isoforms. The secretory activity of ASCs and their effect on rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RA-FLS) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors have been analysed. RA-ASCs secreted spontaneously TGF?, IL-6, IL-1Ra, PGE2, IL-8, and VEGF. Secretion of all these factors was considerably upregulated by HMW/MMW adiponectin, but not by LMW adiponectin and leptin. Stimulation with HMW/MMW adiponectin partially abolished proproliferative effect of ASC-derived soluble factors on RA-FLS but did not affect IL-6 secretion in FLS cultures. ASCs pretreated with HMW/MMW adiponectin maintained their anti-inflammatory function towards PBMCs, which was manifested by moderate PBMCs proliferation inhibition and IL-10 secretion induction. We have proved that HMW/MMW adiponectin stimulates secretory potential of rheumatoid ASCs but does not exert strong impact on ASCs function towards RA-FLS and PBMCs. PMID:26681953

  11. Regulation of Adiponectin Multimerization, Signaling and Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meilian; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, which exists in serum in three major complexes including trimer, hexamer, and the high molecular weight (HMW) form, has strong insulin sensitizing, antiinflammatory and anti-diabetic functions. Different adiponectin complexes exert tissue-specific biological functions and activate distinct signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the mechanisms regulating adiponectin multimerization. We also describe the major target tissues in which distinct adiponectin multimers exert their functional roles. Finally, we discuss the potential involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial stress in diet-induced adiponectin downregulation and highlight the roles of Disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in the prevention of endoplasmic reticulum stress and promotion of adiponectin multimerization, stability, and function. PMID:24417943

  12. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI. PMID:22956782

  13. Phase variation and host immunity against high molecular weight (HMW) adhesins shape population dynamics of nontypeable Haemophilus in fluenzae within human hosts

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Gregg S.; Marino, Simeone; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.; Dawid, Suzanne; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a bacterium that resides within the human pharynx. Because NTHi is human-restricted, its long-term survival is dependent upon its ability to successfully colonize new hosts. Adherence to host epithelium, mediated by bacterial adhesins, is one of the first steps in NTHi colonization. NTHi express several adhesins, including the high molecular weight (HMW) adhesins that mediate attachment to the respiratory epithelium where they interact with the host immune system to elicit a strong humoral response. hmwA, which encodes the HMW adhesin, undergoes phase variation mediated by 7-base pair tandem repeats located within its promoter region. Repeat number affects both hmwA transcription and HMW-adhesin production such that as the number of repeats increases, adhesin production decreases. Cells expressing large amounts of HMW adhesins may be critical for the establishment and maintenance of NTHi colonization, but they might also incur greater fitness costs when faced with an adhesin-specific antibody-mediated immune response. We hypothesized that the occurrence of large deletion events within the hmwA repeat region allows NTHi cells to maintain adherence in the presence of antibody-mediated immunity. To study this, we developed a mathematical model, incorporating hmwA phase variation and antibody-mediated immunity, to explore the trade-off between bacterial adherence and immune evasion. The model predicts that antibody levels and avidity, catastrophic loss rates, and population carrying capacity all significantly affected numbers of adherent NTHi cells within a host. These results suggest that the occurrence of large, yet rare, deletion events allows for stable maintenance of a small population of adherent cells in spite of HMW adhesin specific antibody-mediated immunity. These adherent subpopulations may be important for sustaining colonization and/or maintaining transmission. PMID:24747580

  14. Disulfide-Dependent Self-Assembly of Adiponectin Octadecamers from Trimers and Presence of Stable Octadecameric Adiponectin Lacking Disulfide Bonds In Vitro†

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David B.; Jones, Christopher M.; Mashalidis, Ellene H.; Nuñez, Martha; Hausrath, Andrew C.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is a circulating insulin-sensitizing hormone that homo-oligomerizes into trimers, hexamers, and higher molecular weight (HMW) species. Low levels of circulating HMW adiponectin appear to increase the risk for insulin resistance. Currently, assembly of adiponectin oligomers, and consequently mechanisms responsible for decreased HMW adiponectin in insulin resistance, are not well understood. In the work reported here, we analyzed the re-assembly of the most abundant HMW adiponectin species, the octadecamer, following its collapse to smaller oligomers in vitro. Purified bovine serum adiponectin octadecamer was treated with reducing agents at pH 5 to obtain trimers. These reduced trimers partially and spontaneously reassembled into octadecamers upon oxidative formation of disulfide bonds. Disulfide bonds appear to occupy a greater role in the process of oligomerization than in the structural stabilization of mature octadecamer. Stable octadecamers lacking virtually all disulfide bonds could be observed in abundance using native gel electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and collision-induced dissociation nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These findings indicate that while disulfide bonds help to maintain the mature octadecameric adiponectin structure, their more important function is to stabilize intermediates during the assembly of octadecamer. Adiponectin oligomerization must proceed through intermediates that are at least partially reduced. Accordingly, fully oxidized adiponectin hexamers failed to reassemble into octadecamers at a rate comparable to that of reduced trimers. As the findings from the present study are based on in vitro experiments, their in vivo relevance remains unclear. Nevertheless, they describe a redox environment-dependent model of adiponectin oligomerization that can be tested using cell-based approaches. PMID:19943704

  15. Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Benjamin A.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Arthur, John M.; McFee, Wayne E.; Janech, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload) have higher levels of 2?h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n?=?4) and without (n?=?5) iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2?h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean?±?SD) at 763?±?298 and 727?±?291?pmol/ml, respectively (p?=?0.91); however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared to controls (30.0?±?6.3 versus 17.0?±?6.6%, respectively; p?=?0.016). Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r?=?0.999, p? adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with metabolic disorders. PMID:24065958

  16. Lifestyle-Induced Decrease in Fat Mass Improves Adiponectin Secretion in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen R.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Cook, Marc; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have identified relationships between weight loss and adipokine levels; however none have looked at the combined effect of aerobic exercise training with consumption of a low, or high glycemic diet. We examined the effects of 12-weeks of aerobic exercise combined with either a low- (GI: ~40, LoGIX) or high-glycemic (GI: ~80, HiGIX) diet on plasma leptin and adiponectin (total and high molecular weight - HMW) in 27 older obese adults (age 65±0.5 years; BMI 34.5±0.7 kg/m2). Methods Insulin sensitivity was calculated from an oral glucose tolerance test (ISIOGTT). Fasting HMW adiponectin and leptin were quantified from plasma samples obtained prior to the ISIOGTT. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained before and every 30 min during the test. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography was used to determine body composition and to quantify subcutaneous and visceral abdominal adiposity, respectively. Results Fasting leptin was significantly decreased in both groups (LoGIX, pre: 33.8±4.7, post: 19.2±4.5; HiGIX, pre: 27.9±4.2, post: 11.9±2.2 ng/ml, P=0.004), and HMW adiponectin was significantly increased (LoGIX, pre: 1606.9±34.6, post: 3502.3±57; HiGIX, pre: 3704.8±38.1, post: 4284.3±52.8 pg/ml; P=0.003) following the 12-week intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions, and visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, while subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. Conclusions The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary GI, favorably alters HMW adiponectin and leptin secretion, and that a reduction in visceral fat mass is a key factor regulating HMW adiponectin in older obese persons. PMID:24614337

  17. Influence of sex hormones on adiponectin expression in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Horenburg, S; Fischer-Posovszky, P; Debatin, K-M; Wabitsch, M

    2008-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with profound antidiabetic and antiatherogenic effects. Circulating adiponectin concentrations are higher in women than in men. In order to study the molecular aspects of this sex-specific dimorphism, we examined the expression of adiponectin in human fat cells under the influence of sex hormones, using SGBS cells as an in vitro model. Androgen and estradiol receptor 1 and 2 (AR, ESR1, ESR2) mRNA expression increased dramatically during adipogenic differentiation. Stimulation with human male and female serum led to a downregulation of adiponectin expression, with male serum exerting significantly stronger inhibitory properties than female serum (p<0.05). Increasing concentrations of testosterone or estradiol influenced neither adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion nor intracellular protein expression of high-, middle-, and low-molecular-weight (HMW, MMW, LMW) adiponectin multimers. These data have been verified in in vitro-differentiated primary human adipocytes. We conclude that although human adipocytes express AR, ESR1, and ESR2 and respond to testosterone treatment with a decrease in leptin expression, expression and secretion of adiponectin is unaffected by sex steroids. We hypothesize, therefore, the existence of a serum factor that is differently regulated by sex steroids and subsequently causes the sex dimorphism in circulating adiponectin levels. PMID:18792884

  18. Impact of Weight Loss on Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin in Overweight-to-Obese Post Menopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J.; Sedlacek, Scot M.; Wolfe, Pamela; Paul, Devchand; Lakoski, Susan G.; Playdon, Mary C.; McGinley, John N.; Matthews, Shawna B.

    2015-01-01

    Women who are obese at the time of breast cancer diagnosis have higher overall mortality than normal weight women and some evidence implicates adiponectin and leptin as contributing to prognostic disadvantage. While intentional weight loss is thought to improve prognosis, its impact on these adipokines is unclear. This study compared the pattern of change in plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight-to-obese post-menopausal breast cancer survivors during weight loss. Given the controversies about what dietary pattern is most appropriate for breast cancer control and regulation of adipokine metabolism, the effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate pattern was evaluated using a non-randomized, controlled study design. Anthropometric data and fasted plasma were obtained monthly during the six-month weight loss intervention. While leptin was associated with fat mass, adiponectin was not, and the lack of correlation between leptin and adiponectin concentrations throughout weight loss implies independent mechanisms of regulation. The temporal pattern of change in leptin but not adiponectin was affected by magnitude of weight loss. Dietary pattern was without effect on either adipokine. Mechanisms not directly related to dietary pattern, weight loss, or fat mass appear to play dominant roles in the regulation of circulating levels of these adipokines. PMID:26132992

  19. Lipoprotein particles and size, total and high molecular weight adiponectin, and leptin in relation to incident coronary heart disease among severely obese postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study????

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Rachel H.; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Chang, Yuefang F.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Evans, Rhobert W.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Howard, Barbara V.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Liu, Simin; Kulick, Doina; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that higher concentrations of LDL particles (LDL-P) and leptin, and lower concentrations of HDL particles (HDL-P), and total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, would predict incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among severely obese postmenopausal women. Methods In a case–cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, we sampled 677 of the 1852 white or black women with body mass index (BMI) ? 40 kg/m2 and no prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), including all 124 cases of incident CHD over mean 5.0 year follow-up. Biomarkers were assayed on stored blood samples. Results In multivariable-adjusted weighted Cox models, higher baseline levels of total and small LDL-P, and lower levels of total and medium HDL-P, and smaller mean HDL-P size were significantly associated with incident CHD. In contrast, large HDL-P levels were inversely associated with CHD only for women without diabetes, and higher total and HMW adiponectin levels and lower leptin levels were associated with CHD only for women with diabetes. Higher total LDL-P and lower HDL-P were associated with CHD risk independently of confounders including CV risk factors and other lipoprotein measures, with adjusted HR (95% CIs) of 1.55 (1.28, 1.88) and 0.70 (0.57, 0.85), respectively, and similar results for medium HDL-P. Conclusions Higher CHD risk among severely obese postmenopausal women is strongly associated with modifiable concentrations of LDL-P and HDL-P, independent of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, physical activity, BMI and waist circumference. General significance Severely obese postmenopausal women should be considered high risk candidates for lipid lowering therapy. PMID:25825692

  20. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507) were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34) years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p < 0.05) with body weight at baseline and in the longitudinal analyses. The rs266729 C allele and the rare minor alleles of rs2241766 and rs2082940 were associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio of developing T2DM. The differences in baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were seen according to rs16861210, rs17366568, rs2241766, rs6773957 and rs2082940 and differences in the change of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to the four year examination were seen according to rs16861205, especially in subjects who were able to lose weight during the first year of intervention. Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167 PMID:21219602

  1. Correlation of circulating C1q and C1q-binding adiponectin concentrations with aging in males: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is an age-related disease. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in human blood, and that serum C1q and C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) concentrations can be measured. We investigated circulating C1q and C1q-APN levels in Japanese men including elderly men. Findings The study subjects were 509 Japanese men including elderly men. Serum levels of total adiponectin (Total-APN), high-molecular weight-adiponectin (HMW-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total-APN, HMW-APN and C1q-APN, but not C1q, correlated significantly and positively with aging (r=0.26, r=0.24, r=0.17, p<0.01, respectively). The HMW-APN/Total-APN ratio correlated significantly and positively with aging (r=0.14, p<0.01). The C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio and C1q-APN/HMW-APN ratio correlated significantly and negatively with aging (r=?0.17, p<0.01, r=?0.12, p=0.01). C1q-APN/C1q correlated significantly and positively with aging (r=0.09, p=0.03). Multiple regression analysis identified age and body mass index as significant determinants of C1q-APN. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that serum HMW-APN, C1q-APN, and Total-APN, but not C1q, correlated positively with aging. These preliminary results could form the basis for future research. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration Number: UMIN000004318 PMID:23531423

  2. Adiponectin, leptin and TNF-? serum levels in obese and normal weight Peruvian adults with and without chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Carmen; Peña, Lizet; Guerrero, Maria-Eugenia; De La Rosa, Manuel; Mendes, Claudio; Chambrone, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background TNF-?, an adipokine involved in systemic inflammation and a member of a group of cytokines that stimulate the acute phase reaction, has been related to the pathogenesis of both periodontitis and obesity. The objective of this study was to assess the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and TNF-? of periodontally healthy normal weight (NW) patients, NW patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), periodontally healthy obese patients and obese patients with CP. Material and Methods Ninety-three patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study: 30 periodontally healthy NW patients; 18 NW patients with CP; 21 periodontally healthy obese patients; and 24 obese patients with CP. Analyses included clinical and anthropometric outcomes, as well as the assessment of serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and TNF-? by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. One-Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis One-Way on Ranks, Dunn’s Test and multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analyses were conducted to estimate the degree of association between periodontitis and obesity. Results Obese patients with CP showed significant more bleeding sites than the other three groups (p<0.05). Moreover, patients from the NWCP and OPH showed similar BOP percentages, as well as OPH group showed more bleeding sites than the NWPH group (p<0.05). The OPH group showed similar levels of adiponectin and leptin than the OCP group, but significantly higher than the NWPH and NWCP groups(p<0.05). MLR analyses showed that obesity was positively associated with the percentage of sites with bleeding on probing, with an odds ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval: -0.88, - 0.98; p=0.012). Conclusions The serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and TNF-? were not influenced by CP. Obese patients showed almost 10% more sites with BoP. In chronic periodontitis patients, obese subjects presented significant more BOP sites than normal weight subjects. Key words:Periodontitis, obesity, inflammation, adiponectin, leptin. PMID:26330934

  3. Registration of isogenic HMW-GS Ax1 protein deficient lines of an elite wheat variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded on the A-genome of an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. This set of A-genome encoded HMW-GS defi...

  4. Fasting and postprandial regulation of the intracellular localization of adiponectin and of adipokines secretion by dietary fat in rats

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-García, V; Torre-Villalvazo, I; Velázquez-Villegas, L; Alemán, G; Lara, N; López-Romero, P; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Díaz-Villaseñor, A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: Dietary fat sources modulate fasting serum concentration of adipokines, particularly adiponectin. However, previous studies utilized obese animals in which adipose tissue function is severely altered. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the postprandial regulation of adipokine secretion in nonobese rats that consumed high-fat diet (HFD) composed of different types of fat for a short time. Methods: The rats were fed a control diet or a HFD containing coconut, safflower or soybean oil (rich in saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid or polyunsaturated fatty acid, respectively) for 21 days. The serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, retinol, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), visfatin and resistin were determined at fasting and after refeeding. Adiponectin multimerization and intracellular localization, as well as the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and transcriptional regulators, were evaluated in epididymal white adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed rats, serum adiponectin was significantly decreased 30?min after refeeding. With coconut oil, all three multimeric forms were reduced; with safflower oil, only the high-molecular-weight (HMW) and medium-molecular-weight (MMW) forms were decreased; and with soybean oil, only the HMW form was diminished. These reductions were due not to modifications in mRNA abundance or adiponectin multimerization but rather to an increment in intracellular localization at the ER and plasma membrane. Thus, when rats consumed a HFD, the type of dietary fat differentially affected the abundance of endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44?kDa (ERp44), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) mRNAs, all of which are involved in the post-translational processing of adiponectin required for its secretion. Leptin, RBP-4, resistin and visfatin serum concentrations did not change during fasting, whereas modest alterations were observed after refeeding. Conclusions: The short-term consumption of a HFD affected adiponectin localization in adipose tissue, thereby decreasing its secretion to a different magnitude depending on the dietary fat source. Evaluating the fasting serum concentration of adipokines was not sufficient to identify alterations in their secretion, whereas postprandial values provided additional information as dynamic indicators. PMID:26619368

  5. Serum C1q- binding adiponectin in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) have much higher levels of adiponectin (Total-APN). Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in human blood, and serum C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We recently reported that C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio rather than Total-APN correlated with atherosclerosis in diabetics. However, the characteristics of C1q-APN in HD patients remain unclear. The preset study investigated the characteristics of the adiponectin parameters including C1q-APN and also to clarify the relationship between various serum adiponectin parameters and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD) in HD patients. Methods The single cross-sectional study subjects were 117 Japanese patients (males/females?=?61/56) on regular HD. Blood Total-APN, high molecular weight-adiponectin (HMW-APN), C1q-APN and C1q concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. ACVD were defined as stroke, coronary and peripheral artery diseases, thoracic and abdominal aneurysms. Results Stepwise regression analysis identified high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as the only significant and independent determinant of C1q-APN in males, and duration of HD as the only significant and independent determinant of C1q-APN in females. Stepwise regression analysis identified uric acid, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride as significant and independent determinants of C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio in males, and leukocyte count and HDL-C as significant and independent determinants of C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio in females. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified inorganic phosphorus and C1q-APN or C1q-APN/C1q ratio as significant determinants of ACVD. Conclusions Low serum C1q-APN and C1q-APN/C1q ratio, but not C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio, correlated with ACVD in HD patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: UMIN http://000004318 PMID:23442371

  6. Total adiponectin, but not inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interluekin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, correlates with increasing glucose intolerance in pregnant Chinese–Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Young; Sy, Vanessa; Araki, Takako; Babushkin, Nicole; Huang, Diana; Tan, Doris; Liao, Emilia; Liu, George; Wan, Stephen; Poretsky, Leonid; Seto-Young, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 levels and decreased high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-APN) levels have been reported in Caucasians with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). No similar studies have been performed in Chinese women. Methods Serum samples were obtained 1?h after a 50-g glucose challenge test (1HGCT) from Chinese–American women at 24–28 gestational weeks and total adiponectin (T-APN), HMW-APN, CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1 concentrations were measured. Correlation coefficients for glucose (1HGCT), HbA1c, insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were calculated against T-APN, HMW-APN, CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1. Significant P-values were determined using Bonferroni adjustments. Results Women with GDM had higher insulin and 1HGCT and lower T-APN. In addition, T-APN was lower in non-GDM subjects who had 1HGCT ?135?mg/dL with no abnormal or one abnormal glucose value on the 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. There were no significant differences in HMW-APN and inflammatory marker levels between non-GDM and GDM groups. There were negative correlations between T-APN and 1HGCT, insulin, BMI, and HbA1c, as well as between HMW-APN and 1HGCT, insulin, and BMI. No significant correlations were observed between 1HGCT, HbA1c, insulin, or BMI and CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, or MCP-1. Conclusions T-APN is reduced in Chinese women with GDM and those without GDM but with evidence of glucose intolerance. Unlike results reported for Caucasians, Chinese–American women with GDM do not exhibit elevated levels of CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, or MCP-1, possibly because Chinese women are relatively leaner compared with Caucasians. PMID:24330072

  7. Pediatric Obesity and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Proteomic Approach Identifies Multimeric Adiponectin as a Key Link between These Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Gillian E.; Ricotti, Roberta; Roccio, Marta; Moia, Stefania; Bellone, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Key circulating molecules that link vitamin D (VD) to pediatric obesity and its co-morbidities remain unclear. Using a proteomic approach, our objective was to identify key molecules in obese children dichotomized according to 25OH-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. A total of 42 obese children (M/F?=?18/24) were divided according to their 25OHD3 levels into 25OHD3 deficient (VDD; n?=?18; 25OHD<15 ng/ml) or normal subjects (NVD; n?=?24; >30 ng/ml). Plasma proteomic analyses by two dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis were performed at baseline in all subjects. VDD subjects underwent a 12mo treatment with 3000 IU vitamin D3 once a week to confirm the proteomic analyses. The proteomic analyses identified 53 “spots” that differed between VDD and NVD (p<0.05), amongst which adiponectin was identified. Adiponectin was selected for confirmational studies due to its tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Western Immunoblot (WIB) analyses of 2D-gels demonstrated a downregulation of adiponectin in VDD subjects, which was confirmed in the plasma from VDD with respect to NVD subjects (p<0.035) and increased following 12mo vitamin D3 supplementation in VDD subjects (p<0.02). High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, a surrogate indicator of insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower in VDD subjects (p<0.02) and improved with vitamin D3 supplementation (p<0.042). A direct effect in vitro of 1?,25-(OH)2D3 on adipocyte adiponectin synthesis was demonstrated, with adiponectin and its multimeric forms upregulated, even at low pharmacological doses (10?9 M) of 1?,25-(OH)2D3. This upregulation was paralleled by the adiponectin interactive protein, DsbA-L, suggesting that the VD regulation of adiponectin involves post-transciptional events. Using a proteomic approach, multimeric adiponectin has been identified as a key plasma protein that links VDD to pediatric obesity. PMID:24404137

  8. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ADIPONECTIN MULTIMERS INCREASE FOLLOWING ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS SURGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to weight loss, bariatric surgery for severe obesity has been reported to rapidly improve insulin sensitivity, often leading to a sustained resolution of type-2 diabetes mellitus 1. This effect has been proposed to result from the marked early restriction of food intake and/or increased ...

  9. The Role of Adiponectin in Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dalamaga, Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope N.

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight is associated not only with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also with various types of malignancies. Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, exhibits insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, proapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties. Circulating adiponectin levels, which are determined predominantly by genetic factors, diet, physical activity, and abdominal adiposity, are decreased in patients with diabetes, CVD, and several obesity-associated cancers. Also, adiponectin levels are inversely associated with the risk of developing diabetes, CVD, and several malignancies later in life. Many cancer cell lines express adiponectin receptors, and adiponectin in vitro limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Recent in vitro studies demonstrate the antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties of adiponectin. Studies in both animals and humans have investigated adiponectin and adiponectin receptor regulation and expression in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role of adiponectin as a novel risk factor and potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer. In addition, either adiponectin per se or medications that increase adiponectin levels or up-regulate signaling pathways downstream of adiponectin may prove to be useful anticancer agents. This review presents the role of adiponectin in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and examines the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the association between adiponectin and malignancy in the context of a dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. Understanding of these mechanisms may be important for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against obesity-associated malignancies. PMID:22547160

  10. THE WHEAT D-GENOME HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS:BAC SEQUENCING, GENE DISTRIBUTION, AND RETROTRANSPOSON CLUSTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial-artificial-chromosome (BAC) clone from the genome of Triticum tauschii, the D-genome ancestor of hexaploid bread wheat, was sequenced and the presence of the two paralogous x- and y- type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes of the Glu-D1 locus was confirmed. These two genes occur...

  11. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (?30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 ?g/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (? = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  12. Effects of interventions on adiponectin and adiponectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sewon; Kwak, Hyo-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin secreted from adipose tissue binds to two distinct adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) identified and exerts its anti-diabetic effects in insulin-sensitive organs including liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as well as amelioration of vascular dysfunction in the various vasculatures. A number of experimental and clinical observations have demonstrated that circulating levels of adiponectin are markedly reduced in obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Therapeutic interventions which can improve the action of adiponectin including elevation of circulating adiponectin concentration or up-regulation and/or activation of its receptors, could provide better understanding of strategies to ameliorate metabolic disorders and vascular disease. The focus of the present review is to summarize accumulating evidence showing the role of interventions such as pharmacological agents, exercise, and calorie restriction in the expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. PMID:24877039

  13. Impact of Adiponectin Deficiency on Pulmonary Responses to Acute Ozone Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ming; Hug, Christopher; Kasahara, David I.; Johnston, Richard A.; Williams, Alison S.; Verbout, Norah G.; Si, Huiqing; Jastrab, Jordan; Srivastava, Amit; Williams, Erin S.; Ranscht, Barbara; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Obese mice have increased responses to acute ozone (O3) exposure. T-cadherin is a binding protein for the high–molecular weight isoforms of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory hormone that declines in obesity. The objective of the present study was to determine whether adiponectin affects pulmonary responses to O3, and whether these effects are mediated through T-cadherin. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and measured pulmonary responsiveness to methacholine after acute air or O3 exposure (2 ppm for 3 h) in adiponectin-deficient (Adipo?/?) or T-cadherin–deficient (T-Cad?/?) mice. O3 increased pulmonary responses to methacholine and increased BAL neutrophils and protein to a greater extent in wild-type than in Adipo?/? mice, whereas T-cadherin deficiency had no effect. O3-induced increases in BAL IL-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), which contribute to O3-induced pulmonary neutrophilia, were also greater in wild-type than in Adipo?/? mice. In contrast, responses to O3 were not altered by transgenic overexpression of adiponectin. To determine which adiponectin isoforms are present in the lung, Western blotting was performed. The hexameric isoform of adiponectin dominated in serum, whereas BAL was dominated by the high–molecular weight isoform of adiponectin. Interestingly, serum adiponectin was greater in T-Cad?/? versus wild-type mice, whereas BAL adiponectin was lower in T-Cad?/? versus wild-type mice, suggesting that T-cadherin may be important for transit of high–molecular weight adiponectin from the blood to the lung. Our results indicate that adiponectin deficiency inhibits pulmonary inflammation induced by acute O3 exposure, and that T-cadherin does not mediate the effects of adiponectin responsible for these events. PMID:19915153

  14. The wheat HMW-glutenin 1Dy10 gene promoter controls endosperm expression in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Thilmony, Roger; Guttman, Mara E; Lin, Jeanie W; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    The grass species Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model system for the study of gene structure and function in temperate cereals. As a first demonstration of the utility of Brachypodium to study wheat gene promoter function, we transformed it with a T-DNA that included the uidA reporter gene under control of a wheat High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoter and transcription terminator. For comparison, the same expression cassette was introduced into wheat by biolistics. Histochemical staining for ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity showed that the wheat promoter was highly expressed in the endosperms of all the seeds of Brachypodium and wheat homozygous plants. It was not active in any other tissue of transgenic wheat, but showed variable and sporadic activity in a minority of styles of the pistils of four homozygous transgenic Brachypodium lines. The ease of obtaining transgenic Brachypodium plants and the overall faithfulness of expression of the wheat HMW-GS promoter in those plants make it likely that this model system can be used for studies of other promoters from cereal crop species that are difficult to transform. PMID:24322586

  15. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studies on the role of adiponectin in younger and lean patients are limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the association of adiponectin levels in young and lean women with PCOS. Methods A case–control study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Cases were 75 patients of PCOS with Body Mass Index (BMI) &23 aged 16–35 years and 75 healthy age and BMI matched controls were selected from family and friends of the cases. Demographic details, family history and past medical history were obtained through interview by a physician. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height of the participants. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, adiponectin, and androgen levels were determined. IR was calculated using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between adiponectin and PCOS after adjusting for co-variates. Results On multivariable analysis, PCOS cases were 3.2 times more likely to have low adiponectin level (OR?=?3.2, 95% CI 1.49-6.90, p-value 0.003) compared to the controls after adjustment for age, BMI, family history, marital status, total cholesterol, HDL level and IR. Females with a family history of PCOS were significantly more likely to have lower adiponectin (OR?=?3.32, 95% CI 1.27-8.67, p-value 0.014) compared to those who did not have a family history of PCOS. The associations of IR and family history with low adiponectin level also remained statistically significant after adjustments for covariates. Conclusion Serum adiponectin levels are independently associated with PCOS and are only partly explained by IR. Adiponectin level may serve as a potential independent biomarker for diagnosis of PCOS in young and lean women with fewer symptoms, or women with a family history of PCOS. PMID:24502610

  16. Role of adiponectin in delayed embryonic development of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adiponectin in the delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. Adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR1) abundance was first observed to be lower during the delayed versus non-delayed periods of utero-embryonic unit development. The effects of adiponectin treatment on embryonic development were then evaluated during the period of delayed development. Exogenous treatment increased the in vivo rate of embryonic development, as indicated by an increase in weight, ADIPOR1 levels in the utero-embryonic unit, and histological changes in embryonic development. Treatment with adiponectin during embryonic diapause showed a significant increase in circulating progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and in production of their receptors in the utero-embryonic unit. The adiponectin-induced increase in estradiol synthesis was correlated with increased cell survival (BCL2 protein levels) and cell proliferation (PCNA protein levels) in the utero-embryonic unit, suggesting an indirect effect of adiponectin via estradiol synthesis by the ovary. An in vitro study further confirmed the in vivo findings that adiponectin treatment increases PCNA levels together with increased uptake of glucose by increasing the abundance of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the utero-embryonic unit. The in vitro study also revealed that adiponectin, together with estradiol but not alone, significantly increased ADIPOR1 protein levels. Thus, adiponectin works in concert with estradiol to increase glucose transport to the utero-embryonic unit and promote cell proliferation, which together accelerate embryonic development. PMID:25295970

  17. Characterisation of adiponectin and its receptors in the bovine mammary gland and in milk.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Giudice, Chiara; Uggè, Martina; Scarafoni, Alessio; Baldi, Antonella; Sartorelli, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which circulates in the form of homo-multimers. The individual oligomers have a distinct profile of activity, playing crucial roles in several biological processes, including metabolism and inflammation. Adiponectin exerts many of its effects by interacting with the receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In the present study, mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was evaluated by quantitative PCR in different areas of the mammary gland in healthy lactating cows. The adiponectin isoforms in milk and blood were investigated by Western blotting and 2D-electrophoresis, and the presence of adiponectin protein was determined by immunohistochemistry. Low level expression of adiponectin mRNA was found in all areas of bovine mammary gland tissues examined. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs were also detected in mammary tissues and their expression was particularly prominent in the parenchyma and cistern. Western blotting revealed a heterogeneous electrophoretic pattern, indicating that different adiponectin isoforms exist in milk, compared with blood. In particular, milk shows a low molecular weight isoform of adiponectin, corresponding to the globular domain. Adiponectin in milk is characterised by a more complex 2D electrophoretic pattern, compared with blood, as illustrated by the presence of proteins of different molecular weights and isoelectric points. Adiponectin protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells lining the secretory alveoli, in secretum within the alveolar lumen and in small peripheral nerves. The study findings support a role for adiponectin in regulating metabolism and immunity of the bovine mammary gland and potentially the calf intestine, following ingestion of milk. PMID:25676879

  18. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Adiponectin Level and Adiponectin-related Protein Expression in Myocardial Tissue of ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Li-Hui; Li, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Numerous reports have confirmed the effect of ApoE knockout in the induction of cardiovascular diseases and the protective effect of adiponectin against the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to reveal the roles of adiponectin signaling in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout and to analyze the healthy effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE knockout mice (ApoE-/- mice) through observing the changes of adiponectin signaling caused by ApoE knockout and aerobic exercise. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program was carried out on the male ApoE-/- mice and the C57BL / 6J mice (C57 mice) of the same strain. Results show that the body weights, blood lipid level, plasma adiponectin level and adiponectin-related proteins in myocardial tissue were all significantly changed by ApoE knockout. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only minimal effects on the body weights, blood lipid levels, and plasma adiponectin levels of ApoE-/- mice, but increased the expressions of four adiponectin-related proteins, AdipoR1, PPAR?, AMPK and P-AMPK, in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE-/- mice. In summary, adiponectin signaling may play an import role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout, and the beneficial health effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE-/- mice may be mainly from the increased adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. Key points A twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only limited effects on the body weights and the plasma adiponectin levels of both the normal mice and the ApoE-/- mice but did effectively regulate the blood lipid levels of the normal mice (but not the ApoE-/- mice). After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise, expression of the adiponectin-related proteins in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE-/- and normal mice was increased, but the increased amplitudes of these proteins in the ApoE-/- mice were much larger in the ApoE-/- mice than in the normal mice. Aerobic exercise might not alter the plasma adiponectin levels and blood lipid levels of ApoE-/- mice, but improve myocardial energy metabolism and relieve cardiovascular disease symptoms by increasing adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. PMID:26664286

  19. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Adiponectin Level and Adiponectin-related Protein Expression in Myocardial Tissue of ApoE(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Li-Hui; Li, Jiang-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Numerous reports have confirmed the effect of ApoE knockout in the induction of cardiovascular diseases and the protective effect of adiponectin against the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to reveal the roles of adiponectin signaling in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout and to analyze the healthy effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE knockout mice (ApoE(-/-) mice) through observing the changes of adiponectin signaling caused by ApoE knockout and aerobic exercise. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program was carried out on the male ApoE(-/-) mice and the C57BL / 6J mice (C57 mice) of the same strain. Results show that the body weights, blood lipid level, plasma adiponectin level and adiponectin-related proteins in myocardial tissue were all significantly changed by ApoE knockout. A twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only minimal effects on the body weights, blood lipid levels, and plasma adiponectin levels of ApoE(-/-) mice, but increased the expressions of four adiponectin-related proteins, AdipoR1, PPAR?, AMPK and P-AMPK, in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE(-/-) mice. In summary, adiponectin signaling may play an import role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases induced by ApoE knockout, and the beneficial health effects of aerobic exercise on ApoE(-/-) mice may be mainly from the increased adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. Key pointsA twelve-week aerobic exercise program exerted only limited effects on the body weights and the plasma adiponectin levels of both the normal mice and the ApoE(-/-) mice but did effectively regulate the blood lipid levels of the normal mice (but not the ApoE(-/-) mice).After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise, expression of the adiponectin-related proteins in the myocardial tissue of the ApoE(-/-) and normal mice was increased, but the increased amplitudes of these proteins in the ApoE(-/-) mice were much larger in the ApoE(-/-) mice than in the normal mice.Aerobic exercise might not alter the plasma adiponectin levels and blood lipid levels of ApoE(-/-) mice, but improve myocardial energy metabolism and relieve cardiovascular disease symptoms by increasing adiponectin-related protein expression in myocardial tissue. PMID:26664286

  20. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADIPONECTIN, INSULIN RESISTANCE, AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer; however, weight alone does not account for all cases. The authors hypothesized that insulin resistance also contributes to an increased risk for endometrial cancer. Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipose...

  1. High fat diet induced changes in gastric vagal afferent response to adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Stephen J; Ratcliff, Kyle; Li, Hui; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2015-12-01

    Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Adiponectin, secreted primarily from adipocytes, also has a role in regulating food intake. However, the involvement of vagal afferents in this effect remains to be established. We aimed to determine if adiponectin can modulate gastric vagal afferent (GVA) satiety signals and further whether this is altered in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a HFD for 12weeks. Plasma adiponectin levels were assayed, and the expression of adiponectin in the gastric mucosa was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The location of adiponectin protein within the gastric mucosa was determined by immunohistochemistry. To evaluate the direct effect of adiponectin on vagal afferent endings we determined adiponectin receptor expression in whole nodose ganglia (NDG) and also specifically in GVA neurons using retrograde tracing and qRT-PCR. An in vitro preparation was used to determine the effect of adiponectin on GVA response to mechanical stimulation. HFD mice exhibited an increased body weight and adiposity and showed delayed gastric emptying relative to SLD mice. Plasma adiponectin levels were not significantly different in HFD compared to SLD mice. Adiponectin mRNA was detected in the gastric mucosa of both SLD and HFD mice and presence of protein was confirmed immunohistochemically by the detection of adiponectin immunoreactive cells in the mucosal layer of the stomach. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and 2 (ADIPOR2) mRNA was present in both the SLD and HFD whole NDG and also specifically traced gastric mucosal and muscular neurons. There was a reduction in ADIPOR1 mRNA in the mucosal afferents of the HFD mice relative to the SLD mice. In HFD mice adiponectin potentiated gastric mucosal afferent responses to mucosal stroking, an effect not observed in SLD mice. Adiponectin reduced the responses of tension receptors to circular stretch to a similar extent in both SLD and HFD mice. In conclusion, adiponectin modulates GVA satiety signals. This modulatory effect is altered in HFD-induced obesity. It remains to be conclusively determined whether this modulation is involved in the regulation of food intake and what the whole animal phenotypic consequence is. PMID:26074203

  2. Transposon mutagenesis reinforces the correlation between Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytoskeletal protein HMW2 and cytadherence.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, D C; Proft, T; Hedreyda, C T; Hilbert, H; Plagens, H; Herrmann, R

    1997-01-01

    A new genetic locus associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytadherence was previously identified by transposon mutagenesis with Tn4001. This locus maps approximately 160 kbp from the genes encoding cytadherence-associated proteins HMW1 and HMW3, and yet insertions therein result in loss of these proteins and a hemadsorption-negative (HA-) phenotype, prompting the designation cytadherence-regulatory locus (crl). In the current study, passage of transformants in the absence of antibiotic selection resulted in loss of the transposon, a wild-type protein profile, and a HA+ phenotype, underscoring the correlation between crl and M. pneumoniae cytadherence. Nucleotide sequence analysis of crl revealed open reading frames (ORFs) orfp65, orfp216, orfp41, and orfp24, arranged in tandem and flanked by a promoter-like and a terminator-like sequence, suggesting a single transcriptional unit, the P65 operon. The 5' end of orfp65 mRNA was mapped by primer extension, and a likely promoter was identified just upstream. The product of each ORF was identified by using antisera prepared against fusion proteins. The previously characterized surface protein P65 is encoded by orfp65, while the 190,000 Mr cytadherence-associated protein HMW2 is a product of orfp216. Proteins with sizes of 47,000 and 41,000 Mr and unknown function were identified for orfp41 and orfp24, respectively. Structural analyses of HMW2 predict a periodicity highly characteristic of a coiled-coil conformation and five leucine zipper motifs, indicating that HMW2 probably forms dimers in vivo, which is consistent with a structural role in cytadherence. Each transposon insertion mapped to orfp216 but affected the levels of all products of the P65 operon. HMW2 is thought to form a disulfide-linked dimer, formerly designated HMW5, and examination of an hmw2 deletion mutant confirms that HMW5 is a product of the hmw2 gene. PMID:9098066

  3. Characterization of a novel y-type HMW-GS with eight cysteine residues from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenglin; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Gang; Kou, Chunlan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Jiang, Qi; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan

    2015-11-15

    The composition and number of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) play important roles in determining the grain-processing quality of common wheat. The Glu-1Ay allele is silent in common wheat. In this study, an active y-type HMW-GS allele termed 1Ay8.2 (GenBank No. KP137569) was identified from Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n=2x=14), a species with a genome related to the A-genome of common wheat. Compared with previously reported active 1Ay subunits, this novel subunit contained an extra cysteine residue at position 103 of the amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region, in addition to the six cysteines in the N- and C-terminal regions found in most active 1Ay subunits and the one in the repetitive region that appears in only a few 1Ay alleles. This subunit was expressed in an amphiploid (AAAmAmBB, 2n=6x=42) between Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon and T. monococcum ssp. monococcum. This amphiploid could be used as a bridge to transfer 1Ay8.2 into common wheat cultivars. Replacing the silenced 1Ay in common wheat with the active 1Ay8.2 allele harboring an extra cysteine residue is expected to improve the quality by increasing the number of HMW-GSs and promoting the formation of covalent interactions through disulfide bonds with the extra cysteine residue. PMID:26187064

  4. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. PMID:22306535

  5. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kubota, Naoto; Hara, Kazuo; Ueki, Kohjiro; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that is specifically and abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and directly sensitizes the body to insulin. Hypoadiponectinemia, caused by interactions of genetic factors such as SNPs in the Adiponectin gene and environmental factors causing obesity, appears to play an important causal role in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, which are linked to obesity. The adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which mediate the antidiabetic metabolic actions of adiponectin, have been cloned and are downregulated in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Upregulation of adiponectin is a partial cause of the insulin-sensitizing and antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones. Therefore, adiponectin and adiponectin receptors represent potential versatile therapeutic targets to combat obesity-linked diseases characterized by insulin resistance. This Review describes the pathophysiology of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:16823476

  6. Multifaceted roles of Adiponectin in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hebbard, Lionel; Ranscht, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to increased cancer risk. Pathological expansion of adipose tissue impacts adipocyte function and secretion of hormonal factors regulating tissue homeostasis and metabolism. Adiponectin is an adipocytesecreted, circulating hormone with pleiotropic functions in lipid and glucose metabolism, and beneficial roles in cardiovascular functions and inflammation. In obesity, decreased Adiponectin plasma levels correlate with tumor development and progression. The association of Adiponectin with potential tumor-limiting functions has raised significant interest in exploring this adipokine as a target for cancer-diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Recent studies, however, also implicate Adiponectin in supporting malignancy. This review highlights the evidence that links Adiponectin signaling to either cancer-protective or cancer-supporting functions. In this context, we discuss Adiponectin interactions with its receptors and associated signaling pathways. Despite significant advances in understanding Adiponectin functions and signaling mechanisms, its role in cancer remains multifaceted and subject to controversy. PMID:24417946

  7. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

    PubMed

    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low blood concentrations of adiponectin and placental transfer of adiponectin to the bovine fetus is unlikely. In conclusion, colostrum intake is essential for the postnatal increase of circulating adiponectin in newborn calves. PMID:26277307

  8. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

  9. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experi...

  10. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Kakiuchi, Terutaka; Suguro, Toru; Kawai, Shinichi

    2009-01-09

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Adiponectin gene expression in human primary adipocyte culture treated with uremic serum.

    PubMed

    Alouffi, Sultan; Howse, Matthew; Sharma, Ajay; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is accompanied by an increased rate of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although renal replacement therapy is required at this stage, it is associated with additional complications such as inflammation and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the potential role of uremic mileu on the adiponectin expression in human primary adipocyte culture. A cohort of 18 patients with ESRD (hemo-and peritoneal dialysis) and nine healthy controls were analyzed in a prospective cross-sectional study. Single blood samples were taken pre-and post-hemodialysis and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum concentrations of total adiponectin (7.95 ± 1.44 ?g/mL; 6.73 ± 1.2 ?g/mL; 13.7 ± 3.04 ?g/mL, respectively) and high molecular weight adiponectin (3.03 ± 1.95 ?g/mL; 3.57 ± 2.44 14 ?g/mL; 8.02 ± 5 ?g/mL respectively) were measured. Other biochemical parameters (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) were assessed in all groups of patients. Adiponectin gene expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and was found to be lower in ESRD patients compared with healthy controls with low dose but not with high-dose treatments. Serum concentrations of total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin were significantly higher in the ESRD versus control group. These results provide an initial insight into understanding the putative role of adipose tissue in contributing to the association of CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:26586058

  12. Effects of specific domains of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits’ on dough properties by an in vitro assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal do...

  13. Adiponectin, a key adipokine in obesity related liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Christa; Wanninger, Josef; Neumeier, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprising hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and progressive liver fibrosis is considered the most common liver disease in western countries. Fatty liver is more prevalent in overweight than normal-weight people and liver fat positively correlates with hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis is regarded as a benign stage of NAFLD but may progress to NASH in a subgroup of patients. Besides liver biopsy no diagnostic tools to identify patients with NASH are available, and no effective treatment has been established. Visceral obesity is a main risk factor for NAFLD and inappropriate storage of triglycerides in adipocytes and higher concentrations of free fatty acids may add to increased hepatic lipid storage, insulin resistance, and progressive liver damage. Most of the adipose tissue-derived proteins are elevated in obesity and may contribute to systemic inflammation and liver damage. Adiponectin is highly abundant in human serum but its levels are reduced in obesity and are even lower in patients with hepatic steatosis or NASH. Adiponectin antagonizes excess lipid storage in the liver and protects from inflammation and fibrosis. This review aims to give a short survey on NAFLD and the hepatoprotective effects of adiponectin. PMID:21734787

  14. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER) niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N = 121) were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1?g/20?mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%), insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%), HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%), and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%). The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r = 0.221, P < 0.05), insulin (r = 0.184, P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038. PMID:26063948

  15. Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism with Adiponectin Levels And Risk for Insulin Resistance Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Mittal, Balraj; Awasthi, Shally; Srivastava, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin is an abundant adipose tissue–derived protein with anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease and low adiponectin levels also predict insulin resistance (IR). Methods: Case-control study in which 642 male and female subjects were participated from the North Indian population. Lipid, insulin, leptin and adiponectin level were estimated using standard protocols by commercially available test kits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms +45T>G and +276G>T of the AMP1 (adiponectin) gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Levels of adiponectin, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR index), systolic blood pressure and fat mass showed significant differences between male and female subjects. Serum adiponectin level showed highly significant association with both the +45 and the +276 genotypes. The common haplotype triglyceride (TG) showed a significantly lower adiponectin value than other haplotypes (P = 0.0001). A clear trend of decreasing adiponectin levels per copy of the common haplotype was observed. Nonobese insulin sensitive subjects showed a higher adiponectin value (P = 0.0006) than nonobese insulin resistant subjects. The values of blood pressure, adiponectin, insulin, HOMA-IR, total-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly associated with TG haplotype. Conclusions: We observed the very strong association of the adiponectin 45-276 genotypes and haplotypes with adiponectin levels in healthy north Indian population and TG haplotypes also associated with metabolic parameters of the IR syndrome. PMID:25949781

  16. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  17. Negative Skeletal Effects of Locally Produced Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Marcia J.; Roth, Theresa M.; Ho, Linh; Wang, Liping; O’Carroll, Dylan; Nissenson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3–4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg mice had increased numbers of adipocytes in close proximity to trabecular bone in the tibia, associated with increased adiponectin levels in tibial marrow. Treatment of BMSCs with adiponectin after initiation of osteoblastic differentiation resulted in reduced mineralized colony formation and reduced expression of mRNA of osteoblastic genes, osterix (70%), Runx2 (52%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), Col1 (74%), and osteocalcin (81%). Adiponectin treatment of differentiating osteoblasts increased expression of the osteoblast genes PPAR? (32%) and C/ebp? (55%) and increased adipocyte colony formation. These data suggest a model in which locally produced adiponectin plays a negative role in regulating skeletal homeostasis through inhibition of bone formation and by promoting an adipogenic phenotype. PMID:26230337

  18. Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Kayo; Kang, Min-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyama, Kana; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Yano, Masamichi; Sasaki, Takao; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2008-02-01

    Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR{gamma} antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR{gamma} activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR{gamma} in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 and suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

  19. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  20. Analysis of Glu-1 deletion lines reveals the importance of high molecular weight glutenin subunits 7+9 Glu-B1 in wheat flour tortilla making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play a significant role in the functional properties of wheat flour. Wheat lines in which one or more of the HMW-GS alleles were absent from Glu-A1, Glu-B1 or Glu-D1 loci (deletion lines) were compared with non-deletion lines for dough and tortilla ma...

  1. Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. bessarabicum, Lophopyrum elongatum, Aegilops markgrafii, and their addition lines in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GSs) play an important role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality in cultivated wheat, and they are also excellent protein markers for genotype identification. The HMW-GSs in wheat species (Triticum ssp.) and Aegilops tauschii...

  2. A common variant in the CLDN7/ELP5 locus predicts adiponectin change with lifestyle intervention and improved fitness in obese individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Papandonatos, George D; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Peter, Inga; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Erar, Bahar; Allred, Nicholette D; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bowden, Donald W; Brautbar, Ariel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M; Huggins, Gordon S

    2015-06-01

    Overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes have low adiponectin levels, which may improve with lifestyle changes. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with adiponectin levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) would also be related with adiponectin changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), potentially through mechanisms altering the adipose microenvironment via weight loss and/or improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Look AHEAD was a randomized trial comparing the cardiovascular benefits of ILI-induced weight loss and physical activity compared with diabetes support and education among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. In a subsample of Look AHEAD with adiponectin data and genetic consent (n=1,351), we evaluated the effects of 24 genetic variants, demonstrated by GWAS to be cross-sectionally associated with adiponectin, on adiponectin change 1-yr postintervention. We explored via mediational analyses whether any differential effects by treatment arm were occurring through weight loss and/or improved fitness. A variant, rs222857, in the CLDN7 locus, potentially associated with epithelial barrier integrity and tight junction physiology, and a putative cis expression quantitative trail locus for elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 (ELP5), predicted adiponectin increases within ILI (log-adiponectin in overall sample per copy: ?±SE=0.05±0.02, P=0.008; in non-Hispanic whites: 0.06±0.02, P=0.009). The favorable effects of rs222857 (minor allele frequency 45.5%) appeared to be mediated by mechanisms associated with improved fitness, and not weight loss. This is the first study to identify a genetic variant that modifies adiponectin response to lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. PMID:25759378

  3. Changes of Serum Adiponectin and Testosterone Concentrations Following Twelve Weeks Resistance Training in Obese Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Circulating levels of adiponectin and testosterone decrease in obese men and this increases risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to survey changes of serum adiponectin and testosterone concentrations following twelve weeks resistance training in obese young men. Patients and Methods: In a semi-experimental study, twenty one obese young men were randomly placed in two groups: resistance training (26.5 ± 2.8 years) and control (27.4 ± 2.9 years). General characteristics of subjects and serum levels of adiponectin and testosterone were assessed before and after training. Resistance training protocol consisted of twelve weeks weight training (3 sessions per week, 10 exercises, 3 sets of 8 - 12 repetitions in each exercise, intensity 60% - 80% of one repetition maximum, rest between sets 1 minute and between exercises 2 minutes, duration of main training 20 - 40 minutes per each session). Results: Resistance training had no significant effect on body weight and body mass index (P > 0.05), whereas it decreased body fat percent (P = 0.017). Also, serum adiponectin (8.1 ± 1.8 vs. 10.5 ± 2.3 ?g/mL) and testosterone concentrations (6.9 ± 2.4 vs. 8.2 ± 1.7 ng/mL) were increased after resistance training (P = 0.033, P = 0.018 respectively), while there were no significant changes in serum levels of these hormones in control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Twelve weeks of resistance training increased serum concentrations of adiponectin and testosterone in obese young men. With respect to inverse associations between changes of adiponectin and testosterone with BFP and insulin level variations after resistance training, it is recommended that obese young men do resistance training to benefit useful decreasing/preventive effects of this type of training against the risks of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:26715965

  4. Interoperability in the ProM Framework H.M.W. Verbeek1

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Interoperability in the ProM Framework H.M.W. Verbeek1 , B.F. van Dongen1 , J. Mendling2 , and W.mendling@wu-wien.ac.at Abstract. Originally the ProM framework was developed as a platform for process mining, i.e., extracting-ins!) This makes the ProM framework an interesting environment for model interoperability. For example, people can

  5. The Interactive Effects of Transgenically Overexpressed 1Ax1 with Various HMW-GS Combinations on Dough Quality by Introgression of Exogenous Subunits into an Elite Chinese Wheat Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs. PMID:24167625

  6. Adiponectin Gene Is Expressed in Multiple Tissues in the Chicken: Food Deprivation Influences Adiponectin

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Adiponectin Gene Is Expressed in Multiple Tissues in the Chicken: Food Deprivation Influences in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The present study inves- tigated the expression of adiponectin mRNA in various tissues in the chicken. We also studied the effect of food deprivation

  7. Adiponectin Ameliorates Experimental Periodontitis in Diet-Induced Obesity Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Meng, Shu; Tu, Qisheng; Yu, Liming; Tang, Yin; Dard, Michel M.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Valverde, Paloma; Zhou, Xuedong; Chen, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine that sensitizes the body to insulin. Low levels of adiponectin have been reported in obesity, diabetes and periodontitis. In this study we established experimental periodontitis in male adiponectin knockout and diet-induced obesity mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and aimed at evaluating the therapeutic potential of adiponectin. We found that systemic adiponectin infusion reduced alveolar bone loss, osteoclast activity and infiltration of inflammatory cells in both periodontitis mouse models. Furthermore, adiponectin treatment decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue of diet-induced obesity mice with experimental periodontitis. Our in vitro studies also revealed that forkhead box O1, a key transcriptional regulator of energy metabolism, played an important role in the direct signaling of adiponectin in osteoclasts. Thus, adiponectin increased forkhead box O1 mRNA expression and its nuclear protein level in osteoclast-precursor cells undergoing differentiation. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling decreased nuclear protein levels of forkhead box O1. Furthermore, over-expression of forkhead box O1 inhibited osteoclastogenesis and led to decreased nuclear levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1. Taken together, this study suggests that systemic adiponectin application may constitute a potential intervention therapy to ameliorate type 2 diabetes-associated periodontitis. It also proposes that adiponectin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis involves forkhead box O1. PMID:24836538

  8. Low circulating adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Huang, Xiamei; Zhong, Huizhi; Peng, Qiliu; Chen, Siyuan; Xie, Yantong; Qin, Xue; Qin, Aiping

    2014-05-01

    Adiponectin, as an important adipocytokine, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and metabolism. It has been reported that circulating adiponectin levels were decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results remained inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performed in this study. A comprehensive systematic electronic search was conducted in electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to November 30, 2013. Pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. A meta-analysis technique was used to study 38 trials involving 1,944 PCOS women and 1,654 healthy controls. Overall pooled adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly reduced compared with healthy controls (WMD -2.67, 95% CI -3.22 to -2.13; P?=?0.000), yet with significant heterogeneity across studies (I(2)?=?95.9%, P?=?0.000). In subgroup analysis by HOMA-IR ratio and total testosterone ratio, inconsistent results were presented. No single study was found to affect the overall results by sensitivity testing. Meta-regression suggested that BMI might contribute little to the heterogeneity between including studies. Cumulative meta-analysis demonstrated the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis results. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Our meta-analysis suggested that circulating adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly lower than those in healthy controls, which indicated that circulating adiponectin might play a role in the development of PCOS. PMID:24414393

  9. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczy?ska, Maria; Dudzi?ska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ? 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  10. Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Tamura, Shinji; Kiso, Shinichi Hayashi, Norio

    2009-01-02

    We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

  11. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (?=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (?=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (?=?0.626; P<0.0001), hip (?=?0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (?=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (?=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (?=?0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  12. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (?=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (?=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (?=-0.626; P<0.0001), hip (?=-0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (?=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (?=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (?=-0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  13. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1?Enterobacter sp. FbP2?Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study could advance our understanding of HMW PAHs biodegradation and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102148), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110091120063).

  14. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. PMID:25653535

  15. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. PMID:25653535

  16. Association of polymorphism in adiponectin (+45 T/G) and leptin (–2548 G/A) genes with type 2 diabetes mellitus in male Egyptians

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek; Salman, Tarek; Shaker, Olfat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific protein with insulin-sensitizing properties. Many investigators have explored the association between adiponectin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different ethnic populations from different regions. Leptin is a protein hormone constituting an important signal in the regulation of adipose tissue mass and body weight. The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between SNP +45 T>G of the adiponectin gene and SNP 2548G/A of leptin with T2DM and the effect of SNPs on serum adiponectin and leptin levels. Material and methods From the Egyptian population, we enrolled 110 T2DM patients and 90 non-diabetic controls. Serum lipid profile, blood glucose, serum adiponectin, and leptin were measured. Genotyping for two common SNPs of the adiponectin and leptin genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The G allele and TG/GG genotype of SNP 45 occurred more frequently than the T allele and TT genotype in T2DM patients compares to the controls. Subjects with the GG + TG genotype of SNP 45 were at increased risk for T2DM (OR = 6.476; 95% CI: 3.401–12.33) and associated with a low serum adiponectin level compared with the TT genotype. The serum leptin concentration of GA + AA genotype carriers was not significantly different from that of the GG genotype in the diabetic group. Conclusions The G allele carriers who have reduced plasma concentrations of adiponectin may have an association with T2DM, while leptin SNP 2548 G/A is not associated with the risk of development of T2DM in the Egyptian population. PMID:26528333

  17. Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases AMPK and PPAR activities, respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)s. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9- and 2.4-Å resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of GPCRs, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may play a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the C-terminal flexible tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

  18. Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-04-16

    Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of G-protein-coupled receptors, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may have a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the carboxy-terminal tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

  19. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    This study explores the geochronological utility and analytical reproducibility of separating the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMW) from eggshells of the extinct late Pleistocene ratite, Genyornis, using disposable, prepacked gel-filtration columns. The superior integrity of ratite eggshell for the retention of amino acids indicates that this biomineral is better suited for this type of investigation than previously studied molluscan shell. To evaluate the reproducibility of the gel-filtration technique, we analyzed triplicate subsamples of three eggshells of different ages. The reproducibility, based on the average intrashell variation (coefficient of variation; CV) in the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile) in the HMW (enriched in molecules ca. >10,000 MW) is 3%, well within the range appropriate for geochronological purposes. The average intrashell variation in the total amino acid concentration (?[aa]) of the HMW is 5%, somewhat better than for the total acid hydrolysate (TOTAL) of the same samples (7%). To evaluate the relation between molecular weight and the rate of isoleucine epimerization, three molecular-weight fractions were separated using gel filtration, plus the naturally hydrolyzed free fraction (FREE), for each of four fossil eggshells. AIle/Ile increases with decreasing molecular weight in all shells, with a ca. sixfold to ninefold difference in ratios between the HMW andFREE, and a ca. fivefold difference between the HMW andTOTAL. Although linear correlations between aIle/Ile measured in each molecular-weight fraction and in theTOTAL are all highly significant (r ? 0.951), the relation between the extent of epimerization in the HMW and in the TOTAL is best expressed as an exponential function (r = 0.951). This relation is consistent with the idea that, as the epimerization reaction approaches equilibrium in theTOTAL (ca. aIle/Ile > 1.1), its rate decreases beyond that of the HMW. The amino acid composition (relative percent of eight amino acids or combinations of amino acids) is more uniform in the HMW of the four samples compared to lower-molecular-weight fractions. The greater "compositional stability" of the HMW indicates that it contains a residuum of macromolecules that have not been affected by the diagenetically driven changes observed in lower-molecular-weight fractions.

  20. Intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin regulates locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Ueta, Tomoyo; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing exercise motivation is the best way to prevent obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined whether adiponectin affects locomotion activity in Wister and Spontaneously-Running Tokushima-Shikoku (SPORTS) rats using two types of behavioral assays: home cage and wheel running activity. SPORTS rats were established from an original line from Wister strain that had shown high level of wheel running activity in our laboratory. Injection of adiponectin into the lateral ventricle of Wister rats and SPORTS rats decreased home cage activity, but no change was observed in the food intake and oxygen consumption. This result indicates the possibility that adiponectin can reduce non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity via the central nervous system. In contrast, injection of adiponectin did not change wheel running activity in SPORTS rats. We produced hypothalamus-destructed model rat using monosodium glutamate (MSG) to elucidate the regulation site of adiponectin. Injection of adiponectin into MSG-treated SPORTS rats did not change amount of home cage activity and food intake, suggesting that adiponectin action on home cage activity was in the hypothalamic area. These results suggest that adiponectin regulates locomotion activity through mediobasal hypothalamus. J. Med. Invest. 62: 199-203, August, 2015. PMID:26399348

  1. Fat-Specific DsbA-L Overexpression Promotes Adiponectin Multimerization and Protects Mice From Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meilian; Xiang, Ruihua; Wilk, Sarah Ann; Zhang, Ning; Sloane, Lauren B.; Azarnoush, Kian; Zhou, Lijun; Chen, Hongzhi; Xiang, Guangda; Walter, Christi A.; Austad, Steven N.; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Asmis, Reto; Scherer, Philipp E.; Dong, Lily Q.; Liu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects of adiponectin make it a desirable drug target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the adiponectin-based drug development approach turns out to be difficult due to extremely high serum levels of this adipokine. On the other hand, a significant correlation between adiponectin multimerization and its insulin-sensitizing effects has been demonstrated, suggesting a promising alternative therapeutic strategy. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein in fat (fDsbA-L) exhibited increased levels of total and the high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. The fDsbA-L mice also displayed resistance to diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis compared with WT control mice. The protective effects of DsbA-L overexpression on diet-induced insulin resistance, but not increased body weight and fat cell size, were significantly decreased in adiponectin-deficient fDsbA-L mice (fDsbA-L/Ad?/?). In addition, the fDsbA-L/Ad?/? mice displayed greater activity and energy expenditure compared with adiponectin knockout mice under a high-fat diet. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DsbA-L protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through adiponectin-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, upregulation of DsbA-L could be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:22807031

  2. Pathway-Based Genome-wide Association Studies Reveal That the Rac1 Pathway Is Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Dong; Jiao, Hongxiao; Wang, Kai; Yang, Fuhua; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ahima, Rexford; Arlen Price, R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathway-based analysis as an alternative and effective approach to identify disease-related genes or loci has been verified. To decipher the genetic background of plasma adiponectin levels, we performed genome wide pathway-based association studies in extremely obese individuals and normal-weight controls. The modified Gene Set Enrichment Algorithm (GSEA) was used to perform the pathway-based analyses (the GenGen Program) in 746 European American females, which were collected from our previous GWAS in extremely obese (BMI?>?35?kg/m2) and never-overweight (BMI<25?kg/m2) controls. Rac1 cell motility signaling pathway was associated with plasma adiponectin after false-discovery rate (FDR) correction (empirical P?adiponectin levels and biological functions of adiponectin. PMID:26299439

  3. Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio )

    1993-11-05

    The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

  4. High-power DPSS Laser hosted on a HMW-THS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchetti, Maurizio

    2007-02-01

    The Hollow Metallic Winglets / HMW-THS, a turbo engine optimised for cooling electronics, handles large flows of energy, gas and air. Its heat exchanging shell, of huge area, tops the pressurised Can; the bottom fits a window. The hosted machine is built around a large inner gas distributor which integrates the main athermal structures. Considering the power levels, the ducting ease of both outer air-flows is as important and cuts noise. Two banks of hybrid mounted Laser Diodes / LDs, side or end feed each lasing Z-slab, thin and exposed to the cooling gas, which flows fast on both sides. The least path to reach the cooling gas minimises dT; to further reduce the thermal lensing effects, the local cooling can be tailored / spoiled to copy the heating density. The simplest optical etc layout is preferable but the current schemes and materials seem suitable; if required, the slab ends etc can be Brewster cut etc. The pumping section can sport a MOPA configuration to eases this function exploiting coherence. The inner pressure can be relevat but affects mildly only the outer window. Compactness and more degrees of symmetry lead to a natural athermal behaviour; the inner structure includes gas ducts dedicated to equalize its temperature. The neuter, clean He sports a top C P and flows easily; speed and pressure increase the heat removal rate and reduce dT; the fast cycle can be important. H II would spoil the HT / HR coatings and the electronics and generates water. Note that He was used to cool the largest AC generators. To improve the heat removal from hot spots or weak elements, a Thermo Electric cooler can yield local, sub-ambient temperature flows. A cycle including dedicated turbo stages, intercoolers and gas expansion suits larger critical sections.

  5. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases. PMID:26124928

  6. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases. PMID:26124928

  7. Regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes upon exposure to HIV-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of HIV-related lipodystrophy. The precise mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. In HIV-infected patients, we previously demonstrated a strong relationship between lipodystrophy and levels of adiponectin, an adipose...

  8. Adiponectin and its receptors in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, S; Moschen, A; Cayon, A; Kaser, A; Crespo, J; Pons-Romero, F; Ebenbichler, C F; Patsch, J R; Tilg, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived polypeptide, has been shown to alleviate steatosis and inflammation in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aim: In the present study, we wished to define liver expression of adiponectin and its receptors in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or simple steatosis were investigated to test whether dysregulation of this system might be involved in these disorders. Patients and methods: Liver mRNA expression of adiponectin and its recently cloned receptors RI and RII (adipoRI and adipoRII) were analysed by fluorescence based real time polymerase chain reaction in 13 patients with NASH and nine with simple steatosis. Adiponectin and adipoRII protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a subgroup of patients. Results: Adiponectin and adipoRII mRNA expression were significantly reduced in liver biopsies of patients with NASH compared with simple steatosis while no difference was found in adipoRI mRNA expression. In NASH, adipoRII mRNA expression was negatively correlated with serum aspartate aminotransferase levels, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, and grade of fibrosis. Liver adiponectin protein expression was mainly found in endothelial cells of portal vessels and liver sinusoids whereas adipoRII expression was seen in hepatocytes only. Adiponectin and adipoRII staining were lower in biopsies of subjects with NASH compared with simple steatosis. Conclusion: Reduced hepatic expression of adiponectin and adipoRII might be of pathophysiological relevance in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. PMID:15591515

  9. Adiponectin as a biomarker of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: controversies.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dobek, Aleksandra; Mieszkowski, Jan; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

  10. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna; Rechler, Matthew M.; Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  11. The Liposuction-Induced Effects on Adiponectin and Selected Cytokines Are Not Affected by Exercise Training in Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fábio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training. PMID:24527033

  12. The liposuction-induced effects on adiponectin and selected cytokines are not affected by exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Yazigi Solis, Marina; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Montag, Eduardo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saito, Fábio Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the abrupt liposuction-induced decrease in adipose tissue could affect adipokine secretion pattern. We hypothesized that exercise training could positively impact adipokine metabolism following liposuction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of liposuction on inflammation-related adipokines in women who were either exercise-trained or remained sedentary after surgery. Thirty-six healthy normal-weight women underwent an abdominal liposuction and two months after surgery were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TR, n = 18, four-month exercise program) and nontrained (NT, n = 18). Inflammation-related adipokine serum levels (TNF- ? , IL-6, IL-10, and adiponectin) and abdominal and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) mRNA levels were assessed before (PRE) and six months after surgery (POST6). TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 serum levels were unchanged in both groups. In contrast, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA levels in scAT were increased, whereas adiponectin scAT mRNA and serum levels were decreased at POST6 (P < 0.05, main effect for time). No changes were observed in mRNA levels of MCP-1, CD14, and CD68 in any of the groups. In conclusion, liposuction downregulates adiponectin scAT gene expression and serum levels and upregulates scAT gene expression of inflammation-related genes six months after surgery in normal-weight women, irrespective of exercise training. PMID:24527033

  13. The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  14. The adjuvant effects of high-molecule-weight polysaccharides purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on dendritic cell function and DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

  15. Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle; Bussiere, Marianne; Dos Santos, Esther; Leneveu, Marie-Christine; Giudicelli, Yves . E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene

    2006-06-23

    It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

  16. Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism

    E-print Network

    Liu, Qingqing

    The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. ...

  17. Elevated Serum Leptin, Adiponectin and Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio Is Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cynthia Ciwei; Teo, Boon Wee; Tai, E. Shyong; Lim, Su Chi; Chan, Choong Meng; Sethi, Sunil; Wong, Tien Y.; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity) involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007–2011). CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 from serum creatinine. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using commercially available ELISA. Odds ratio of CKD associated with elevated adiponectin and leptin levels were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol. Results CKD cases had higher levels of leptin (mean [SD] 9.7 [11.5] vs.16.9 [20.2] ng/mL, p<0.0001) and adiponectin (10.4 [7.4] vs. 9.2 [4.2], p = 0.001) compared to controls. In multi-variable models, compared to those in the lowest quartile, the OR (95% confidence interval) of CKD among those in the highest quartile were: 6.46 (3.84, 10.88), 1.94 (1.32–2.85) and 2.88 (1.78–4.64) for leptin, adiponectin and LAR. Similar associations were also observed when adiponectin and leptin were analyzed as continuous variables. This positive association of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR with CKD was consistently present in subgroups of gender, ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension and overweight status (all P-interaction >0.1). Conclusions Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population. PMID:25793395

  18. Isoleucine epimerization in the high-molecular-weight fraction of pleistocene Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Sejrup, Hans-Petter

    The extent of amino acid racemization, as traditionally determined in the entire (total acid hydrolysate) pool of amino acids comprising the organic remains of fossils, is a function of the integrated effects of a complex diagenetic reaction network. We investigated the possibility that some of the complications involved in protein diagenesis might be circumvented by isolating one component of the reaction network and studying the extent of racemization in that fraction alone. We used gel-filtration to extract the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction of proteinaceous matter from fossil and modem molluscan shells. This fraction contains the largest (ca. > 15,000 MW), most-pristine macromolecules and has been less affected by diagenesis than the more-degraded, lower molecular-weight fractions. Variations in the extent of racemization (isoleucine epimerization; alle/Ile) measured in the HMW fraction of subsamples taken along cross sections of Arctica shells from two interglacial sites, Bø and Fjøsanger, southwestern Norway, are within the range of analytical uncertainty [coefficient of variation (cv) = 5-8%], despite the strong gradient (cv = 20-24%) in alle/Ile of the total amino acid population. Because there is no age difference across a shell, this finding supports the idea that the HMW fraction contains more geochronologically reliable proteinaceous matter than the total amino acid pool. Weighted mean alle/Ile ratios in the HMW fraction of aliquots of powdered sample from the two shells overlap at ± 1?, despite significantly different alle/Ile ratios in the total amino acid population of some shells from the two sites. The difference in alle/Ile ratios in the total population is attributed to a greater proportion of low-molecular-weight (ca. 300 MW), and hence, extensively epimerized molecules measured in gel-filtered samples from the Fjøsanger shell. Because the rate of epimerization in the HMW fraction is much lower than in the total population, the temporal resolution of the HMW technique is limited, particularly at these high-latitude sites. Therefore, we cannot use the aIle/Ile HMW data to exclude the possibility that the two sites are significantly different ages. Analyses of shells ranging in age from late Pliocene to Holocene indicate that reaction rate in the HMW fraction is about one-fifth the rate in the total amino acid population, although the difference is expected to decrease with increasing aIle/Ile.

  19. Circadian expression of adiponectin and its receptors in human adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is one of the most clinically relevant cytokines associated with obesity. However, circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin in human adipose tissue (AT) has not been analyzed. To assess whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) might show daily circadian ...

  20. Variant high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits arising from biolistic transformation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation via the biolistic method has been used to introduce genes encoding natural and novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into wheat. The appearance of new seed proteins of sizes not predicted by the transgene coding sequences has been noted in some of these exper...

  1. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  2. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    PubMed Central

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim D.; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John D.; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM—low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10–1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions. PMID:25368867

  3. Modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis by adiponectin during delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate role of adiponectin in ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. This study showed significantly low circulating adiponectin level and a decline in expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in the ovary during the period of delayed embryonic development as compared with the normal development. The adiponectin treatment in vivo during the period of delayed development caused significantly increased in circulating progesterone and estradiol levels together with increased expression of AdipoR1 in the ovary. The in vitro study confirmed the stimulatory effect of adiponectin on progesterone synthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that the effects of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis were mediated through increased expression of luteinizing hormone-receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3?-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase enzyme. The adiponectin treatment may also promote progesterone synthesis by modulating ovarian angiogenesis, cell survival and rate of apoptosis. PMID:24787661

  4. DIFFERENTIATION OF ALLELIC VARIATIONS OF THE HMW GLUTENIN SUBUNITS OF WHEAT FLOURS BY USE OF MIXING PARAMETERS AND POLYMERIC PROTEIN CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk and OK102, each with four different lines of differing HMW-GS composition were analyzed. The mixing parameters from a 10-g mixograph were utilized to discriminate among different cultivars as well as differen...

  5. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. II. Hydrodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    van Swieten, Eric; Friesen, Robert R; de Kruif, Cees G; Robillard, George T

    2003-07-01

    This study describes the hydrodynamic properties of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat proteins, which complement the small-angle scattering (SANS) experiments performed in the first paper of this series. The sedimentation coefficients, s(0), and diffusion coefficients, D(0), were obtained from the homologous HMW proteins dB1 and dB4 that were cloned from the gluten protein HMW Dx5, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Monodisperse conditions for accurate determination of s(0) and D(0), were obtained by screening a series of buffers using dynamic light scattering. For the first time, hydrodynamic parameters were obtained on monodisperse samples that enabled the determination of the monomeric size and shape. The hydrodynamic values determined on dB1 and dB4 were used to test the worm-like chain (WLC) model that was proposed in the SANS studies. The successful matching of two separately obtained hydrodynamic parameters of dB1 and dB4 using the WLC model provides further evidence for the WLC model. The small discrepancy between the hydrodynamic and scattering data, possibly coming from the excluded volume effect, was compensated by a solvation layer of 1-2 water molecules thick around the protein in the WLC model. The solvation of the central domain is much higher than those of the terminal domains of the HMW subunits. This difference emphasizes the dual role of HMW wheat gluten proteins in water-binding and aggregation. PMID:12833259

  6. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ghantous, C. M.; Azrak, Z.; Hanache, S.; Abou-Kheir, W.; Zeidan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin's generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26064110

  7. Elevated adiponectin serum levels in women with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 ?g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 ?g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

  8. Common variants in genes encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1/2), adiponectin concentrations, and diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Mather, K. J.; Christophi, C. A.; Jablonski, K. A.; Knowler, W. C.; Goldberg, R. B.; Kahn, S. E.; Spector, T.; Dastani, Z.; Waterworth, D.; Richards, J. B.; Funahashi, T.; Pi-Sunyer, F. X.; Pollin, T. I.; Florez, J. C.; Franks, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Baseline adiponectin concentrations predict incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Diabetes Prevention Program. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the genes encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) would associate with circulating adiponectin concentrations and/or with diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program population. Methods Seventy-seven tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ (24), ADIPOR1 (22) and ADIPOR2 (31) were genotyped. Associations of SNPs with baseline adiponectin concentrations were evaluated using linear modelling. Associations of SNPs with diabetes incidence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results Thirteen of 24 ADIPOQ SNPs were significantly associated with baseline adiponectin concentrations. Multivariable analysis including these 13 SNPs revealed strong independent contributions from rs17366568, rs1648707, rs17373414 and rs1403696 with adiponectin concentrations. However, no ADIPOQ SNPs were directly associated with diabetes incidence. Two ADIPOR1 SNPs (rs1342387 and rs12733285) were associated with ~18% increased diabetes incidence for carriers of the minor allele without differences across treatment groups, and without any relationship with adiponectin concentrations. Conclusions ADIPOQ SNPs are significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort. This observation extends prior observations from unselected populations of European descent into a broader multi-ethnic population, and confirms the relevance of these variants in an obese/dysglycaemic population. Despite the robust relationship between adiponectin concentrations and diabetes risk in this cohort, variants in ADIPOQ that relate to adiponectin concentrations do not relate to diabetes risk in this population. ADIPOR1 variants exerted significant effects on diabetes risk distinct from any effect of adiponectin concentrations. [Clinical Trials Registry Nos; NCT 00004992 (Diabetes Prevention Program) and NCT 00038727 (Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study)] PMID:22443353

  9. Adiponectin modulates focal adhesion disassembly in activated hepatic stellate cells: implication for reversing hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Mells, Jamie E; Thorn, Natalie E; Saxena, Neeraj K; Anania, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Previous evidence indicates that adiponectin possesses antifibrogenic activity in inhibiting liver fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies, however, are limited by adiponectin quaternary structure and effective concentrations in circulation. Here we postulate a novel molecular mechanism, whereby adiponectin targets focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity and disrupts key features of the fibrogenic response. Adiponectin-null (Ad(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were exposed to either saline or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6 wk. CCl4-gavaged mice were also injected with attenuated adenoviral adiponectin (Ad-Adn) or Ad-LacZ for 2 wk. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were treated with or without adiponectin to elucidate signal transduction mechanisms. In vivo delivery of Ad-Adn markedly attenuates CCl4-induced expression of key integrin proteins and markers of HSC activation: ?v, ?3, ?1, ?2(I) collagen, and ?-smooth muscle actin. Confocal experiments of liver tissues demonstrated that adiponectin delivery also suppressed vinculin and p-FAK activity in activated HSCs. In vitro, adiponectin induced dephosphorylation of FAK, mediated by a physical association with activated tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2. Conversely, Shp2 knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuated adiponectin-induced FAK deactivation, and expression of TIMP1 and ?2(I) collagen was abolished in the presence of adiponectin and si-FAK. Finally, we documented that either adiponectin or the synthetic peptide with adiponectin properties, ADP355, suppressed p-FAK in synthetic matrices with stiffness measurements of 9 and 15 kPa, assessed by immunofluorescent imaging and quantitation. The in vivo and in vitro data presented indicate that disassembly of focal adhesion complexes in HSCs is pivotal for hepatic fibrosis therapy, now that small adiponectin-like peptides are available. PMID:25154876

  10. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

  11. Metabolic profiling of transgenic wheat over-expressing the high-molecular weight Dx5 glutenin subunit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aim of this work was to evaluate potential changes in the metabolic network of transgenic wheat grain due to over-expression of the gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin Dx5-subunit. We used GC-MS and multivariate analyses to compare the metabolite profiles of developing...

  12. Divergent Roles for Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2 in Mediating Revascularization and Metabolic Dysfunction in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Zuriaga, Maria A.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Aprahamian, Tamar R.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a well described anti-inflammatory adipokine that is highly abundant in serum. Previous reports have found that adiponectin deficiency promotes cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction in murine models, whereas its overexpression is protective. Two candidate adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are uncharacterized with regard to cardiovascular tissue homeostasis, and their in vivo metabolic functions remain controversial. Here we subjected AdipoR1- and AdipoR2-deficient mice to chronic hind limb ischemic surgery. Blood flow recovery in AdipoR1-deficient mice was similar to wild-type; however, revascularization in AdipoR2-deficient mice was severely attenuated. Treatment with adiponectin enhanced the recovery of wild-type mice but failed to rescue the impairment observed in AdipoR2-deficient mice. In view of this divergent receptor function in the hind limb ischemia model, AdipoR1- and AdipoR2-deficient mice were also evaluated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Strikingly, AdipoR1-deficient mice developed severe metabolic dysfunction compared with wild type, whereas AdipoR2-deficient mice were protected from diet-induced weight gain and metabolic perturbations. These data show that AdipoR2, but not AdipoR1, is functionally important in an in vivo model of ischemia-induced revascularization and that its expression is essential for the revascularization actions of adiponectin. These data also show that, in contrast to revascularization responses, AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2 deficiency, leads to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, revealing that these receptors have highly divergent roles in vascular and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:24742672

  13. Effect of exenatide on the cardiac expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and NADPH oxidase subunits and heart function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of exenatide on the cardiac expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits and heart function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. control group, diabetic group, diabetic treated with low doses of exenatide (2 ?g?·?kg?1.d?1) and diabetic treated with high doses of exenatide (10 ?g?·?kg?1.d?1). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight). At the termination after exenatide treatment for eight weeks, following anesthesia of the rats, a catheter was inserted into the left ventricle through the right common carotid artery for measurement of left ventricular pressure, which included left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and the maximal rate of rise and decline of ventricular pressure (±dp/dt[max]). Plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, and the expressions of myocardial adiponectin receptor 1, p22phox, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), AMPK-?, phosphorylated-AMPK-?, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD) were assayed. Results Heart function, plasma adiponectin levels, the protein expression of myocardial phosphorylated-AMPK-?, the mRNA expression of myocardial Glut4, and the positive expression of myocardial Cu-Zn-SOD were significantly decreased in diabetic. The protein expression of myocardial adiponectin receptor 1, the mRNA expression of myocardial p22phox and NOX4, and the positive expression of myocardial CTGF were significantly increased in diabetic. Low and high doses of exenatide treatment significantly attenuated these changes in diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that exenatide may contribute to the improvement of the heart function in diabetic rats by down-regulating the expression of myocardial adiponectin receptor 1, p22phox and NOX4, and up-regulating plasma adiponectin level and the expression of myocardial AMPK-?, Glut4 and Cu-Zn-SOD. PMID:24576329

  14. Induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) does not enhance adiponectin production in human adipocytes: Evidence against a direct HO-1 - Adiponectin axis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengliu; Kimura, Masaki; Ng, Choaping; He, Jingjing; Keshvari, Sahar; Rose, Felicity J; Barclay, Johanna L; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2015-09-15

    Adiponectin is a salutary adipokine and hypoadiponectinemia is implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related inflammation and cardiometabolic disease making therapeutic strategies to increase adiponectin attractive. Emerging evidence, predominantly from preclinical studies, suggests induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increases adiponectin production and reduces inflammatory tone. Here, we aimed to test whether induction of HO-1 enhanced adiponectin production from mature adipocytes. Treatment of human adipocytes with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or hemin for 24-48 h increased HO-1 expression and activity without affecting adiponectin expression and secretion. Treatment of adipocytes with TNF? reduced adiponectin secretion and increased expression and secretion of additional pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and MCP-1, as well as expression of sXBP-1, a marker of ER stress. HO-1 induction failed to reverse these effects. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 does not directly enhance adiponectin production or ameliorate the pro-inflammatory effects of TNF? and argue against a direct HO-1 - adiponectin axis. PMID:26143632

  15. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

  16. Electrophoretic High Molecular Weight DNA Purification Enables Optical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Maydan, Jason; Thomas, Matthew; Tabanfar, Leyla; Mai, Laura; Poon, Hau-Ling; Pe, Joel; Hahn, Kristen; Goji, Noriko; Amoako, Kingsley; Marziali, Andre; Hanson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Optical mapping generates an ordered restriction map from single, long DNA molecules. By overlapping restriction maps from multiple molecules, a physical map of entire chromosomes and genomes is constructed, greatly facilitating genome assembly in next generation sequencing projects, comparative genomics and strain typing. However, optical mapping relies on a method of preparing high quality DNA >250 kb in length, which can be challenging from some organisms and sample types. Here we demonstrate the ability of Boreal Genomics' Aurora instrument to provide pure, high molecular weight (HMW) DNA 250-1,100 kb in length, ideally suited for optical mapping. The Aurora performs electrophoretic DNA purification within an agarose gel in reusable cartridges, protecting long DNA molecules from shearing forces associated with liquid handling steps common to other purification methods. DNA can be purified directly from intact cells embedded and lysed within an agarose gel, preserving the highest molecular weight DNA possible while achieving exceptional levels of purity. The Aurora delivers DNA in a buffer solution, where DNA can be condensed and protected from shearing during recovery with a pipette. DNA is then returned to its regular coiled state by simple dilution prior to optical mapping. Here we present images showing HMW DNA purification taking place in the Aurora and subsequent images of single DNA molecules on OpGen's Argus® Optical Mapping System. Future work will focus on further optimizing Aurora HMW DNA purification to bias DNA recovery in favor of only the longest molecules in a sample, maximizing the benefits of optical mapping.

  17. Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  18. Biglycan Deletion Alters Adiponectin Expression in Murine Adipose Tissue and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Meliza G.; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity promotes increased secretion of a number of inflammatory factors from adipose tissue. These factors include cytokines and very lately, extracellular matrix components (ECM). Biglycan, a small leucine rich proteoglycan ECM protein, is up-regulated in obesity and has recently been recognized as a pro-inflammatory molecule. However, it is unknown whether biglycan contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction. In the present study, we characterized biglycan expression in various adipose depots in wild-type mice fed a low fat diet (LFD) or obesity-inducing high fat diet (HFD). High fat feeding induced biglycan mRNA expression in multiple adipose depots. Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing effects. Due to the importance of adiponectin, we examined the effect of biglycan on adiponectin expression. Comparison of adiponectin expression in biglycan knockout (bgn?/0) and wild-type (bgn+/0) reveals higher adiponectin mRNA and protein in epididymal white adipose tissue in bgn?/0 mice, as well higher serum concentration of adiponectin, and lower serum insulin concentration. On the contrary, knockdown of biglycan in 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to decreased expression and secretion of adiponectin. Furthermore, treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with conditioned medium from biglycan treated macrophages resulted in an increase in adiponectin mRNA expression. These data suggest a link between biglycan and adiponectin expression. However, the difference in the pattern of regulation between in vivo and in vitro settings reveals the complexity of this relationship. PMID:23189205

  19. Relationship between Adiponectin Level, Insulin Sensitivity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Blaslov, Kristina; Zibar, Karin; Duvnjak, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Adiponectin is known to be decreased in insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) which can be present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin level, MS, and insulin sensitivity in T1DM. Research Design and Methods. The study included 77 T1DM patients divided into two groups based on the total plasma adiponectin median value. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with the equation for eGDR, and MS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results. Patients with higher adiponectin level (n = 39) had significantly lower waist circumference (P < 0.002), fasting venous glucose levels (P < 0.001), higher HDL3-cholesterol (P = 0.011), and eGDR (P = 0.003) in comparison to the group with lower adiponectin who showed higher prevalence of MS (P = 0.045). eGDR increased for 1.09?mg/kg?1?min?1 by each increase of 1?µg/mL total fasting plasma adiponectin (P = 0.003). In the logistic regression model, adiponectin was inversely associated with the presence of MS (P = 0.014). Conclusion. Higher adiponectin concentration is associated with lower prevalence of MS in T1DM. Whether higher adiponectin concentration has a protective role in the development of the MS in T1DM needs to be clarified in future follow-up studies. PMID:23956744

  20. Acute Systemic Inflammation is Unlikely to Affect Adiponectin and Leptin Synthesis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Mattias; Söderberg, Stefan; Tornvall, Per

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), classically thought to be merely an energy store, has been shown to produce inflammatory and metabolically active cytokines. Recently, adiponectin and leptin, adipokines primarily synthesized by adipocytes, have attracted considerable attention because inflammation has been suggested to modulate adipokine levels. However, the regulation of adiponectin and leptin is complex and the knowledge about their synthesis within the early onset of inflammation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if the synthesis of adiponectin and leptin is affected during the early phase of an acute systemic inflammation. Eighteen healthy subjects were allocated to vaccination against Salmonella typhi or to a control group, and adiponectin and leptin concentrations measured in plasma during 24?h. Nine patients, without markers of inflammation, undergoing open heart surgery were investigated before and after the operation by analysis of plasma levels and AT gene expression of adiponectin and leptin. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were measured in both cohorts. Plasma levels of IL-6 were doubled after vaccination and increased 30-fold after open heart surgery. Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin were unchanged after vaccination whereas adiponectin and leptin tended to decrease after surgery. The gene expression of adiponectin and leptin was unaltered in omental and subcutaneous AT after surgery. Despite the use of two models of stimulated in vivo systemic inflammation, we found no evidence of an early regulation of adiponectin and leptin synthesis, indicating that these two adipokines are not key elements in an acute systemic inflammation in humans.

  1. Relationship between adiponectin receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Shu, Zunhua; Liang, Xuemei; Mi, Rui; Yang, Lei; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous study suggested adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2) genetic polymorphisms were associated with the risk of ischemic stroke. However, the relation between adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) gene polymorphism and stroke remains unclear. Methods: In the present study, we utilized the polymerase chain reaction-sequencing method to detect rs2275737 and s1342387 genotypes of ADIPOR1 gene in 300 cases of ischemic stroke patients and 300 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Results: For rs2275737, we found A allele carriers have increased risk to ischemic stroke (OR=2.570, 95% CI: 1.999-3.305); also, we found rs1342387 A allele was associated with the risk for stroke (OR=1.351, 95% CI: 1.074-1.699). After adjusted for confounders such as hypertension, diabetes, and smoking, we found the association remains significant. Conclusion: ADIPOR1 genetic polymorphism may increase the risk of ischemic stroke.

  2. Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serotonin (5-hydroytryptamine or 5HT) is associated with numerous behavioral and psychological factors and is a biochemical marker of mood. 5HT is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy consumption. 5HT controls appetite in the central nerve system (CNS) and stimulates intestinal mobility. There are few studies looking at the role of 5HT and the relationship between peripheral circulating serotonin and obesity. The aim of this study was to find any differences in leptin, adiponectin, and 5HT between lean and obese dogs and to identify correlations among these factors. Results Leptin, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were higher in the obese group (all p < 0.01). Adiponectin and 5HT levels were higher in the lean group compared to the obese group (p < 0.01). Leptin (r = 0.628, p < 0.01), TG (r = 0.491, p < 0.01) and cholesterol (r = 0.419, p < 0.01) were positively correlated with body condition score (BCS), and adiponectin (r = -0.446, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.490, p < 0.01) were negatively correlated with BCS. Leptin was negatively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.294, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.343, p < 0.01). 5HT was negatively correlated with leptin (r = -0.343, p < 0.01), TG (r = -0.268, p < 0.05) and cholesterol (r = -0.357, p < 0.05). Conclusions 5HT is an important appetite control neurotransmitter, but there are limited studies for 5HT levels related to obesity in dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate peripheral 5HT levels in obese dogs. From this research, we can assume that 5HT may be correlated with canine obesity. Further studies will be needed to further elucidate the role of low serum 5HT levels in canine obesity. PMID:24886049

  3. Leptin, Adiponectin, and Heart Rate Variability Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    CHARLES, LUENDA E.; BURCHFIEL, CECIL M.; SARKISIAN, KHACHATUR; LI, SHENGQIAO; MILLER, DIANE B.; GU, JA K.; FEKEDULEGN, DESTA; VIOLANTI, JOHN M.; ANDREW, MICHAEL E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Police officers have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is known to increase CVD risk. Leptin and adiponectin may be related to CVD health. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the relationship between these variables and HRV. Methods Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in 388 officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study. HRV was assessed according to methods published by the Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing Electrophysiology for measurement and analysis of HRV. Mean values of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) HRV were compared across tertiles of leptin and adiponectin using analysis of variance and analysis of covariance; trends were assessed using linear regression models. Results Leptin, but not adiponectin, was significantly and inversely associated with HRV. Body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat significantly modified the association between leptin and LF (but not HF) HRV. Among officers with BMI < 25 kg/m2, leptin was not significantly associated with HRV. However, among officers with BMI ? 25 kg/m2, leptin was inversely associated with HRV, after adjustment for age, gender, and race/ethnicity; HF HRV, P = 0.019 and LF HRV, P < 0.0001. Similarly, among officers with percent body fat ? 25.5%, leptin and LF HRV showed significant, inverse associations (adjusted P = 0.001). Conclusions Leptin levels were inversely associated with LF HRV, especially among officers with increased adiposity. Increased leptin levels may be associated with CVD-related health problems. PMID:25270126

  4. Association of Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jue; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Xiao-Lin; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and the genetic susceptibility of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: 357 NAFLD patients from January 2005 to December 2013 and 357 cases of healthy controls among the Han population were collected; polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to detect three tagSNPs (Rs2241767, rsl501299 and rs3774261) of Adiponectin. Risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and haplotype analysis was performed using SHEsis software. Results: Rs2241767, rsl501299 and rs3774261 polymorphisms were associated with the risk of NAFLD. Haplotype analysis showed that, A-T-A haplotype was a protective factor of NAFLD (OR: 0.154, 95% CI: 0.011-0.576, P = 0.004) and G-G-A (OR: 4.012, 95% CI: 2.118-10.324, P < 0.001) and G-T-G (OR: 5.219, 95% CI: 2.751-12.651, P < 0.001) haplotype was risk factors of NAFLD. Conclusion: There was an association between Adiponectin gene polymorphisms and the genetic susceptibility of NAFLD.

  5. A high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptor redirects lymphocytes to target human melanomas.

    PubMed

    Burns, William R; Zhao, Yangbing; Frankel, Timothy L; Hinrichs, Christian S; Zheng, Zhili; Xu, Hui; Feldman, Steven A; Ferrone, Soldano; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2010-04-15

    Immunotherapy, particularly the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), is a very promising therapy for metastatic melanoma. Some patients unable to receive TIL have been successfully treated with autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), genetically modified to express human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen-restricted, melanoma antigen-reactive T-cell receptors; however, substantial numbers of patients remain ineligible due to the lack of expression of the restricting HLA class I allele. We sought to overcome this limitation by designing a non-MHC-restricted, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), which is highly expressed on more than 90% of human melanomas but has a restricted distribution in normal tissues. HMW-MAA-specific CARs containing an antigen recognition domain based on variations of the HMW-MAA-specific monoclonal antibody 225.28S and a T-cell activation domain based on combinations of CD28, 4-1BB, and CD3zeta activation motifs were constructed within a retroviral vector to allow stable gene transfer into cells and their progeny. Following optimization of the HMW-MAA-specific CAR for expression and function in human PBL, these gene-modified T cells secreted cytokines, were cytolytic, and proliferated in response to HMW-MAA-expressing cell lines. Furthermore, the receptor functioned in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, was non-MHC restricted, and reacted against explanted human melanomas. To evaluate this HMW-MAA-specific CAR in patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a clinical-grade retroviral packaging line. This may represent a novel means to treat the majority of patients with advanced melanoma, most notably those unable to receive current ACT therapies. PMID:20395199

  6. Advances in the field of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, Robert A.; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Summary Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in?depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR?1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four? and five?ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation. PMID:21255317

  7. Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, a fat tissue-derived adipokine, exhibits beneficial effects against insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Circulating adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature correlates with increased risk of developing several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases. Thus, pharmacological replacement of adiponectin might prove clinically beneficial, especially for the obese patient population. At present, adiponectin-based therapeutics are not available, partly due to yet unclear structure/function relationships of the cytokine and difficulties in converting the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug. Results We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and clinical development as a cancer therapeutic. Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254), we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. Three-dimensional modeling of the active site and functional screening of additional 330 peptide analogs covering this region resulted in the development of a lead peptidomimetic, ADP 355 (H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2). In several adiponectin receptor-positive cancer cell lines, ADP 355 restricted proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at 100 nM-10 ?M concentrations (exceeding the effects of 50 ng/mL globular adiponectin). Furthermore, ADP 355 modulated several key signaling pathways (AMPK, Akt, STAT3, ERK1/2) in an adiponectin-like manner. siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that ADP 355 effects can be transmitted through both adiponectin receptors, with a greater contribution of AdipoR1. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg/day ADP 355 for 28 days suppressed the growth of orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts by ~31%. The peptide displayed excellent stability (at least 30 min) in mouse blood or serum and did not induce gross toxic effects at 5-50 mg/kg bolus doses in normal CBA/J mice. Conclusions ADP 355 is a first-in-class adiponectin receptor agonist. Its biological activity, superior stability in biological fluids as well as acceptable toxicity profile indicate that the peptidomimetic represents a true lead compound for pharmaceutical development to replace low adiponectin levels in cancer and other malignancies. PMID:21974986

  8. Protective role of adiponectin in a rat model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu-Hui; Yang, Yue-Wu; Dai, Hai-Tao; Cai, Song-Wang; Chen, Rui-Han; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the potential protective role of adiponectin in intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: A rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established. The serum level of adiponectin in rats with intestinal I/R injury was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were also measured by ELISA. Apoptosis of intestinal cells was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and villous injury scores were also measured. RESULTS: Adiponectin was downregulated in the serum of rats with intestinal I/R injury compared with sham rats. No significant changes in the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 were found between sham and I/R rats. Pre-treatment with recombinant adiponectin attenuated intestinal I/R injury. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?, in rats with intestinal I/R injury was reduced by adiponectin pre-treatment. The production of MDA was inhibited, and the release of SOD was restored by adiponectin pre-treatment in rats with intestinal I/R injury. Adiponectin pre-treatment also inhibited cell apoptosis in these rats. Treatment with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway inhibitor, compound C, or the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, Snpp, attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin against intestinal I/R injury. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin exhibits protective effects against intestinal I/R injury, which may involve the AMPK/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26715807

  9. Causal Relationship between Adiponectin and Metabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Study in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Mente, Andrew; Meyre, David; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Davis, A. Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Gerstein, Hertzel; Hegele, Robert A.; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, a secretagogue exclusively produced by adipocytes, has been associated with metabolic features, but its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. Objectives We investigated the association between serum adiponectin level and metabolic traits, using both observational and genetic epidemiologic approaches in a multiethnic population assembled in Canada. Methods Clinical data and serum adiponectin level were collected in 1,157 participants of the SHARE/SHARE-AP studies. Participants were genotyped for the functional rs266729 and rs1260326 SNPs in ADIPOQ and GCKR genes. Results Adiponectin level was positively associated with HDL cholesterol and negatively associated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, systolic and diastolic pressure (all P<0.002). The rs266729 minor G allele was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HOMA-IR (P?=?0.004 and 0.003, respectively). The association between rs266729 SNP and HOMA-IR was no longer significant after adjustment for adiponectin concentration (P?=?0.10). The rs266729 SNP was associated with HOMA-IR to an extent that exceeded its effect on adiponectin level (0.15 SD 95% C.I. [0.06, 0.24], P<0.001). There was no significant interaction between rs266729 SNP and ethnicity on adiponectin or HOMA-IR. In contrast, the SNP rs1260326 in GCKR was associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.001), but not with adiponectin level (P?=?0.67). Conclusion The association of the functional promoter polymorphism rs266729 with lower serum adiponectin and increased insulin resistance in diverse ethnic groups may suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin level and insulin resistance. PMID:23826141

  10. An asparagines residue at the N-terminus affects the maturation process of low molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) glutenin polymers are of two main types, high- (HMW-GS) and low- (LMW-GS) molecular weight subunits. The most common are the latter, based on the first amino acid of the mature sequence, are known as LMW-m and LMW-s types. They differ as a result of three extra amino acids (MET...

  11. DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography
    (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of
    complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds
    which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC
    columns. The combination of this technique wit...

  12. MOLAR FRACTIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT GLUTENINS SUBUNITS ARE STABLE WHEN WHEAT IS GROWN UNDER VARIOUS MINERAL NUTRITION AND TEMPERATURE REGIMENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molar ratios of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were determined for flour from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Butte86) produced under 13 different combinations of temperature, water and mineral nutrition. Despite great differences in duration of grain fill, total protein ...

  13. TRANSGENIC WHEATS WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF DX5 AND/OR DY10 HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS YIELD DOUGHS WITH INCREASED MIXING STRENGTH AND TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to test the effects of independently increasing the in vivo levels of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) Dx5 and Dy10 on wheat flour properties, we increased the copy numbers of their corresponding genes by genetic transformation. Thirteen transformants with increases in one o...

  14. Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. ); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. ); Cabral, J.A. )

    1999-07-15

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

  15. Association of adiponectin protein and ADIPOQ gene variants with lumbar disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    KHABOUR, OMAR F.; ABU-RUMEH, LAMA; AL-JARRAH, MUHAMMED; JAMOUS, MOHAMMED; ALHASHIMI, FARAH

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is a widespread public health problem that may lead to disability and loss of productivity. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue and has been shown to be involved in cartilage homeostasis. In the present study, the association between the rs266729 (?11377C/G) and rs2241766 (45T/G) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and LDD was investigated. In addition, the correlation between the plasma adiponectin level and LDD was examined. A total of 289 subjects, 168 patients with LDD and 122 healthy individuals, were recruited in the study. All subjects were genotyped for rs266729 and rs2241766 SNPs using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Circulating levels of adiponectin protein were measured using the ELISA technique. A strong association was found between adiponectin level and LDD (P<0.01), where high levels of adiponectin were found in patients compared with healthy controls. The increase in adiponectin level was not affected by gender. However, no significant differences were found in the genotype distribution or allelic frequency of the two examined polymorphisms between patients with LDD and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, adiponectin appears to be elevated in patients with LDD. The rs266729 and rs2241766 SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene are not associated with LDD. PMID:25187851

  16. The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez Cantarin, Maria P; Waldman, Scott A; Doria, Cataldo; Frank, Adam M; Maley, Warren R; Ramirez, Carlo B; Keith, Scott W; Falkner, Bonita

    2013-03-01

    Adiponectin has antidiabetic properties, and patients with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance have low plasma adiponectin levels. However, although kidney disease is associated with insulin resistance, adiponectin is elevated in end-stage renal disease. Here we determine whether adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in renal disease in a case-control study of 36 patients with end-stage renal disease and 23 kidney donors. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at kidney transplantation and donation. The mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased to 15.6?mg/ml in cases compared with 8.4?mg/ml in controls. Plasma levels of the inflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly higher in cases compared with controls. Adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat were significantly higher in cases than controls, while adiponectin receptor-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood cells, muscle, and adipose tissue in cases compared with controls. Thus, our study suggests that adipose tissue production of adiponectin contributes to the high plasma levels seen in end-stage renal disease. PMID:23283133

  17. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  18. Adiponectin Modulates C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Neeraj K.; Fu, Ping P.; Nagalingam, Arumugam; Wang, Jason; Handy, Jeffrey; Cohen, Cynthia; Tighiouart, Mourad; Sharma, Dipali; Anania, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Lower adiponectin levels are associated with poor prognosis in obese HCC patients hence it is plausible that adiponectin acts as a negative regulator of HCC. Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on HCC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods We utilized various in vitro assays using Huh7 and HepG2 HCC cells to examine the signal transduction pathways involved in protective function of adiponectin in HCC. These studies were followed by in vivo approaches using HCC xenografts and tumor analysis. Results from in vitro and in vivo findings were corroborated using human HCC tissue micro-array (TMA) and analysis of clinicopathological characteristics. Results Adiponectin treatment resulted in increased apoptosis of HCC cells via activation of caspase-3. Adiponectin increased phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibition of JNK-phosphorylation inhibited adiponectin-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Adiponectin increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tumor suppressor TSC2 and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation not only inhibited adiponectin-induced JNK phosphorylation but also effectively blocked biological effects of adiponectin. In vivo study showed that adiponectin treatment substantially reduced liver tumorigenesis in nude mice. Importantly, analysis of adiponectin expression levels in TMA of human HCC patients revealed an inverse correlation of adiponectin expression with tumor size. Conclusions These novel findings show protective role of adiponectin in liver tumorigenesis and could help explain poor prognosis of obese HCC patients who typically have low adiponectin levels. PMID:20637208

  19. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Graham, Annette; Dolan, Sharron

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10–5000 ng) on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema) and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation. PMID:26352808

  20. Adiponectin Levels during Low- and High-Fat Eucaloric Diets in Lean and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Evan S.; Kovera, Albert J.; Boozer, Carol N.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Johnson, Julia A.; Albu, Jeanine B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Adiponectin influences insulin sensitivity (SI) and fat oxidation. Little is known about changes in adiponectin with changes in the fat content of eucaloric diets. We hypothesized that dietary fat content may influence adiponectin according to an individual’s SI. Research Methods and Procedures We measured changes in adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and leptin in response to high-fat (HF) and low-fat (LF) eucaloric diets in lean (n = 10) and obese (n = 11) subjects. Obese subjects were further subdivided in relation to a priori SI. Results We found significantly higher insulin, glucose, and leptin and lower adiponectin in obese vs. lean subjects during both HF and LF. The mean group values of these measurements, including adiponectin (lean, HF 21.9 ± 9.8; LF, 20.8 ± 6.6; obese, HF 10.0 ± 3.3; LF, 9.5 ± 2.3 ng/mL; mean ± SD), did not significantly change between HF and LF diets. However, within the obese group, the insulin-sensitive subjects had significantly higher adiponectin during HF than did the insulin-resistant subjects. Additionally, the change in adiponectin from LF to HF diet correlated positively with the obese subjects’ baseline SI. Discussion Although in lean and obese women, group mean values for adiponectin did not change significantly with a change in fat content of a eucaloric diet, a priori measured SI in obese subjects predicted an increase in adiponectin during the HF diet; this may be a mechanism that preserves SI in an already obese group. PMID:16222059

  1. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, S; Matsushita, Y; Nakagawa, T; Hayashi, T; Noda, M; Mizoue, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Prospective studies have consistently shown a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among those with higher circulating adiponectin levels. Objective: We examined prospectively the association between serum adiponectin levels and type 2 diabetes risk among Japanese workers, taking visceral fat mass into account. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 4591 Japanese employees who attended a comprehensive health screening in 2008; had biochemical data including serum adiponectin; were free of diabetes at baseline; and received health screening in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between adiponectin and incidence of diabetes among overall subjects, as well as subgroups. Stratified analyses were carried out according to variables including visceral fat area (VFA). Results: During 3 years of follow-up, 217 diabetic cases were newly identified. Of these, 87% had a prediabetes at baseline. Serum adiponectin level was significantly, inversely associated with incidence of diabetes, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) for the lowest through highest quartile of adiponectin of 1 (reference), 0.79 (0.55–1.12), 0.60 (0.41–0.88) and 0.40 (0.25–0.64), respectively (P-value for trend <0.01). This association was materially unchanged with adjustment for VFA instead of BMI. After further adjustment for both homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c, however, the association became statistically nonsignificant (P-value for trend=0.18). Risk reduction associated with higher adiponectin levels was observed in both participants with and without obesity or insulin resistance at baseline. Conclusions: Results suggest that higher levels of circulating adiponectin are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of overall and intra-abdominal fat deposition, and that adiponectin may confer a benefit in both persons with and without insulin resistance. PMID:25133442

  2. Serum adiponectin concentration in 2,939 Japanese men undergoing screening for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Toru; Kawai, Koji; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hayashi, Takeshi; Matsushita, Yumi; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Kojima, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent investigations suggest that serum adiponectin levels are negatively associated with the development of aggressive prostate cancer, however, not all epigenetic studies support the inverse association. Methods We analyzed serum adiponectin levels, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and outcomes of prostate cancer screening of 2,939 participants of a PSA-based screening program conducted by a single institute in Japan. Results The median body mass index (BMI) of the participants was 23.9 kg/m2, and 31% had a BMI ? 25 kg/m2. The adiponectin levels were significantly and negatively correlated with BMI (r =? ?0.260, P < 0.0001). However, a significant and positive correlation was observed between adiponectin levels and PSA levels (r = 0.054, P = 0.0061). After screening, 24 (0.82%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Interestingly, the adiponectin levels of the 24 prostate cancer patients (average 9.86 ?g/mL) were significantly higher than those of the 2,817 participants with PSA levels < 4 ng/mL (average 7.63 ?g/mL) (P = 0.0049). However, when restricted to the eight high-risk prostate cancer patients, the adiponectin levels did not differ from those of the participants with PSA levels < 4 ng/mL. The age-adjusted cancer detection rate of the participants was calculated by stratifying the BMI (cut-off level 25 kg/m2) and adiponectin levels (cut-off level 6.7 ?g/mL). The cancer detection rate in the high-BMI and high-adiponectin group was 1.67%, which was the highest among all groups. Conclusions There was a significant positive correlation between adiponectin levels and PSA levels. The present findings also suggest that the incidence of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer might be increased in overweight men with high serum adiponectin levels. PMID:26473150

  3. Therapeutic window of globular adiponectin against cerebral ischemia in diabetic mice: the role of dynamic alteration of adiponectin/adiponectin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenying; Guo, Fan; Zhong, Haixing; Liu, Lixin; Yang, Rui; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that adiponectin (APN) attenuates cerebral ischemic/reperfusion via globular adiponectin (gAD). However, the therapeutic role of gAD in cerebral ischemic injury in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains unclear. Our results showed that gAD improved neurological scores and reduced the infarct volumes in the 8-week T1DM (T1DM-8W) mice, but not in the 2-week T1DM (T1DM-2W) mice. Moreover, the ischemic penumbra APN levels increased and peaked in T1DM-2W mice, and reduced to normal in T1DM-8W mice, while the APN receptor 1 (AdipoR1) expression change was the opposite. Administration of rosiglitazone in T1DM-2W mice up-regulated the expression of AdipoR1 and restored the neuroprotection of gAD, while intracerebroventricular injection of AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in T1DM-8W mice reversed it. Furthermore, the expression of p-PERK, p-IRE1 and GRP78 were increased whereas the expressions of CHOP and cleaved caspase-12 as well as the number of apoptotic neurons were decreased after gAD treatment in T1DM-8W mice. These beneficial effects of gAD were reversed by pretreatment with AdipoR1 siRNA. These results demonstrated a dynamic dysfunction of APN/AdipoR1 accompanying T1DM progression. Interventions bolstering AdipoR1 expression during early stages and gAD supplementation during advanced stages may potentially reduce the cerebral ischemic injury in diabetic patients. PMID:26611106

  4. Induction of human adiponectin gene transcription by telmisartan, angiotensin receptor blocker, independently on PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Moriuchi, Akie ||. E-mail: f1195@cc.nagasaki-u-ac.jp; Shimamura, Mika; Kita, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Hironaga; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Fujishima, Keiichiro; Fukushima, Keiko |; Hayakawa, Takao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Yuji; Kawasaki, Eiji

    2007-05-18

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, has been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and inhibit the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, several reports have stated that angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), increase adiponectin plasma level, and ameliorate insulin resistance. Telmisartan, a subclass of ARBs, has been shown to be a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}, and to increase the plasma adiponectin level. However, the transcriptional regulation of the human adiponectin gene by telmisartan has not been determined yet. To elucidate the effect of telmisartan on adiponectin, the stimulatory regulation of human adiponectin gene by telmisartan was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, utilizing adenovirus-mediated luciferase reporter gene-transferring technique. This study indicates that telmisartan may stimulate adiponectin transcription independent of PPAR-{gamma}.

  5. Treatment-Induced Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Do Not Reduce Urinary Albumin Excretion in the Diabetes Prevention Program Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Kieren J.; Pan, Qing; Knowler, William C.; Funahashi, Tohru; Bray, George A.; Arakaki, Richard; Falkner, Bonita; Sharma, Kumar; Goldstein, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Molecular data suggests that adiponectin may directly regulate urinary albumin excretion. In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) we measured adiponectin and albuminuria before and after intervention, and we previously reported increases in adiponectin with interventions. Here we have used the DPP dataset to test the hypothesis that treatment-related increases in adiponectin may reduce albuminuria in obesity. Design, Setting, Participants and Methods We evaluated cross-sectional correlations between plasma adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion at baseline, and the relationship of treatment-related changes in adiponectin and albuminuria. Baseline and follow-up urine albumin to creatinine ratios (ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio)) and plasma adiponectin concentration were available in 2553 subjects. Results Adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, we observed a statistically significant but weak inverse relationship between adiponectin and ACR at baseline (conditional Spearman’s rho = (-) 0.04, p = 0.04). Although DPP treatments significantly increased plasma adiponectin, there were no treatment effects on ACR and no differences in ACR across treatment groups. There was a weak direct (not inverse) association between change in adiponectin and change in albuminuria (adjusted Spearman’s rho = (+) 0.04, p = 0.03). Conclusions In a large, well-characterized cohort of obese dysglycemic subjects we observed a weak inverse association between circulating adiponectin concentrations and urinary albumin excretion at baseline. Contrary to the hypothesized effect, treatment-related increases in plasma adiponectin were not associated with a reduction in ACR. The association of change in adiponectin with change in ACR should be assessed in populations with overt albuminuria before excluding a beneficial effect of increasing adiponectin to reduce ACR in obesity. PMID:26312480

  6. Nicotinic acid increases adiponectin secretion from differentiated bovine preadipocytes through G-protein coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  7. Expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in Paneth cells is modulated by gut Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaomin; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yugang; Yun, Huan; Zeng, Benhua; Wang, Enlin; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Feifei; Che, Yongzhe; Zhang, Zhiqian; Yang, Rongcun

    2015-01-01

    We here found that intestinal epithelial Paneth cells secrete FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in both mice and human. Deletion of Paneth cell results in the decrease of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin not only in intestinal crypt cells but also in sera, suggesting that they may influence the state of the whole body. We also demonstrate that expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin may be modulated by specific gut microbiota. In germ-free (GF) mice, the expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin were lower or difficult to be detected. Feces transplantation promoted the expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin in gut epithelial Paneth cells. We have found that Lactobacillus NK6 colony, which has the highest similarity with Lactobacillus taiwanensis strain BCRC 17755, may induce the expression of FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin through TRAF2 and TRAF6 ubiquitination mediated NF-?B signaling. Taken together, our findings set up a novel mechanism for FABP4, adipsin and adiponectin through gut microbiota mediating expression in gut Paneth cells. PMID:26687459

  8. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-? expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing. PMID:25121107

  9. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid increases adiponectin and normalizes IUGR-induced changes in rat adipose deposition.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Heidi N; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S; Yu, Xing; Lane, Robert H; Joss-Moore, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- ? 2 (PPAR ? 2) in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPAR ? increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PPAR ? agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPAR ? , adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI-) induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1) normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPAR ? expression in male rats and (2) increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR. PMID:23533720

  10. The role of leptin/adiponectin ratio in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; López-López, Jose; López-López, Cristina; Martínez-Ortega, Javier; Gómez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Triana-Cubillos, Stefany

    2014-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Attention has focused on the visceral adipose tissue production of cytokines (adipokines) in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin are decreased, while proinflammatory cytokines are elevated, creating a proinflammatory state associated with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we will give special attention to the role of the leptin/adiponectin ratio. We have previously demonstrated that in individuals with severe coronary artery disease, abdominal obesity was uniquely related to decreased plasma concentrations of adiponectin and increased leptin levels. Leptin/adiponectin imbalance was associated with increased waist circumference and a decreased vascular response to acetylcholine and increased vasoconstriction due to angiotensin II. Leptin and adiponectin have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance. Leptin upregulates proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6; these are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties and downregulates the expression and release of a number of proinflammatory immune mediators. Therefore, it appears that interactions between angiotensin II and leptin/adiponectin imbalance may be important mediators of the elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases associated with abdominal obesity. PMID:25389999

  11. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  12. Adiponectin Receptor Signaling on Dendritic Cells Blunts Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Peng H.; Tyrrell, Helen E.J.; Gao, Liquan; Xu, Danmei; Quan, Jianchao; Gill, Dipender; Rai, Lena; Ding, Yunchuan; Plant, Gareth; Chen, Yuan; Xue, John Z.; Handa, Ashok I.; Greenall, Michael J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Xue, Shao-An

    2015-01-01

    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) that interact with T cells represent a crucial site for the development of tolerance to tumor antigens, but there remains incomplete knowledge about how DC-tolerizing signals evolve during tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are sufficient to blunt antitumor immunity. Mechanistic investigations of ligand–receptor interactions on DCs revealed novel signaling pathways for each receptor. AdipoR1 stimulated IL10 production by activating the AMPK and MAPKp38 pathways, whereas AdipoR2 modified inflammatory processes by activating the COX-2 and PPAR? pathways. Stimulation of these pathways was sufficient to block activation of NF-?B in DC, thereby attenuating their ability to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into how DC-tolerizing signals evolve in cancer to promote immune escape. Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly applicable strategies for immunometabolic therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:25261236

  13. Quality trait variations in [??Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.

    PubMed

    Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

  14. 11?-HSD1 reduces metabolic efficacy and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun Hee; Kim, Ah-Ram; Kim, Hyunshik; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Hye-Sun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Hyuk-Joong; Kim, Bum Joong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Oh, Jin Sun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Jang, Jung Eun; Leem, Jaechan; Cho, Myung Hwan; Lee, Ki-Up

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophic adipocytes can reduce adiponectin synthesis. We investigated whether 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) expression is increased in hypertrophic adipocytes and whether this is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced adiponectin synthesis. Differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes were cultured for up to 21 days. The effect of AZD6925, a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, on metabolism was examined. db/db mice were administered 600?mg/kg AZD6925 daily for 4 weeks via gastric lavage. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mRNA expression levels of 11 ? -H sd1 and mitochondrial biogenesis factors, adiponectin synthesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), oxygen consumption rate and glycolysis were measured. Adipocyte hypertrophy in 3T3L1 cells exposed to a long duration of culture was associated with increased 11 ? -Hsd1 mRNA expression and reduced mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis factor expression and adiponectin synthesis. These cells displayed reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis. Treatment of these cells with AZD6925 increased adiponectin synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. Inhibition of FAO by etomoxir blocked the AZD6925-induced increase in adiponectin synthesis, indicating that 11?-HSD1-mediated reductions in FAO are responsible for the reduction in adiponectin synthesis. The expression level of 11 ? -Hsd1 was higher in adipose tissues of db/db mice. Administration of AZD6925 to db/db mice increased the plasma adiponectin level and adipose tissue FAO. In conclusion, increased 11?-HSD1 expression contributes to reduced mitochondrial respiration and adiponectin synthesis in hypertrophic adipocytes. PMID:25869616

  15. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dadson, Keith; Turdi, Subat; Boo, Stellar; Hinz, Boris; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO). Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) and wild-type (WT) mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson’s trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1?1 and collagen 1?3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1? only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects. PMID:25910275

  16. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Regulating Circulating Levels of Adiponectin: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of alcohol intake in influencing longitudinal trajectories of adiponectin is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between alcohol intake and changes in the circulating levels of adiponectin over repeat measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 2855 men and women (74% men with a mean age of 50 y at baseline) drawn from the Whitehall II study. Data from study phases 3 (1991–1993), 5 (1997–1999), and 7 (2002–2004) were used. Main Outcome Measure: Adiponectin serum concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) were measured, and alcohol intake was defined in terms of number of UK units (1 U = 8 g ethanol) consumed in the previous 7 days on three occasions. Cross-sectional associations between alcohol and adiponectin levels were calculated using linear regression. A bivariate dual-change score model was used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake on upcoming change in adiponectin. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results: Alcohol consumption was cross-sectionally associated with (log transformed) adiponectin levels (? ranging from .001 to .004, depending on phase and level of adjustment) but was not associated with changes in adiponectin levels over time [? = ?0.002 (SE 0.002), P = 0.246]. Conclusion: Alcohol intake is not associated with changes in circulating adiponectin levels in this cohort. This finding provides evidence that adiponectin levels are unlikely to mediate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. It is important to consider dynamic longitudinal relationships rather than cross-sectional associations. PMID:26000546

  17. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Dadson, Keith; Turdi, Subat; Boo, Stellar; Hinz, Boris; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO). Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) and wild-type (WT) mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson's trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1?1 and collagen 1?3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1? only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects. PMID:25910275

  18. Adiponectin as a biomarker linking obesity and adiposopathy to hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dalamaga, Maria; Christodoulatos, Gerasimos S

    2015-07-01

    Higher body mass index and adiposopathy have been associated with increased risk of hematologic malignancies such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Adiponectin is a multimeric protein of the white adipose tissue presenting anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, cardioprotective, and anti-neoplastic properties. Its anti-neoplastic actions are manifested via two mechanisms: (i) direct action on tumor cells by enhancing receptor-mediated signaling pathways and (ii) indirect action by regulating inflammatory responses, influencing cancer angiogenesis, and modulating insulin sensitivity at the target tissue site. In the bone marrow milieu, adiponectin and its main receptors are expressed by the majority of bone marrow stromal cell populations influencing hematopoietic stem cells function. Adiponectin may represent a molecular mediator relating adiposopathy with leukemogenesis and myelomagenesis. Several epidemiological studies conducted to date relate hypoadiponectinemia to the risk of myeloid-derived hematopoietic cancer and multiple myeloma. Adiponectin may be a promising biomarker with potential diagnostic and prognostic utility in determining the likelihood of myeloma and leukemia progression in certain cohorts of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients and in myeloid hematologic malignancies, respectively. This review summarizes experimental and epidemiologic data regarding the role of adiponectin in hematologic malignancies in the context of adiposopathy. Enhancement of endogenous adiponectin, adiponectin replacement, or manipulation of adiponectin receptor sensitivity may be an attractive goal for prevention and an effective therapeutic strategy against hematopoietic cancer, specifically in overweight/obese individuals. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of the bone marrow microenvironment adiponectin in complex interactions involved in preleukemic and leukemic states. PMID:26057219

  19. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose tissue and reduced adipoR2 mRNA expression 2-fold in liver. Conclusion Hyperglycemia as a result of a high-fat diet is associated with an increase in the expression of the adiponectin receptors in muscle. An excess of glucocorticoids, rather than their absence, increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. PMID:21244702

  20. Adiponectin Corrects High-Fat Diet–Induced Disturbances in Muscle Metabolomic Profile and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Turdi, Subat; Park, Taesik; Morris, Nicholas J.; Deshaies, Yves; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We provide here a detailed and comprehensive analysis of skeletal muscle metabolomic profiles in response to adiponectin in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) mice after high-fat–diet (HFD) feeding. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed that adiponectin administration corrected HFD-induced defects in post/basal insulin stimulated Rd and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Lipidomic profiling of skeletal muscle from HFD-fed mice indicated elevated triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species (16:0–18:1, 18:1, and 18:0–18:2) as well as acetyl coA, all of which were mitigated by adiponectin. HFD induced elevated levels of various ceramides, but these were not significantly altered by adiponectin. Adiponectin corrected the altered branched-chain amino acid metabolism caused by HFD and corrected increases across a range of glycerolipids, fatty acids, and various lysolipids. Adiponectin also reversed induction of the pentose phosphate pathway by HFD. Analysis of muscle mitochondrial structure indicated that adiponectin treatment corrected HFD-induced pathological changes. In summary, we show an unbiased comprehensive metabolomic profile of skeletal muscle from AdKO mice subjected to HFD with or without adiponectin and relate these to changes in whole-body glucose handling, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial structure and function. Our data revealed a key signature of relatively normalized muscle metabolism across multiple metabolic pathways with adiponectin supplementation under the HFD condition. PMID:23238294

  1. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphism 45TG with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed on the new IADPSG criteria, plasma adiponectin levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Zheng, Yan-li; Fan, Yu-ping; Liu, Man-hua; Lu, Xiao-yan; Tao, Qian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the association of adiponectin gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 45TG with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed on the new International Diabetes in Pregnancy Consensus Group (IADPSG) criteria, plasma adiponectin levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Han women of Nantong area in China. This cross-sectional study included 128 pregnant women with GDM (GDM group) and 140 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT group) according to oral glucose tolerance test results based on the new IADPSG criteria. The GDM pregnant women were treated by diet control or diet control and insulin injection. All pregnant women attended antenatal cares and were recorded until delivery. Adiponectin gene was amplified through PCR, and SNP was detected using restriction enzyme SmaI. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured by ELISA. The G allele and TG+GG genotype were significantly more frequent than the T allele in the GDM group than in the NGT group (p < 0.05). Plasma adiponectin concentrations of TG+GG genotype carriers were significantly lower than those of TT genotype in both groups (p < 0.01). After adjustment for confounding factors, plasma adiponectin level remained significantly lower in pregnant women with TG+GG genotype than those with TT genotype (p < 0.05). Compared with the NGT group, the GDM group with glycemic control still had significantly higher incidences of macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia and asphyxia (p < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that the incidences of macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia were significantly higher in pregnant women with TG+GG genotype than those with TT genotype after adjustment for potential confounders in affecting pregnancy outcomes (p < 0.05). Even though pregnant women are diagnosed as GDM according to the new IADPSG criteria, the adiponectin SNP45 may be closely correlated with the prevalence of GDM in Han women of Nantong area in China, and the allele +45G in adiponectin gene might be associated with reduced plasma adiponectin levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24664457

  2. Diurnal and Ultradian Dynamics of Serum Adiponectin in Healthy Men: Comparison with Leptin, Circulating

    E-print Network

    OF endocrine systems exhibit circadian ( 24 h) and ultradian ( 24 h) variations. Although these features were adiponectin concentrations have yet to be system- atically investigated. We sought to determine whether serum

  3. Effects of febuxostat on platelet-derived microparticles and adiponectin in patients with hyperuricema

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Tohru; Taniura, Takehito; Nomura, Shosaku

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs) and adiponectin play an important role in the development of atherothrombosis. We investigated the effect of febuxostat on circulating PDMP levels and adiponectin in hyperuricemic patients. Levels of PDMP and biomarkers were measured using an ELISA at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Plasma levels of PDMPs and biomarkers were higher, while those of adiponectin were lower in hyperuricemic patients than in normouricemic controls. Uric acid and interleukin (IL)-6 levels decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after 2 months of febuxostat treatment. However, PDMP and biomarkers decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after only 6 months of febuxostat treatment and adiponectin increased significantly. These results suggest that the effects of febuxostat for PDMPs seen may be the effect on xanthine oxidase but not the decrease of uric acid, and febuxostat may be beneficial for primary prevention of atherothrombosis in hyperuricemic patients. PMID:26164850

  4. Heme Oxygenase-Mediated Increases in Adiponectin Decrease Fat Content and Inflammatory Cytokines Tumor Necrosis

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the underlying mechanism of endothelial injury, resulting in the liver, and hepatic glucose uptake (Berg et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2007b). Adiponectin is exclusively

  5. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with the Adiponectin to Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu-Song; Guo, Shu-Xia; Ma, Ru-Lin; Li, Shu-Gang; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-Ming; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Liu, Lie-Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the adiponectin to HOMA-IR (A/H) ratio is associated with MetS and MetS components and comparing the diagnostic efficacy of adiponectin, HOMA-IR, and the A/H ratio in healthy, middle-aged participants. MetS was assessed in 1628 Kazakh participants (men, 768; women, 860). The associations between adiponectin, HOMA-IR, and the A/H ratio with the components of MetS and MetS were examined using logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that A/H ratio may be a better diagnostic marker for MetS than either HOMA-IR or adiponectin alone, and it may serve as an important biomarker to determine an increased risk for MetS in healthy middle-aged population. PMID:26556958

  6. Leptin and Adiponectin Modulate the Self-renewal of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Esper, Raymond M; Dame, Michael; McClintock, Shannon; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Wicha, Max S; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms are likely to account for the link between obesity and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are of particular interest due to their opposing biologic functions and associations with breast cancer risk. In the current study, we investigated the effects of leptin and adiponectin on normal breast epithelial stem cells. Levels of leptin in human adipose explant-derived conditioned media positively correlated with the size of the normal breast stem cell pool. In contrast, an inverse relationship was found for adiponectin. Moreover, a strong linear relationship was observed between the leptin/adiponectin ratio in adipose conditioned media and breast stem cell self-renewal. Consistent with these findings, exogenous leptin stimulated whereas adiponectin suppressed breast stem cell self-renewal. In addition to local in-breast effects, circulating factors, including leptin and adiponectin, may contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer. Increased levels of leptin and reduced amounts of adiponectin were found in serum from obese compared with age-matched lean postmenopausal women. Interestingly, serum from obese women increased stem cell self-renewal by 30% compared with only 7% for lean control serum. Taken together, these data suggest a plausible explanation for the obesity-driven increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Leptin and adiponectin may function as both endocrine and paracrine/juxtacrine factors to modulate the size of the normal stem cell pool. Interventions that disrupt this axis and thereby normalize breast stem cell self-renewal could reduce the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 8(12); 1174-83. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26487401

  7. Baseline Adiponectin Levels Do Not Influence the Response to Pioglitazone in ACT NOW

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C.; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Henry, Robert R.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E.; Stentz, Frankie B.; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. We examined whether plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and after pioglitazone treatment in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were associated with improved insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose tolerance status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 602 high-risk IGT subjects in ACT NOW were randomized to receive pioglitazone or placebo with a median follow-up of 2.4 years. RESULTS Pioglitazone reduced IGT conversion to diabetes by 72% in association with improved ?-cell function by 64% (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) and increased tissue sensitivity by 88% (Matsuda index). In pioglitazone-treated subjects, plasma adiponectin concentration increased threefold from 13 ± 0.5 to 38 ± 2.5 ?g/mL (P < 0.001) and was strongly correlated with the improvement in SI (r = 0.436, P < 0.001) and modestly correlated with glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r = 0.238, P < 0.005) and insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (r = 0.306, P < 0.005). The increase in adiponectin was a strong predictor of reversion to normal glucose tolerance and prevention of T2DM. In the placebo group, plasma adiponectin did not change and was not correlated with changes in glucose levels. There was an inverse association between baseline plasma adiponectin concentration and progression to diabetes in the placebo group but not in the pioglitazone group. CONCLUSIONS Baseline adiponectin does not predict the response to pioglitazone. The increase in plasma adiponectin concentration after pioglitazone therapy in IGT subjects is strongly related to improved glucose tolerance status and enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. PMID:24705615

  8. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Klegeris, Andis; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-?B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1? and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-?B, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  9. Insulin-independent role of adiponectin receptor signaling in Drosophila germline stem cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Laws, Kaitlin M; Sampson, Leesa L; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2015-03-15

    Adipocytes have key endocrine roles, mediated in large part by secreted protein hormones termed adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin is well known for its role in sensitizing peripheral tissues to insulin, and several lines of evidence suggest that adiponectin might also modulate stem cells/precursors. It remains unclear, however, how adiponectin signaling controls stem cells and whether this role is secondary to its insulin-sensitizing effects or distinct. Drosophila adipocytes also function as an endocrine organ and, although no obvious adiponectin homolog has been identified, Drosophila AdipoR encodes a well-conserved homolog of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Here, we generate a null AdipoR allele and use clonal analysis to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement for AdipoR in germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. AdipoR null GSCs are not fully responsive to bone morphogenetic protein ligands from the niche and have a slight reduction in E-cadherin levels at the GSC-niche junction. Conversely, germline-specific overexpression of AdipoR inhibits natural GSC loss, suggesting that reduction in adiponectin signaling might contribute to the normal decline in GSC numbers observed over time in wild-type females. Surprisingly, AdipoR is not required for insulin sensitization of the germline, leading us to speculate that insulin sensitization is a more recently acquired function than stem cell regulation in the evolutionary history of adiponectin signaling. Our findings establish Drosophila female GSCs as a new system for future studies addressing the molecular mechanisms whereby adiponectin receptor signaling modulates stem cell fate. PMID:25576925

  10. [Various properties and kinetics of interaction of high and low molecular weight human kininogens with human plasma kallikrein].

    PubMed

    Nartikova, V F; Egorova, T P; Rets, E V; Paskhina, T S

    1986-03-01

    A relatively simple procedure for isolation and purification of human blood plasma kallikrein (HPK) by QAE-Sephadex A-50 SP-Sephadex C-50 and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B with immobilized soybean trypsin inhibitor with the activity yield of about 40% has been developed. The method allows for simultaneous isolation of low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) kininogens from the same HPK sample. HPK preparations are homogeneous upon 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% SDS; its Mr is 90,000. After treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol, HPK dissociates into two fragments with Mr of 43,000 and 37,000. HPK preparations have high specific activities of esterase (31 microM/min), amidase (78 microM/min), and kininogenase (420 micrograms equiv. bradikinin/min). The high degree of protein purification was demonstrated by titration of active centers with 4-methylumbelliferylguanidine benzoate. The values of equilibrium dissociation constants for the HPK complex with aprotinin (Ki) equal to 1 X 10(-8) M (ethyl ester of N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine) and 1,5 X 10(-9) M (HMW) were determined. The kinetics of HPK-induced liberation of bradikinin from purified preparations of HMW and LMW was studied. The kinetic parameters (Km, kcat and kcat/Km) of this reaction suggest a high affinity of HPK for HMW, but not for LMW. LMW does not compete with HMW for the enzyme active center. It is assumed that LMW is not a physiological substrate for HPK. PMID:3634630

  11. Visceral fat decreased by long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy correlated positively with interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? and negatively with adiponectin levels in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lira, Fábio Santos; Rosa, Jose Cesar; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Carnier, June; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; de Piano, Aline; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila Missae

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of cytokine expression in correlation with visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese adolescents admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. The study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (18, aged 15-19 years) with body mass indexes greater than the 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was analyzed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected to analyze tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and adiponectin concentrations that were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The most important finding in the present investigation is that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased visceral fat. Positive correlations between IL-6 levels and visceral fat (r = 0.42, P < .02) and TNF-? levels and visceral fat (r = 0.40, P < .05) were observed. Negative correlations between TNF-? levels and subcutaneous fat (r = -0.46, P < .01) and adiponectin levels and subcutaneous fat (r = -0.43, P < .03) were also observed. In addition, we found a positive correlation between TNF-? levels and the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (r = 0.42, P < .02) and a negative correlation between adiponectin level and the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (r = -0.69, P < .001). Despite the limitation of sample size, our results indicate that the observed massive weight loss (mainly visceral fat) was highly correlated with a decreased inflammatory state, suggesting that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in decreasing inflammatory markers. PMID:20359719

  12. Differential Associations between CDH13 Genotypes, Adiponectin Levels, and Circulating Levels of Cellular Adhesive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsu, Lung-An; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    CDH13 gene variants with lower adiponectin levels are paradoxically associated with a more favorable metabolic profile. We investigated the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels by examining 12 circulating inflammation marker levels and adiposity status in 530 Han Chinese people in Taiwan. After adjustments for clinical covariates, adiponectin levels were positively associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM1) levels and negatively associated with adiposity status and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1). In addition, minor alleles of the CDH13 rs12051272 polymorphism were found to have lower adiponectin levels and higher CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM1, and sVCAM1 levels as well as higher body mass indices and waist circumferences in participants (all P < 0.05). In a subgroup analysis stratified by sex, significant associations between CDH13 genotypes and sE-selectin levels occurred only in men (P = 3.9 × 10?4 and interaction P = 0.005). CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels are associated with circulating levels of cellular adhesion molecules and adiposity status in a differential manner that interacts with sex. These results provide further evidence for the crucial role of adiponectin levels and CDH13 gene variants in immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26600672

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Impacts on the Independent Relationships between Circulating Adiponectin Concentrations and Cardiovascular Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dessein, Patrick H.; Norton, Gavin R.; Badenhorst, Margaret; Woodiwiss, Angela J.; Solomon, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are likely involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and therefore potential new therapeutic targets. Adiponectin inhibition could be expected to enhance cardiovascular metabolic risk. However, it is unknown whether RA changes the influence of adipokines on cardiovascular metabolic risk. We determined whether RA impacts on the independent relationships of circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 277 black African subjects from a developing population; 119 had RA. RA impacted on the relationships of adiponectin concentrations with lipid concentrations and blood pressure, independent of confounders including adiposity (interaction P < 0.05). This translated into an association of adiponectin concentrations with more favorable lipid variables including HDL cholesterol (P = 0.0005), non-HDL cholesterol (P = 0.007), and triglyceride (P = 0.005) concentrations, total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol (P = 0.0002) and triglycerides-HDL cholesterol (P = 0.0003) ratios, and higher systolic (P = 0.0006), diastolic (P = 0.0004), and mean blood pressure (P = 0.0007) in RA but not non-RA subjects. Leptin was not associated with metabolic risk after adjustment for adiposity. The cIMT did not differ by RA status, and adipokine concentrations were unrelated to atherosclerosis. This study suggests that leptin and adiponectin inhibition may not alter overall cardiovascular risk and disease in RA. PMID:23690663

  14. Deficiency in adiponectin exaggerates cigarette smoking exposure-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: Role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Yang, Lifang; Dong, Maolong; Ren, Jun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-10-01

    Second hand smoke is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, has been shown to offer cardioprotective effect through an AMPK-dependent manner. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of adiponectin deficiency on second hand smoke-induced cardiac pathology and underlying mechanisms using a mouse model of side-stream smoke exposure. Adult wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (APNKO) mice were placed in a chamber exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 hour daily for 40 days. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte function, and intracellular Ca(2+) handling were evaluated. Autophagy and apoptosis were examined using western blot. 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) staining was used to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Masson trichrome staining was employed to measure interstitial fibrosis. Our data revealed that adiponectin deficiency provoked smoke exposure-induced cardiomyopathy (compromised fractional shortening, disrupted cardiomyocyte function and intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, apoptosis and ROS generation). In addition, these detrimental effects of side-stream smoke were accompanied by defective autophagolysosome formation, the effect of which was exacerbated by adiponectin deficiency. Blocking autophagolysosome formation using bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) negated the cardioprotective effect of rapamycin against smoke extract. Induction of autophagy using rapamycin and AMPK? activation using AICAR rescued against smoke extract-induced myopathic anomalies in APNKO mice. Our data suggest that adiponectin serves as an indispensable cardioprotective factor against side-stream smoke exposure-induced myopathic changes possibly through facilitating autophagolysosome formation. PMID:26276084

  15. Circulating adiponectin, leptin and adiponectin-leptin ratio and endometrial cancer risk: Evidence from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Wang, Yong-Lai; Ma, Xiao-Xin

    2015-10-15

    We performed this meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to investigate the associations between circulating adiponectin, leptin and adiponectin-leptin (A/L) ratio and endometrial cancer risk. Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases as well as by manual searching the references cited in retrieved manuscripts. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary odds ratio (SOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aforementioned associations. Fourteen manuscripts with 13 studies (five nested case-control and eight case-control studies) cumulatively involving a total of 1,963 endometrial cancer cases and 3,503 noncases were included in the analyses. Overall, comparing persons with circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin and A/L ratio in the top tertile with persons with concentrations of these biomarkers in the bottom tertile yielded SORs of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.34-0.65; I(2) ?=?63.7%; n?=?13), 2.19 (95% CI: 1.44-3.31; I(2) ?=?64.2%; n?=?7),and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.24-0.86; I(2) ?=?90.1%; n?=?5), respectively. Notably, there was an 18% reduction in risk for per each 5 ?g/mL increment in circulating adiponectin concentrations (SOR?=?0.82; 95% CI: 0.74-0.90; I(2) ?=?49%; n?=?8). Stratifying by study characteristics and whether these studies considered or adjusted for potential confounders, the findings were robust in the analyses of circulating adiponectin and leptin. No evidence of publication bias was detected. In conclusion, the findings from this meta-analysis suggest that increased circulating adiponectin and A/L ratio or decreased leptin concentrations were associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer. Further prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:25899043

  16. Curcumin Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Metastasis through the Adiponectin/NF-?b/MMPs Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ involved in metabolic and inflammatory reactions. Adiponectin, a 244–amino acid peptide hormone, is associated with insulin resistance and carcinogenesis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, turmeric. Curcumin possesses antitumor effects, including the inhibition of neovascularization and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the effects of adiponectin and curcumin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adiponectin in paired tumors and normal lung tissues from 77 patients with NSCLC using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low adiponectin expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.015). Curcumin inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells via the inhibition of adiponectin expression by blocking the adiponectin receptor 1. Curcumin treatment also inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of A549 cells and adiponectin expression. These results suggest that adiponectin can be a prognostic indicator of NSCLC. The effect of curcumin in decreasing the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells by inhibiting adiponectin expression is probably mediated through NF-?B/MMP pathways. Curcumin could be an important potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26656720

  17. Expression of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine hypothalamus during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Smolinska, N; Maleszka, A; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Czerwinska, J; Szeszko, K; Nitkiewicz, A

    2014-06-01

    Adiponectin is a hormonal link between obesity and reproduction, and its actions are mediated by two types of receptors: adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). This study compares the expression levels of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins in selected areas of the porcine hypothalamus responsible for GnRH production and secretion: the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), pre-optic area (POA) and stalk median eminence (SME). The tissue samples were harvested on days 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. Adiponectin mRNA expression in MBH was significantly lower on days 14-16, whereas in SME, the most pronounced gene expression was found on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein in MBH was most abundant on days 17-19 and in POA on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein expression in SME was at similar level throughout the most of the cycle with a statistically significant drop (p < 0.05) on days 14-16. AdipoR1 gene expression in POA was potentiated on days 2-3 and 10-12 of the oestrous cycle (p < 0.05). In SME, the highest AdipoR1 mRNA expression was noted on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The concentrations of the AdipoR1 protein in POA were similar throughout the luteal phase (days 2-14 of the cycle), and they decreased on days 17-19 (p < 0.05). In SME, AdipoR1 protein expression peak occurred on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The expression patterns of the AdipoR2 gene in MBH, POA and SME revealed the highest mRNA levels on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). The highest content of AdipoR2 protein in MBH was reported on days 2-3 (p < 0.05), while in POA on days 17-19 and in SME on days 10-12 and 14-16 (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins are present in the porcine hypothalamus and that their expression levels are determined by the pig's endocrine status related to the oestrous cycle. PMID:24592982

  18. Estrogen receptor-? drives adiponectin effects on cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Loredana; Pellegrino, Michele; Giordano, Francesca; Ricchio, Emilia; Rizza, Pietro; De Amicis, Francesca; Catalano, Stefania; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Panno, Maria Luisa; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, largely due to altered expression of various adipocytokines. As it concerns adiponectin, there are not univocal results regarding its role in breast cancer occurrence and progression. Here, we demonstrate that in animals injected with human estrogen receptor (ER)-?-negative MDA-MB-231 cells pretreated with adiponectin (1 and 5 µg/ml), a significant reduction (60 and 40%, respectively) in tumor volume is observed, whereas an increased tumor growth (54 and 109%, respectively) is evidenced in the animals receiving human ER-?-positive MCF-7 cells. Moreover, cyclin D1 (CD1) mRNA and protein levels are decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas they are up-regulated in ER-?-positive cells by adiponectin. These findings fit with the opposite effects of adiponectin on CD1 promoter: 0.44- and 0.34-fold decrease in MDA-MB-231 cells and 0.63- and 0.95-fold increase in MCF-7 cells, treated with 1 and 5 µg/ml, respectively. Functional studies indicate that these effects are mediated by the specific protein 1 motif located in the CD1 promoter. In the absence of ER-?, the adiponectin-mediated down-regulation of CD1 involves the recruitment of corepressors. In the presence of ER-?, the adiponectin-induced expression of CD1 requires the involvement of an activator complex. In conclusion, we propose that a possible mechanism through which adiponectin differently affects breast cancer growth is the opposite modulation of CD1 levels accordingly to ER-? expression. PMID:25657113

  19. Effect of adiponectin on cardiac ?-catenin signaling pathway under angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Fujishima, Yuya; Maeda, Norikazu; Matsuda, Keisuke; Komura, Noriyuki; Hirata, Ayumu; Mori, Takuya; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is associated with heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Adiponectin has been shown to play a protective role for cardiovascular diseases. The ?-catenin signaling pathway is deeply involved in cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effect of adiponectin on ?-catenin signaling has not been investigated in cardiac hypertrophy. Present study aimed to clarify the involvement of adiponectin and ?-catenin signaling pathway in the mouse model of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In hearts of Wild type (WT) mice, AngII dose-dependently augmented cytosolic ?-catenin protein level. WT and adiponectin knockout (Adipo-KO) mice were administered with AngII at 2.4 mg/kg/day for 14 days and were also injected with adenovirus expressing the adiponectin (Ad-Adipo) or the ?-galactosidase (Ad-?gal). Cardiac mRNA levels relating to hypertrophy and ?-catenin signaling were increased in Adipo-KO mice and these changes were reversed by Ad-Adipo. Phosphorylation of Akt was increased in Adipo-KO mice and such increases were reversed by Ad-Adipo. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) at Ser(9) and cytosolic ?-catenin level were increased in Adipo-KO mice and they were significantly reduced by Ad-Adipo treatment. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was reduced by Ad-Adipo-mediated adiponectin supplementation in WT and Adipo-KO mice. The current study suggests that adiponectin attenuates AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophic signals partly through Akt/GSK3?/?-catenin and Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:24462873

  20. Circulating adiponectin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a meta-analysis in order to investigate whether circulating adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes, is associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library. The summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated by pooling the different study-specific estimates using the random effect models. Meta-regression, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out to investigate between-study heterogeneity and to test publication bias. Results: Data from 15 observational studies, published between 2003 and April 2013 for a total of 4249 breast cancer cases, were analysed. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated a 34% reduction in breast cancer risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 13%–50%]. Between-study heterogeneity was not substantial (I2?=?53%). Ten studies were included in the dose-response analysis: the SRR for an increase of 3?µg/ml of adiponectin corresponded to a 5% risk reduction (95% CI: 1%–9%). The comparison between ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’ levels of adiponectin showed an inverse association in postmenopausal women (SRR?=?0.80; 95% CI: 0.63–1.01) and an indication of an inverse relationship in premenopausal women (SRR?=?0.72, 95% CI: 0.30–1.72). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions: Low circulating adiponectin levels are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. However, properly designed studies are needed to confirm the role of adiponectin as breast cancer biomarker, and clinical trials should be performed to identify those interventions that may be effective in modulating adiponectin levels and reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:24737805

  1. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR?=?0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01–0.66, P?=?0.021). Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  2. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-08-01

    Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated.A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA.Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR?=?0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.66, P?=?0.021).Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause. PMID:26287420

  3. The prevention and treatment of hypoadiponectinemia-associated human diseases by up-regulation of plasma adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Murad; Mukheem, Abdul; Kamarul, Tunku

    2015-08-15

    Hypoadiponectinemia is characterized by low plasma adiponectin levels that can be caused by genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the adiponectin gene or by visceral fat deposition/obesity. Reports have suggested that hypoadiponectinemia is associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have highlighted several potential strategies to up-regulate adiponectin secretion and function, including visceral fat reduction through diet therapy and exercise, administration of exogenous adiponectin, treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists (e.g., thiazolidinediones (TZDs)) and ligands (e.g., bezafibrate and fenofibrate) or the blocking of the renin-angiotensin system. Likewise, the up-regulation of the expression and stimulation of adiponectin receptors by using adiponectin receptor agonists would be an effective method to treat obesity-related conditions. Notably, adiponectin is an abundantly expressed bioactive protein that also exhibits a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as insulin-sensitizing, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. Although targeting adiponectin and its receptors has been useful for treating diabetes and other metabolic-related diseases in experimental studies, current drug development based on adiponectin/adiponectin receptors for clinical applications is scarce, and there is a lack of available clinical trial data. This comprehensive review discusses the strategies that are presently being pursued to harness the potential of adiponectin up-regulation. In addition, we examined the current status of drug development and its potential for clinical applications. PMID:25818192

  4. ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphism: Association with adiponectin and lipoproteins levels restricted to men.

    PubMed

    Tureck, Luciane Viater; Leite, Neiva; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Alle, Lupe Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine inversely correlated with obesity, which has beneficial effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Considering its potential as a therapeutic target in the metabolic disorder contexts, and in order to add knowledge in the area, our study evaluated the ADIPOQ 276G > T polymorphism effect on adiponectin levels, and on lipoproteins of clinical interest in a population sample composed of 211 healthy individuals. Significant effects were observed only among men: the carriers of heterozygous genotype (GT) showed high levels of adiponectin (p = 0.018), while the rare homozygous genotype (TT) gave its carriers a negative phenotype, represented by higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005) and total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.010 and p = 0.005) compared to carriers of other genotypes (GG and GT respectively), the independent effect of SNP on LDL-C and TC levels was confirmed by multiple regression analysis (p = 0.008 and p = 0.044). We found no evidence of correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and biochemical markers, which suggests, therefore, an SNP 276G > T independent effect on adiponectin levels and on lipoprotein metabolism in men enrolled in this study. PMID:26137445

  5. Study of Leptin and Adiponectin as Disease Markers in Subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mojiminiyi, Olusegun A.; Al Alawi, Alia; Al Rammah, Tahani; Abdella, Nabila

    2014-01-01

    Background. Published studies showed conflicting results of the associations between adiponectin and leptin levels and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In obese patients, plasma leptin is elevated and adiponectin is decreased, and we postulate that these adipokines could be potential markers of clinical and metabolic perturbations in patients with OSA. Methods. 147 patients with suspected OSA had polysomnography to determine the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI). We measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin, plasma leptin, adiponectin, and full lipid profile. Patients were classified on the basis of the RDI, degree of adiposity, and insulin resistance (IR) (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR)). Results. 28.6% of subjects had normal polysomnography, 34.8% had mild OSA, 19.6% had moderate OSA, and 17% had severe OSA. Obesity was more prevalent in subjects with moderate-severe OSA (47%). Adiponectin decreased significantly (P = 0.041) with increasing severity of OSA. Though BMI was significantly higher in subjects with severe OSA, paradoxically, leptin was lowest in those subjects independent of gender dimorphism. Conclusions. Adiponectin is an independent marker of disease severity in patients with OSA. The paradoxical decrease in circulating leptin, which suggests impaired secretion, deserves further studies as a potential marker of severe OSA. PMID:24982545

  6. The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, T.; Digby, J.E.; Chen, J.; Desai, K.M.; Randeva, H.S. . E-mail: H.Randeva@warwick.ac.uk

    2006-09-29

    Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and plasma levels of the adipokine, adiponectin, are low in the former but high in the latter. Adiponectin has been shown to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, suggesting that adiponectin and its receptors (Adipo-R1, Adipo-R2) may provide a molecular association between obesity and prostate carcinogenesis. We show for First time, the protein distribution of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 in LNCaP and PC3 cells, and in human prostate tissue. Using real-time RT-PCR we provide novel data demonstrating the differential regulation of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 mRNA expression by testosterone, 5-{alpha} dihydrotestosterone, {beta}-estradiol, tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that adiponectin and its receptors may contribute to the molecular association between obesity and prostate cancer through a complex interaction with other hormones and cytokines that also play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and prostate cancer.

  7. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all treated groups. FBS level in all treated groups, decreased significantly and reach to normoglycemic level (P<0.05). Except Jujube, other plant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (P<0.05) with no effect on total cholesterol and LDL-C. Serum adiponectin level increased in all treated groups. These beneficial effects of C. sativus, B. vulgaris and Z. jujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level. PMID:26639503

  8. TYPES AND RATES OF SEQUENCE EVOLUTION AT HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS IN HEXAPLOID WHEAT AND ITS ANCESTRAL GENOMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Glu-1 locus, encoding the High Molecular Weight-glutenin protein subunits, controls bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and represents a recently evolved region unique to Triticeae genomes. To understand the molecular evolution of this locus region, three orthologous Glu...

  9. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ)

    PubMed Central

    An, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Hui-Tong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yu-Zhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5) of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2) were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3) and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5) and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A) putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg). In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits. PMID:26610572

  10. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 26–81 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  11. Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role f...

  12. Neuronal uptake and propagation of a rare phosphorylated high-molecular-weight tau derived from Alzheimer's disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuko; Wegmann, Susanne; Cho, Hansang; DeVos, Sarah L.; Commins, Caitlin; Roe, Allyson D.; Nicholls, Samantha B.; Carlson, George A.; Pitstick, Rose; Nobuhara, Chloe K.; Costantino, Isabel; Frosch, Matthew P.; Müller, Daniel J.; Irimia, Daniel; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Tau pathology is known to spread in a hierarchical pattern in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain during disease progression, likely by trans-synaptic tau transfer between neurons. However, the tau species involved in inter-neuron propagation remains unclear. To identify tau species responsible for propagation, we examined uptake and propagation properties of different tau species derived from postmortem cortical extracts and brain interstitial fluid of tau-transgenic mice, as well as human AD cortices. Here we show that PBS-soluble phosphorylated high-molecular-weight (HMW) tau, though very low in abundance, is taken up, axonally transported, and passed on to synaptically connected neurons. Our findings suggest that a rare species of soluble phosphorylated HMW tau is the endogenous form of tau involved in propagation and could be a target for therapeutic intervention and biomarker development. PMID:26458742

  13. Relationships between serum soluble leptin receptor level and serum leptin and adiponectin levels, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takeo; Hirose, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Nishikai, Kanako; Miyashita, Kiichi; Nakamura, Haruo; Saito, Ikuo; Saruta, Takao

    2004-07-01

    Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of body weight and is known to circulate in both free and bound forms. One of the leptin receptor isoforms exists in a circulating soluble form that can bind leptin. Clinical studies have shown that soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels are lower in obese individuals. In the present study, we measured the serum sOB-R level in 419 healthy Japanese subjects (198 men and 221 women, aged 30 to 65 years, body mass index [BMI] 21.7 +/- 2.6 [SD] kg/m2) and in 150 type 2 diabetic patients (96 men and 54 women, BMI 24.3 +/- 3.8 kg/m2). We investigated the relationships between serum sOB-R level and BMI, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), serum leptin and adiponectin levels, lipid profile, and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg polymorphisms. Serum leptin and sOB-R levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The serum sOB-R level in men was significantly higher than that in women. The serum sOB-R level was negatively correlated with BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum leptin level and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and serum adiponectin levels. The correlations between serum sOB-R level and fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum leptin, adiponectin, and HDL-cholesterol levels were significant even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI in healthy subjects. There was no association between serum sOB-R level and the LEPR polymorphisms examined. These findings suggest that the serum sOB-R level is negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and serum leptin level and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol level and serum adiponectin level, independent of age, sex, and BMI, in the Japanese population. PMID:15254881

  14. Adiponectin expression in the porcine pituitary during the estrous cycle and its effect on LH and FSH secretion.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, Marta; Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    Female reproductive success is closely associated with nutritional status and energy balance. In this context, adiponectin appears to be a key hormone connecting reproductive system function and metabolism regulation. It is hypothesized that adiponectin expression in the pituitary depends on the phase of the estrous cycle. The effect of adiponectin on luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion is also postulated. Changes in the adiponectin gene and protein expression in the porcine anterior (AP) and posterior (NP) pituitaries as well as the effect of in vitro administration of adiponectin on basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)- and/or insulin-stimulated LH and FSH secretion were investigated on days 2-3, 10-12, 14-16, and 17-19 of the estrous cycle. Adiponectin gene was more pronounced on days 2-3 in AP but on days 10-12 in NP. Protein concentration in AP was the highest on days 10-12 and in NP on days 10-12 and 17-19 of the cycle. In vitro, adiponectin did not affect basal LH secretion but increased FSH release by AP cells. Adiponectin administration affected GnRH- and/or insulin-induced LH and FSH output in a manner dependent on the phase of the estrous cycle. In this study we indicated for the first time adiponectin expression in the porcine AP and NP that was dependent on the phase of the estrous cycle. In vitro studies indicated that adiponectin may affect gonadotropin secretion. The above suggests that the studied adipokine may influence female reproductive functions via its effect on LH and FSH secretion by gonadotrophs, but the cellular mechanism of its action remains unknown. PMID:25315693

  15. Adiponectin is released via a unique regulated exocytosis pathway from a pre-formed vesicle pool on insulin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun-Yan; Hong, Wanjin; Han, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone secreted from adipocytes and released at a high rate into the circulation, plays a pivotal role in maintaining insulin sensitivity at the whole-body level. Despite the importance of this adipokine in metabolic homoeostasis, the mechanism of its secretion from adipocytes remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular localization of adiponectin, and its secretion regulation in 3T3-L1-differentiated adipocytes, using biochemical methods and fluorescence microscopic imaging. We show that adiponectin is localized in vesicular compartments with no apparent overlap with the Golgi apparatus or endosomes. Moreover, adiponectin-containing vesicles are enriched in two distinct pools: one at the plasma membrane (PM) and the other co-fractionating with endoplasmic reticulum membranes. When viewed under a total internal refection fluorescence microscope, a subset of adiponectin-Venus vesicles is readily observed in proximity to PMs, and could be released in response to insulin. Insulin-stimulated adiponectin release appears to be from a pre-existing pool of vesicles, and is not dependent on new protein synthesis, because adiponectin mRNA levels remain unchanged over a 6-h period of insulin treatment, and inhibition of protein synthesis has no effect on adiponectin release. Disruption of insulin signalling by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B (Akt)-1/2 abrogates the stimulated release of adiponectin. Taken together, our results show that adiponectin is stored in a unique vesicular compartment, and released through a regulated exocytosis pathway that is dependent on insulin signalling. PMID:26330614

  16. Lipopolysaccharide induces a downregulation of adiponectin receptors in-vitro and in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alison; Leuwer, Martin; Trayhurn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory response through production of cytokines, recruitment of macrophages and modulation of the adiponectin system. Previous studies have identified a down-regulation of adiponectin in pathologies characterised by acute (sepsis and endotoxaemia) and chronic inflammation (obesity and type-II diabetes mellitus). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that LPS would reduce adiponectin receptor expression in a murine model of endotoxaemia and in adipoocyte and myocyte cell cultures. Methods. 25 mg/kg LPS was injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6J mice, equivalent volumes of normal saline were used in control animals. Mice were killed at 4 or 24 h post injection and tissues harvested. Murine adipocytes (3T3-L1) and myocytes (C2C12) were grown in standard culture, treated with LPS (0.1 µg/ml–10 µg/ml) and harvested at 4 and 24 h. RNA was extracted and qPCR was conducted according to standard protocols and relative expression was calculated. Results. After LPS treatment there was a significant reduction after 4 h in gene expression of adipo R1 in muscle and peri-renal fat and of adipo R2 in liver, peri-renal fat and abdominal wall subcutaneous fat. After 24 h, significant reductions were limited to muscle. Cell culture extracts showed varied changes with reduction in adiponectin and adipo R2 gene expression only in adipocytes. Conclusions. LPS reduced adiponectin receptor gene expression in several tissues including adipocytes. This reflects a down-regulation of this anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising pathway in response to LPS. The trend towards base line after 24 h in tissue depots may reflect counter-regulatory mechanisms. Adiponectin receptor regulation differs in the tissues investigated. PMID:26618091

  17. Endometria from Obese PCOS Women with Hyperinsulinemia Exhibit Altered Adiponectin Signaling.

    PubMed

    García, V; Oróstica, L; Poblete, C; Rosas, C; Astorga, I; Romero, C; Vega, M

    2015-11-01

    Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity affect 60-70% of patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), who exhibit an altered endometrial insulin signaling. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinism, and obesity present in PCOS patients impair the endometrial adiponectin signaling pathway. The ex vivo study was conducted on 27 samples from lean (n=9), obese (n=9), and obese-PCOS (n=9) patients. The in vitro assays were performed in immortalized human endometrial stromal cells stimulated with testosterone, insulin, or testosterone plus insulin. Serum steroid-hormones, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin; body mass index, free androgen index, ISI-Composite, and HOMA were evaluated in the 3 groups. Ex vivo and in vitro gene expression and protein content of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and APPL1 were determined. Adiponectin serum levels were decreased in obese-PCOS patients compared to lean (78%) and obese (54%) controls (p<0.05). AdipoR1 protein and gene expression were increased in obese group vs. obese-PCOS and lean groups (2-fold, p<0.05). In turn, AdipoR2 protein and mRNA content was similar between the 3 groups. APPL1 protein levels were reduced in endometria from both obese groups, compared to lean group (6-fold, p<0.05). Testosterone plus insulin stimulation of T-HESC and St-T1b leads to a reduction of adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and APPL1 protein content in both endometrial cell lines (p<0.05), whereas, in the presence of testosterone or insulin alone, protein levels were similar to basal. Therefore, endometrial adiponectin-signaling pathway is impaired in hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic obese-PCOS patients, corroborated in the in vitro model, which could affect endometrial function and potentially the implantation process. PMID:26197851

  18. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by ?60%. However, supplementing gAd fully rescued insulin's microvascular action and significantly improved the metabolic responses to insulin in HFD male rats and these actions were abolished by inhibition of either AMPK or nitric oxide production. We conclude that HFD induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but gAd administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in male rats. PMID:26108677

  19. Stripe rust resistance and dough quality of new wheat - Dasypyrum villosum translocation lines T1DL•1V#3S and T1DS•1V#3L and the location of HMW-GS genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W C; Gao, X; Dong, J; Zhao, Z J; Chen, Q G; Chen, L G; Shi, Y G; Li, X Y

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of agronomically useful genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat is one of the most effective approaches to improvement of wheat varieties. To evaluate the transfer of genes from Dasypyrum villosum into Triticum aestivum, wheat quality and disease resistance was evaluated in two new translocation lines, T1DL•1V#3S and T1DS•1V#3L. We examined the levels of stripe rust resistance and dough quality in the two lines, and identified and located the stripe rust resistant genes and high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes Glu-V1 of D. villosum. Compared to the Chinese Spring (CS) variety, T1DL•1V#3S plants showed moderate resistance to moderate susceptibility to the stripe rust races CYR33 and Su11-4. However, T1DS•1V#3L plants showed high resistance or immunity to these stripe rusts. The genes for resistance to stripe rust were located on 1VL of D. villosum. In comparison to CS, the dough from T1DS•1V#3L had a significantly shorter developing time (1.45 min) and stable time (1.0 min), a higher weakness in gluten strength (208.5 FU), and a lower farinograph quality index (18). T1DL•1V#3S had a significantly longer developing time (4.2 min) and stable time (5.25 min), a lower weakness in gluten strength (53 FU) and a higher farinograph quality index (78.5). We also found that T1DS•1V#3L had reduced gluten strength and dough quality compared to CS, but T1DL•1V#3S had increased gluten strength and dough quality. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that Glu-V1 of D. villosum was located on short arm 1VS and long arm 1VL. These results prove that the new translocation lines, T1DS•1V#3L and T1DS•1V#3L, have valuable stripe rust resistance and dough quality traits that will be important for improving wheat quality and resistance in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:26214490

  20. Gene expression levels of Casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms are correlated to adiponectin levels in adipose tissue of morbid obese patients and site-specific phosphorylation mediated by CK1 influences multimerization of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Bischof, Joachim; Radermacher, Peter; Wabitsch, Martin; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Wolf, Anna-Maria; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Knippschild, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue has now been recognized as an important endocrine organ secreting bioactive molecules termed adipocytokines. In obesity, anti-inflammatory adipocytokines like adiponectin are decreased while pro-inflammatory factors are over-produced. These changes contribute to the development of insulin resistance and obesity-associated diseases. Since members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family are involved in the regulation of various signaling pathways we ask here whether they are able to modulate the functions of adiponectin. We show that CK1? and ? are expressed in adipose tissue and that the expression of CK1 isoforms correlates with that of adiponectin. Furthermore, adiponectin co-immunoprecipitates with CK1? and CK1? and is phosphorylated by CK1? at serine 174 and threonine 235, thereby influencing the formation of adiponectin oligomeric complexes. Furthermore, inhibition of CK1? in human adipocytes by IC261 leads to an increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, our data indicate that site-specific phosphorylation of adiponectin, especially at sites targeted by CK1? in vitro, provides an additional regulatory mechanism for modulating adiponectin complex formation and function. PMID:25724478

  1. Stellar Rotation and Variability in IC 348 and Indication of a 4.75 Year Period for the Unique, Apparently Eclipsing Pre-Main Sequence Star HMW 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhagen, S. C. J.; Rhode, K. L.; Herbst, W.; Williams, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past two years of a seven-year photometric variability study of the young stellar cluster IC 348, numerous periodically variable T Tauri stars were discovered, bringing the total number of identified periodic variables in IC 348 to 69, or about 45 % of all cluster stars observed by us. This includes data from Herbst, Maley & Williams (2000, AJ 120, 394), Cohen, Herbst & Williams (2004, AJ 127, 1602) and Littlefair et al. (2005 MNRAS 358, 341). In addition to these photometric data, spectra of 30 cluster members were obtained with the WIYN 3.5m telescope and used to calculate radial velocities and v sin i rotation measurements, offering a generally complementary view of stellar rotation in IC 348. A mean heliocentric radial velocity for the cluster has been determined, and two radial velocity outliers discovered, which are possible spectroscopic binaries. The distribution of rotation periods, their relationship to v sin i measurements and the implications of these results for the rotation and radii of pre-main sequence stars in IC 348 will be presented. In addition, we discuss the recent behavior of the peculiar variable HMW 15 (Cohen, Herbst & Williams 2003 ApJ 596, L243), which now appears to be undergoing a periodic eclipse on a time scale of 4.75 years. We discuss possible origins for this extraordinarily long periodicity. S. Nordhagen was an undergraduate summer student at Wesleyan University, sponsored by the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. Their REU program is supported by NSF grant AST-0353997.

  2. Adiponectin upregulates ABCA1 expression through liver X receptor alpha signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhiming; Bai, Rui; Liu, Ming; Xiao, Chuanshi; Bian, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and anti-atherosclerosis. Liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) can stimulate cholesterol efflux through ABCA1. It has been well known that adiponectin has cardiovascular protection. In this study, we attempted to clarify the effect of adiponectin on expression of ABCA1, and explored the role of LXR? in the regulation of ABCA1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results showed that adiponectin increased ABCA1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Consequently, adiponectin promoted cholesterol efflux and decreased cholesterol content in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, adiponectin up-regulated the expression of LXR? in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LXR? small interfering RNA completely abolished the promotion effects of adiponectin. In summary, adiponectin up-regulates ABCA1 expression via the LXR? pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This novel insight could prove useful for developing new treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25755733

  3. New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

  4. Designer Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Stabilizes Metabolic Function and Prevents Brain Injury Caused by HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Jennifer K.; Otvos, Laszlo; Surmacz, Eva; Gupta, Sunita; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (PI) are fundamental to combination antiretroviral therapy, which has revolutionized HIV clinical care and produced significant reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. However, PI administration is frequently associated with severe metabolic impairment, including lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance; all of which can contribute to cardiovascular and neurologic co-morbidities. Experimental and epidemiological data support a potentially important role for the adipokine adiponectin in both metabolic and neurologic physiology. This study examined if ADP355, a novel, peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist, could neutralize the detrimental effects of PI treatment in experimental animal models. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a clinically relevant, 4- week regimen of lopinavir/ritonavir, with daily injections of ADP355 administered only during the final 2 weeks of PI exposure. Comprehensive metabolic, neurobehavioral, and biochemical analyses revealed that ADP355 administration partially reversed PI-induced loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue, attenuated PI-induced hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoadiponectinemia, and prevented PI-induced cognitive impairment and brain injury. Collectively, these data reinforce the link between metabolic co-morbidities and cognitive impairment and suggest that pharmacological reactivation of adiponectin pathways could remediate key aspects of PI-induced metabolic syndrome in clinical settings. Furthermore, therapeutic targeting of adiponectin receptors could show utility in reducing the prevalence and/or severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:24562631

  5. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

  6. Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity

    E-print Network

    Suchard, Marc A.

    ­ adiponectin hormone time series in the lean and obese subjects. Plasma ghrelin concentrations showed in the circula- tion, with important effects on metabolism. We studied five lean and five obese young men [ages: 24.2 1.0 (lean) and 21.8 1.6 (obese) years (difference not significant); body mass indexes: 35.0 1

  7. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  8. Osmotin: a plant sentinel and a possible agonist of mammalian adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, S.; Hima Kumari, P.; Shravan Kumar, G.; Mohanalatha, C.; Kavi Kishor, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Osmotin is a stress responsive antifungal protein belonging to the pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 family that confers tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Protective efforts of osmotin in plants range from high temperature to cold and salt to drought. It lyses the plasma membrane of the pathogens. It is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. It is a differentially expressed and developmentally regulated protein that protects the cells from osmotic stress and invading pathogens as well, by structural or metabolic alterations. During stress conditions, osmotin helps in the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, which quenches reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Osmotin expression results in the accumulation of storage reserves and increases the shelf-life of fruits. It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. Adiponectin, produced in adipose tissues of mammals, is an insulin-sensitizing hormone. Strangely, osmotin acts like the mammalian hormone adiponectin in various in vitro and in vivo models. Adiponectin and osmotin, the two receptor binding proteins do not share sequence similarity at the amino acid level, but interestingly they have a similar structural and functional properties. In experimental mice, adiponectin inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration, primary tumor growth, and reduces atherosclerosis. This retrospective work examines the vital role of osmotin in plant defense and as a potential targeted therapeutic drug for humans. PMID:25852715

  9. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  10. Adiponectin and its receptors modulate granulosa cell and cumulus cell functions, fertility and early embryo development in the mouse and human

    PubMed Central

    Richards, JoAnne S.; Liu, Zhilin; Kawai, Tomoko; Tabata, Kei; Watanabe, Hirohiko; Suresh, Deepa; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Pisarska, Margareta D.; Shimada, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the expression and function of adiponectin and its receptors in mouse and human follicle cells and in early embryo development. Design Whole ovaries, granulosa cells and cumulus oocyte complexes were isolated from immature mice prior to and during hormone-induced ovulation and used to analyze the expression of adiponectin, its receptors and ovulation-related genes. Human cumulus cells and granulose cells were isolated from patients undergoing IVF procedures. Patients Women were in IVF programs in Japan and the United States. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Expression of adiponectin receptors and fertility. Setting Adiponectin is a potent cytokine that is often at low levels in serum of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) compared to fertile women. Adiponectin may impact fertility and early embryo development by acting on ovarian cells. Results Adiponectin expression is absent/low in mouse and human granulosa cells and cumulus cells. Adiponectin receptors are hormonally regulated in mouse granulosa and cumulus cells in vivo and in culture. Adiponectin differentially alters the expression of Adipor1/Adipor2 as well as steroidogenic-, ovulation- and apoptosis related-genes in cumulus cells versus granulosa cells. Adiponectin enhances oocyte maturation and early embryo development in mouse and human IVF procedures. Conclusion Adiponectin can modulate not only follicle growth, but also embryo development in mouse and human. PMID:22633650

  11. Metaproteomic characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in surface seawaters in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hong-Po; Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Dai, Min-Han; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important reservoir of carbon and energy in the marine environment and plays a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle. This study characterized proteins of high-molecular-weight DOM (size between 5 kDa and <0.2 ?m, HMW-DOM) collected from the surface seawaters in the South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach in combination with the global ocean sampling combined assembly protein database. A total of 367 protein groups matched by 993 unique peptides from 1991 spectra were identified from four surface HMW-DOM samples. Proteins with unknown taxonomic classification and function dominated the dissolved protein pool (43-53%) while the remaining proteins presented close similarity in biological origin among the four sampling sites. Rhodospirillaceae, Prochlorococcus, SAR11 clade and viruses were the major contributors to dissolved proteins in the HMW-DOM from surface seawaters while very few proteins were from the eukaryotic phytoplankton and no archaeal proteins were detected. Transporters with substrate specificities for nitrogen- and carbon-containing compounds (1.5% of the total spectra for each) were highly detected while no phosphate transporters were found, suggesting that carbon and nitrogen might be more limiting than phosphorus in the surface seawater. Viral proteins were assigned into three families: Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae, and the Myoviridae proteins were the most abundant. Among them, structure proteins were the most abundant viral proteins. This study indicated that the dissolved proteins of HMW-DOM presented compositional and biologically original homogeneity in the surface seawaters of the South China Sea, and bacteria and viruses dominated the dissolved protein pool.

  12. Charge-based characterisation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from common wheat by capillary isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Franaszek, S?awomir

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) method for the separation and charge characterisation of the heterogeneity of high molecular-weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using linear polyacrylamide (LPA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated capillaries was developed. Particularly good repeatability and well-resolved charge isoform profiles were obtained by introducing a mixture of carrier ampholytes (pH 3-10 and pH 5-8), a high concentration of urea (6M) and SB3-12 as detergent in a sample solution during separation in a PVA-coated capillary. One major and one or two minor isoforms were observed for the individual HMW-GS. These isoforms were satisfactorily separated using a pH gradient into two groups: y-type isoforms and x-type isoforms encoded by the Glu-B1 locus with shorter migration times and remaining x-type isoforms with longer times. The method produced from eight to twelve isoforms of wheat HMW-GS with pI points in the range of 4.72-6.98. Generally, the minor isoforms were more acidic compared with the major isoform. The y-type subunits had an approximately neutral character (pI 6.70-6.98); however, x-types showed a weakly acidic character (pI 4.72-5.23), with the exception of subunits encoded by the Glu-B1 locus. The isoelectric point peak profiles were compared with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) electropherograms. Generally, the number of detected isoforms for the particular HMW-GS detected using both methods were similar. PMID:25127558

  13. Sleep fragmentation during late gestation induces metabolic perturbations and epigenetic changes in adiponectin gene expression in male adult offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Mutskov, Vesco; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2014-10-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF) is a common condition among pregnant women, particularly during late gestation. Gestational perturbations promote the emergence of adiposity and metabolic disease risk in offspring, most likely through epigenetic modifications. Adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression inversely correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The effects of SF during late gestation on metabolic function and AdipoQ expression in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) of offspring mice are unknown. Male offspring mice were assessed at 24 weeks after dams were exposed to SF or control sleep during late gestation. Increased food intake, body weight, VWAT mass, and insulin resistance, with reductions in AdipoQ expression in VWAT, emerged in SF offspring. Increased DNMT3a and -b and global DNA methylation and reduced histone acetyltransferase activity and TET1, -2, and -3 expression were detected in VWAT of SF offspring. Reductions in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and H3K4m3 and an increase in DNA 5-methylcytosine and H3K9m2 in the promoter and enhancer regions of AdipoQ emerged in adipocytes from VWAT and correlated with AdipoQ expression. SF during late gestation induces epigenetic modifications in AdipoQ in male offspring mouse VWAT adipocytes along with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Thus, altered gestational environments elicited by SF impose the emergence of adverse, long-lasting metabolic consequences in the next generation. PMID:24812424

  14. In vivo, Argonaute-bound microRNAs exist predominantly in a reservoir of low molecular weight complexes not associated with mRNA

    PubMed Central

    La Rocca, Gaspare; Olejniczak, Scott H.; González, Alvaro J.; Briskin, Daniel; Vidigal, Joana A.; Spraggon, Lee; DeMatteo, Raymond G.; Radler, Megan R.; Lindsten, Tullia; Ventura, Andrea; Tuschl, Thomas; Leslie, Christina S.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs repress mRNA translation by guiding Argonaute proteins to partially complementary binding sites, primarily within the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs. In cell lines, Argonaute-bound microRNAs exist mainly in high molecular weight RNA-induced silencing complexes (HMW-RISC) associated with target mRNA. Here we demonstrate that most adult tissues contain reservoirs of microRNAs in low molecular weight RISC (LMW-RISC) not bound to mRNA, suggesting that these microRNAs are not actively engaged in target repression. Consistent with this observation, the majority of individual microRNAs in primary T cells were enriched in LMW-RISC. During T-cell activation, signal transduction through the phosphoinositide-3 kinase–RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase–mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway increased the assembly of microRNAs into HMW-RISC, enhanced expression of the glycine-tryptophan protein of 182 kDa, an essential component of HMW-RISC, and improved the ability of microRNAs to repress partially complementary reporters, even when expression of targeting microRNAs did not increase. Overall, data presented here demonstrate that microRNA-mediated target repression in nontransformed cells depends not only on abundance of specific microRNAs, but also on regulation of RISC assembly by intracellular signaling. PMID:25568082

  15. Association of adiponectin and leptin with relative telomere length in seven independent cohorts including 11,448 participants.

    PubMed

    Broer, Linda; Raschenberger, Julia; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Codd, Veryan; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Gieger, Christian; Haun, Margot; Henneman, Peter; Herder, Christian; Hovatta, Iiris; Laser, Annika; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kollerits, Barbara; Moilanen, Eeva; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Quaye, Lydia; Rissanen, Aila; Roden, Michael; Surakka, Ida; Valdes, Ana M; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Thorand, Barbara; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Kaprio, Jaakko; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL. PMID:25064619

  16. ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.

    2010-02-05

    The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

  17. Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 18–65?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35?±?6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

  18. Tumor-Specific Urinary MMP Fingerprinting: Identification of High Molecular Weight Urinary MMP Species

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Roopali; Louis, Gwendolyn; Loughlin, Kevin R.; Wiederschain, Dmitri; Kilroy, Susan M.; Lamb, Carolyn C.; Zurakowski, David; Moses, Marsha A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We have previously reported that MMP-2, MMP-9 and the complex MMP-9/NGAL can be detected in urine of patients with a variety of cancers including prostate and bladder carcinoma. In addition, we also detected several unidentified urinary gelatinase activities with molecular weights >125kDa. The objective of the current study was to identify these high molecular weight (HMW) species, determine their potential as predictors of disease status and ask whether a tumor-specific pattern existed based on urinary MMP (uMMP) analysis. Experimental Design Chromatography, zymography and mass spectrometry was used to identify HMW gelatinase species of ?140, 190 and >220kDa in urine of cancer patients. To determine whether a tumor-specific pattern of appearance existed among the MMPs detected, we analyzed the urine of 189 patients with prostate or bladder cancer and controls. Results The ?140, >220kDa and ?190 HMW gelatinase species were identified as MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, MMP-9 dimer and ADAMTS-7 respectively. The frequency of detection of any MMP species was significantly higher in urine from prostate and bladder cancer groups than controls. MMP-9 dimer and MMP-9 were independent predictors for distinguishing between patients with prostate or bladder cancer (P<0.001 for each) by multivariable analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to identify a tumor-specific uMMP fingerprint that may noninvasively facilitate identification of cancer presence and type. This information may be of diagnostic and prognostic value in the detection and/or clinical monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic efficacy in patients with bladder or prostate cancer. PMID:18927302

  19. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Rosario, Fredrick J.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPAR? signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  20. Serum Adiponectin and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Moreno, Lorena; Lamacchia, Olga; Copetti, Massimiliano; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Cignarelli, Mauro; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Menzaghi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    High serum adiponectin has been increased in several conditions of kidney disease. Only sparse and conflicting results have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a subgroup of individuals who are at high risk for renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to fill up this gap of knowledge by investigating such association in a large sample of Italian diabetic patients. The association between serum adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration CKD-EPI equation) was investigated in 1,243 patients with T2D from two cross-sectional Italian studies: 878 from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR) and 365 from Foggia (FG). Serum adiponectin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [? (standard error, SE) for 1 standard deviation (SD) of adiponectin = -3.26 (0.64)] and in FG [?(SE)=-5.70(1.28)] sample, as well as in the two studies combined [?(SE)=-3.99(0.59)];(p<0.0001 for all). In this combined analysis, the association was still significant after adjusting for sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatments [? (SE)= -2.19 (0.59), p = 0.0001]. A stronger association between each SD adiponectin increment and low eGFR was observed among patients with micro-/macro-albuminuria, as compared to those with normo-albuminuria [adjusted ?(SE)=-4.42(1.16) ml/min/1.73m2 vs. -1.50 (0.67) ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; p for adiponectin-by-albuminuric status = 0.022]. For each adiponectin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 increased by 41% (odds ratio, OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.21–1.64) in SGR sample, 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.21–1.94) in FG sample, and 44% (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.27–1.64) in the two studies considered together (p<0.0001 for all). In the combined sample, further adjustment for the above mentioned covariates did not change the observed association (OR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.16–1.60; p<0.0001). Our study, so far the largest addressing the relationship between serum adiponectin and GFR in T2D, strongly suggests that the paradoxical inverse association, previously reported in different clinical sets, is also observed in diabetic patients. Further studies are needed to unravel the biology underlying this counterintuitive relationship. PMID:26465607

  1. Heme Oxygenase (HO-1) Rescue of Adipocyte Dysfunction in HO-2 Deficient Mice via Recruitment of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Angela P.H.; Vanella, Luca; Bellner, Lars; Gotlinger, Katherine; Falck, John R.; Abraham, Nader G.; Schwartzman, Michal L.; Kappas, Attallah

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims HO-1 and EETs are functionally linked and their interactions influence body weight, insulin sensitivity, and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in metabolic syndrome phenotype of HO-2 null mice. The HO-2 isozyme is essential for regulating physiological levels of ROS. Recent studies have suggested a potential role of EET in modifying adipocyte differentiation through up-regulation of HO-1-adiponectin-AkT signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our aim was to examine the consequences of HO deficiency on MSC-derived adipogenesis in vitro using MSC derived from HO-2 null and WT mice in vivo. Methods Four-month-old HO-2 null (HO-2?/?) and B6/129SF2/J (WT) mice were divided into three groups (four mice/group): WT, HO-2?/?, and HO-2?/? +CoPP. Adipogenesis was performed on purified MSC-derived adipocytes cultured in adipogenic differentiation media and an EET-agonist was added every 3 days. Results HO-2 depletion of MSC adipocytes resulted in increased adipogenesis (p<0.01) and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines including (TNF)-alpha (p<0.05), (MCP)-1 (p<0.05), and (IL-1)-beta (p<0.05). These results were accompanied by decreases in HO-1 (p<0.05) and subsequently EET and HO activity (p<0.05). Up-regulation of HO-1 resulted in decreased MSC-derived adipocyte differentiation, decreased production of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 and increased levels of adiponectin (p<0.05). Cyp2J5 (p<0.05), HO-1 (p<0.05), and adiponectin mRNA levels (p<0.05) were also decreased in visceral adipose tissue isolated from HO-2 null compared to WT mice. EET agonist stimulation of MSC adipocytes derived from HO-2 null mice yielded similar results. Conclusion Increased levels of EET and HO-1 are essential for protection against the adverse effects of adipocyte hypertrophy and the ensuing metabolic syndrome. These results offer a portal into therapeutic approaches for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22415079

  2. Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Susceptibility and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ahasic, Amy M.; Zhao, Yang; Su, Li; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined for relationships with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and to circulating adipokine levels, but many gaps in knowledge remain. The current study aims to assess the association between potentially functional polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) risk and mortality. Methods Consecutive patients with risk factors for ARDS admitted to the ICU were enrolled and followed prospectively for development of ARDS. ARDS cases were followed through day 60 for all-cause mortality. 2067 patients were successfully genotyped using the Illumina CVD BeadChip high-density platform. Of these, 567 patients developed ARDS. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were successfully genotyped. Of these, 9 SNPs were hypothesized to be functional based on their location (promoter, exon, or 3? untranslated region). These 9 SNPs were analyzed for association with ARDS case status and mortality among ARDS cases. Results After multivariable analysis and adjustment for multiple comparisons, no SNPs were significantly associated with ARDS case status. Among ARDS cases, homozygotes for the minor allele of rs2082940 (ADIPOQ) had increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.36–5.00, p?=?0.0039) after adjustment for significant covariates. The significance of this association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons (FDR_q?=?0.029). Conclusions A common and potentially functional polymorphism in ADIPOQ may impact survival in ARDS. Further studies are required to replicate these results and to correlate genotype with circulating adiponectin levels. PMID:24586568

  3. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  4. Relationship of Caffeine with Adiponectin and Blood Sugar Levels in Subjects with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhaktha, Geetha; Mayya, Shreemathi; Shantaram, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coffee though not usually thought of as healthy food but can be treated as one of the beneficial drink. Many researchers have found strong evidence that coffee reduces the risk of several serious ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, etc. The long term beneficial effect of coffee on diabetes is now understood to be more influential and obliging. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 220 healthy subjects of which 143 consumed coffee and 77 did not. These were matched with 90 diabetic subjects. Among the 90 diabetics, 48 consumed coffee and 42 did not consume coffee. Results: The mean adiponectin value was significantly higher in coffee consumed normal and diabetic subjects than the subjects who did not consume coffee. The decrease in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c values were also observed in normal and diabetic subjects who consumed coffee than the other groups who did not consume coffee. Significant difference (p<0.05) in mean FBG, PPBS, HbA1c and adiponectin were observed between coffee consumed and no coffee consumed groups. Conclusion: The long term use of caffeine is more efficient on blood sugar and adiponectin levels, which needed in the prevention of complications in diabetic subjects. PMID:25737971

  5. Rutin Stimulates Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Chung, Choon Hee; Choi, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Rutin is aflavonoid, which is found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce blood glucose and increase insulin levels in diabetic rats. In the present study, the authors aimed to elucidate the molecular basis for the observed antidiabetic activity using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures. The treatment of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with rutin at concentrations of 3, 10, 30 and 100 µM significantly increased lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein. Furthermore, rutin at concentrations of 10, 30 and 100 µM increased adiponectin mRNA expression together with stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. These results indicate that the stimulatory effect of rutin on adipocyte differentiation likely occurs through up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and downstream adipocyte-specific gene expression. Such effects of rutin on adiponectin secretion and adipocyte activity may account for, at least in part, the antidiabetic effects of consumption of food containing rutin. PMID:26387381

  6. Serum Levels of Resistin, Adiponectin, and Apelin in Gastroesophageal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Markocka-M?czka, Krystyna; Szelachowski, Piotr; Grabowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Material and Methods. Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients. Results. Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed. Conclusions. Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:25049439

  7. Cytokine secretion by human adipocytes is differentially regulated by adiponectin, AICAR, and troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Sell, Henrike; Dietze-Schroeder, Daniela; Eckardt, Kristin; Eckel, Jürgen

    2006-05-12

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ producing a variety of cytokines and chemokines, which may be involved in the deregulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as in the inflammatory state observed in obesity. We have shown previously that differentiated human adipocytes secrete a variety of cytokines which are able to induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, the regulation of these factors by anti-diabetic drugs has remained mainly undefined. Secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1alpha/beta, and MCP-1 by adipocytes was found to be downregulated by adiponectin. In parallel to adiponectin, the AMPK activator AICAR also decreased the secretion of most of the measured cytokines including IL-6 and MIP-1alpha/beta but not IL-8. In contrast, the thiazolidinedione troglitazone only slightly reduced cytokine secretion despite increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK. In conclusion, we show that adipocyte secretion is strongly inhibited by the anti-diabetic adipocyte hormone adiponectin, an effect that can also be mimicked by the AMPK activator AICAR. However, the PPARgamma agonist troglitazone is much less effective in reducing cytokine secretion. PMID:16563350

  8. Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Results T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = ?0.12 and r = ?0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = ?0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. Conclusions These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. PMID:23592672

  9. ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 Polymorphisms in Relation to Serum Adiponectin Levels and Body Mass Index in Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Gammon, Marilie D.; North, Kari E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Lange, Ethan M.; Williams, Scott M.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein with influence on several physiologic pathways including those related to insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Adiponectin levels are highly heritable and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined in relation to circulating adiponectin levels and obesity phenotypes, but despite differences in adiponectin levels and obesity prevalence by race, few studies have included black participants. Using cross-sectional interview data and blood samples collected from 990 black and 977 white women enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study from 2002 to 2006, we examined 25 SNPs in ADIPOQ, 19 in ADIPOR1, and 27 in ADIPOR2 in relation to serum adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI) using race-stratified linear regression models adjusted for age and percentage African ancestry. SNP rs17366568 in ADIPOQ was significantly associated with serum adiponectin levels in white women only (adjusted mean adiponectin levels = 15.9 for G/G genotype, 13.7 for A/G, and 9.3 for A/A, p=0.00036). No other SNPs were associated with adiponectin or BMI among blacks or whites. Because adiponectin levels as well as obesity are highly heritable and vary by race but associations with polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 genes have been few in this and other studies, future work including large populations from diverse racial groups is needed to detect additional genetic variants that influence adiponectin and BMI. PMID:21273992

  10. Association of fetuin A, adiponectin, interleukin 10 and total antioxidant capacity with IVF outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Mustafa; Donma, Orkide; Yildizfer, Ferdag; Ekmekci, Ozlem; Asli Karatas Kul, Z; Esat Imal, A; Keser, Zafer; Cagil, Emin; Mengi, Murat; Ekmekci, Hakan; Sahmay, Sezai; Donma, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Possible roles of anti-inflammatory factors as well as total antioxidative capacity in reproductive processes of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are still being investigated and the contributions by some of them remain controversial. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between anti-inflammatory parameters and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) of the body during IVF. In this respect, adiponectin, interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), fetuin A and TAC analyses have been performed. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, non-randomized, controlled clinical study, sera obtained from 26 fertile (Group-1), and 26 infertile women before (Group-2) and after (Group-3) IVF treatment were analyzed. IL-1RA, IL-10, fetuin A, adiponectin and insulin were determined by ELISA. TAC was determined spectrophotometrically. Mann-Whitney U test, paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test as well as Pearson correlation analysis by SPSS were performed for statistical analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were determined as 30.8% and 23.1%, respectively, in pregnant group. For the pregnant, significant indirect correlations were detected between fetuin A and adiponectin (r=-0.843; p=0.035) as well as IL-10 (r=-0.846; p=0.034) in Group 2. The correlation between adiponectin and IL-10 doubled in pregnant compared to non-pregnant (r=0.929; p=0.007 vs. r=0.478; p=0.033). The correlations between fetuin A and TAC in pregnant were noted both in Group 2 (r=0.892; p=0.017) and Group 3 (r=0.875; p=0.022). No correlation of fetuin A with these parameters was detected in non-pregnant group. Conclusion: Fetuin A, TAC, IL-10, adiponectin and their associations may be important from their predictive values for IVF success point of view. Parameters with anti-inflammatory or antioxidant property appear to improve pregnancy in women undergoing IVF. PMID:25709630

  11. Chlorogenic Acid Improves Late Diabetes through Adiponectin Receptor Signaling Pathways in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shasha; Chang, Cuiqing; Zhang, Lantao; Liu, Yang; Huang, Xianren; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on glucose and lipid metabolism in late diabetic db/db mice, as well as on adiponectin receptors and their signaling molecules, to provide evidence for CGA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We randomly divided 16 female db/db mice into db/db-CGA and db/db-control (CON) groups equally; db/m mice were used as control mice. The mice in both the db/db-CGA and db/m-CGA groups were administered 80 mg/kg/d CGA by lavage for 12 weeks, whereas the mice in both CON groups were given equal volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by lavage. At the end of the intervention, we assessed body fat and the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in the plasma, liver and skeletal muscle tissues as well as the levels of aldose reductase (AR) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in the kidneys and measured adiponectin receptors and the protein expression of their signaling molecules in liver and muscle tissues. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared with the db/db-CON group, the percentage of body fat, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the db/db-CGA group were all significantly decreased; TGF-?1 protein expression and AR activity in the kidney were both decreased; and the adiponectin level in visceral adipose was increased. The protein expression of adiponectin receptors (ADPNRs), the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver and muscle, and the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-?) in the liver were all significantly greater. CGA could lower the levels of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during late diabetes and improve kidney fibrosis to some extent through the modulation of adiponectin receptor signaling pathways in db/db mice. PMID:25849026

  12. Competitive stereocomplexation, homocrystallization, and polymorphic crystalline transition in poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(D-lactic acid) racemic blends: molecular weight effects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pengju; Han, Lili; Bao, Jianna; Xie, Qing; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong

    2015-05-28

    Competitive crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and transition of poly(l-lactic acid)/poly(d-lactic acid) (PLLA/PDLA) racemic blends with a wide range of molecular weights (MWs) were symmetrically investigated. Stereocomplex (sc) crystallites are exclusively formed in the low-MW racemic blends. However, stereocomplexation is remarkably depressed, and homocrystallization becomes prevailing with increasing MWs of PLLA and PDLA. Suppressed stereocomplexation in high-MW (HMW) racemic blends is proposed to be due to the low chain diffusion ability and restricted intermolecular crystal nucleation/growth. Equilibrium melting point of sc crystallites first increases and then decreases as MW increases. Crystallinity and relative fraction of sc crystallites in racemic blends enhance with crystallization temperature (Tc), and the sc crystallites are merely formed at Tc > 170 °C because of their higher thermodynamic stability. In situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis reveals that the stereocomplexation and homocrystallization are successive rather than completely simultaneous, and the stereocomplexation is preceding homocrystallization in isothermal crystallization of HMW racemic blends. Both initial crystalline structure of homocrystallites (hc) and MW influence the heating-induced hc-to-sc transition of HMW racemic blend drastically; the hc-to-sc transition becomes easier with decreasing Tc and MW. After crystallization at the same temperature, sc crystallites show smaller long period than their hc counterparts. PMID:25940864

  13. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

  14. Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2013-10-01

    In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, ?13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

  15. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Colado Simão, Andréa Name; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ? 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ? 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ? 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  16. Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Aged Male Adiponectin Knockout Mice Is Associated With Autophagy Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jahng, James Won Suk; Turdi, Subat; Kovacevic, Vera; Dadson, Keith; Li, Ren-Ke; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, especially in the elderly or obese and diabetic populations. Various remodeling events have been characterized, which collectively contribute to the progression of heart failure. Of particular interest, autophagy has recently emerged as an important determinant of cardiac remodeling and function. Here, we used aged, 13-month-old, male adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) or wild-type (wt) mice subjected to aortic banding to induce pressure overload (PO). Cardiac strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography indicated significant dysfunction at an earlier stage in Ad-KO than wt. Analysis of autophagy by Western blotting for Light Chain 3 or microtubule-associated proteins 1B and Sequestosome 1 together with transmission electron microscopy of left ventricular tissue indicated a lack of PO-induced cardiac autophagy in Ad-KO compared with wt mice. Associated with this was mitochondrial degeneration and evidence of enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Western blotting for Light Chain 3 or microtubule-associated proteins 1B, examination of flux using tandem fluoresent tagged-Light Chain 3, and analysis of lysosomal activity in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts treated with adiponectin indicated that adiponectin enhanced autophagy flux. In conclusion, adiponectin directly stimulates autophagic flux and the lack of autophagy in response to PO in aged mice lacking adiponectin may contribute to cellular events which exacerbate the development of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25961840

  17. Valsartan increases circulating adiponectin levels without changing HOMA-IR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-M; Kim, J-H; Son, H-S; Hong, E-G; Yu, J-M; Han, K-A; Min, K-W; Chang, S-A

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating increasing circulating adiponectin levels is becoming an important strategy in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan on blood adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes and mild-to-moderate hypertension. A total of 91 Korean patients were treated with 80 mg/day valsartan for 4 weeks followed by 160 mg/day for a further 8 weeks. Blood pressure, adiponectin levels and metabolic parameters were measured before and after treatment. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as an insulin sensitivity index. Valsartan significantly decreased mean blood pressure and increased circulating adiponectin levels. There were no differences in metabolic parameters, including HOMA-IR, glycosylated haemoglobin and lipid levels before and after treatment. These results indicated that valsartan increases circulating adiponectin levels, but does not change insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes and mild-to-moderate hypertension. PMID:20233535

  18. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280??M) or 10x (700??M) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them. PMID:25978545

  19. Weight Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. Eating too much or not being physically active enough will make you overweight. To maintain your weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories ...

  20. Relatively high levels of serum adiponectin in obese women, a potential indicator of anti-inflammatory dysfunction: Relation to sex hormone-binding globulin

    PubMed Central

    Onat, Altan; Hergenç, Gülay; Dursuno?lu, Dursun; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Bulur, Serkan; Can, Günay

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether serum adiponectin concentrations diminish linearly with increasing adiposity and, if not, which factors codetermine this association. These issues were investigated cross-sectionally in 1188 men and women, representative of middle-aged and elderly Turkish adults. Serum total adiponectin was assayed by ELISA. Serum adiponectin values in men, though declining significantly in transition from the bottom to the mid tertile of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), were similar in the two respective upper tertiles. In women, serum adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in any tertile of these indices, were significantly correlated with BMI or WC within the low tertiles and not within the two higher tertiles. In a linear regression analysis for WC (or BMI) in a subset of the sample in which serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was available and which additionally comprised adiponectin, fasting insulin and other confounders, only insulin and, in women SHBG, were significantly associated, but not adiponectin. In linear regression analyses for covariates of adiponectin in two models comprising 12 variables, insulin and SHBG concentrations were significantly associated in both genders though not BMI. Whereas in men HDL-cholesterol and CRP were covariates of adiponectin (both p<0.01), SHBG and apolipoprotein B positively associated in women (p<0.001), independent of BMI and fasting insulin levels. Conclusions: Relationship between excess adiposity and adiponectin levels is inconsistent in Turkish adults. Independently from obesity and hyperinsulinemia, serum adiponectin discloses significant relationship with inflammatory markers and HDL only in men, not in women in whom it is influenced by SHBG, with consequent attenuation of its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:18695734

  1. Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Baoying; Lam, Karen S.L.; Wang Yu; Wu Donghai; Lam, Michael C.; Shen Jiangang; Wong Laiching; Hoo, Ruby L.C.; Zhang Jialiang; Xu Aimin . E-mail: amxu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2006-03-10

    Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP{alpha}), but had no effect on HIF-1{alpha}, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1{alpha} and decreased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, but not PPAR{gamma}. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Additive Regulation of Adiponectin Expression by the Mediterranean Diet Olive Oil Components Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-?. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 ?mol/L OA, 0.1-20 ?mol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-?. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-?-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-? alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-? alone). HT and OA also prevented—by 35%—TNF-?-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR?. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPAR? expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPAR? suppression by TNF-?, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-?-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPAR? suppression. PMID:26030149

  3. Additive regulation of adiponectin expression by the mediterranean diet olive oil components oleic Acid and hydroxytyrosol in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-?. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 ?mol/L OA, 0.1-20 ?mol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-?. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-?-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-? alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-? alone). HT and OA also prevented-by 35%-TNF-?-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR?. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPAR? expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPAR? suppression by TNF-?, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-?-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPAR? suppression. PMID:26030149

  4. Myofibroblasts in Murine Cutaneous Fibrosis Originate From Adiponectin-Positive Intradermal Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Roberta Goncalves; Korman, Benjamin D.; Wei, Jun; Wood, Tammara A.; Graham, Lauren V.; Whitfield, Michael L.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Tourtellotte, Warren G.; Varga, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of myofibroblasts in fibrotic skin is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), but the origins of these cells remain unknown. Because loss of intradermal adipose tissue is a consistent feature of cutaneous fibrosis, we sought to examine the hypothesis that myofibroblasts populating fibrotic dermis derive from adipocytic progenitors. Methods We performed genetic fate mapping studies to investigate the loss of intradermal adipose tissue and its potential role in fibrosis in mice with bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Modulation of adipocytic phenotypes ex vivo was investigated in adipose tissue–derived cells in culture. Results A striking loss of intradermal adipose tissue and its replacement with fibrous tissue were consistently observed in mice with bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Loss of adipose tissue and a decline in the expression of canonical adipogenic markers in lesional skin preceded the onset of dermal fibrosis and expression of fibrogenic markers. Ex vivo, subcutaneous adipocytes were driven by transforming growth factor ? to preferentially undergo fibrogenic differentiation. Cell fate mapping studies in mice with the adiponectin promoter–driven Cre recombinase transgenic construct indicated that adiponectin-positive progenitors that are normally confined to the intradermal adipose tissue compartment were distributed throughout the lesional dermis over time, lost their adipocytic markers, and expressed myofibroblast markers in bleomycin-treated mice. Conclusion These observations establish a novel link between intradermal adipose tissue loss and dermal fibrosis and demonstrate that adiponectin-positive intradermal progenitors give rise to dermal myofibroblasts. Adipose tissue loss and adipocyte–myofibroblast transition might be primary events in the pathogenesis of cutaneous fibrosis that represent novel potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25504959

  5. Smoking and Diabetes: Is the Association Mediated by Adiponectin, Leptin, or C-reactive Protein?

    PubMed Central

    Hilawe, Esayas Haregot; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Li, Yuanying; Uemura, Mayu; Wang, Chaochen; Chiang, Chifa; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Zhang, Yan; Kawazoe, Nobuo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between cigarette smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes is well established, its mechanisms are yet to be clarified. This study examined the possible mediating effects of adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on the smoking-diabetes association. Methods Between 2002 and 2011, we followed 3338 Japanese workers, aged 35–66 years, who were enrolled in the second Aichi workers’ cohort study. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to determine the hazard ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between smoking status and risk of diabetes. A multiple mediation model with bootstrapping was used to estimate the magnitude and the respective bias-corrected (BC) 95% CIs of the indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through the three biomarkers. Results Relative to never smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly elevated in current (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.25–2.46) and ex-smokers (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.22). The indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through adiponectin levels were statistically significant among light (point estimate 0.033, BC 95% CI 0.005–0.082), moderate (point estimate 0.044, BC 95% CI 0.010–0.094), and heavy smokers (point estimate 0.054, BC 95% CI 0.013–0.113). In contrast, neither the indirect effects of smoking on diabetes through leptin nor CRP levels were significant, as the corresponding BC 95% CIs included zero. Conclusions In our analysis, adiponectin concentration appeared to partially mediate the effect of smoking on diabetes, while leptin and CRP levels did not. PMID:25400076

  6. Determination of the number of cysteine residues in high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin.

    PubMed

    Morel, M H; Bonicel, J

    1996-03-01

    A simple method allowing the determination of the number of cysteine residues of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) is presented. The method was adapted from that of Creighton (T. E. Creighton, Nature 1980, 2840, 487-489) with modified reagents for alkylation of the cysteine residues and the electrophoretic system. The acid-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) method, developed by Morel (M. H. Morel, Cereal Chem. 1994, 713, 238-242), was adopted and mixtures of iodoacetic acid and 4-vinylpyridine were used to alkylate the glutenin subunits. The accuracy of the method was checked with some HMW-GS whose number of cysteine residues was already known from molecular biology approaches. In subunits 5*, 2.2, 2.2* and 4.1 (of Dx types) from cultivars Ben and Fiorello, MG 7249, MG 315, and Kador, respectively, only 4 cysteine residues were demonstrated. Subunit 20 was found to exist as a regular Bx and By subunit pair, with the Bx subunit containing only 2 cysteine residues, which is unusual. PMID:8740165

  7. Adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a close linkage with obesity and length of the disease.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Susana; Brandão Proença, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Neuparth, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and aging are closely associated and adipokines seem to have a crucial role in their pathophysiology. We aim to study the relationship between aging and chemerin, adiponectin, and leptin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Age correlated positively with chemerin and leptin and inversely with adiponectin. Body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with leptin (in males) and chemerin and inversely with adiponectin. The patients with ? 65 years (n = 34) showed significantly higher leptin and chemerin and lower adiponectin levels than middle-aged (38-64 years) patients (n = 39) and controls (n = 20). After statistical adjustment for length of disease, there was a loss of significance, between T2DM groups, for adiponectin and, in female, for leptin. In the older group, BMI correlated with adiponectin and with leptin, but not with chemerin. Adiponectin and leptin levels in elderly T2DM patients seem to be closely linked to obesity and to length of the disease. In elderly T2DM patients, chemerin concentrations are increased and seem to be independent of length of disease and BMI, suggesting that adipocyte dysfunction is enhanced with aging. The understanding of the glucose homeostasis impairment in the elderly is mandatory in order to achieve ways to improve their quality of life and longevity. PMID:25105135

  8. Adiponectin, Leptin, and Chemerin in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Close Linkage with Obesity and Length of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandão Proença, Jorge; Neuparth, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and aging are closely associated and adipokines seem to have a crucial role in their pathophysiology. We aim to study the relationship between aging and chemerin, adiponectin, and leptin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Age correlated positively with chemerin and leptin and inversely with adiponectin. Body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with leptin (in males) and chemerin and inversely with adiponectin. The patients with ?65 years (n = 34) showed significantly higher leptin and chemerin and lower adiponectin levels than middle-aged (38–64 years) patients (n = 39) and controls (n = 20). After statistical adjustment for length of disease, there was a loss of significance, between T2DM groups, for adiponectin and, in female, for leptin. In the older group, BMI correlated with adiponectin and with leptin, but not with chemerin. Adiponectin and leptin levels in elderly T2DM patients seem to be closely linked to obesity and to length of the disease. In elderly T2DM patients, chemerin concentrations are increased and seem to be independent of length of disease and BMI, suggesting that adipocyte dysfunction is enhanced with aging. The understanding of the glucose homeostasis impairment in the elderly is mandatory in order to achieve ways to improve their quality of life and longevity. PMID:25105135

  9. in vitro Anti-Proliferative Effect of Adiponectin on Human Endometriotic Stromal Cells through AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 Gene Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bohlouli, Somayeh; Rabzia, Arezou; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Chobsaz, Farzaneh; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a complex disorder in reproductive age women which consist of stromal and epithelial cells implantation outside the uterine cavity. Adiponectin is a member of cytokine family with various metabolic roles and proliferation inhibition of many cancer cells. The aim of the present research was to determine adiponectin effect on human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) proliferation and their expression of adiponectin receptors. Methods: In this experimental study, endometrial biopsies (n=7) were taken. ESCs isolation was done by enzymatic digestion and cell filtrations. ESCs of each biopsy were divided into four groups: 0 (control), 10, 100, and 200 ng/ml adiponectin concentrations in three different times (24, 48, or 72 h). The effect of adiponectin on ESC viability and expression of mRNA Adipo receptor1 (R1) and Adipo receptor2 (R2) was determined by Trypan blue staining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and unpaired student’s t-test, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Adiponectin inhibited human endometriotic stromal cell proliferation in time- and dose-dependent manners significantly (P=0.001). Expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene receptors was increased in human ESCs significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Adiponectin can suppress endometriosis by inhibiting ESC proliferation and increased AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression. PMID:26459399

  10. Analysis of adiponectin gene polymorphisms in Chinese population with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen Liang; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yan Yun; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic systemic autoimmune disease. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine with anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antiatherogenic properties. No study has reported on the association between adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and SLE. Our aim is to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ gene and SLE. We examined 179 SLE patients and 237 age- and gender-matched controls from Sichuan province in China. Genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Results show that there was no significant difference in the allele frequencies of rs1501299 (P = .311, OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.86-1.59) and rs2241766 (P = .929, OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.74-1.33) in ADIPOQ gene between SLE patients and controls. The same results were seen in their genotypes (P < .05). The allele frequencies of rs1501299 and rs2241766 polymorphisms of ADIPOQ may not be associated with SLE risk. PMID:20414354

  11. A microfluidic interface for the culture and sampling of adiponectin from primary adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Leah A; Brooks, Jessica C; Hoepfner, Lauren D; Wanders, Desiree; Judd, Robert L; Easley, Christopher J

    2015-02-21

    Secreted from adipose tissue, adiponectin is a vital endocrine hormone that acts in glucose metabolism, thereby establishing its crucial role in diabetes, obesity, and other metabolic disease states. Insulin exposure to primary adipocytes cultured in static conditions has been shown to stimulate adiponectin secretion. However, conventional, static methodology for culturing and stimulating adipocytes falls short of truly mimicking physiological environments. Along with decreases in experimental costs and sample volume, and increased temporal resolution, microfluidic platforms permit small-volume flowing cell culture systems, which more accurately represent the constant flow conditions through vasculature in vivo. Here, we have integrated a customized primary tissue culture reservoir into a passively operated microfluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fabrication of the reservoir was accomplished through unique PDMS "landscaping" above sampling channels, with a design strategy targeted to primary adipocytes to overcome issues of positive cell buoyancy. This reservoir allowed three-dimensional culture of primary murine adipocytes, accurate control over stimulants via constant perfusion, and sampling of adipokine secretion during various treatments. As the first report of primary adipocyte culture and sampling within microfluidic systems, this work sets the stage for future studies in adipokine secretion dynamics. PMID:25423362

  12. Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinsong; Cai, Weimei; Yang, Qinghui; Lu, Zhihong; Yu, Jian; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Na; Sun, Deyu; Qu, Yanli; Guo, Hong; Wen, Fengyun; Ji, Yinghua

    2015-01-01

    Background This meta-analysis investigates the associations of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genetic polymorphisms with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Material/Methods 2 reviewers independently searched 6 databases – PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases – to identify published studies relevant to adiponectin gene polymorphisms and CRC. Studies retrieved from database searches were screened using our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full texts of the selected studies were accessed and related data was extracted using a standardized data extraction form. Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software was used for statistical analyses. Results A total of 188 studies were initially retrieved from database search, and 6 studies were eventually selected, through a rigorous screening process, for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The 6 studies contained a total of 1897 patients (Asians: 1190; white: 707) with CRC in case group and 2475 healthy controls (Asians: 1325; white: 1150) in the control group. Results of the current meta-analysis revealed that the rs2241766 T>G single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) increase the risk of CRC; rs1501299 G>T under dominant model was associated with increased risk of CRC; and rs266729 C>G SNP under allele model conferred an increased risk of CRC. Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly suggests that the ADIPOQ rs2241766 T>G, rs1501299 G>T, and rs266729 C>G SNPs correlate with an increased risk of CRC. PMID:26329379

  13. Angiotensin II infusion decreases plasma adiponectin level via its type 1 receptor in rats: an implication for hypertension-related insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jianmin; Hirano, Tsutomu; Fukui, Tomoyasu; Saito, Kiyomi; Kageyama, Haruaki; Okada, Kenta; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2006-04-01

    We explored the mechanisms underlying the close association between hypertension and insulin resistance by measuring the changes in the plasma levels of adiponectin, a novel insulin sensitizer secreted by adipose tissue, in rats infused with angiotensin II (AII). Angiotensin II (100 ng/kg per minute) was subcutaneously infused with osmotic minipumps for 2 weeks in rats fed with either standard chow or a high-fructose diet. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was assessed by the minimal model of Bergman [Diabetes 1989;38:1512-27]. Angiotensin II infusion significantly increased blood pressure and decreased SI. Angiotensin II decreased plasma adiponectin levels from 3.7 to 2.9 microg/mL (P < .01) without affecting the expression of adiponectin messenger RNA in adipose tissue. Angiotensin II infusion did not affect plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. An AII type 1 receptor blocker, olmesartan, restored the low adiponectinemia induced by the AII infusion (50 ng/kg per minute). Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in fructose-fed rats (2.3 microg/mL) than in chow-fed rats. Angiotensin II induced no further decrease of adiponectin, whereas olmesartan increased adiponectin remarkably both with and without AII infusion. The AII type 2 receptor blocker PD123319 left the AII-induced hypoadiponectinemia unchanged in both chow- and fructose-fed rats. The AII type 2 receptor agonist CGP42112A also left the adiponectin unchanged. Plasma adiponectin levels were substantially correlated with SI (r = 0.61, P < .0001). These results suggest that AII suppresses adiponectin production via AII type 1 receptor, resulting in impaired insulin sensitivity. PMID:16546478

  14. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  15. Single particle characterization of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA): evidence for non-uniform mixing of high molecular weight organics and potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. K. Y.; Willis, M. D.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Wenger, J. C.; Evans, G. J.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-11-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of black carbon (BC) and primary organic aerosol globally. In particular, biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) is strongly associated with atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) that absorbs near ultraviolet and visible light, resulting in significant impacts on regional visibility degradation and radiative forcing. The mixing state of BBOA can play a critical role in the prediction of aerosol optical properties. In this work, single particle measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-SP-AMS) were performed to examine the mixing state of BBOA, refractory black carbon (rBC) and potassium (K+, a tracer for biomass burning aerosol) in an air mass influenced by aged biomass burning. Cluster analysis of single particle measurements identified five BBOA-related particle types. rBC accounted for 3-14 w.t. % of these particle types on average. Only one particle type exhibited a strong ion signal for K+, with mass spectra characterized by low molecular weight organic species. The remaining four particle types were classified based on the apparent molecular weight of the BBOA constituents. Two particle types were associated with low potassium content and significant amounts of high molecular weight (HMW) organic compounds. Our observations indicate non-uniform mixing of particles within a biomass burning plume in terms of molecular weight and illustrate that HMW BBOA can be a key contributor to low-volatility BrC observed in BBOA particles.

  16. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on insulin resistance and serum adiponectin concentration in rats with fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Miczke, Anna; Suliburska, Joanna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Jab?ecka, Anna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Skrypnik, Damian; Bogda?ski, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Object: The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with L-arginine, a substrate used in the production of nitric oxide, had an effect on adiponectin concentration in rats fed a high-fat diet. The influence of L-arginine on insulin resistance was also evaluated. Materials and methods: The experiment was performed using 36 Wistar rats divided into three groups: group 1 was fed a standard diet, group 2 a high-fat (HF) diet, group 3 a HF diet supplemented with L-arginine. After 42 days, serum levels of lipids, glucose, insulin, NO, and adiponectin were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Results: Body mass was equal in all 3 groups, at the beginning as well as at the end of the study, however, in group 2 the amount of visceral fat was greater after 42 days. In group 3, there was a tendency for visceral fat to decrease. An increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as a decrease in NO and adiponectin were seen in group 2, while in group 3, L-arginine supplementation ameliorated these disturbances. Conclusions: Our study shows that L-arginine supplementation in rats fed a HF diet is associated with an increase in insulin sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the underlying mechanism could be at least partially related to an increase in adiponectin concentration. PMID:26379826

  17. Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a,c,

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    . Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, anti- inflammatory hormone that is related to cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: 74 healthy adults (57% men, 63% African American, mean age 29.9 years) completed 2 nights that shorter sleep durations are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly among women

  18. ADIPONECTIN AND SELENIUM RICH DIET CAN ACT AS A COMPLIMENTARY MEDICINE IN THE TREATMENT OF INTESTINAL AND CHRONIC

    E-print Network

    ADIPONECTIN AND SELENIUM RICH DIET CAN ACT AS A COMPLIMENTARY MEDICINE IN THE TREATMENT, inadequate phagocytosis and antibody production. Colon insults by toxins and gut permeability also induce by APN or Se rich diet or both. The working hypothesis is that APN deficiency will decrease goblet cell

  19. Adiponectin Gene Variants are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (211391 G . A, 211377C.G, 45 T.G, and 276 G.T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat...

  20. Adiponectin, a downstream target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, controls hepatitis B virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sarah; Jung, Jaesung; Kim, Taeyeung; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin

    2011-01-20

    In this study, HepG2-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-stable cells that did not overexpress HBx and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells were analyzed for their expression of HBV-induced, upregulated adipogenic and lipogenic genes. The mRNAs of CCAAT enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), adiponectin, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were expressed at higher levels in HepG2-HBV and lamivudine-treated stable cells and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells than in the HepG2 cells. Lamivudine treatment reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha}. Conversely, HBV replication was upregulated by adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone treatments and was downregulated by adiponectin siRNAs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HBV replication and/or protein expression, even in the absence of HBx, upregulated adipogenic or lipogenic genes, and that the control of adiponectin might prove useful as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  1. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group (n?=?49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n?=?46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease (p?adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However, it remains to be clarified which of the mechanisms of action of MBT may have determined the changes in serum levels of adiponectin and resistin that we observed. PMID:25750093

  2. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease ( p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients ( p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However, it remains to be clarified which of the mechanisms of action of MBT may have determined the changes in serum levels of adiponectin and resistin that we observed.

  3. Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p?=?0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p?=?0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p?=?0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: ?0.002–0.008, p?=?0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

  4. Proteogenomic Characterization of Novel x-Type High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1.1

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Faye, Annie; Dardevet, Mireille; Ravel, Catherine; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of Portuguese wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landrace ‘Barbela’ revealed the existence of a new x-type high molecular weight-glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) encoded at the Glu-A1 locus, which we named 1Ax1.1. Using one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we compared subunit 1Ax1.1 with other subunits encoded at the Glu-A1 locus. Subunit 1Ax1.1 has a theoretical molecular weight of 93,648 Da (or 91,508 Da for the mature protein) and an isoelectric point (pI) of about 5.7, making it the largest and most acidic HMW-GS known to be encoded at Glu-A1. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence 2601 bp of the Glu-A1 locus from the ‘Barbela 28’ wheat genome. A very high level of identity was found between the sequence encoding 1Ax1.1 and those encoding other alleles of the locus. The major difference found was an insertion of 36 amino acids in the central repetitive domain. PMID:23478438

  5. CB1R antagonist increases hepatic insulin clearance in fat-fed dogs likely via upregulation of liver adiponectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Morvarid; Iyer, Malini S; Richey, Joyce M; Woolcott, Orison O; Asare Bediako, Isaac; Wu, Qiang; Kim, Stella P; Stefanovski, Darko; Kolka, Cathryn M; Hsu, Isabel R; Catalano, Karyn J; Chiu, Jenny D; Ionut, Viorica; Bergman, Richard N

    2015-10-15

    The improvement of hepatic insulin sensitivity by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (RIM) has been recently been reported to be due to upregulation of adiponectin. Several studies demonstrated that improvement in insulin clearance accompanies the enhancement of hepatic insulin sensitivity. However, the effects of RIM on hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism(s) by which RIM affects HIC, specifically to determine whether upregulation of liver adiponectin receptors (ADRs) and other key genes regulated by adiponectin mediate the effects. To induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, dogs were fed a hypercaloric high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 wk. Thereafter, while still maintained on a HFD, animals received RIM (HFD+RIM; n = 11) or placebo (HFD+PL; n = 9) for an additional 16 wk. HIC, calculated as the metabolic clearance rate (MCR), was estimated from the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The HFD+PL group showed a decrease in MCR; in contrast, the HFD+RIM group increased MCR. Consistently, the expression of genes involved in HIC, CEACAM-1 and IDE, as well as gene expression of liver ADRs, were increased in the HFD+RIM group, but not in the HFD+PL group. We also found a positive correlation between CEACAM-1 and the insulin-degrading enzyme IDE with ADRs. Interestingly, expression of liver genes regulated by adiponectin and involved in lipid oxidation were increased in the HFD+RIM group. We conclude that in fat-fed dogs RIM enhances HIC, which appears to be linked to an upregulation of the adiponectin pathway. PMID:26306598

  6. Serum adiponectin and leptin in relation to risk for preeclampsia: results from a large case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Dalamaga, Maria; Srinivas, Sindhu K.; Elovitz, Michal A.; Chamberland, John; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Conditions resulting in insulin resistance, as well as metabolic, immune and angiogenic perturbations, have been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (PE). Our purpose was to assess whether the adipose tissue secreted hormones: adiponectin, which has immune modulating, metabolic and angiogenic properties, and leptin, which reflects overall fat mass, are associated with PE risk. METHODS We performed a case-control design study within a hospital-based cohort of 368 pregnant women (106 with PE and 262 controls; mean age: 26.6 ± 6.8 years; mean gestational age at admission: 38.2 ± 2.8 weeks) between March 2005 and August 2007 at the Hospital of Pennsylvania University. Serum adiponectin and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of data was performed using simple and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS No significant differences in adiponectin or leptin levels between pre-eclamptic and control pregnant women emerged in univariate analyses (p=0.57 and p=0.15 respectively). Among pre-eclamptic women, there were also no differences in adipokines between those with mild and severe disease. Serum adiponectin and leptin were not associated with higher risk of PE before and after adjustment for maternal age, race, primigravida, smoking status, body mass index at screening, gestational age at admission, history of preeclampsia, chronic hypertension and gestational diabetes (OR: 0.93, 95% C.I.: 0.83–1.04 and OR: 1, 95% C.I.0.97–1.03, respectively). CONCLUSION Maternal serum adiponectin and leptin levels, drawn at the time of PE diagnosis, were not associated with PE. PMID:21632080

  7. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-01

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 ?g/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status. PMID:26481811

  8. Endocrine Determinants of Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion during a Weight Cycle in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, Judith; Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Müller, Manfred J.; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL) of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear. Methods In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2) followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF), 3wks of caloric restriction (CR) containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO) and 2wks of refeeding (RF) with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI), insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose) and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion) were assessed. Results IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05). Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05) whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05) and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only). After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant. Conclusion Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major endocrine determinants of IS, leptin/adiponectin-ratio and fT4 levels may impact changes in insulin secretion with weight cycling. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01737034 PMID:25723719

  9. Association of CDH13 Genotypes/Haplotypes with Circulating Adiponectin Levels, Metabolic Syndrome, and Related Metabolic Phenotypes: The Role of the Suppression Effect

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Hsu, Lung-An; Wu, Semon; Sun, Yu-Chen; Juan, Shu-Hui; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous genome-wide association studies have indicated an association between CDH13 genotypes and adiponectin levels. In this study, we used mediation analysis to assess the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels, metabolic syndrome, and related metabolic phenotypes. Methods and results A sample population of 530 Taiwanese participants was enrolled. Four CDH13 gene variants in the promoter and intron 1 regions were genotyped. After adjustment for clinical covariates, the CDH13 genotypes/haplotypes exhibited an association with the adiponectin levels (lowest P = 1.95 × 10?11 for rs4783244 and lowest P = 3.78 × 10?13 for haplotype ATTT). Significant correlations were observed between the adiponectin levels and the various metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes (all P ? 0.005). After further adjustment for the adiponectin levels, participants with a minor allele of rs12051272 revealed a considerable association with a more favorable metabolic profile, including higher insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower diastolic blood pressure, circulating levels of fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides, and as a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (all P < 0.05). The mediation analysis further revealed a suppression effect of the adiponectin levels on the association between CDH13 genotypes and metabolic syndrome and its related phenotypes (Sobel test; all P < 0.001). Conclusion The genetic polymorphisms at the CDH13 locus independently affect the adiponectin levels, whereas the adiponectin levels exhibit a suppressive effect on the association between CDH13 locus variants and various metabolic phenotypes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, these results provide further evidence of the association between the CDH13 gene variants and the risks of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:25875811

  10. Role of adiponectin and some other factors linking type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Because of the intimate association of obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), during the last two decades, extensive research work is being conducted to find out whether the coexistence of the two is a simple association or there is a positive correlating link between the two. In this article, an attempt has been made to collect and analyse the recent developments in this field and to arrive at a conclusion on the subject. The possible role of several important factors (obtained from adipocytes/not of adipocyte origin) in linking the two has been discussed in detail. Some of the agents, specifically adiponectin, are beneficial (i.e., reduce the incidence of both), while others are harmful (i.e., increase their incidence). From the analysis, it appears that obesity and T2DM are intimately linked. PMID:26557957

  11. Inter-relationships of the chronobiotic, melatonin, with leptin and adiponectin: implications for obesity.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk-Golec, Karolina; Wo?niak, Alina; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity and its medical complications represent a significant problem throughout the world. In recent decades, mechanisms underlying the progression of obesity have been intensively examined. The involvement of both the behavioral aspects, such as calorie-rich diet, low physical activity and sleep deprivation, and the intrinsic factors, including adipose tissue deregulation, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronodisruption, has been identified. The circadian disturbances of the adipose tissue endocrine function have been correlated with obesity. Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines strongly associated with glucose and lipid metabolism and with energy balance. Their synthesis and secretion display circadian rhythms that are disturbed in the obese state. Hyperleptinemia resulting in leptin resistance, and hypo-adiponectinemia have been linked to the pathophysiology of the obesity-related disorders. A deficiency of melatonin, one of the consequences of sleep deprivation, has also been demonstrated to correlate with obesity. Melatonin is a pineal secretory product involved in numerous actions, such as regulation of internal biological clocks and energy metabolism, and it functions as an antioxidant and as an anti-inflammatory agent. There exists a substantial amount of evidence supporting the beneficial effects of melatonin supplementation on obesity and its complications. In the current review, the results of studies related to the interactions between melatonin, and both leptin and adiponectin are discussed. Despite the existence of some inconsistencies, melatonin has been found to normalize the expression and secretion patterns of both adipokines. These results support the concept of melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent for obesity and related disorders. PMID:26103557

  12. Adiponectin Agonist ADP355 Attenuates CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Thorn, Natalie E.; Anania, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a growing global health problem characterized by excess deposition of fibrillar collagen, and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Adiponectin is known to possess anti-fibrotic properties; however a high physiological concentration and multiple forms circulating in blood prohibit clinical use. Recently, an adiponectin-like small synthetic peptide agonist (ADP355: H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2) was synthesized for the treatment of murine breast cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ADP355 as an anti-fibrotic agent in the in vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced in eight-week old male C57BL/6J mice by CCl4-gavage every other day for four weeks before injection of a nanoparticle-conjugated with ADP355 (nano-ADP355). Control gold nanoparticles and nano-ADP355 were administered by intraperitoneal injection for two weeks along with CCl4-gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks, and serum and liver tissue were collected for biochemical, histopathologic and molecular analyses. Biochemical studies suggested ADP355 treatment attenuates liver fibrosis, determined by reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase ALT) and hydroxyproline. Histopathology revealed chronic CCl4-treatment results in significant fibrosis, while ADP355 treatment induced significantly reversed fibrosis. Key markers for fibrogenesis–?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP1) were also markedly attenuated. Conversely, liver lysates from ADP355 treated mice increased phosphorylation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and AMPK while AKT phosphorylation was diminished. These findings suggest ADP355 is a potent anti-fibrotic agent that can be an effective intervention against liver fibrosis. PMID:25310107

  13. Adiponectin agonist ADP355 attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Thorn, Natalie E; Anania, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a growing global health problem characterized by excess deposition of fibrillar collagen, and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Adiponectin is known to possess anti-fibrotic properties; however a high physiological concentration and multiple forms circulating in blood prohibit clinical use. Recently, an adiponectin-like small synthetic peptide agonist (ADP355: H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2) was synthesized for the treatment of murine breast cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ADP355 as an anti-fibrotic agent in the in vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced in eight-week old male C57BL/6J mice by CCl4-gavage every other day for four weeks before injection of a nanoparticle-conjugated with ADP355 (nano-ADP355). Control gold nanoparticles and nano-ADP355 were administered by intraperitoneal injection for two weeks along with CCl4-gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks, and serum and liver tissue were collected for biochemical, histopathologic and molecular analyses. Biochemical studies suggested ADP355 treatment attenuates liver fibrosis, determined by reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase ALT) and hydroxyproline. Histopathology revealed chronic CCl4-treatment results in significant fibrosis, while ADP355 treatment induced significantly reversed fibrosis. Key markers for fibrogenesis-?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP1) were also markedly attenuated. Conversely, liver lysates from ADP355 treated mice increased phosphorylation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and AMPK while AKT phosphorylation was diminished. These findings suggest ADP355 is a potent anti-fibrotic agent that can be an effective intervention against liver fibrosis. PMID:25310107

  14. Two Novel Y-Type High Molecular Weight Glutenin Genes in Chinese Wheat Landraces of the Yangtze-River Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujuan; Islam, Shahidul; Sun, Dongfa; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are key determinants for the end-use quality of wheat. Chinese wheat landraces are an important resource for exploring novel HMW-GS genes to improve the wheat baking quality. Two novel Glu-1Dy HMW-GSs (designated as 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7) were identified and cloned from two Chinese wheat landraces Huazhong830 and Luosimai. The 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 subunits were deposited as the NCBInr Acc. No KR262518, and KR262519, respectively. The full open reading frames (ORFs) of 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 were 2022 bp and 1977 bp, encoding for proteins of 673 and 658 amino acid residues, respectively. Each contains four typical primary regions of HMW-GSs (a signal peptide, N- and C-terminal regions, and a central repetitive region). Their deduced molecular masses (70,165 Da and 68,400 Da) were strikingly consistent with those identified by MALDI-TOF-MS (69,985Da and 68,407 Da). The 1Dy12.6 is the largest 1Dy glutenin subunits cloned in common wheat up to date, containing longer repetitive central domains than other 1Dy encoded proteins. In comparison with the most similar active 1Dy alleles previously reported, the newly discovered alleles contained a total of 20 SNPs and 3 indels. The secondary structure prediction indicated that 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 have similar proportion of ?-helix, ?-turn, and ?-bend to those of 1Dy10 (X12929). The phylogenetic analysis illustrated that the x- and y-type subunits of glutenins were well separated, but both 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 were clustered with the other Glu-1Dy alleles. Our results revealed that the 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 subunit have potential to strengthen gluten polymer interactions, and are valuable genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:26540300

  15. Two Novel Y-Type High Molecular Weight Glutenin Genes in Chinese Wheat Landraces of the Yangtze-River Region.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanchun; Yu, Kan; Zhang, Yujuan; Islam, Shahidul; Sun, Dongfa; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are key determinants for the end-use quality of wheat. Chinese wheat landraces are an important resource for exploring novel HMW-GS genes to improve the wheat baking quality. Two novel Glu-1Dy HMW-GSs (designated as 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7) were identified and cloned from two Chinese wheat landraces Huazhong830 and Luosimai. The 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 subunits were deposited as the NCBInr Acc. No KR262518, and KR262519, respectively. The full open reading frames (ORFs) of 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 were 2022 bp and 1977 bp, encoding for proteins of 673 and 658 amino acid residues, respectively. Each contains four typical primary regions of HMW-GSs (a signal peptide, N- and C-terminal regions, and a central repetitive region). Their deduced molecular masses (70,165 Da and 68,400 Da) were strikingly consistent with those identified by MALDI-TOF-MS (69,985Da and 68,407 Da). The 1Dy12.6 is the largest 1Dy glutenin subunits cloned in common wheat up to date, containing longer repetitive central domains than other 1Dy encoded proteins. In comparison with the most similar active 1Dy alleles previously reported, the newly discovered alleles contained a total of 20 SNPs and 3 indels. The secondary structure prediction indicated that 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 have similar proportion of ?-helix, ?-turn, and ?-bend to those of 1Dy10 (X12929). The phylogenetic analysis illustrated that the x- and y-type subunits of glutenins were well separated, but both 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 were clustered with the other Glu-1Dy alleles. Our results revealed that the 1Dy12.6 and 1Dy12.7 subunit have potential to strengthen gluten polymer interactions, and are valuable genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:26540300

  16. Aldehyde oxidase 1 is highly abundant in hepatic steatosis and is downregulated by adiponectin and fenofibric acid in hepatocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Weigert, Johanna; Schaeffler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas S.; Schmidl, Christian; Buettner, Roland; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2006-11-24

    Adiponectin protects the liver from steatosis caused by obesity or alcohol and therefore the influence of adiponectin on human hepatocytes was analyzed. GeneChip experiments indicated that recombinant adiponectin downregulates aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) expression and this was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot. AOX1 is a xenobiotic metabolizing protein and produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), that promote cell damage and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin and fenofibric acid activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR-{alpha}) and both suppress AOX1 protein and this is blocked by the PPAR-{alpha} antagonist RU486. Obesity is associated with low adiponectin, reduced hepatic PPAR-{alpha} activity and fatty liver, and AOX1 was found induced in the liver of rats on a high-fat diet when compared to controls. Free fatty acids and leptin, that are elevated in obesity, failed to upregulate AOX1 in vitro. The current data indicate that adiponectin reduces AOX1 by activating PPAR-{alpha} whereas fatty liver disease is associated with elevated hepatic AOX1. High AOX1 may be associated with higher ROS well described to induce fibrogenesis in liver tissue but may also influence drug metabolism and activity.

  17. Ascofuranone stimulates expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor through the modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase family members in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocyte cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Chae; Cho, Hyun-Ji

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibitors for MEK and JNK increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone significantly suppressed phosho-ERK, while increasing phospho-p38. -- Abstract: Ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic, was originally isolated as a hypolipidemic substance from a culture broth of the phytopathogenic fungus, Ascochyta visiae. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by adipocytes. It relieves insulin resistance by decreasing the plasma triglycerides and improving glucose uptake, and has anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we found that ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, a major transcription factor for adiponectin, in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocytes cell line, without promoting accumulation of lipid droplets. Ascofuranone induced expression of adiponectin, and increases the promoter activity of adiponectin and PPRE, PPAR response element, as comparably as a PPAR{gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone, that stimulates lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cell line. Moreover, inhibitors for MEK and JNK, like ascofuranone, considerably increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, while a p38 inhibitor significantly suppressed. Ascofuranone significantly suppressed ERK phosphorylation, while increasing p38 phosphorylation, during adipocyte differentiation program. These results suggest that ascofuranone regulates the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} through the modulation of MAP kinase family members.

  18. Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Kinase, and Adiponectin in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Joëlle; Chabrolle, Christine; Ramé, Christelle; Tosca, Lucie; Coyral-Castel, Stéphanie

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the interaction between energy balance and reproduction are the subject of intensive investigations. The integrated control of these systems is probably a multifaceted phenomenon involving an array of signals governing energy homeostasis, metabolism, and fertility. Two fuel sensors, PPARs, a superfamily of nuclear receptors and the kinase AMPK, integrate energy control and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin, one of the adipocyte-derived factors mediate its actions through the AMPK or PPARs pathway. These three molecules are expressed in the ovary, raising questions about the biological actions of fuel sensors in fertility and the use of these molecules to treat fertility problems. This review will highlight the expression and putative role of PPARs, AMPK, and adiponectin in the ovary, particularly during folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation. PMID:18288279

  19. Contribution of the hypothalamus and gut to weight gain susceptibility and resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Fam, Barbara C; Sgambellone, Rebecca; Ruan, Zheng; Proietto, Joseph; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2015-06-01

    Obesity susceptibility in humans and in rodent strains varies in response to the consumption of high-energy density (HED) diets. However, the exact mechanism(s) involved in this susceptibility remain(s) unresolved. The aim of the present study was to gain greater insight into this susceptibility by using C57BL/6J (B6) mice that were separated into obesity-prone (diet-induced obese (DIO)) and obesity-resistant (diet-induced resistant (DR)) groups following an HED diet for 6 weeks. Physiological, biochemical and gene expression assessments of energy balance were performed in the DIO and DR mice on an HED diet and chow-fed mice. The increased weight gain of the DIO mice as compared to the DR mice was associated with increased energy intake and higher plasma leptin and adiponectin levels but not with reduced physical activity or resting energy expenditure. Hypothalamic Pomc gene expression was elevated, but there were no changes in Npy or Agrp expression. Adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin gene expression were significantly reduced in the DIO group as compared to the DR group. Interestingly, ileum expression of G protein-coupled receptor (Gpr) 40 (Gpr40) was significantly increased, whereas Gpr120, Gpr119, Gpr41, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (Glp1) were reduced. Contrastingly, the lower weight gain of the DR group was associated with elevated adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin gene expression, but there were no differences in plasma hormone or hypothalamic gene expression levels as compared to chow-fed mice. Therefore, the present data demonstrate that susceptibility and resistance to diet-induced weight gain in B6 mice appears to be predominantly driven by peripheral rather than hypothalamic modifications, and changes in gut-specific receptors are a potentially important contributor to this variation. PMID:25934705

  20. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Hypertensive Children Is Associated with the Severity of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gackowska, Lidia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Trojanek, Joanna; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether peripheral blood leukocyte adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) protein expression patterns (flow cytometry) differ between the primary hypertension children (n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19) and if their expression levels are related to selected clinical parameters. The group of 26 patients [AdipoR(?)] showed lower and the group of 31 patients [AdipoR(+)] showed higher AdipoRs protein expression than the control and each other (P < 0.01 for neutrophils, P < 0.05 for monocytes). The AdipoR(+) leukocytes expressed higher AdipoR1 mRNA levels (RT-PCR) than AdipoR(?) ones and controls (P = 0.022 and P = 0.007, resp.). Despite greater BMI, the AdipoR(?) patients had unchanged serum adiponectin levels. In contrast, AdipoR(+) patients had lower serum adiponectin concentrations than the AdipoR(?) ones and controls (P < 0.001). The AdipoR(+) patients had higher blood pressure (P = 0.042) and greater carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.017) than the AdipoR(?) ones. The stage of hypertension was associated with increased neutrophil but not monocyte AdipoR1 density (AdipoR1 MFI) (P < 0.05). Severe ambulatory hypertension was presented more often in AdipoR(+) patients than in AdipoR(?) ones (51.6% versus 26.9%, resp.; P < 0.01). In conclusion, neutrophil AdipoRs upregulation was associated with early stages of vascular injury, hypertension severity, and low serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26146630

  1. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) adiponectin receptors: molecular characterization, mRNA expression, and subcellular location.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chaobin; Wang, Bin; Sun, Caiyun; Jia, Jirong; Li, Wensheng

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin is an abundantly secreted adipokine from adipose tissue in mammals, which plays important roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The biological function of adiponectin is mediated by at least two receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Although both of them were identified in mammals, there are few researches about adiponectin and its receptors in teleosts. In this study, two types of adiponectin receptors have been isolated and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of grouper AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are 1444 and 2034 bp in length, encoding proteins of 376 amino acids and 375 amino acids, respectively. Multiple alignment results showed that there was a variable region at the N-terminal of AdipoR1/R2, which has never been reported. Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were found to be widely expressed in various tissues of grouper. Compared to AdipoR2, AdipoR1 expressed at higher levels in the nervous system and pituitary gland, but at lower levels in some peripheral tissues, including heart, liver, adipose tissue, stomach, intestine and especially gonad. Fasting and refeeding experiments showed that the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 were up-regulated by fasting in the muscle and adipose tissue of grouper, and restored rapidly to normal levels after refeeding. However, the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in the hypothalamus and liver of grouper were insensitive to fasting. By indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that grouper AdipoR1/R2 were integral membrane proteins; the C-terminals were extracellular, while the N-terminals were intracellular. PMID:24406511

  2. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPAR? in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPAR? which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  3. Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in hyaluronan synthase 2 transcripts through an AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in HAS2 transcripts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin also increases the phosphorylation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pharmacological activator of AMPK increases mRNA levels of PPAR{alpha} and HAS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression is blocked by a PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis via an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Although adipocytokines affect the functions of skin, little information is available on the effect of adiponectin on the skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of adiponectin on hyaluronan synthesis and its regulatory mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. Adiponectin promoted hyaluronan synthesis along with an increase in the mRNA levels of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), which plays a primary role in hyaluronan synthesis. Adiponectin also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1{beta}-ribofuranoside (AICAR), increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which enhances the expression of HAS2 mRNA. In addition, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of HAS2. Adiponectin-induced HAS2 mRNA expression was blocked by GW6471, a PPAR{alpha} antagonist, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that adiponectin promotes hyaluronan synthesis along with increases in HAS2 transcripts through an AMPK/PPAR{alpha}-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts. Thus, our study suggests that adiponectin may be beneficial for retaining moisture in the skin, anti-inflammatory activity, and the treatment of a variety of cutaneous diseases.

  4. Association between prehypertension, metabolic and inflammatory markers, decreased adiponectin and enhanced insulinemia in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with development of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of risk factors, such as insulin resistance, inflammatory response, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure that predispose affected individuals to well-characterized medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney chronic disease. The study was designed to establish relationship between metabolic and inflammatory disorder, renal sodium retention and enhanced blood pressure in a group of obese subjects compared with age-matched, lean volunteers. Methods The study was performed after 14 h overnight fast after and before OGTT in 13 lean (BMI 22.92?±?2.03 kg/m2) and, 27 obese (BMI 36.15?±?3.84 kg/m2) volunteers. Assessment of HOMA-IR and QUICKI index were calculated and circulating concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and C-reactive protein, measured by immunoassay. Results The study shows that a hyperinsulinemic (HI: 10.85?±?4.09 ?g/ml) subgroup of well-characterized metabolic syndrome bearers-obese subjects show higher glycemic and elevated blood pressure levels when compared to lean and normoinsulinemic (NI: 5.51?±?1.18 ?g/ml, P?adiponectin measured in basal period was significantly enhanced in NI subjects when compared to HI groups (P?adiponectin levels and dysfunctional inflammatory modulation associated with hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and renal dysfunction in a particular subgroup of obeses. PMID:24966877

  5. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  6. Common variants in adiponectin gene are associated with coronary artery disease and angiographical severity of coronary atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, an adipokine facilitating insulin action, has antiatherogenic effects. This study investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene influenced plasma adiponectin level and whether they were associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its angiographical severity in type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods 11 tagging SNPs were genotyped in 1110 subjects with or without CAD in type 2 diabetes. Variants of adiponectin gene were determined by Taqman polymerase chain reaction method. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity and extent of coronary atherosclerosis were assessed using the angiographic Gensini score and Sullivan Extent score. Results Among the 11 SNPs, the minor G allele of SNP rs266729 was significantly associated with higher odds of CAD (odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.49 (1.10 - 2.16), P = 0.022) after adjusting for covariates. In stepwise multivariate logistic regression, SNP rs266729 was a significant independent factor of CAD. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that rs266729 (? = ?0.101, P < 0.0001), rs182052 (? = ?0.044, P = 0.0035), and rs1501299 (? = 0.073, P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with adiponectin level, and also indicated that the minor G allele of SNP rs266729 had higher Gensini score (? = 0.139, P < 0.001) and Sullivan Extent score (? = 0.107, P < 0.001). Haplotypes analysis revealed different haplotype distributions in case and control subjects (P = 0.0003), with two common haplotypes GGG and GAG of the rs266729, rs182052, and rs1501299 being associated in heterozygotes with a greater than threefold increase in cardiovascular risk (odds ratio (95% CI)=3.39 (1.83 - 6.30), P = 0.0001). Conclusions In our population, genetic variants in the adiponectin gene influence plasma adiponectin levels, and one of them is a strong determinant of CAD susceptibility and its angiographical severity in type 2 diabetes. This study has provided further evidence for a role of adiponectin in the development of CAD. PMID:23590551

  7. ADIPONECTIN IN AMNIOTIC FLUID IN NORMAL PREGNANCY, SPONTANEOUS LABOR AT TERM, AND PRETERM LABOR: A NOVEL ASSOCIATION WITH SUBCLINICAL INTRAUTERINE INFECTION/INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Gotsch, Francesca; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Than, Nandor Gabor; Kim, Sun Kwon; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetogenic adipokine, has an important regulatory effect on both the innate and adaptive limbs of the immune response. The objective of this study was to determine whether adiponectin is present in amniotic fluid (AF) and if its concentration changes with gestational age, in the presence of labor and in the presence of intra-amniotic infection (IAI) in patients with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and intact membranes. Study design This cross-sectional study included 468 patients in the following groups: 1) women in the mid-trimester of pregnancy (14–18 weeks) who underwent amniocentesis for genetic indications and delivered a normal neonate at term (n=52); 2) normal pregnant women at term with (n=49) and without (n=41) spontaneous labor; 3) patients with an episode of PTL and intact membranes who were classified into: a) PTL who delivered at term (n=149); b) PTL who delivered preterm (<37 weeks gestation) without IAI (n=108); and c) PTL with IAI (n=69) Adiponectin concentration in AF was determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median AF adiponectin concentration at term was significantly higher than in the mid-trimester (35.6 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR] 26.4–52.7 vs. 29.9 ng/mL, IQR 19.9–35.2; p=0.01); 2) among women with PTL and intact membranes, the median amniotic fluid adiponectin concentration was significantly higher in patients with IAI than in those without IAI who delivered either at term (54.3 ng/mL, 39.0–91.8 vs. 50.1 ng/mL, 33.2–72.8; p = 0.02) or preterm (47.6 ng/mL, 32.6–74.6; p = 0.01); and 3) among women at term, there was no significant difference in the median amniotic fluid adiponectin concentration between those with and without labor (33.7 ng/mL, IQR 21.7–53.9 vs. 35.6 ng/mL IQR 26.4–52.7; respectively p=0.5). Conclusions 1) Adiponectin is a physiologic constituent of AF; and 2) adiponectin concentrations in AF are increased significantly with advancing gestation and in the presence of IAI. Collectively, these findings suggest that adiponectin plays a dynamic role in normal gestation and in the presence of IAI. PMID:19591073

  8. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for adiponectin levels in East Asians identifies a novel locus near WDR11-FGFR2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Gao, He; Li, Huaixing; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Park, Eun Jung; Wen, Wanqing; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Peng; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Fogarty, Marie P; Gan, Wei; He, Chih-Tsueng; Hsiung, Chao A; Hwu, Chii-Min; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Jo, Jaeseong; Kato, Norihiro; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Kuzawa, Christophor W; Lee, Jeannette J M; Liu, Jianjun; Lu, Ling; McDade, Thomas W; Osawa, Haruhiko; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Teo, Yvonne; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Yiqin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Terri L; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Jingwen; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shin, Chol; Jee, Sun Ha; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Miki, Tetsuro; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L; Tai, E Shyong

    2014-02-15

    Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms. PMID:24105470

  9. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  10. Impaired adiponectin signaling contributes to disturbed catabolism of branched-chain amino acids in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kun; Du, Chaosheng; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Di; Yan, Wenjun; Zhang, Haifeng; Hong, Zhibo; Liu, Peilin; Zhang, Lijian; Pei, Haifeng; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Xin, Chao; Cheng, Hexiang; Xiong, Lize; Tao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) accumulated in type 2 diabetes are independent contributors to insulin resistance. The activity of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, rate-limiting enzyme in BCAA catabolism, is reduced in diabetic states, which contributes to elevated BCAA concentrations. However, the mechanisms underlying decreased BCKD activity remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial phosphatase 2C (PP2Cm), a newly identified BCKD phosphatase that increases BCKD activity, was significantly downregulated in ob/ob and type 2 diabetic mice. Interestingly, in adiponectin (APN) knockout (APN(-/-)) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HD), PP2Cm expression and BCKD activity were significantly decreased, whereas BCKD kinase (BDK), which inhibits BCKD activity, was markedly increased. Concurrently, plasma BCAA and branched-chain ?-keto acids (BCKA) were significantly elevated. APN treatment markedly reverted PP2Cm, BDK, BCKD activity, and BCAA and BCKA levels in HD-fed APN(-/-) and diabetic animals. Additionally, increased BCKD activity caused by APN administration was partially but significantly inhibited in PP2Cm knockout mice. Finally, APN-mediated upregulation of PP2Cm expression and BCKD activity were abolished when AMPK was inhibited. Collectively, we have provided the first direct evidence that APN is a novel regulator of PP2Cm and systematic BCAA levels, suggesting that targeting APN may be a pharmacological approach to ameliorating BCAA catabolism in the diabetic state. PMID:25071024

  11. Adiponectin receptor 1 conserves docosahexaenoic acid and promotes photoreceptor cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dennis S.; Calandria, Jorgelina M.; Gordon, William C.; Jun, Bokkyoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gelfman, Claire M.; Li, Songhua; Jin, Minghao; Knott, Eric J.; Chang, Bo; Abuin, Alex; Issa, Tawfik; Potter, David; Platt, Kenneth A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of pathways necessary for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function is critical to uncover therapies for blindness. Here we report the discovery of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) as a regulator of these cells’ functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained in photoreceptors, while mechanisms controlling DHA uptake and retention are unknown. Thus, we demonstrate that AdipoR1 ablation results in DHA reduction. In situ hybridization reveals photoreceptor and RPE cell AdipoR1 expression, blunted in AdipoR1?/? mice. We also find decreased photoreceptor-specific phosphatidylcholine containing very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and severely attenuated electroretinograms. These changes precede progressive photoreceptor degeneration in AdipoR1?/? mice. RPE-rich eyecup cultures from AdipoR1?/? reveal impaired DHA uptake. AdipoR1 overexpression in RPE cells enhances DHA uptake, whereas AdipoR1 silencing has the opposite effect. These results establish AdipoR1 as a regulatory switch of DHA uptake, retention, conservation and elongation in photoreceptors and RPE, thus preserving photoreceptor cell integrity. PMID:25736573

  12. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphisms with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and disorders of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Liu, R X; Liu, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APM1 contribute to disorders of lipid metabolism in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP). The study included 178 pregnant women with HDCP and 243 healthy pregnant controls. Using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we detected the frequencies of genotypes, alleles, and haplotypes of two SNPs, +45T>G (rs2241766) and +276G>T (rs1501299), in APM1. We found that the SNP +276 TT genotype was significantly associated with protection against HDCP compared to the pooled G genotypes. The genotype and allele frequency distributions of SNP +276 were significantly different between the cases and controls. Single-point genotype and allele distributions in SNP +45 were not statistically different between the groups. The pooled G haplotypes were significantly overrepresented in the case group compared to the TT haplotype. Plasma adiponectin (APN) concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and we found that APN levels in cases were significantly lower than those in controls. Using the clinical data, we evaluated the correlation between the two SNPs and HDCP development, and revealed an association between the two SNPs and disorders of lipid metabolism in patients with HDCP. Except for fasting insulin levels, which was higher in cases than in controls, there were no significant differences in the other clinical data between the two groups. PMID:26634484

  13. Adiponectin reduces carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE?/? mice: Roles of oxidative and nitrosative stress and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    CAI, XIAOJUN; LI, XUAN; LI, LI; HUANG, XIAO-ZHEN; LIU, YU-SHENG; CHEN, LIANG; ZHANG, KE; WANG, LIN; LI, XIAONAN; SONG, JIANTAO; LI, SHUZHEN; ZHANG, YUN; ZHANG, MEI

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is an important anti-atherogenic adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of adiponectin in atherosclerotic plaque formation and clarify its mechanisms. An atherosclerosis model was induced by in vivo perivascular constrictive silica collar placement on the left common carotid arteries in male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE?/?) mice. All of the mice were fed a high-fat diet, and divided into phosphate-buffered saline, adenovirus (Ad)-?-galactosidase and Ad-APN treatment groups. Compared with treatment of Ad-?-gal or PBS, Ad-APN treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, decreased in nitric oxide/superoxide production, blocked peroxynitrite formation and reversed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Adiponectin may be a natural molecule that reduces atherosclerosis by inhibiting iNOS and consequently diminishing oxidative/nitrative stress. PMID:25395016

  14. Weight and plasma lipid control by decaffeinated green tea.

    PubMed

    Richard, Doriane; Kefi, Kaouthar; Barbe, Ullah; Poli, Andrea; Bausero, Pedro; Visioli, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    We investigated whether regular decaffeinated green tea intake could modulate body weight in an experimental model of obesity. Male leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and their C57BL/6J lean littermates (4 weeks of age; n 20/genotype) were assigned randomly to receive either decaffeinated green tea or vehicle, for 6 weeks. Body weights were recorded weekly and fluid intake was measured at each replacement. Blood was collected from the heart into collection tubes, with Li(+)-heparin as the anticoagulant. Administration of decaffeinated green tea to ob/ob mice significantly slowed their rate of weight gain, as compared with animals that were fed buffer alone. This effect is apparent after only 1 week of supplementation. No significant difference was recorded between C57BL/6J lean mice administrated decaffeinated green tea and those given buffer alone. Decaffeinated green tea consumption by ob/ob mice was also associated with significantly lower cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, and adiponectin concentration. Fecal lipids did not change significantly throughout the experiment. In conclusion, administration of decaffeinated green tea might contribute to weight control and provides an opportunity for through-the-day consumption, without the excitatory effects of caffeine. PMID:19416635

  15. Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and glucose-related variables. Methods: Fifty-one Japanese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids; glucose-related markers including glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; insulin-related markers including insulin, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and adipocytokines including adiponectin and leptin were determined. The association of PFAA and other metabolic profiles were analyzed, and stratified analyses of the PFAAs and clinical characteristics were performed according to the fasting plasma insulin and HbA1c levels. In addition, the PFAA indices that correlate to visceral fat obesity were evaluated. Results: Although strong correlations between PFAAs and glucose-related markers were not observed, several amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, glutamate and proline) and PFAA indices that evaluate visceral obesity were highly correlated with insulin-related markers and adiponectin (P<0.001). In the group of diabetic patients with hyperinsulinemia, the amino acid levels were significantly increased, which generally demonstrated good concordance with insulin-related markers and adiponectin levels. Conclusions: The PFAA profiles in diabetic patients were strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, which might become risk evaluation factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25177913

  16. Exercise restores insulin, but not adiponectin, response in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed rodents.

    PubMed

    Gulli, Roberto A; Tishinsky, Justine M; MacDonald, Tara; Robinson, Lindsay E; Wright, David C; Dyck, David J

    2012-11-15

    High-fat (HF) diets impair skeletal muscle response to the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin (Ad) in rodents, preceding the development of insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle insulin response in HF-fed rats can be restored with chronic exercise; whether recovery of skeletal muscle Ad response is necessary for the exercise-induced recovery of insulin-stimulated glucose transport is not known. In the current study, insulin and Ad resistance were induced in rodents with 4 wk of HF feeding (HF(4); low-fat fed animals used as control). Rats were then treadmill-exercised (HF(5)EX(1), HF(6)EX(2)) or supplemented orally with the pharmacological agent ?-guadinoproprionic acid (GPA; HF(5)GPA(1), HF(6)GPA(2)) for 1 or 2 wk with continued HF feeding. Insulin and Ad responses (glucose transport and palmitate oxidation, respectively) were assessed 48 h after the last exercise bout ex vivo in isolated solei. Insulin response was impaired following 4 wk of HF feeding and improved with 1 and 2 wk of exercise and ?-GPA supplementation (HF(5)EX(1), HF(6)EX(2), HF(5)GPA(1), and HF(6)GPA(2)). The recovery of insulin response generally coincided with improved Akt Thr(308) phosphorylation in HF(5)GPA(1), HF(6)EX(2), and HF(6)GPA(2), although not in HF(5)EX(1). Ad-stimulated palmitate oxidation was not restored with either treatment. Total protein contents of AdipoR1, AdipoR2, APPL1, and APPL2, as well as total and phosphorylated AMPK and ACC were unaltered by diet, exercise, and ?-GPA at the assessed time points. We conclude that the exercise and pharmacologically (?-GPA)-induced recovery of skeletal muscle insulin response after HF feeding is not dependent on the restoration of Ad response, as assessed ex vivo. PMID:23054173

  17. Common genetic variation in adiponectin, leptin, and leptin receptor and association with breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Nyante, Sarah J.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Lin, Dan Yu; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Hu, Yijuan; He, Qianchuan; Luo, Jingchun; Millikan, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like, 679 luminal A) of 2311 cases from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case–control study of whites and African Americans. Breast cancer molecular subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Genotype odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Haplotype ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using Hapstat. Interactions with waist-hip ratio were evaluated using a multiplicative interaction term. Ancestry was estimated from 144 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and included in models to control for population stratification. Candidate SNPs LEPR K109R (rs1137100) and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were positively associated with luminal A breast cancer, whereas ADIPOQ +45 T/G (rs2241766), ADIPOQ +276 G/T (rs1501299), and LEPR K656N (rs8129183) were not associated with either subtype. Few patterns were observed among tag SNPs, with the exception of 3 LEPR SNPs (rs17412175, rs9436746, and rs9436748) that were in moderate LD and inversely associated with basal-like breast cancer. However, no SNP associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Haplotypes in LEP and LEPR were associated with both basal-like and luminal A subtypes. There was no evidence of interaction with waist-hip ratio. Data suggest associations between LEPR candidate SNPs and luminal A breast cancer in the CBCS and LEPR intron 2 tag SNPs and basal-like breast cancer. Replication in additional studies where breast cancer subtypes have been defined is necessary to confirm these potential associations. PMID:21516303

  18. Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein involved in cAMP-mediated suppression of adiponectin gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Murao, Koji; Imachi, Hitomi; Yu, Xiao; Muraoka, Tomie; Kim, Jae Bum; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2010-06-01

    Adiponectin (ApN) has several protective effects against diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the detailed mechanisms of the regulation of the ApN gene have not yet been clarified. Prolactin regulatory element-binding (PREB) protein has been identified as a factor that regulates insulin gene expression in the pancreas. PREB is located not only in the pancreas but also in adipose tissue; however, its role in adipose tissue is not known. To analyse the effects of PREB on ApN gene transcription, we employed a reporter gene assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In the cells expressing or knocking down the PREB, ApN expression was determined. PREB was located mainly in the nuclei of adipose tissue and its cell line, 3T3-L1 cells. The nuclear extract contained ApN promoter-binding activity that was super-shifted by PREB antiserum in EMSA studies. In the 3T3-L1 cells, the co-expression of PREB and the ApN promoter inhibited the activity of the latter. The addition of cAMP to the cells increased PREB expression in a dose-dependent manner. A deletional analysis of the ApN promoter showed that the PREB-responsive cis-element in the ApN promoter mediated the transcriptional effect of PREB, whereas a mutant of this motif in the ApN promoter abrogated the effect of PREB, as well as that of cAMP. Furthermore, cells expressing or knocking down PREB exhibited decreased and increased ApN expression, respectively. These results demonstrate that PREB may contribute to the regulation of ApN gene transcription, in response to cAMP activation in adipocytes. PMID:19382911

  19. Influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition at Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Tianhong; Yu, Jing; Li, Liqun; Feng, Yi; Li, Xuejun

    2016-04-15

    Glutenin is one of the critical gluten proteins that affect the processing quality of wheat dough. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) affect rheological behavior of wheat dough. This research demonstrated the effects of four variations of HMW-GS composition at the Glu-B1 locus on secondary and micro structures of gluten and rheological properties of wheat dough, using the bread wheat Xinong 1330 and its three near-isogenic lines (NILs). Results indicated that the Amide I bands of the four wheat lines shifted slightly, but the secondary structure, such as content of ?-helices, ?-sheets, disulfide bands, tryptophan bands and tyrosine bands, differed significantly among the four NILs. The micro structure of gluten in NIL 2 (Bx14+By15) and NIL 3 (Bx17+By18) showed more cross linkage, with two contrasting patterns. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the content of ?-sheets and disulfide bonds has a significant relationship with dough stability, which suggests that the secondary structures could be used as predictors of wheat quality. PMID:26675856

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  1. Beta-Cell Preservation…Is Weight Loss the Answer?

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Angela D.; Pratley, Richard E.; Smith, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pancreatic beta-cell failure is an early event in the development of glucose dysregulation and diabetes. Interventions to halt beta-cell failure in T2D include diet modification, exercise, and use of pharmacologic agents. There is evidence that abdominal obesity may contribute to diabetes through insulin resistance and beta-cell impairment. Pivotal long-term studies into the prevention of T2D have shown the importance of weight loss beside diet, lifestyle, and medication. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that weight loss gradually reduces the risk of diabetes, and that even modest weight loss can significantly reduce the incidence of T2D. Similarly, in the US DPP, weight loss as part of intensive lifestyle modification was the major factor in reducing the incidence of T2D in high-risk subjects, being more effective than drug intervention. While understanding the relationship between obesity and diabetes is complex, we know that weight loss has positive effects on adipose tissue. It causes an increase in the beneficial fat cell hormone adiponectin, and a decrease in adipose tissue inflammation. Also, it is associated with reduced insulin resistance and a consequential reduction in glucolipotoxicity, which can improve beta-cell function. In summary, weight loss improves glycemic control and thereby mitigates diabetes symptoms and complications, possibly through the preservation of beta-cell function. Therefore, efforts to prevent diabetes and preserve beta-cell function in patients with T2D should more rigorously emphasize and target weight loss. PMID:22580726

  2. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

  3. Trans-Cinnamic Acid Increases Adiponectin and the Phosphorylation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase through G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Christina; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Müller, Ute; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin and intracellular 5?adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are important modulators of glucose and fat metabolism. Cinnamon exerts beneficial effects by improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipids, e.g., through increasing adiponectin concentrations and AMPK activation. The underlying mechanism is unknown. The Gi/Go-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A stimulates adiponectin secretion after binding its ligand niacin. Trans-cinnamic acid (tCA), a compound of cinnamon is another ligand. We hypothesize whether AMPK activation and adiponectin secretion by tCA is transmitted by GPR signaling. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi/Go-protein-coupling, and treated with different tCA concentrations. Treatment with tCA increased adiponectin and the pAMPK/AMPK ratio (p ? 0.001). PTX incubation abolished the increased pAMPK/AMPK ratio and adiponectin secretion. The latter remained increased compared to controls (p ? 0.002). tCA treatment stimulated adiponectin secretion and AMPK activation; the inhibitory effect of PTX suggests GPR is involved in tCA stimulated signaling. PMID:24557583

  4. Adiponectin-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Protects Against Iron-Induced Liver Injury via a PPAR?-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Jen, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chou, Ying; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Protective effects of adiponectin (APN; an adipocytokine) were shown against various oxidative challenges; however, its therapeutic implications and the mechanisms underlying hepatic iron overload remain unclear. Herein, we show that the deleterious effects of iron dextran on liver function and iron deposition were significantly reversed by adiponectin gene therapy, which was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. Furthermore, AMPK-mediated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activation by APN was ascribable to HO-1 induction. Additionally, we revealed direct transcriptional regulation of HO-1 by the binding of PPAR? to a PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) by various experimental assessments. Interestingly, overexpression of HO-1 in hepatocytes mimicked the protective effect of APN in attenuating iron-mediated injury, whereas it was abolished by SnPP and small interfering HO-1. Furthermore, bilirubin, the end-product of the HO-1 reaction, but not CO, protected hepatocytes from iron dextran-mediated caspase activation. Herein, we demonstrate a novel functional PPRE in the promoter regions of HO-1, and APN-mediated HO-1 induction elicited an antiapoptotic effect and a decrease in iron deposition in hepatocytes subjected to iron challenge. PMID:20709802

  5. Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit lipid metabolism and modulate leptin and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Grajek, W?odzimierz

    2015-10-15

    It has previously been shown that lyophilized cranberries (LCB) decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and inhibited preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the expression of key transcription factors (PPAR?, C/EBP?, SREBP1) of the adipogenesis pathway. To elucidate the molecular basis of anti-lipogenic activity of LCB, the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin 1 (PLIN1), was examined in the present study. Additionally, the effects of LCB on adiponectin and leptin expression and protein secretion were also investigated. LCB reduced lipid accumulation during preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the mRNA level of aP2, FAS, LPL, HSL and PLIN1. Moreover, LCB decreased leptin gene expression and increased adiponectin gene expression and protein secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore cranberries could be considered as bioactive factors, which are effective in the inhibition of adipose tissue mass production. PMID:25952883

  6. ?-Tocotrienol attenuates TNF-?-induced changes in secretion and gene expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Shoji, Ayae; Gu, Ning; Joo, Erina; Li, Shiho; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Hanae; Yasuda, Koichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Tsuda, Kinsuke

    2012-04-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties and display activity against a variety of chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. However, whether tocotrienols contribute to the prevention of inflammatory responses in adipose tissue remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of ?-tocotrienol, the most common tocotrienol isomer, on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory responses by measuring the expression of the adipokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure to TNF-? (10 ng/ml) for 24 h increased MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion, and decreased adiponectin secretion and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) mRNA expression. ?-tocotrienol effectively improved the TNF-?-induced adverse changes in MCP-1, IL-6 and adiponectin secretion, and in MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin and PPAR? mRNA expression. Furthermore, TNF-?-mediated I?B-? phosphorylation and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation were significantly suppressed by the ?-tocotrienol treatment. Our results suggest that ?-tocotrienol may improve obesity-related functional abnormalities in adipocytes by attenuating NF-?B activation and the expression of inflammatory adipokines. PMID:22293775

  7. ?-tocotrienol attenuates TNF-?-induced changes in secretion and gene expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    MATSUNAGA, TETSURO; SHOJI, AYAE; GU, NING; JOO, ERINA; LI, SHIHO; ADACHI, TETSUYA; YAMAZAKI, HANAE; YASUDA, KOICHIRO; KONDOH, TAKASHI; TSUDA, KINSUKE

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties and display activity against a variety of chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. However, whether tocotrienols contribute to the prevention of inflammatory responses in adipose tissue remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of ?-tocotrienol, the most common tocotrienol isomer, on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory responses by measuring the expression of the adipokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure to TNF-? (10 ng/ml) for 24 h increased MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion, and decreased adiponectin secretion and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) mRNA expression. ?-tocotrienol effectively improved the TNF-?-induced adverse changes in MCP-1, IL-6 and adiponectin secretion, and in MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin and PPAR? mRNA expression. Furthermore, TNF-?-mediated I?B-? phosphorylation and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation were significantly suppressed by the ?-tocotrienol treatment. Our results suggest that ?-tocotrienol may improve obesity-related functional abnormalities in adipocytes by attenuating NF-?B activation and the expression of inflammatory adipokines. PMID:22293775

  8. Resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin: risk of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal saudi females and their possible diagnostic and predictive implications as novel biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Assiri, Adel M A; Kamel, Hala F M; Hassanien, Mohamed F R

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of obesity-induced breast carcinogenesis are not clear. One hypothesis is that high levels of adipokines could promote breast cancer (BC) development. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin with BC risk in pre- and postmenopausal females. A total of 82 BC newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients and 68 age and BMI matched healthy controls were enrolled. Both groups were subdivided into post- and premenopausal subgroups. Resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured by ELISA. There were significantly higher levels of leptin, resistin, and visfatin in postmenopausal BC patients than their respective controls. Only in postmenopausal subgroups, leptin, resistin, and visfatin levels were positively correlated with TNM staging, tumor size, lymph node (LN) metastasis, and histological grading. In postmenopausal females, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and resistin were risk factors for BC. Our results suggested that serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels as risk factors for postmenopausal BC may provide a potential link with clinicopathological features and are promising to be novel biomarkers for postmenopausal BC. PMID:25838618

  9. Adiponectin receptor-mediated signaling ameliorates cerebral cell damage and regulates the neurogenesis of neural stem cells at high glucose concentrations: an in vivo and in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Song, J; Kang, S M; Kim, E; Kim, C-H; Song, H-T; Lee, J E

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), hyperglycemia leads to neuronal damage and cognitive decline. Recent research has focused on revealing alterations in the brain in hyperglycemia and finding therapeutic solutions for alleviating the hyperglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. Adiponectin is a protein hormone with a major regulatory role in diabetes and obesity; however, its role in the CNS has not been studied yet. Although the presence of adiponectin receptors has been reported in the CNS, adiponectin receptor-mediated signaling in the CNS has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-mediated signaling in vivo using a high-fat diet and in vitro using neural stem cells (NSCs). We showed that AdipoR1 protects cell damage and synaptic dysfunction in the mouse brain in hyperglycemia. At high glucose concentrations in vitro, AdipoR1 regulated the survival of NSCs through the p53/p21 pathway and the proliferation- and differentiation-related factors of NSCs via tailless (TLX). Hence, we suggest that further investigations are necessary to understand the cerebral AdipoR1-mediated signaling in hyperglycemic conditions, because the modulation of AdipoR1 might alleviate hyperglycemia-induced neuropathogenesis. PMID:26247729

  10. Adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 plasma levels in subjects with diabetic foot and possible correlations with clinical variables and cardiovascular co-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It is very suggestive that diabetic foot is characterized by a pronounced inflammatory reaction and the pathogenic significance of this inflammation has received little attention. On this basis the aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of adiponectin, resistin and IL-6 in subjects with diabetic foot in comparison with subjects without foot complications. Materials and methods We recruited 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and foot ulceration hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events (group A). As controls we recruited 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without foot ulceration (group B) hospitalized for every condition related to diabetic disease, but not for new vascular events. Adiponectin, Resistin and IL-6 serum levels were evaluated. Results Subjects of group A showed lower median plasma levels of adiponectin [7.7450 (4.47-12.17) ?g/ml vs 8.480 (5.15-12.87) ?g/ml], higher median plasma levels of IL-6 [3.21 (1.23-5.34) pg/ml vs 2.73 (1.24-3.97 pg/ml)] and of resistin [3.860 (2.96-6.29 ng/ml) vs 3.690 (2.,37-6.5 ng/ml)]. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that diabetic subjects with diabetic foot showed in comparison with diabetics without diabetic foot higher IL-6 and resistin plasma levels, lower adiponectin plasma levels. PMID:20836881

  11. Paracrine-acting adiponectin promotes mammary epithelial differentiation and synergizes with genistein to enhance transcriptional response to estrogen receptor beta signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stromal adipocytes constitute an active site for the synthesis of the adipokine adiponectin (APN) that may influence the mammary epithelial microenvironment. The relationship between 'local', mammary tissue-derived APN and breast cancer risk is poorly understood. Herein, we identify a novel ...

  12. Acupoint Stimulation on Weight Reduction for Obesity: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chu, Nain-Feng; Hsu, Man-Ying F; Hsu, Chin-Che; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2015-12-01

    Auricular acupoint stimulation has become a popular weight loss method. However, its efficacy for obesity treatment has not been fully studied. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-week intervention of auricular electrical stimulation combined with auricular acupressure on weight reduction in obese outpatients. In this single-blind randomized sham-controlled study, 134 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group receiving stimulation at true acupoints, or a sham group receiving stimulation delivered in the same manner but at sham acupoints. Each participant received nutrition counseling by a nutritionist weekly. The results showed significant differences in body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin or adiponectin over time within the group, but not between the groups. This study could not exclude the effect of placebo and dietary consultation. Further study that adds a control group receiving no treatment is therefore needed to confirm the effects of auricular acupressure. PMID:25183702

  13. Novel Loci for Adiponectin Levels and Their Influence on Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Traits: A Multi-Ethnic Meta-Analysis of 45,891 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Morris, Andrew P.; Small, Kerrin; Isaacs, Aaron; Beekman, Marian; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Qi, Lu; Kanoni, Stavroula; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Vollenweider, Peter; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Frants, Rune; Willems-vanDijk, Ko; Oostra, Ben A.; Willems, Sara M.; Lamina, Claudia; Winkler, Thomas W.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Evans, David M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andrew R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; Böhringer, Stefan; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Deloukas, Panos; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Adair, Linda S.; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Johnson, Toby; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Liu, Yongmei; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Ferrucci, Luigi; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Salomaa, Veikko; Eriksson, Johan G.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P?=?4.5×10?8–1.2×10?43). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N?=?4,232 African Americans, N?=?1,776 Asians, and N?=?29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10?4). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p?=?4.3×10?3, n?=?22,044), increased triglycerides (p?=?2.6×10?14, n?=?93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p?=?1.8×10?5, n?=?77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p?=?4.4×10?3, n?=?15,234), increased fasting insulin (p?=?0.015, n?=?48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p?=?4.5×10?13, n?=?96,748) and decreased BMI (p?=?1.4×10?4, n?=?121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance. PMID:22479202

  14. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

    PubMed

    Dastani, Zari; Hivert, Marie-France; Timpson, Nicholas; Perry, John R B; Yuan, Xin; Scott, Robert A; Henneman, Peter; Heid, Iris M; Kizer, Jorge R; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tanaka, Toshiko; Morris, Andrew P; Small, Kerrin; Isaacs, Aaron; Beekman, Marian; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Qi, Lu; Kanoni, Stavroula; Pankow, James S; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Greenwood, Celia M T; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K; Liu, Ching-Ti; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E; Vollenweider, Peter; Kapur, Karen A; Chambers, John; Wareham, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Frants, Rune; Willems-Vandijk, Ko; Oostra, Ben A; Willems, Sara M; Lamina, Claudia; Winkler, Thomas W; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Pramstaller, Peter P; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andrew R; Bandinelli, Stefania; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Böhringer, Stefan; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Deloukas, Panos; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J; Duncan, Bruce B; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Wilson, James G; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Johnson, Toby; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M; Allison, Matthew A; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Mohlke, Karen L; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M; Dedoussis, George V; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Yongmei; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D; Slagboom, P Eline; Ferrucci, Luigi; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C; Salomaa, Veikko; Eriksson, Johan G; Frayling, Timothy M; Hicks, Andrew A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F; Waterworth, Dawn M; Meigs, James B; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, J Brent; Voight, Benjamin F; Scott, Laura J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Dina, Christian; Welch, Ryan P; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Huth, Cornelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; McCulloch, Laura J; Ferreira, Teresa; Grallert, Harald; Amin, Najaf; Wu, Guanming; Willer, Cristen J; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; McCarroll, Steve A; Hofmann, Oliver M; Segrè, Ayellet V; van Hoek, Mandy; Navarro, Pau; Ardlie, Kristin; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bennett, Amanda J; Blagieva, Roza; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Bravenboer, Bert; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Burtt, Noël P; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chines, Peter S; Cornelis, Marilyn; Crawford, Gabe; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Amanda L; Erdos, Michael R; Fox, Caroline S; Franklin, Christopher S; Ganser, Martha; Gieger, Christian; Grarup, Niels; Green, Todd; Griffin, Simon; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hadjadj, Samy; Hassanali, Neelam; Herder, Christian; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Paul R V; Jørgensen, Torben; Kao, Wen H L; Kong, Augustine; Kraft, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Man; Lieverse, Aloysius; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Midthjell, Kristian; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R; Payne, Felicity; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Platou, Carl; Proença, Christine; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Roden, Michael; Sampson, Michael J; Saxena, Richa; Shields, Beverley M; Shrader, Peter; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sparsø, Thomas; Strassburger, Klaus; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Swift, Amy J; Thorand, Barbara; Tichet, Jean; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Dam, Rob M; van Haeften, Timon W; van Herpt, Thijs; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Walters, G Bragi; Weedon, Michael N; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witteman, Jacqueline; Bergman, Richard N; Cauchi, Stephane; Collins, Francis S; Gloyn, Anna L; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hansen, Torben; Hide, Winston A; Hitman, Graham A; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Laakso, Markku; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Rudan, Igor; Sijbrands, Eric; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Campbell, Harry; Daly, Mark J; Hattersley, Andrew T; Pedersen, Oluf; Barroso, Inês; Groop, Leif; Sladek, Rob; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Wilson, James F; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Stefansson, Kari; Altshuler, David; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Soranzo, Nicole; Wheeler, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P?=?4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N?=?4,232 African Americans, N?=?1,776 Asians, and N?=?29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p?=?4.3×10(-3), n?=?22,044), increased triglycerides (p?=?2.6×10(-14), n?=?93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p?=?1.8×10(-5), n?=?77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p?=?4.4×10(-3), n?=?15,234), increased fasting insulin (p?=?0.015, n?=?48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p?=?4.5×10(-13), n?=?96,748) and decreased BMI (p?=?1.4×10(-4), n?=?121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance. PMID:22479202

  15. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26474157

  16. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  17. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  18. Adiponectin Gene Variants Are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men2

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gómez, Maria José; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Ordovás, José María

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (-11391 G > A, 11377 C > G, 45 T > G, and 276 G > T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. Healthy volunteers (30 men and 29 women) consumed 3 diets for 4 wk each: an initial period during which all subjects consumed a SFA-rich diet (38% total fat, 20% SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (CHO) (30% total fat, 55% carbohydrate) or a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (38% total fat, 22% MUFA) following a randomized, crossover design. After participants consumed each diet, we tested peripheral insulin sensitivity with the insulin suppression test and measured plasma adiponectin concentrations. C/C homozygous men for the -11377 C > G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) had a significantly greater decrease in the steady-state plasma glucose concentrations when changing from the SFA-rich (8.95 ± 0.6 mmol/L) to the MUFA-rich (6.04 ± 0.31 mmol/L) and CHO-rich (6.35 ± 0.38 mmol/L) diets than did those carrying the minor G allele (SFA, 6.65 ± 0.4 mmol/L; MUFA, 6.45 ± 0.4 mmol/L; CHO, 5.83 ± 0.3 mmol/L) (P sex × gene × diet interaction = 0.016). These differences did not occur in female participants. Furthermore, C/C men had lower plasma adiponectin concentrations than did C/C women (P sex × gene interaction = 0.015), independently of the dietary fat consumed. None of the variables examined were significantly associated with -11426 A > G, 45T > G, or 276 G > T SNP. In conclusion, C/C homozygous men for the -11377 C > G SNP at adipoQ gene were significantly less insulin resistant after consumption of the MUFA- and CHO-rich diets compared with the SFA-rich diet. This information should help in the identification of vulnerable populations or persons who will benefit from more personalized and mechanism-based dietary recommendations. PMID:18716158

  19. Weight Management and Calories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Weight Management You are here Home Weight Management Error message ... page.preprocess.inc ). Print Share Why is weight management important? In addition to helping you feel and ...

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ADIPOQ gene locus interact with age and dietary intake of fat to determine serum adiponectin in subjects at risk of the metabolic syndrome1234

    PubMed Central

    AlSaleh, Aseel; O'Dell, Sandra D; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Jebb, Susan A; Sanders, Thomas AB

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin gene expression is modulated by peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?, which is a transcription factor activated by unsaturated fatty acids. Objective: We investigated the effect of the interaction between variants at the ADIPOQ gene locus, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and the replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or carbohydrates on serum adiponectin concentrations. Design: The RISCK (Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, and Kings) study is a parallel-design, randomized controlled trial. Serum adiponectin concentrations were measured after a 4-wk high-SFA (HS) diet and a 24-wk intervention with reference (HS), high-MUFA (HM), and low-fat (LF) diets. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ADIPOQ locus ?11391 G/A (rs17300539), ?10066 G/A (rs182052), ?7734 A/C (rs16861209), and +276 G/T (rs1501299) were genotyped in 448 participants. Results: In white Europeans, +276 T was associated with higher serum adiponectin concentrations (n = 340; P = 0.006) and ?10066 A was associated with lower serum adiponectin concentrations (n = 360; P = 0.03), after adjustment for age, BMI, and sex. After the HM diet, ?10066 G/G subjects showed a 3.8% increase (95% CI: ?0.1%, 7.7%) and G/A+A/A subjects a 2.6% decrease (95% CI: ?5.6%, 0.4%) in serum adiponectin (P = 0.006 for difference after adjustment for the change in BMI, age, and sex). In ?10066 G/G homozygotes, serum adiponectin increased with age after the HM diet and decreased after the LF diet. Conclusion: In white ?10066 G/G homozygotes, an HM diet may help to increase adiponectin concentrations with advancing age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN29111298. PMID:21562092

  1. High glucose/High Lipids impair vascular adiponectin function via inhibition of caveolin-1/AdipoR1 signalsome formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gai-Zhen; Liang, Bin; Lau, Wayne Bond; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Jianli; Li, Rui; Wang, Xi; Yuan, Yuexing; Lopez, Bernard L; Christopher, Theodore A; Xiao, Chuanshi; Ma, Xin-Liang; Wang, Yajing

    2015-12-01

    Reduced levels of adiponectin (APN) contribute to cardiovascular injury in the diabetic population. Recent studies demonstrate elevated circulating APN levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction during pre-diabetes, suggesting the development of APN resistance. However, mechanisms leading to, and the role of, vascular APN resistance in endothelial dysfunction remain unidentified. The current study determined whether diabetes cause endothelial APN resistance, and by what mechanisms. Under high glucose/high lipids (HG/HL), APN-stimulated nitric oxide production by HUVEC was decreased, phosphorylation of eNOS, AMPK, and Akt was attenuated (P<0.01), and APN's anti-TNF? effect was blunted (P<0.01). APN receptor expression remained normal, whereas Cav1 expression was reduced in HG/HL cells (P<0.01). The AdipoR1/Cav1 signaling complex was dissociated in HG/HL cells. Knock-down of Cav1 inhibited APN's anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. Conversely, preventing HG/HL-induced Cav1 downregulation by Cav1 overexpression preserved APN signaling in HG/HL cells. Knock-in of a wild type Cav1 in Cav1 knock-down cells restored caveolae structure and rescued APN signaling. In contrast, knock-in of a mutated Cav1 scaffolding domain restored caveolae structure, but failed to rescue APN signaling in Cav1 knock-down cells. Finally, AdipoR1/Cav1 interaction was significantly reduced in diabetic vascular tissue, and the vasorelaxative response to APN was impaired in diabetic animals. The current study demonstrates for the first time the interaction between AdipoR1 and Cav1 is critical for adiponectin-mediated vascular signaling. The AdipoR1/Cav1 interaction is adversely affected by HG/HL, due largely to reduced Cav1 expression, supporting a potential mechanism for the development of APN resistance, contributing to diabetic endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26453924

  2. Regulation of lipin1 by nutritional status, adiponectin, sex and pituitary function in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    González, C Ruth; Novelle, Marta G; Caminos, Jorge E; Vázquez, María J; Luque, Raul M; López, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Lipin1 is a member of the lipin protein family that plays an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The endogenous role of lipin1 was demonstrated by the fact that mutations in lipin1 caused lipodystrophy and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional status, pregnancy, insulin-sensitizers and pituitary hormones on lipin1 mRNA levels in adipose tissue of rats. Lipin1 gene expression was induced in conditions of hypoleptinemia (fasting) and leptin resistance (high fat diet), whereas it was decreased by high circulating leptin levels (leptin administration, pregnancy) and in leptin-deficient mice. Lipin1 mRNA levels were also decreased in adiponectin-deficient mice. Lipin1 mRNA levels are influenced by age in female rats, with peak expression at 25th day of life and decreasing thereafter. Consistently, ovariectomy increased lipin1 expression indicating that estrogens modulate lipin1. Finally, lipin1 was also regulated by pituitary hormones, since its expression was modified by thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency. Our observations indicate that: a) gWAT lipin1 mRNA levels are regulated by nutritional status, and leptin plays an important role in this regard, b) lipin1 is modulated by adiponectin, c) lipin1 is influenced by age and sex, and d) alterations in pituitary function modify lipin1 mRNA levels. To dissect the complicated interactions between key regulators of lipid metabolism like lipin1, may be important for the development of new therapies for the treatment and prevention of obesity and its associated disorders. PMID:22051776

  3. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  4. Novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) and insulin resistance (IRAR) indexes are useful integrated diagnostic biomarkers for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and resistin levels to povide a better indicator of the metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders. In addition, a novel insulin resistance (IRAR) index was proposed by integration of the AR index into an existing insulin resistance index to provide an improved diagnostic biomarker of insulin sensitivity. Methods In this case control study, anthropometric clinical and metabolic parameters including fasting serum total adiponectin and resistin levels were determined in 809 Malaysian men (208 controls, 174 MS without T2DM, 171 T2DM without MS, 256 T2DM with MS) whose ages ranged between 40-70 years old. Significant differences in continuous variables among subject groups were confirmed by ANCOVA or MANCOVA test using 1,000 stratified bootstrap samples with bias corrected and accelerated (BCa) 95% CI. Spearman's rho rank correlation test was used to test the correlation between two variables. Results The AR index was formulated as 1+log10(R0)-log10(A0). The AR index was more strongly associated with increased risk of T2DM and MS than hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia alone. The AR index was more strongly correlated with the insulin resistance indexes and key metabolic endpoints of T2DM and MS than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The AR index was also correlated with a higher number of MS components than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The IRAR index was formulated as log10(I0G0)+log10(I0G0)log10(R0/A0). The normal reference range of the IRAR index for insulin sensitive individuals was between 3.265 and 3.538. The minimum cut-off values of the IRAR index for insulin resistance assessment were between 3.538 and 3.955. Conclusions The novel AR and IRAR indexes are cost-effective, precise, reproducible and reliable integrated diagnostic biomarkers of insulin sensitivity for screening subjects with increased risk of future development of T2DM and MS. PMID:21251282

  5. Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.

    PubMed

    de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Elias, Natália; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; de Piano, Aline; Carnier, June; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (?HOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (?adiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (?carotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ?HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population. PMID:21124323

  6. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight

  7. Associations among Endocrine, Inflammatory, and Bone Markers, Body Composition and Physical Activity to Weight Loss Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Labouesse, Marie A.; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Souza, Elaine C.; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Witbracht, Megan G.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Van Loan, Marta D.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. PURPOSE Our aims were to 1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; 2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; 3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC METHODS Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28–37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (?500 kcal/d; ?2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3–4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2 ± 8.8y) or low dairy (LD: ? 1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7 ± 8.4 y). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. RESULTS Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p= 0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post- body fat were negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r= ?0.28, p=0.04 to ?0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1?, TNF? and CRP ranging from r = ?0.29 (p=0.04) to r = ?0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss Factors. Pre-weight loss Factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss Factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the Factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. CONCLUSION AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD. Significant negative associations were observed between bone and inflammatory markers suggesting inflammation suppresses bone metabolism. Using Factor Analysis, 19.6% of total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD could be explained by endocrine, immune, and anthropometric variables, but not lumbar spine BMD. PMID:24709689

  8. Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights

    E-print Network

    Bai, Fengshan

    , and a large amount of experimental results are presented. Index Terms--Data mining, ranking association rulesMining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between

  9. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  10. Adiponectin expression and the cardioprotective role of the vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in ApoE-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kazim; Ferder, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the number one cause of death in the US. The adipokine adiponectin has been studied intensively for presenting and inversed association with almost every stage of CHD. For instance, the evaluation of molecules capable of enhancing endogenous adiponectin expression is well justified. In this study, we investigated the effect of the vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) paricalcitol and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril on adiponectin expression, lipid profiles, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), antioxidant capcity, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), Mn-SOD, NADPH p22phox subunits, inducible nitric oxidesynthase (iNOS), endothelial marker eNOS, and 81 atherosclerosis-related genes in ApoE-deficient mice. Method Seven-week-old ApoE-deficient mice were treated for 16 weeks as follows: Group 1, ApoE vehicle control (intraperitoneal [i.p.] 100 ?l propylene glycol); Group 2, ApoE-paricalcitol (200 ng i.p., 3/week); Group 3, ApoE-Enalapril (30 mg/kg daily); Group 4, ApoE-paricalcitol + enalapril (described dosing); and Group 5, wild-type control (C57BLV). Results All treated groups presented significant changes in circulating and cardiac adiponectin, cardiac cholesterol levels, AMPK, MCP-1, TNF-?, COX-2, iNOS, eNOS, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and p22phox. There were 15 genes that differed in their expression, 5 of which are involved in cardioprotection and antithrombotic mechanisms: Bcl2a1a, Col3a1, Spp1 (upregulated), Itga2, and Vwf (downregulated). Conclusion Together, our data presented a novel role for VDRA and ACEI in reducing factors associated with CHD that may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic venues. PMID:25037058

  11. Blood pressure decrease with ingestion of a soya product (kinako) or fish oil in women with the metabolic syndrome: role of adiponectin and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Simão, Tathiana Name Colado; Matsuo, Tiemi; Dichi, Isaias

    2012-10-28

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of fish oil and a soya-based product on inflammatory markers and endothelial function measured by NO in women with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of sixty-five women (mean age: 47·9 (SD 9·98) years) were studied in a 90-d parallel, randomised design. A control group maintained their usual diet; the second group received 29 g/d of soyabean (kinako); the third group received 3 g/d of fish oil n-3 fatty acids; and the fourth group received fish oil (3 g/d) and kinako (29 g/d). Anthropometric, blood pressure (BP), inflammatory markers, anti-inflammatory marker (adiponectin) and NO concentrations were evaluated. In relation to the baseline values, the group that received fish oil and kinako concomitantly presented a statistically significant decrease in systolic BP (SBP; P < 0·05), whereas there was a significant decrease in diastolic BP (DBP) in the control group (P < 0·05), kinako group (P < 0·01) and fish oil group (P < 0·01) after 90 d. There was a significant increase in adiponectin (P < 0·01) and NO values (P < 0·05) after 90 d in the kinako and fish oil groups. Differences between treatment groups verified a significant decrease (P < 0·05) in DBP in the kinako group after 90 d when compared to the results obtained from the fish oil and kinako groups. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin and NO metabolite levels after 90 d, both in the fish oil and soya groups, reinforce the importance of the influence of adiponectin and NO levels on BP decrease in patients with the MetS. PMID:22313793

  12. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... porphyrias because reducing the intakes of carbohydrate and energy in an effort to lose weight can worsen ... attempted to lose weight rapidly with very low energy diets. Patients with acute Porphyria should avoid very ...

  13. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you lose weight. If you are patient, you may be surprised at how much weight you lose naturally while breastfeeding.

  14. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share ... Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the ...

  15. Weighted and controlled frames

    E-print Network

    Peter Balazs; Jean-Pierre Antoine; Anna Grybos

    2009-02-12

    Weighted and controlled frames have been introduced recently to improve the numerical efficiency of iterative algorithms for inverting the frame operator. In this paper we develop systematically these notions, including their mutual relationship. We will show that controlled frames are equivalent to standard frames and so this concept gives a generalized way to check the frame condition, while offering a numerical advantage in the sense of preconditioning. Next, we investigate weighted frames, in particular their relation to controlled frames. We consider the special case of semi-normalized weights, where the concepts of weighted frames and standard frames are interchangeable. We also make the connection with frame multipliers. Finally we analyze weighted frames numerically. First we investigate three possibilities for finding weights in order to tighten a given frame, i.e., decrease the frame bound ratio. Then we examine Gabor frames and how well the canonical dual of a weighted frame is approximated by the inversely weighted dual frame.

  16. Intravenous Mycobacterium Bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese, Diabetic ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inafuku, Masashi; Matsuzaki, Goro; Oku, Hirosuke

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and immune response profoundly influence metabolic syndrome and fatty acid metabolism. To analyze influence of systemic inflammatory response to metabolic syndrome, we inoculated an attenuated vaccine strain of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) into leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. BCG administration significantly decreased epididymal white adipose tissue weight, serum insulin levels, and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Serum high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin level and HMW/total adiponectin ratio of the BCG treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation and macrovesicular steatosis were markedly alleviated, and the enzymatic activities and mRNA levels of lipogenic-related genes in liver were significantly decreased in the BCG injected mice. We also exposed human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to high levels of palmitate, which enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and impaired insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation (Ser473). BCG treatment ameliorated both of these detrimental events. The present study therefore suggested that BCG administration suppressed development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, at least partly, by alleviating fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in the liver. PMID:26039731

  17. Serum Levels of the Adipokine Zinc-?2-glycoprotein Are Decreased in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui Juan; Wang, Xiang qing; Pan, Hui; Gong, Feng ying; Zhang, Dian xi; Li, Nai shi; Wang, Lin jie; Yang, Hong bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Zinc-?2-glycoprotein (ZAG) has recently been proposed as a new adipokine involved in body weight regulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate serum levels of ZAG in patients with hypertension and its association with related characteristics. Methods. 32 hypertension patients and 42 normal controls were recruited and the relationship between serum ZAG, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and metabolic-related parameters was investigated. Results. Serum ZAG concentrations were significantly lowered in patients with hypertension compared with healthy controls (61.4 ± 32 versus 78.3 ± 42??g/mL, P < 0.05). The further statistical analysis demonstrated that serum ZAG levels were negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r = ?0.241, P < 0.05) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (r = ?0.243, P < 0.05). Additionally, serum HMW adiponectin significantly decreased, while TNF? greatly increased in hypertension patients as compared with healthy controls (2.32 ± 0.41 versus 5.24 ± 1.02??g/mL, 3.30 ± 1.56 versus 2.34 ± 0.99?pg/mL, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Serum ZAG levels are significantly lowered in hypertension patients and negatively correlated with obesity-related item WHR, suggesting ZAG is a factor associated with hypertension. PMID:24665369

  18. Meta-analyses of the Association of Sleep Apnea with Insulin Resistance, and the Effects of CPAP on HOMA-IR, Adiponectin, and Visceral Adipose Fat

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Imran H.; Hoyos, Camilla M.; Phillips, Craig L.; Magalang, Ulysses J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on insulin resistance, as measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), visceral abdominal fat (VAF), and adiponectin. Additionally, we performed a separate meta-analysis and meta-regression of studies on the association of insulin resistance and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: All included studies were searched from PubMed (from conception to March 15, 2014). Data were pooled across all included RCTs as the mean difference in HOMA-IR and VAF, and as the standardized mean difference in the case of adiponectin analysis. From the included case-control studies, data on the difference of HOMA-IR between cases and controls were pooled across all studies, as the standardized mean difference (SMD). Results: There was a significant difference in HOMA-IR (?0.43 [95% CIs: ?0.75 to ?0.11], p = 0.008) between CPAP treated and non CPAP treated participants. However, there was no significant difference in VAF or adiponectin; (?47.93 [95% CI: ?112.58 to 16.72], p = 0.14) and (?0.06 [95% CI: ?0.28 to 0.15], p = 0.56), respectively. Meta-analysis of 16 case-control studies showed a pooled SMD in HOMA-IR of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.28 to 0.75), p ? 0.001, between cases and controls. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analyses show that CPAP has a favorable effect on insulin resistance. This effect is not associated with any significant changes in total adiponectin levels or amount of VAF. Our findings also confirm a significant association between OSA and insulin resistance. Citation: Iftikhar IH, Hoyos CM, Phillips CL, Magalang UJ. Meta-analyses of the association of sleep apnea with insulin resistance, and the effects of CPAP on HOMA-IR, adiponectin, and visceral adipose fat. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):475–485. PMID:25700870

  19. Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)in the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF was significantly increased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of adipoR1 was decreased and the expression of MCP-1 and NF-?B was increased in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Telmisartan treatment significantly attenuated these changes in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-?B in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats. PMID:22873349

  20. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from the extensive geochemical and analytical framework that was meticulo

  1. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887

  2. Inverse Levels of Adiponectin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Are in Accordance with the State of Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Jazbec, Anamarija; Tomic, Martina; Piljac, Ante; Jurisic Erzen, Dubravka; Novak, Branko; Kastelan, Snjezana; Lovrencic, Marijana Vucic; Brkljacic, Neva

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the behaviour of adiponectin (ApN) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Methods. ApN and inflammatory and other markers of the metabolic syndrome were compared across diabetes types, albumin excretion rate (AER), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories in 219 type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Results. Significant differences among ApN levels according to AER were found in both types of diabetes (F = 8.45, df = 2, P < 0.001). With the progression of albuminuria, ApN increased in type 1 and decreased in type 2 diabetes. Patients with decreased CrCl had higher ApN levels than those with normal CrCl in either type of diabetes (F = 12.7, df = 1, P < 0.001). The best model for ApN (R2 = 0.9002) obtained from stepwise regression in type 1 diabetes included CrCl, BMI, WBC, CRP, and age, while in type 2 diabetes (R2 = 0.2882) it included ppPG, LDL, and UA. Conclusion. ApN behaved differently in relation to albuminuria, increasing with its progression in type 1 diabetes and decreasing in type 2 diabetes. It was however increased in the subgroups with decreased CrCl in both types of diabetes. Albuminuria seems to be more important than renal insufficiency in the definition of ApN levels in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26089882

  3. Coexpression of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1 and Puroindoline Improves Dough Mixing Properties in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum wheat. PMID:23185532

  4. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum wheat. PMID:23185532

  5. Overexpression of high molecular weight FGF-2 forms inhibits glioma growth by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemiere, Sylvie; Azar, Rania; Belloc, Francis; Guersel, Demir; Pyronnet, Stephane; Bikfalvi, Andreas Auguste, Patrick

    2008-12-10

    In order to clarify the role of HMW FGF-2 in glioma development and angiogenesis, we over-expressed different human FGF-2 isoforms in C6 rat glioma cell line using a tetracycline-regulated expression system. Phenotypic modifications were analyzed in vitro and compared to untransfected cells or to cells over-expressing 18 kDa FGF-2 or all FGF-2 isoforms. In particular, we demonstrate that HMW FGF-2 has unique features in inhibiting glioma cell proliferation. HMW FGF-2 expressing cells showed a cell-cycle arrest at the G2M, demonstrating a role of HMW FGF-2 in controlling the entry in mitosis. Moreover, hydroxyurea was ineffective in blocking cells at the G1S boundary when HMW FGF-2 was expressed. We also show that the HMW FGF-2 isoforms inhibit 4E-BP1 phosphorylation at critical sites restoring the translation inhibitory activity of 4E-BP1. In vivo, inhibition of tumor growth was observed when cells expressed HMW FGF-2. This indicates that HMW FGF-2 inhibits tumor growth in glioma cells by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation.

  6. Altered body composition and energy expenditure but normal glucose tolerance among humans with a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Cary O.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Matern, Dietrich; Purnell, Jonathan Q.

    2013-01-01

    The development of insulin resistance has been associated with impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), but the exact relationship between FAO capacity and glucose metabolism continues to be debated. To address this controversy, patients with long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and measurement of energy expenditure, body composition, and plasma metabolites. Compared with controls, patients with LCHAD deficiency had a trend toward higher total body fat and extramyocellular lipid deposition but similar levels of intramyocelluar and intrahepatic lipids. Resting energy expenditure was similar between the groups, but respiratory quotient was higher and total energy expenditure was lower in LCHAD-deficient patients compared with controls. High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were lower and plasma long-chain acylcarnitines were higher among LCHAD-deficient patients. Fasting and post-OGTT levels of glucose, insulin, and ghrelin, along with estimates of insulin sensitivity, were the same between the groups. Despite decreased capacity for FAO, lower total energy expenditure and plasma HMW adiponectin, and increased plasma acylcarnitines, LCHAD-deficient patients exhibited normal glucose tolerance. These data suggest that inhibition of the FAO pathway in humans is not sufficient to induce insulin resistance. PMID:24064340

  7. Effect of sitagliptin on the working memory and reference memory in type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats: possible role of adiponectin receptors 1.

    PubMed

    Sakr, H F

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased incidence of behavioral changes and memory loss. Memory loss could be caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). So, we aimed to investigate the effect of sitagliptin in improving the working and reference memories in diabetic rats. Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats divided equally (n=12) into three groups: control, type 2 DM and type 2 DM treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) for one month (10 mg/kg) orally. Working memory and reference memory were assessed by using the holeboard memory test. In all rats, serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), TG, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoprotein with calculation of the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and atherogenic index. The hypothalamus was separated for determination of the acetylcholine level and adiponectin receptors 1 (Adipo R1) m-RNA expression. Type 2 diabetic rats exhibited a significant decrease in both working and reference memories, with increased glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. The adiponectin level, acetylcholine content of the hypothalamus and Adipo R1 m-RNA expression were significantly reduced. Treatment with sitagliptin significantly improved the working and reference memories with significant reduction in the glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Moreover, sitagliptin increased significantly the acetylcholine content of the hypothalamus and Adipo R1 expression. In conclusion, sitagliptin might improve the cognitive function of the diabetic rats and the hypothalamic acetylcholine level possibly through increased AdipoR1 expression. PMID:24304575

  8. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than those at baseline even 30 minutes after WWB with tap water ( P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels showed a slight, but not significant, increase both immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB with tap water or ISCO2. Some parameters, such as serum total cholesterol, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  9. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?µg) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  10. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  11. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  12. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  13. Critical Role of AMPK/FoxO3A Axis in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anup; Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Chang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Park, Gyu Hwan; Jung, Sunghee; Lim, Jaecheong; Cho, Eunha; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Adiponectin predominantly secreted from adipose tissue has exhibited potent anti-proliferative properties in cancer cells via modulating cell cycle and apoptosis. FoxO3A, a Forkhead box O member of the transcription factor, plays a critical role in modulating expression of genes involved in cell death and/or survival. In this study, we investigated the role of FoxO3A signaling in anti-cancer activities of adiponectin. Herein, we have shown that treatment with globular adiponectin (gAcrp) increases p27 but decreases cyclinD1 expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Gene ablation of FoxO3A prevented gAcrp-induced increase in p27 and decreased in cyclin D1 expression, and further ameliorated cell cycle arrest by gAcrp, indicating a critical role of FoxO3A in gAcrp-induced cell cycle arrest of cancer cells. Moreover, treatment with gAcrp also induced caspase-3/7 activation and increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Transfection with FoxO3A siRNA inhibited gAcrp-induced caspase-3/7 activation and FasL expression, suggesting that FoxO3A signaling also plays an important role in gAcrp-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We also found that gene silencing of AMPK prevented gAcrp-induced nuclear translocation of FoxO3A in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, suppression of AMPK also blocked gAcrp-induced cell cycle arrest and further attenuated gAcrp-induced caspase-3/7 activation, indicating that AMPK signaling plays a pivotal role in both gAcrp-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via acting as an upstream signaling of FoxO3A. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that AMPK/FoxO3A axis plays a cardinal role in anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin in cancer cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 357-369, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26089158

  14. Hemin therapy improves kidney function in male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of the heme oxygenase/atrial natriuretic peptide/adiponectin axis.

    PubMed

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Jadhav, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by elevated macrophage infiltration and inflammation. Although heme-oxygenase (HO) is cytoprotective, its role in macrophage infiltration and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is not completely elucidated. Administering the HO inducer, hemin, to streptozotocin-diabetic rats suppressed renal proinflammatory macrophage-M1 phenotype alongside several proinflammatory agents, chemokines, and cytokines including macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), macrophage-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and aldosterone, a stimulator of the inflammatory/oxidative transcription factor, NF-?B. Similarly, hemin therapy attenuated extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins implicated in renal injury including fibronectin, collagen-IV, and TGF-?1 and reduced several renal histopathological lesions such as glomerulosclerosis, tubular necrosis, tubular vacuolization, and interstitial macrophage infiltration. Furthermore, hemin reduced markers of kidney dysfunction like proteinuria and albuminuria but increased creatinine clearance, suggesting improved kidney function. Correspondingly, hemin significantly enhanced the antiinflammatory macrophage-M2 phenotype, IL-10, adiponectin, HO-1, HO activity, and atrial natriuretic-peptide (ANP), a substance that abates TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?, with parallel increase of urinary cGMP, a surrogate marker of ANP. Contrarily, coadministering the HO inhibitor, chromium-mesoporphyrin with the HO-inducer, hemin nullified the antidiabetic and renoprotective effects, whereas administering chromium-mesoporphyrin alone abrogated basal HO activity, reduced basal adiponectin and ANP levels, aggravated hyperglycemia, and further increased MCP-1, MIP-1?, aldosterone, NF-?B, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, proteinuria/albuminuria, and aggravated creatinine clearance, thus exacerbating renal dysfunction, suggesting the importance of the basal HO-adiponectin-ANP axis in renoprotection and kidney function. Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by selectively enhancing the antiinflammatory macrophage-M2 phenotype and IL-10 while concomitantly abating the proinflammatory macrophage-M1 phenotype and suppressing extracellular matrix/profibrotic factors with reduction of renal lesions including interstitial macrophage infiltration. Because aldosterone stimulate NF-?B, which activates cytokines like TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? that in turn stimulate chemokines such as MCP-1 and MIP-1? to promote macrophage-M1 infiltration, the hemin-dependent potentiation of the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis may account for reduced macrophage infiltration and inflammatory insults in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. PMID:24140713

  15. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  16. Association between polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (APM-1) and atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in a Hainan Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    He, P; Chen, X L; Ding, Y P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (APM-1) and atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) in a Chinese Han population of Hainan Province. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to analyze the distribution of APM-1 +45T/G and +276G/T genotypes and their alleles in 120 ACI patients and 120 healthy controls. No statistical correlation was found in the frequency and distribution of the genotype 45T/G between the ACI group and the control group. Genotypic frequencies of GG, GT, and TT at the APM-1 +276 locus were 70.0% (84/120), 25.0% (30/120), and 5.0% (6/120), respectively, in the ACI group, while these values were 52.5% (63/120), 37.5% (45/120), and 10.0% (12/120), respectively, in the control group. The frequency of the G allele was 82.5% (198/240) in the ACI group and 71.25% (171/240) in the control group. The T allele frequency was 17.5% (42/240) in the ACI group and 28.75% (69/240) in the control group. Polymorphisms at the APM-1 -276 locus in the case-controlled groups showed significant differences in the genotype distribution and al-lele frequency between the 2 groups (P = 0.041). The occurrence of ACI in the Hainan Chinese Han population may be associated with +276G/T polymorphisms but not with +45T/G polymorphisms in the APM-1 gene. PMID:25966186

  17. Enriched environment decreases microglia and brain macrophages inflammatory phenotypes through adiponectin-dependent mechanisms: Relevance to depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Chabry, Joëlle; Nicolas, Sarah; Cazareth, Julie; Murris, Emilie; Guyon, Alice; Glaichenhaus, Nicolas; Heurteaux, Catherine; Petit-Paitel, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of neuroinflammation by glial cells plays a major role in the pathophysiology of major depression. While astrocyte involvement has been well described, the role of microglia is still elusive. Recently, we have shown that Adiponectin (ApN) plays a crucial role in the anxiolytic/antidepressant neurogenesis-independent effects of enriched environment (EE) in mice; however its mechanisms of action within the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that in a murine model of depression induced by chronic corticosterone administration, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus display increased levels of inflammatory cytokines mRNA, which is reversed by EE housing. By combining flow cytometry, cell sorting and q-PCR, we show that microglia from depressive-like mice adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by higher expression levels of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and I?B-? mRNAs. EE housing blocks pro-inflammatory cytokine gene induction and promotes arginase 1 mRNA expression in brain-sorted microglia, indicating that EE favors an anti-inflammatory activation state. We show that microglia and brain-macrophages from corticosterone-treated mice adopt differential expression profiles for CCR2, MHC class II and IL-4rec? surface markers depending on whether the mice are kept in standard environment or EE. Interestingly, the effects of EE were abolished when cells are isolated from ApN knock-out mouse brains. When injected intra-cerebroventricularly, ApN, whose level is specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid of depressive mice raised in EE, rescues microglia phenotype, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by microglia and blocks depressive-like behavior in corticosterone-treated mice. Our data suggest that EE-induced ApN increase within the brain regulates microglia and brain macrophages phenotype and activation state, thus reducing neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice. PMID:26209808

  18. Palmitate induces ER stress and autophagy in H9c2 cells: implications for apoptosis and adiponectin resistance.

    PubMed

    Park, Min; Sabetski, Anna; Kwan Chan, Yee; Turdi, Subat; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The association between obesity and heart failure is well documented and recent studies have indicated that understanding the physiological role of autophagy will be of great significance. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one component of cardiac remodeling which leads to heart failure and in this study we used palmitate-treated H9c2 cells as an in vitro model of lipotoxicity to investigate the role of autophagy in cell death. Temporal analysis revealed that palmitate (100??M) treatment induced a gradual increase of intracellular lipid accumulation as well as apoptotic cell death. Palmitate induced autophagic flux, determined via increased LC3-II formation and p62 degradation as well as by detecting reduced colocalization of GFP with RFP in cells overexpressing tandem fluorescent GFP/RFP-LC3. The increased level of autophagy indicated by these measures were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Upon inhibiting autophagy using bafilomycin we observed an increased level of palmitate-induced cell death assessed by Annexin V/PI staining, detection of active caspase-3 and MTT cell viability assay. Interestingly, using TEM and p-PERK or p-eIF2? detection we observed increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in response to palmitate. Autophagy was induced as an adaptive response against ER stress since it was sensitive to ER stress inhibition. Palmitate-induced ER stress also induced adiponectin resistance, assessed via AMPK phosphorylation, via reducing APPL1 expression. This effect was independent of palmitate-induced autophagy. In summary, our data indicate that palmitate induces autophagy subsequent to ER stress and that this confers a prosurvival effect against lipotoxicity-induced cell death. Palmitate-induced ER stress also led to adiponecin resistance. PMID:25164368

  19. Metabolic and behavioral characteristics of metabolically obese but normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Conus, Florence; Allison, David B; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; St-Onge, Maxime; St-Pierre, David H; Tremblay-Lebeau, Andréanne; Poehlman, Eric T

    2004-10-01

    A unique subset of individuals termed metabolically obese but normal weight (MONW) has been identified. These young women are potentially at increased risk for development of the metabolic syndrome despite their young age and normal body mass index. We seek to determine metabolic and behavioral factors that could potentially distinguish MONW women from young women with a normal metabolic profile.Ninety-six women were classified as MONW (n = 12) or non-MONW (n = 84) based on a cut point of insulin sensitivity (as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment). Potentially distinguishing phenotypes between groups measured included serum lipids, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, body composition and body fat distribution, resting and physical activity energy expenditure, peak oxygen uptake, dietary intake, dietary behavior, and family history and lifestyle variables. Despite a similar body mass index between groups, MONW women showed higher percent body fat, lower fat-free mass, lower physical activity energy expenditure, and lower peak oxygen uptake than non-MONW women. Plasma cholesterol level was higher in MONW women, whereas no differences were noted for other blood lipids, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and resting energy expenditure. MONW women had lower dietary restraint scores than non-MONW women, but no differences were noted in disinhibition, hunger, and dietary intake. Stepwise regression analysis performed on all subjects showed that 33.5% of the unique variance of the homeostasis model assessment was explained with the variables of percentage of body fat (17.1%), level of dietary restraint (10.4%), and age (6%). Both metabolic and dietary behavioral variables contribute to the deleterious metabolic profile of MONW women. They display lower insulin sensitivity due potentially to a cluster of sedentary behavior patterns that contribute to their higher adiposity. Furthermore, cognitive attitudes toward food (i.e. dietary restraint) and concomitant lifestyle behaviors may play a role in regulating insulin sensitivity in MONW women. PMID:15472199

  20. Bath BA2 7AY United Kingdom Telephone: +44 (0)1225 386822

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    of a single polypeptide (surface layer protein A, SlpA) into low and high molecular weight subunits (LMW SLP and HMW SLP, respectively) by Cwp84, a surface located cysteine protease. The HMW SLP contains 3 putative

  1. Restraint, weight loss, and variability of body weight.

    PubMed

    Heatherton, T F; Polivy, J; Herman, C P

    1991-02-01

    Restrained and unrestrained subjects (n = 24) were weighed daily for a 6-week period and again 6 months later in order to determine whether dietary restraint or relative body weight is the better predictor of weight variability. Restraint was a significantly better predictor of naturally occurring weight fluctuations than was relative body weight. Furthermore, the 2 factors of the Restraint Scale, Concern for Dieting and Weight Fluctuations, were both significant predictors of weight variability. We propose that exaggerated weight fluctuations are not a natural concomitant of higher body weight but possibly the consequence of a cycle of dieting and overeating, which seems to preclude actual weight loss. PMID:2005275

  2. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their risk for developing type 2 diabetes. What changes in eating habits can help you lose weight? Most people need ... care provider can help you decide how to change your eating habits. Choices include • Eating fewer calories than usual. This ...

  3. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ...

  4. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  5. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  6. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  7. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (Hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling due to a buildup of fluid in the tissues can cause weight gain. This may be due to menstruation, ...

  8. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare Healthy Meals Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals ... are here Home / Interactive Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Error message ...

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Prevents Atherosclerosis by Suppression of Hepatic Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-2 and Induction of Adiponectin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuofeng; Pan, Xuebo; Wu, Fan; Ye, Dewei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Jin, Leigang; Lian, Qizhou; Huang, Yu; Ding, Hong; Triggle, Chris; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background— Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. It acts as a key downstream target of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and ?, the agonists of which have been used for lipid lowering and insulin sensitization, respectively. However, the role of FGF21 in the cardiovascular system remains elusive. Methods and Results— The roles of FGF21 in atherosclerosis were investigated by evaluating the impact of FGF21 deficiency and replenishment with recombinant FGF21 in apolipoprotein E?/? mice. FGF21 deficiency causes a marked exacerbation of atherosclerotic plaque formation and premature death in apolipoprotein E?/? mice, which is accompanied by hypoadiponectinemia and severe hypercholesterolemia. Replenishment of FGF21 protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E?/?mice via 2 independent mechanisms, inducing the adipocyte production of adiponectin, which in turn acts on the blood vessels to inhibit neointima formation and macrophage inflammation, and suppressing the hepatic expression of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, thereby leading to reduced cholesterol synthesis and attenuation of hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with adiponectin partially reverses atherosclerosis without obvious effects on hypercholesterolemia in FGF21-deficient apolipoprotein E?/? mice. By contrast, the cholesterol-lowering effects of FGF21 are abrogated by hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. Conclusions— FGF21 protects against atherosclerosis via fine tuning the multiorgan crosstalk among liver, adipose tissue, and blood vessels. PMID:25794851

  10. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  11. Study of the correlation between growth hormone deficiency and serum leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels in adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-P; Zhang, M; Gao, J; Zhou, G-Y; Li, S-Q; An, Z-M

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the significance and changes in leptin, adiponectin (ADP), and visfatin levels in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Forty adults (19 men, 21 women) who had been diagnosed with GHD comprised the observation group, while 36 healthy adults (18 men, 18 women) were used as the control group. Fasting venous blood was collected to detect leptin, ADP, and visfatin levels. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the GHD group and the control group in terms of gender ratio, age, and body mass index. The waist-to-hip ratio (0.894 ± 0.061 vs 0.830 ± 0.481), cholesterol (4.99 ± 1.046 vs 4.18 ± 0.683), triglyceride (1.97 ± 1.428 vs 1.08 ± 0.403), LDL (2.91 ± 0.980 vs 2.29 ± 0.540), leptin (3.00 ± 1.233 vs 1.89 ± 1.554), ADP (15.26 ± 6.449 vs 10.24 ± 7.608), and visfatin levels (10.42 ± 3.715 vs 5.87 ± 3.90) in the GHD group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). The levels of growth hormone (1.68 ± 1.67 vs 15.53 ± 6.23), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 22.64 ± 16.41 vs 61.85 ± 28.48), IGF-binding protein-3 (4889 ± 2962 vs 6866 ± 3823), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (1.466 ± 1.804 vs 6.000 ± 2.767) in the GHD group were significantly lower than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that leptin level was positively correlated to ADP and visfatin in both the GHD and control groups and negatively correlated to IGF-1 (r = 0.332, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that leptin, ADP, and visfatin were independent risk factors for adults with GHD. PMID:24615119

  12. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  13. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  14. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  15. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  16. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

  17. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  18. Comparison of Glucostatic Parameters After Hypocaloric Diet or Bariatric Surgery and Equivalent Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Plum, Leona; Ahmed, Leaque; Febres, Gerardo; Bessler, Marc; Inabnet, William; Kunreuther, Elizabeth; McMahon, Donald J.; Korner, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Weight-loss independent mechanisms may play an important role in the improvement of glucose homeostasis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The objective of this analysis was to determine whether RYGB causes greater improvement in glucostatic parameters as compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) or low calorie diet (LCD) after equivalent weight loss and independent of enteral nutrient passage. Study 1 recruited participants without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent LAGB (n = 8) or RYGB (n = 9). Study 2 recruited subjects with T2DM who underwent LCD (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7). Insulin-supplemented frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (fsIVGTT) was performed before and after equivalent weight reduction. MINMOD analysis of insulin sensitivity (Si), acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and C-peptide (ACPRg) response to glucose, and insulin secretion normalized to the degree of insulin resistance (disposition index (DI)) were analyzed. Weight loss was comparable in all groups (7.8 ± 0.4%). In Study 1, significant improvement of Si, ACPRg, and DI were observed only after LAGB. In Study 2, Si, ACPRg, and plasma adiponectin increased significantly in the RYGB-DM group but not in LCD. DI improved in both T2DM groups, but the absolute increase was greater after RYGB (258.2 ± 86.6 vs. 55.9 ± 19.9; P < 0.05). Antidiabetic medications were discontinued after RYGB contrasting with 55% reduction in the number of medications after LCD. No intervention affected fasting glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, peptide YY (PYY) or ghrelin levels. In conclusion, RYGB produced greater improvement in Si and DI compared with diet at equivalent weight loss in T2DM subjects. Such a beneficial effect was not observed in nondiabetic subjects at this early time-point. PMID:21593800

  19. Multi-Biomarkers for Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes, Including 10- and 12-(Z,E)-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids, Insulin, Leptin, and Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Umeno, Aya; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Shichiri, Mototada; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found that fasting plasma levels of totally assessed 10- and 12-(Z,E)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) correlated well with levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT); these levels were determined via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after reduction and saponification. However, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE alone cannot perfectly detect early impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or insulin resistance, which ultimately lead to diabetes. In this study, we randomly recruited healthy volunteers (n = 57) who had no known history of any diseases, and who were evaluated using the OGTT, the HODE biomarkers, and several additional proposed biomarkers, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glycoalbumin, and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein. The OGTT revealed that our volunteers included normal individuals (n = 44; Group N), "high-normal" individuals (fasting plasma glucose 100-109 mg/dL) with IGT (n = 11; Group HN+IGT), and diabetic individuals (n = 2; Group D). We then used these groups to evaluate the potential biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of RBP4 and glycoalbumin were higher in Group HN+IGT, compared to those in Group N, and fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids were significantly correlated with levels of RBP4 (p = 0.003, r = 0.380) and glycoalbumin (p = 0.006, r = 0.316). Furthermore, we developed a stepwise multiple linear regression models to predict the individuals' insulin resistance index (the Matsuda Index 3). Fasting plasma levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin were selected as the explanatory variables for the models. The risks of type 2 diabetes, early IGT, and insulin resistance were perfectly predicted by comparing fasting glucose levels to the estimated Matsuda Index 3 (fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin). PMID:26132231

  20. Multi-Biomarkers for Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes, Including 10- and 12-(Z,E)-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic Acids, Insulin, Leptin, and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Aya; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Shichiri, Mototada; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found that fasting plasma levels of totally assessed 10- and 12-(Z,E)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) correlated well with levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT); these levels were determined via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry after reduction and saponification. However, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE alone cannot perfectly detect early impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or insulin resistance, which ultimately lead to diabetes. In this study, we randomly recruited healthy volunteers (n = 57) who had no known history of any diseases, and who were evaluated using the OGTT, the HODE biomarkers, and several additional proposed biomarkers, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glycoalbumin, and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein. The OGTT revealed that our volunteers included normal individuals (n = 44; Group N), “high-normal” individuals (fasting plasma glucose 100–109 mg/dL) with IGT (n = 11; Group HN+IGT), and diabetic individuals (n = 2; Group D). We then used these groups to evaluate the potential biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of RBP4 and glycoalbumin were higher in Group HN+IGT, compared to those in Group N, and fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids were significantly correlated with levels of RBP4 (p = 0.003, r = 0.380) and glycoalbumin (p = 0.006, r = 0.316). Furthermore, we developed a stepwise multiple linear regression models to predict the individuals’ insulin resistance index (the Matsuda Index 3). Fasting plasma levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin were selected as the explanatory variables for the models. The risks of type 2 diabetes, early IGT, and insulin resistance were perfectly predicted by comparing fasting glucose levels to the estimated Matsuda Index 3 (fasting levels of 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODE/linoleic acids, insulin, and leptin/adiponectin). PMID:26132231

  1. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  2. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  3. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  4. Weighted Clones Libor Barto

    E-print Network

    Barto, Libor

    Weighted Clones Libor Barto Department of Algebra Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University in Prague AAA 89, February 27, 2015 #12;what is this talk about? clones relational clones why study clones: almost whole UA + fun why study relational clones: CSP why we care about : UA CSP

  5. Weight-loss medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more a month. Consider whether the cost, side effects, and the small weight loss you can expect are worth it to you. Your body may not absorb important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from food while you are using orlistat. You should take ...

  6. Weight loss is associated with improved endothelial dysfunction via NOX2-generated oxidative stress down-regulation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angelico, Francesco; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Augelletti, Teresa; Carnevale, Roberto; Pacella, Antonio; Albanese, Fabiana; Mancini, Ilaria; Di Santo, Serena; Del Ben, Maria; Violi, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adherence to a restricted-calorie, Mediterranean-type diet improves endothelial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. A moderately low-calorie (600 calories/day negative energy balance), low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (<30% energy from fat, <10% from saturated fat and 55% from carbohydrate) was prescribed to 53 outpatients with the metabolic syndrome. Participants were divided into two groups according to body weight loss > or < 5% after 6 months. Group A (n = 23) showed a remarkable decrease in body weight (-6.8%), body-mass-index (-4.6%), waist circumference (-4.8%), HOMA-IR (-27.2%), plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, total and LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, serum NOX2 (the catalytic core of NADPH oxidase) (-22.2%) and urinary8-isoprostanes (-39.0%) and an increase of serum NOx (Nitrite/Nitrate) (+116.8%) and adiponectine (+125.5%) as compared with those in group B (n = 30). A statistically significant increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation was observed in group A (+24.7%; p < 0.001), while no changes were present in group B. Variations of flow-mediated dilatation were statistically and negatively correlated with changes of serum NOX2 levels (p = 0.04), body-mass-index (p < 0.01), waist circumference (0.01), glycosylated haemoglobin (p < 0.01), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with changes of serum NOx (p < 0.001) and adiponectin (p = 0.01). The results show that moderate weight loss is able to improve endothelial dysfunction in patients with the metabolic syndrome. The coexistent decrease of NOX2 activation suggests a role for oxidative stress in eliciting artery dysfunction. PMID:21512794

  7. Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO

    E-print Network

    Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy E is the number of the common preys of x and y

  8. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting

  9. Could changes in adiponectin drive the effect of statins on the risk of new-onset diabetes? The case of pitavastatin.

    PubMed

    Arnaboldi, Lorenzo; Corsini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Statins represent the elective lipid-lowering strategy in hyperlipidemic and high cardiovascular-risk patients. Despite excellent safety and tolerability, reversible muscle-related and dose-dependent adverse events may decrease a patient's compliance. Large meta-analyses, post-hoc and genetic studies showed that statins might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD), particularly in insulin-resistant, obese, old patients. Race, gender, concomitant medication, dose and treatment duration may also contribute to this effect. Based on this evidence, to warn against the possibility of statin-induced NOD or worsening glycemic control in patients with already established diabetes, FDA and EMA changed the labels of all the available statins in the USA and Europe. Recent meta-analyses and retrospective studies demonstrated that statins' diabetogenicity is a dose-related class effect, but the mechanism(s) is not understood. Among statins, only pravastatin and pitavastatin do not deteriorate glycemic parameters in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, available data, obtained in small-scale, retrospective or single-center clinical studies, document that pitavastatin, while ameliorating lipid profile, seems protective against NOD. Beyond differences in pharmacokinetics between pitavastatin and the other statins (higher oral bioavailability, lower hepatic uptake), its consistent increases in plasma adiponectin documented in clinical studies may be causally connected with its effect on glucose metabolism. Adiponectin is a protein with antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetogenic properties exerted on liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and pancreatic beta cells. Further studies are required to confirm this unique property of pitavastatin and to understand the mechanism(s) leading to this effect. PMID:25575403

  10. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  11. Bayesian locally weighted online learning 

    E-print Network

    Edakunni, Narayanan U.

    2010-01-01

    Locally weighted regression is a non-parametric technique of regression that is capable of coping with non-stationarity of the input distribution. Online algorithms like Receptive FieldWeighted Regression and Locally ...

  12. Distracted Eating and Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... distraction can lead to weight gain. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Nutrition Weight Control About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  13. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  14. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  15. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  16. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ? 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. PMID:25084314

  17. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  19. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  20. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. 25.1519...Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution...

  5. Expression of Wheat High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Bx Is Affected by Large Insertions and Deletions Located in the Upstream Flanking Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chenyang; Tang, Saijun; Zhang, Xueyong; Li, Tian

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the transcriptional regulation of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) expression, we isolated four Glu-1Bx promoters from six wheat cultivars exhibiting diverse protein expression levels. The activities of the diverse Glu-1Bx promoters were tested and compared with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusions. Although all the full-length Glu-1Bx promoters showed endosperm-specific activities, the strongest GUS activity was observed with the 1Bx7OE promoter in both transient expression assays and stable transgenic rice lines. A 43 bp insertion in the 1Bx7OE promoter, which is absent in the 1Bx7 promoter, led to enhanced expression. Analysis of promoter deletion constructs confirmed that a 185 bp MITE (miniature inverted-repeat transposable element) in the 1Bx14 promoter had a weak positive effect on Glu-1Bx expression, and a 54 bp deletion in the 1Bx13 promoter reduced endosperm-specific activity. To investigate the effect of the 43 bp insertion in the 1Bx7OE promoter, a functional marker was developed to screen 505 Chinese varieties and 160 European varieties, and only 1Bx7-type varieties harboring the 43 bp insertion in their promoters showed similar overexpression patterns. Hence, the 1Bx7OE promoter should be important tool in crop genetic engineering as well as in molecular assisted breeding. PMID:25133580

  6. Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may independently influence offspring fat mass and metabolic disease susceptibility. In this pilot study, body composition and fat distribution in offspring from obese women with and without GDM and lean women were assessed within the 1st year of life, and maternal and newborn plasma factors were related to offspring adipose tissue distribution. Methods Serum and plasma samples from pregnant obese women with (n?=?16) or without (n?=?13) GDM and normoglycemic lean women (n?=?15) at 3rd trimester and offspring cord plasma were used for analyzing lipid profiles, insulin and adipokine levels. At week-1 and 6, month-4 and year-1, offspring anthropometrics and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured and abdominal subcutaneous (SCA) and preperitoneal adipose tissue (PPA) were determined by ultrasonography. Results Cord insulin was significantly increased in the GDM group, whereas levels of cord leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were similar between the groups. Neonates of the GDM group showed significantly higher SFT and fat mass until week-6 and significantly increased SCA at week-1 compared to the lean group that persisted as strong trend at week-6. Interestingly, PPA in neonates of the GDM group was significantly elevated at week-1 compared to both the lean and obese group. At month-4 and year-1, significant differences in adipose tissue growth between the groups were not observed. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that cord insulin levels are independently related to neonatal PPA that showed significant relation to PPA development at year-1. Maternal fasted C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels at 3rd trimester emerged to be determinants for PPA at week-1. Conclusion Maternal pregravid obesity combined with GDM leads to newborn hyperinsulinemia and increased offspring fat mass until week-6, whereas pregravid obesity without GDM does not. This strongly suggests the pivotal role of GDM in the adverse offspring outcome. Maternal C-peptide and HMW adiponectin levels in pregnancy emerge to be predictive for elevated PPA in newborns and might be indicative for the obesity risk at later life. Altogether, the findings from our pilot study warrant evaluation in long-term studies. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004370 PMID:24720885

  7. Inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and risk of liver and biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Nöthlings, Ute; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Boffetta, Paolo; Trepo, Elisabeth; Westhpal, Sabine; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Benetou, Vassiliki; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Gavrila, Diana; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Anders; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Riboli, Elio; Pischon, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however, there are little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD), and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n?=?125), GBTC (n?=?137), or IBD (n?=?34). Using risk-set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection, and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMW adiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations?=?1.22; 95% CI?=?1.02-1.46; P = 0.03; 1.90; 95% CI?=?1.30-2.77; P = 0.001; 2.25; 95% CI?=?1.43-3.54; P = 0.0005; and 2.09; 95% CI?=?1.19-3.67; P = 0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR?=?1.22; 95% CI?=?1.05-1.42; P = 0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR?=?1.62; 95% CI?=?1.25-2.11; P = 0.0003) and IBD (IRR?=?10.5; 95% CI?=?2.20-50.90; P = 0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMW adiponectin and 0.46 for GLDH, indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors. (Hepatology 2014;60:858–871) PMID:24443059

  8. Determination of weighting functions for energy-weighted acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, R.P.; Hamill, J.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Energy-weighted acquisition (EWA) is an image filtering technique, with a different spatial filter (weighting function) for each energy. The imaging characteristics of EWA are governed by the weighting functions used during the acquisition of the image. The determination of weighting functions is more complicated than the determination of energy windows in conventional imaging because the number of degrees of freedom is much greater. A methodology by which weighting functions can be produced is described. The weighting function is determined by minimizing a generalized chi-square with variable contributions from coefficients quantifying key image characteristics, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and scatter fraction. Varying the importance of these characteristics gives us a workable function-generation tool, able to address a variety of clinical needs. The resulting weighting functions exhibit good scatter reduction properties at various scatter depths, as demonstrated by measurements of line source response functions in a scattering medium at depths from 5 to 14 cm. Energy weighting can also be used to compensate for collimator penetration from high energy gamma rays. Weighting functions are tested in the laboratory using both planar and SPECT phantoms.

  9. Adiponectin deficiency suppresses lymphoma growth in mice by modulating NK cells, CD8 T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Sora; Jeong, Ae Lee; Lee, Sunyi; Park, Jeong Su; Kim, Kwang Dong; Choi, Inpyo; Yoon, Suk Ran; Lee, Myung Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok; Han, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Do Young; Yang, Young

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we found that adiponectin (APN) suppresses IL-2-induced NK cell activation by downregulating the expression of the IFN-?-inducible TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and Fas ligand. Although the antitumor function of APN has been reported in several types of solid tumors, with few controversial results, no lymphoma studies have been conducted. In this study, we assessed the role of APN in immune cell function, including NK cells, CTLs, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, in EL4 and B16F10 tumor-bearing APN knockout (KO) mice. We observed attenuated EL4 growth in the APNKO mice. Increased numbers of splenic NK cells and splenic CTLs were identified under naive conditions and EL4-challenged conditions, respectively. In APNKO mice, splenic NK cells showed enhanced cytotoxicity with and without IL-2 stimulation. Additionally, there were decreased levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation in the EL4-bearing APNKO mice. Enforced MHC class I expression on B16F10 cells led to attenuated growth of these tumors in APNKO mice. Thus, our results suggest that EL4 regression in APNKO mice is not only due to an enhanced antitumor immune response but also to a high level of MHC class I expression. PMID:23530146

  10. Association of Serum Adiponectin, Leptin, and Resistin Concentrations with the Severity of Liver Dysfunction and the Disease Complications in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Agata; Smolen, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. There is growing evidence that white adipose tissue is an important contributor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We investigated serum concentrations of total adiponectin (Acrp30), leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic alcohol abuse and different grades of liver dysfunction, as well as ALD complications. Materials and Methods. One hundred forty-seven consecutive inpatients with ALD were prospectively recruited. The evaluation of plasma adipokine levels was performed using immunoenzymatic ELISA tests. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results. Acrp30 and resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with ALD than in controls. Lower leptin levels in females with ALD compared to controls, but no significant differences in leptin concentrations in males, were found. High serum Acrp30 level revealed an independent association with advanced liver dysfunction, as well as the development of ALD complications, that is, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in serum leptin concentrations may influence the ALD course, different in females compared with males. Serum Acrp30 level may serve as a potential prognostic indicator for patients with ALD. PMID:24259947

  11. Association of Apolipoprotein B and Adiponectin Receptor 1 Genes with Carcass, Bone Integrity and Performance Traits in a Paternal Broiler Line

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Valdecy Aparecida Rocha; Schenkel, Flávio Schramm; Savegnago, Rodrigo Pelicioni; Grupioni, Natalia Vinhal; Stafuzza, Nedenia Bonvino; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini; Peixoto, Jane de Oliveira; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (APOB) and Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) are related to the regulation of feed intake, fat metabolism and protein deposition and are candidate genes for genomic studies in birds. In this study, associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) g.102A>T (APOB) and g.729C>T (ADIPOR1) with carcass, bone integrity and performance traits in broilers were investigated. Genotyping was performed on a paternal line of 1,454 broilers. The SNP detection was carried out by PCR-RFLP technique using the restriction enzymes HhaI for the SNP g.729C>T and MslI for the SNP g.102A>T. The association analyses of the two SNPs with 85 traits were performed using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) methods. For REML the model included the random additive genetic effect of animal and fixed effects of sex, hatch and SNP genotypes. In the GQLS method, a logistic regression was used to associate the genotypes with phenotypes adjusted for fixed effects of sex and hatch. The SNP g.729C>T in the ADIPOR1 gene was associated with thickness of the femur and breast skin yield. Thus, the ADIPOR1 gene seems implicated in the metabolism and/or fat deposition and bone integrity in broilers. PMID:26322976

  12. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  13. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  14. Nutrition for Disease States Anorexia nervosa Weight restoration Weight

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    . · During hospitalization, AN patients tend to require escalating caloric intake in order to maintain a 1 consumed. Daily essential macronutrient re- quirements to maintain weight are 110­140 g of carbohydrates, 15­20 g of essential fatty acids and 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight in adults

  15. Sleep Apnea Determines Soluble TNF-? Receptor 2 Response to Massive Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pallayova, Maria; Steele, Kimberley E.; Magnuson, Thomas H.; Schweitzer, Michael A.; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of surgical weight loss (WL) on inflammatory biomarkers associated with sleep apnea remain unknown. We sought to determine if any bio-markers can predict amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. We hypothesized that surgical WL would substantially reduce severity of sleep apnea and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Twenty-three morbidly obese adults underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and serum biomarker profiling prior to and 1 year following bariatric surgery. We examined the effect of WL and amelioration of sleep apnea on metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results Surgical WL resulted in significant decreases in BMI (16.7±5.97 kg/m2/median 365 days), apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), CRP, IL-6, sTNF?R1, sTNF?R2, and leptin levels, while ghrelin, adiponectin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations increased significantly. Utilizing an AHI cutoff of 15 events/h, we found significantly elevated levels of baseline sTNF?R2 and greater post-WL sTNF?R2 decreases in subjects with baseline AHI ?15 events/h compared to those with AHI <15 events/h despite no significant differences in baseline BMI, age, and ?BMI. In a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for sex, age, impaired glucose metabolism, ?BMI, and follow-up period, the post-WL decreases in AHI were an independent predictor of the decreases in sTNF?R2 and altogether accounted for 46% of the variance of ?sTNF?R2 (P=0.011) in the entire cohort. Conclusions Of all the biomarkers, the decrease in sTNF?R2 was independently determined by the amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. The results suggest that sTNF?R2 may be a specific sleep apnea biomarker across a wide range of body weight. PMID:21298510

  16. Fundamental Weights, Permutation Weights and Weyl Character Formula

    E-print Network

    Hasan R. Karadayi; Meltem Gungormez

    1998-12-11

    For a finite Lie algebra $G_N$ of rank N, the Weyl orbits $W(\\Lambda^{++})$ of strictly dominant weights $\\Lambda^{++}$ contain $dimW(G_N)$ number of weights where $dimW(G_N)$ is the dimension of its Weyl group $W(G_N)$. For any $W(\\Lambda^{++})$, there is a very peculiar subset $\\wp(\\Lambda^{++})$ for which we always have $$ dim\\wp(\\Lambda^{++})=dimW(G_N)/dimW(A_{N-1}) . $$ For any dominant weight $ \\Lambda^+ $, the elements of $\\wp(\\Lambda^+)$ are called {\\bf Permutation Weights}. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between elements of $\\wp(\\Lambda^{++})$ and $\\wp(\\rho)$ where $\\rho$ is the Weyl vector of $G_N$. The concept of signature factor which enters in Weyl character formula can be relaxed in such a way that signatures are preserved under this one-to-one correspondence in the sense that corresponding permutation weights have the same signature. Once the permutation weights and their signatures are specified for a dominant $\\Lambda^+$, calculation of the character $ChR(\\Lambda^+)$ for irreducible representation $R(\\Lambda^+)$ will then be provided by $A_N$ multiplicity rules governing generalized Schur functions. The main idea is again to express everything in terms of the so-called {\\bf Fundamental Weights} with which we obtain a quite relevant specialization in applications of Weyl character formula.

  17. Overweight, Obesity and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Marie M.; Stare, Fredrick J.

    1967-01-01

    Evidence is cited showing that overweight is a health hazard, but that this is primarily true only when the excess weight is due to an excess accumulation of adipose tissue. Diagnosis of frank obesity should be established by a careful interpretation of height-weight tables and of all other pertinent data. Although many factors play an etiologic role, obesity can occur only when caloric intake exceeds caloric output, and can be obviated only when this imbalance is reversed. Therefore prevention of weight gain, which should receive increasing attention, and also satisfactory weight loss, both require that caloric output be increased through added physical activity and that caloric intake be decreased through diminished consumption. Success depends on recognizing the fallacy of all misleading misinformation, and on establishing permanent habits of regular exercise and of moderation in eating and drinking. Suggestions are made that can be effective guidelines to a commonsense program of weight control. PMID:6045471

  18. When does weight matter most?

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice J

    2012-01-01

    Past empirical work establishes a wage penalty from being overweight. In this paper, I exploit variation in an individual's weight over time to determine the age when weight has the largest impact on labor market outcomes. For white men, controlling for weight at younger ages does not eliminate the effect of older adult weight on wage: being overweight as a young adult only adds an additional penalty to adult wages. However, for white women, what they weigh in their early twenties solely determines the existence of an adult wage penalty. The female early-twenties weight penalty has a persistent effect on wages, and differences in marital characteristics, occupation status, or education cannot explain it. It also is not a proxy for intergenerational unobservables. PMID:22192425

  19. Reconstructing Weighted Networks from Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, P. Y.; Leung, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of how the different nodes of a network interact or link with one another is crucial for the understanding of the collective behavior and the functionality of the network. We have recently developed a method that can reconstruct both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input and is based on a relation between the pseudo-inverse of the matrix of the correlation of the node dynamics and the Laplacian matrix of the weighted network. Using several examples of different dynamics, we demonstrate that our method can accurately reconstruct the connectivity as well as the weights of the links for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics. The work of ESCC and CYL has been supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 14300914.

  20. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor ?-aminopropionitrile reduces body weight gain and improves the metabolic profile in diet-induced obesity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Miana, María; Galán, María; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Varona, Saray; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bausa-Miranda, Belén; Antequera, Alfonso; Luaces, María; Martínez-González, José; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of amine oxidases, including LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) isoenzymes, controls ECM maturation, and upregulation of LOX activity is essential in fibrosis; however, its involvement in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is unclear. In this study, we observed that LOX is the main isoenzyme expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is strongly upregulated in samples from obese individuals that had been referred to bariatric surgery. LOX expression was also induced in the adipose tissue from male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Interestingly, treatment with ?-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of LOX activity, attenuated the increase in body weight and fat mass that was observed in obese animals and shifted adipocyte size toward smaller adipocytes. BAPN also ameliorated the increase in collagen content that was observed in adipose tissue from obese animals and improved several metabolic parameters – it ameliorated glucose and insulin levels, decreased homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. Furthermore, in white adipose tissue from obese animals, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), as well as the increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels, triggered by the HFD. Likewise, in the TNF?-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, BAPN prevented the downregulation of adiponectin and GLUT4 and the increase in SOCS3 levels, and consequently normalised insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Therefore, our data provide evidence that LOX plays a pathologically relevant role in the metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity and emphasise the interest of novel pharmacological interventions that target adipose tissue fibrosis and LOX activity for the clinical management of this disease. PMID:26035864

  1. 40 CFR 1066.805 - Road-load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...dynamometer using the appropriate equivalent test weight shown in Table 1 of this section. Equivalent test weights are established according to each...weight class corresponding to each equivalent test weight; the inertia weight class...

  2. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  3. Cosmological measures without volume weighting

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N

    2008-10-15

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  4. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    E-print Network

    Don N. Page

    2008-09-16

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  5. AdipoRon, the first orally active adiponectin receptor activator, attenuates postischemic myocardial apoptosis through both AMPK-mediated and AMPK-independent signalings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Zhao, Jianli; Li, Rui; Lau, Wayne Bond; Yuan, Yue-Xing; Liang, Bin; Li, Rong; Gao, Er-He; Koch, Walter J; Ma, Xin-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jing

    2015-08-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is a cardioprotective molecule. Its reduction in diabetes exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Although APN administration in animals attenuates MI/R injury, multiple factors limit its clinical application. The current study investigated whether AdipoRon, the first orally active molecule that binds APN receptors, may protect the heart against MI/R injury, and if so, to delineate the involved mechanisms. Wild-type (WT), APN knockout (APN-KO), and cardiomyocyte specific-AMPK dominant negative (AMPK-DN) mice were treated with vehicle or AdipoRon (50 mg/kg, 10 min prior to MI) and subjected to MI/R (30 min/3-24 h). Compared with vehicle, oral administration of AdipoRon to WT mice significantly improved cardiac function and attenuated postischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis, determined by DNA ladder formation, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activation (all P < 0.01). MI/R-induced apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced in mice deficient in either APN (APN-KO) or AMPK (AMPK-DN). In APN-KO mice, AdipoRon attenuated MI/R injury to the same degree as observed in WT mice. In AMPK-DN mice, AdipoRon's antiapoptotic action was partially inhibited but not lost. Finally, AdipoRon significantly attenuated postischemic oxidative stress, as evidenced by reduced NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide production. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that AdipoRon, an orally active APN receptor activator, effectively attenuated postischemic cardiac injury, supporting APN receptor agonists as a promising novel therapeutic approach treating cardiovascular complications caused by obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:26037251

  6. Adiponectin Regulates Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Niche through a Unique Signal Transduction Pathway - An Approach for Treating Bone Disease in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liming; Tu, Qisheng; Han, Qianqian; Zhang, Lan; Sui, Lei; Zheng, Leilei; Meng, Shu; Tang, Yin; Xuan, Dongying; Zhang, Jin; Murray, Dana; Shen, Qingping; Cheng, Jessica; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Dong, Lily Q.; Valverde, Paloma; Cao, Xinming; Chen, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine that exerts well-characterized anti-diabetic properties. Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are characterized by reduced APN levels in circulation and impaired stem cell and progenitor cell mobilization from the bone marrow for tissue repair and remodeling. In this study, we found that APN regulates the mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to participate in tissue repair and regeneration. APN facilitated BMSCs migrating from the bone marrow into the circulation to regenerate bone by regulating stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 in a mouse bone defect model. More importantly, we found that systemic APN infusion ameliorated diabetic mobilopathy of BMSCs, lowered glucose concentration and promoted bone regeneration in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. In vitro studies allowed us to identify Smad1/5/8 as a novel signaling mediator of APN receptor (AdipoR)-1 in BMSCs and osteoblasts. APN stimulation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells led to Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and nuclear localization and increased SDF-1 mRNA expression. Although APN-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 occurred independently from adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, pleckstrin homology domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1), it correlated with the disassembly of protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) and AdipoR1 in immunoprecipitation experiments. Taken together, this study identified APN as a regulator of BMSCs migration in response to bone injury. Therefore, our findings suggest APN signaling could be a potential therapeutic target to improve bone regeneration and homeostasis, especially in obese and T2D patients. PMID:25187480

  7. Genetic variants in IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and adiponectin genes and colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Keku, Temitope O.; Vidal, Adriana; Oliver, Shannon; Hoyo, Catherine; Hall, Ingrid J.; Omofoye, Seun; McDoom, Maya; Worley, Kendra; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Millikan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluating genetic susceptibility may clarify effects of known environmental factors and also identify individuals at high risk. We evaluated the association of four insulin-related pathway gene polymorphisms in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) (CA)n repeat, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-II) (rs680), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) (rs2854744), and adiponectin (APM1 rs1501299) with colon cancer risk, as well as relationships with circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and C-peptide in a population-based study. Methods Participants were African Americans (231cases, 306 controls) and Whites (297 cases, 530 controls). Consenting subjects provided blood specimens, and lifestyle/diet information. Genotyping for all genes except IGF-I was performed by the 5?-exonuclease (Taqman) assay. The IGF-I (CA)n repeat was assayed by PCR, and fragment analysis. Circulating proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results The IGF-I (CA)19 repeat was higher in White controls (50%) than African American controls (31%). Whites homozygous for the IGF-I (CA)19 repeat had a nearly two fold increase in risk of colon cancer (OR=1.77; 95%CI=1.15–2.73), but not African Americans (OR= 0.73, 95%CI 0.50–1.51). We observed an inverse association between the IGF-II Apa1 A-variant and colon cancer risk (OR= 0.49, 95%CI 0.28–0.88) in Whites only. Carrying the IGFBP-3 variant alleles was associated with lower IGFBP-3 protein levels, a difference most pronounced in Whites (p- trend < 0.05). Conclusions These results support an association between insulin pathway-related genes and elevated colon cancer risk in Whites but not in African Americans. PMID:22565227

  8. Daily consumption of banana marginally improves blood glucose and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects and increases serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Ratchada; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Mangklabruks, Ampika

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of consumption of banana in thirty hypercholesterolemic and fifteen type 2 diabetic subjects. They were given a daily dose of 250 or 500 grams of banana for breakfast for 12 weeks. Fasting serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured initially as well as every 4 weeks. Daily consumption of banana significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (from 99 ± 7.7 to 92 ± 6.9 and 102 ± 7.3 to 92 ± 5.7 mg x dL(-1) (p < 0.05) after consuming banana 250 or 500 g/day for 4 wk, respectively) and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (from 2.7 ± 0.98 to 2.4 ± 0.85 and 2.8 ± 0.95 to 2.5 ± 0.79, p < 0.005) in hypercholesterolemic volunteers. Analysis of blood glycemic response after eating banana showed significantly lower 2 h-postprandial glucose level compared to baseline in hypercholesterolemic volunteers given a dose of 250 g/day. The changes of blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients were not statistically significant, but for plasma levels of adiponectin, there were significantly increased (from 37.5 ± 9.36 to 48.8 ± 7.38 ngnml1, p < 0.05) compared to baseline. Although it remains to be confirmed with larger group of volunteers, this pilot study has demonstrated that daily consumption of banana (@ 250 g/day) is harmless both in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic volunteers and marginally beneficial to the later. PMID:25651610

  9. mTORC1 activity as a determinant of cancer risk--rationalizing the cancer-preventive effects of adiponectin, metformin, rapamycin, and low-protein vegan diets.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2011-10-01

    Increased plasma levels of adiponectin, metformin therapy of diabetes, rapamycin administration in transplant patients, and lifelong consumption of low-protein plant-based diets have all been linked to decreased risk for various cancers. These benefits may be mediated, at least in part, by down-regulated activity of the mTORC1 complex, a key regulator of protein translation. By boosting the effective availability of the translation initiator eIF4E, mTORC1 activity promotes the translation of a number of "weak" mRNAs that code for proteins, often up-regulated in cancer, that promote cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and angiogenesis, and that abet cancer promotion and chemoresistance by opposing apoptosis. Measures which inhibit eIF4E activity, either directly or indirectly, may have utility not only for cancer prevention, but also for the treatment of many cancers in which eIF4E drives malignancy. Since eIF4E is overexpressed in many cancers, strategies which target eIF4E directly--some of which are now being assessed clinically--may have the broadest efficacy in this regard. Many of the "weak" mRNAs coding for proteins that promote malignant behavior or chemoresistance are regulated transcriptionally by NF-kappaB and/or Stat3, which are active in a high proportion of cancers; thus, regimens concurrently targeting eIF4E, NF-kappaB, and Stat3 may suppress these proteins at both the transcriptional and translational levels, potentially achieving a very marked reduction in their expression. PMID:21862237

  10. C1q/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Protein 9 Protects against Acute Myocardial Injury through an Adiponectin Receptor I-AMPK-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kambara, Takahiro; Shibata, Rei; Ohashi, Koji; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Enomoto, Takashi; Yuasa, Daisuke; Ito, Masanori; Hayakawa, Satoko; Ogawa, Hayato; Aprahamian, Tamar; Walsh, Kenneth; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is an adipokine that is downregulated by obesity. We investigated the role of CTRP9 in cardiac injury with loss-of-function genetic manipulations and defined the receptor-mediated signaling pathway downstream of this adipokine. CTRP9-knockout (CTRP9-KO) mice at the age of 12 weeks were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) mice under basal conditions. CTRP9-KO mice had exacerbated contractile left ventricle dysfunction following intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to WT mice. Administration of LPS to CTRP9-KO mice also resulted in increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in the heart compared to WT mice. Likewise, CTRP9-KO mice showed increased myocardial infarct size and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators in ischemic heart following ischemia and reperfusion compared to WT mice. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with CTRP9 protein led to suppression of LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory genes, which was reversed by blockade of AMPK or ablation of adiponectin receptor I (AdipoR1). Systemic delivery of CTRP9 attenuated LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction in WT mice but not in muscle-specific transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative mutant form of AMPK or in AdipoR1-knockout mice. CTRP9 protects against acute cardiac damage in response to pathological stimuli by suppressing inflammatory reactions through AdipoR1/AMPK-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25870106

  11. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Haverhill, MA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  12. BPA Exposure and Birth Weight

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Weight Pregnancy About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  13. Financial Incentives and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  14. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  15. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  16. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  17. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  18. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  19. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  20. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1863 - Standard weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard weight. 51.1863 Section 51.1863 Agriculture... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Standard Weight § 51.1863 Standard weight. (a) When packages are marked to a net weight of 15 pounds (6.80 kg) or more, the net weight of the contents shall not be less than...

  2. 14 CFR 23.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight is the highest weight at which compliance with each...

  3. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  4. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  5. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement weight. 981.18 Section 981.18 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight...) For weight of containers, (b) For excess moisture, (c) For trash or other foreign material of any...

  6. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  7. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  8. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  9. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  10. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement weight. 981.18 Section 981.18 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight...) For weight of containers, (b) For excess moisture, (c) For trash or other foreign material of any...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1863 - Standard weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard weight. 51.1863 Section 51.1863 Agriculture... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Standard Weight § 51.1863 Standard weight. (a) When packages are marked to a net weight of 15 pounds (6.80 kg) or more, the net weight of the contents shall not be less than...

  12. 14 CFR 23.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight is the highest weight at which compliance with each...

  13. Effects of Deletions of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles on Dough Properties and Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality 

    E-print Network

    Tuncil, Yunus

    2012-10-19

    of flour; hence dough properties and tortilla quality. This study was conducted to understand the effects of HMW-GS on dough properties and tortilla quality using 40 different wheat lines from two different locations; Texas Agrilife Experiment Station at Mc...

  14. Grafted-double walled carbon nanotubes as electrochemical platforms for immobilization of antibodies using a metallic-complex chelating polymer: Application to the determination of adiponectin cytokine in serum.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Irene; Barrejón, Myriam; Arellano, Luis M; González-Cortés, Araceli; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Langa, Fernando; Pingarrón, José M

    2015-12-15

    An electrochemical immunosensor for adiponectin (APN) using screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) as platforms for immobilization of the specific antibodies is reported. DWCNTs were functionalized by treatment with 4-aminobenzoic acid (HOOC-Phe) in the presence of isoamylnitrite resulting in the formation of 4-carboxyphenyl-DWCNTs. The oriented binding of specific antibodies toward adiponectin was accomplished by using the metallic-complex chelating polymer Mix&Go™. The HOOC-Phe-DWCNTs-modified SPCEs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and compared with HOOC-Phe-SWCNTs/SPCE. The different variables affecting the performance of the developed immunosensor were optimized. Under the selected conditions, a calibration plot for APN was constructed showing a range of linearity extending between 0.05 and 10.0 ?g/mL which is adequate for the determination of the cytokine in real samples. A detection limit of 14.5 ng/mL was achieved. The so prepared immunosensor exhibited a good reproducibility for the APN measurements, excellent storage stability and selectivity, and a much shorter assay time than the available ELISA kits. The usefulness of the immunosensor for the analysis of real samples was demonstrated by analyzing human serum from female or male healthy patients. PMID:26093125

  15. Insulin-Mimetic Action of Rhoifolin and Cosmosiin Isolated from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Leaves: Enhanced Adiponectin Secretion and Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Lee, Meng-Jen; Chen, Keru; Lee, Yi-Ching; Wu, Wen-Shi; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2011-01-01

    Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (red wendun) leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting these actions and its active compounds. Two flavone glycosides, rhoifolin and cosmosiin were isolated for the first time from red wendun leaves and, identified these leaves are rich source for rhoifolin (1.1%, w/w). In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, rhoifolin and cosmosiin showed dose-dependent response in concentration range of o.oo1–5??M and 1–20??M, respectively, in biological studies beneficial to diabetes. Particularly, rhoifolin and cosmosiin at 0.5 and 20??M, respectively showed nearly similar response to that 10?nM of insulin, on adiponectin secretion level. Furthermore, 5??M of rhoifolin and 20??M of cosmosiin showed equal potential with 10?nM of insulin to increase the phosphorylation of insulin receptor-?, in addition to their positive effect on GLUT4 translocation. These findings indicate that rhoifolin and cosmosiin from red wendun leaves may be beneficial for diabetic complications through their enhanced adiponectin secretion, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-? and GLUT4 translocation. PMID:20008903

  16. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  17. Cascaded failures in weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Mirzasoleiman, Baharan; Babaei, Mahmoudreza; Jalili, Mahdi; Safari, Mohammadali

    2011-10-01

    Many technological networks can experience random and/or systematic failures in their components. More destructive situations can happen if the components have limited capacity, where the failure in one of them might lead to a cascade of failures in other components, and consequently break down the structure of the network. In this paper, the tolerance of cascaded failures was investigated in weighted networks. Three weighting strategies were considered including the betweenness centrality of the edges, the product of the degrees of the end nodes, and the product of their betweenness centralities. Then, the effect of the cascaded attack was investigated by considering the local weighted flow redistribution rule. The capacity of the edges was considered to be proportional to their initial weight distribution. The size of the survived part of the attacked network was determined in model networks as well as in a number of real-world networks including the power grid, the internet in the level of autonomous system, the railway network of Europe, and the United States airports network. We found that the networks in which the weight of each edge is the multiplication of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes had the best robustness against cascaded failures. In other words, the case where the load of the links is considered to be the product of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes is favored for the robustness of the network against cascaded failures. PMID:22181234

  18. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  19. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    SciTech Connect

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  20. Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens? Article Body Although the ... not be made hastily. Candidates for Weight Loss Surgery Weight loss surgery is advisable only for extremely ...

  1. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... THIS TOPIC Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Keeping Portions Under Control Preparing Your Child for ... Mass Index (BMI) Staying at a Healthy Weight Metabolic Syndrome How Can I Lose Weight Safely? When Being ...

  2. Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a Healthy Weight Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight Obesity contributes to leading causes of ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight by Age Group 4sk4-exit Download ...

  3. Percentage of Children with a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a Healthy Weight Percentage of Children with a Healthy Weight Childhood obesity is closely related to ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of Children with a Healthy Weight by Age Group zstc-cif7 Download ...

  4. Weighted Means through the Looking Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2013-01-01

    Each weighted mean of two values has a counterpart, equidistant from the arithmetic mean, obtained by exchanging roles between the weights or by inversing each weight. These elementary relations are apt for introductory courses.

  5. 23 CFR 658.17 - Weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...bridge formula. (c) The maximum gross weight upon any one axle, including...000 pounds. (d) The maximum gross weight on tandem axles is 34,000 pounds...any Interstate highway when the gross weight on two or more consecutive...

  6. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  7. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  8. 23 CFR 658.17 - Weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...bridge formula. (c) The maximum gross weight upon any one axle, including...000 pounds. (d) The maximum gross weight on tandem axles is 34,000 pounds...any Interstate highway when the gross weight on two or more consecutive...

  9. 23 CFR 658.17 - Weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...bridge formula. (c) The maximum gross weight upon any one axle, including...000 pounds. (d) The maximum gross weight on tandem axles is 34,000 pounds...any Interstate highway when the gross weight on two or more consecutive...

  10. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  11. 23 CFR 658.17 - Weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...bridge formula. (c) The maximum gross weight upon any one axle, including...000 pounds. (d) The maximum gross weight on tandem axles is 34,000 pounds...any Interstate highway when the gross weight on two or more consecutive...

  12. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  13. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  14. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.129-00 Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class...

  15. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...table shall be used. If the equivalent test weight specified is not available...being used, the next higher equivalent test weight (not to exceed 250 pounds...vehicle weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia...

  16. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...are determined by the test vehicles test weight basis and corresponding equivalent weight as listed in the tabular information of...inertia weight class corresponding to their equivalent test weight. (i) For light-duty vehicles...

  17. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...table shall be used. If the equivalent test weight specified is not available...being used, the next higher equivalent test weight (not to exceed 250 pounds...vehicle weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia...

  18. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...are determined by the test vehicles test weight basis and corresponding equivalent weight as listed in the tabular information of...inertia weight class corresponding to their equivalent test weight. (i) For light-duty vehicles...

  19. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...are determined by the test vehicles test weight basis and corresponding equivalent weight as listed in the tabular information of...inertia weight class corresponding to their equivalent test weight. (i) For light-duty vehicles...

  20. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...are determined by the test vehicles test weight basis and corresponding equivalent weight as listed in the tabular information of...inertia weight class corresponding to their equivalent test weight. (i) For light-duty vehicles...