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1

Urinary Albumin Excretion, HMW Adiponectin, and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Microalbuminuria portends an increased risk for renal and cardiovascular diseases in diabetes. In this pilot study, we determined the effect of weight loss induced by different types of bariatric surgery on albuminuria in severely obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects. Methods Fifteen consecutive T2DM patients (9M/6F, 51 ± 14 years, body mass index (BMI) 49±9 kg/m2, HbA1c 7.2±1.1%) undergoing either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; N=9) or other types of bariatric surgery (N=6) underwent determination of urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and adipokine and insulin sensitivity during a mixed meal tolerance test performed 2 weeks prior to and 6 months following surgery. Results Following RYGB, there was a significant decrease in BMI (?4.74±?5.05 kg/m2), fasting glucose, cholesterol, and leptin levels. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index [12.05± 3.81, p=0.003]) and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin increased significantly along with a significant reduction in UACR (median, 36 mg/g [7–94] vs. 27 mg/g [5.5–42.5], p=0.01). The reduction in UACR following RYGB was inversely correlated with the Matsuda index (r=?0.74, p=0.02) and HMW adiponectin (r=?0.67, p=0.04). In contrast, despite reduction in BMI (?4.11±?4.10 kg/m2) following other types of bariatric surgery (n=6), there was no significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (0.88±2.40, p=0.63), UACR, or HMW adiponectin levels. Conclusions RYGB in severely obese DM subjects is associated with a reduction in albuminuria that correlates to the improvement in insulin sensitivity and HMW adiponectin. The data point to a need for larger studies to confirm these findings and evaluate the micro–macro-vascular benefits including renal parenchymal benefits of different types of bariatric surgery in T2DM. PMID:20217955

Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Kelly, Karen R.; Sabbagh, Firas; Schauer, Philip R.; Kirwan, John P.

2010-01-01

2

Correlation of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations with Anthropometric Parameters and Insulin Sensitivity in Newborns  

PubMed Central

Objective. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin) and leptin are two important adipokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the two adipokines and anthropometric measurements of neonates at birth. Furthermore, we would like to explore whether HMW-adiponectin and leptin correlate with insulin sensitivity in neonates. Methods. Venous cord blood samples were obtained from 266 full-term healthy neonates consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. HMW-adiponectin, leptin, blood glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured. Results. HMW-adiponectin and leptin were significantly higher in females compared with males (P = 0.031 and P = 0.000, resp.). Univariate correlation analysis showed that leptin concentrations in cord blood were positively associated with gestational age, birth weight, body length, ponderal index, placenta weight, insulin, and insulin sensitivity (all P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between cord blood HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal anthropometric measurements or foetal insulin sensitivity indicators (all P > 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that leptin (B = ?0.126, P = 0.045) in cord blood was independently associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Leptin concentrations, but not HMW-adiponectin, were positively associated with foetal anthropometric measurements. Leptin concentrations are significantly associated with foetal insulin sensitivity, and there were no significant correlations between HMW-adiponectin levels and foetal insulin sensitivity. PMID:25374599

Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Ying

2014-01-01

3

Effect of Weight Loss on High-Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Obese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to determine the influence of weight reduction on total (T-) and high-molecular weight (HMW-) adiponectin in obese (OB) prepubertal children. Seventy OB prepubertal white patients were followed for 18 months and studied after reducing their BMI by 1 (n = 51) and 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) (n = 21) under conservative treatment, and 6 months after

Gabriel Á. Martos-Moreno; Vicente Barrios; Guillermo Martínez; Federico Hawkins; Jesús Argente

2010-01-01

4

Enhanced insulin sensitivity after acute exercise is not associated with changes in high-molecular weight adiponectin concentration in plasma  

PubMed Central

Background and objective The effect of exercise on the plasma concentration of high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (i.e., the biologically active form of circulating adiponectin) and the possible role of HMW adiponectin in mediating the exercise-induced enhancement of insulin action are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the post-exercise increase in insulin sensitivity and plasma HMW adiponectin concentration. Design and methods We measured total and HMW adiponectin concentrations in plasma by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and insulin sensitivity by using the updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-IS) score in the basal, overnight fasted state, once ~12 hours after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise and once after an equivalent period of rest, in 27 healthy men and women (age: 29 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2). Results The HOMA2-IS score was 18 ± 7% greater after exercise than rest (229 ± 20 and 196 ± 17, respectively; P = 0.006), whereas the concentrations of total adiponectin (7.8 ± 0.5 and 7.7 ± 0.5 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.597) and HMW adiponectin (3.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.3 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.625) were not different. The exercise-induced change in HOMA2-IS was not related to changes in total and HMW adiponectin concentrations (P > 0.3). Conclusions Changes in HMW adiponectin concentration are not involved in the acute exercise-induced enhancement of insulin action. PMID:19864294

Magkos, Faidon; Mohammed, B. Selma; Mittendorfer, Bettina

2012-01-01

5

Total and high molecular weight adiponectin and ethnic-specific differences in adiposity and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic-specific differences in insulin resistance (IR) are well described but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing adipocytokine that circulates as multiple isoforms, with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin associated with greatest insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study is to determine if plasma total and HMW adiponectin concentrations underlie ethnic-specific differences in IR. Methods Healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults (N?=?634) were assessed for sociodemographics; lifestyle; fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and total and HMW adiponectin; and adiposity measures [BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (quantified by computed tomography)]. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed IR. Results South Asians had the greatest HOMA-IR, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations were lower in Chinese and South Asians than Aboriginal and Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P?HMW adiponectin and HOMA-IR with stronger effects observed in Aboriginals (P?=?0.001), Chinese (P?=?0.002), and South Asians (P?=?0.040) compared to Europeans. This was not observed for total adiponectin (P?=?0.431). At mean total adiponectin concentrations South Asians had higher HOMA-IR than Europeans (P?HMW adiponectin concentrations a greater increase in HOMA-IR is observed in Aboriginals, Chinese, and South Asians than Europeans. Ethnic-specific differences in HMW adiponectin may account for differences in IR. PMID:24225161

2013-01-01

6

High molecular weight adiponectin reduces apolipoprotein B and E release in human hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Low circulating levels of high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-Apm) have been linked to dyslipidaemia and systemic HMW-Apm negatively correlates with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and ApoE and is positively associated with ApoA-I. Therefore, it was investigated whether HMW-Apm alters the hepatic synthesis of ApoB, ApoE, and ApoA-I or the activity of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as the main determinant of plasma HDL. HMW-Apm reduces hepatic ApoB and ApoE release whereas ABCA1 protein, activity and ApoA-I were not altered. Global gene expression analysis revealed that hepatic nuclear factor 4-{alpha} (HNF4-{alpha}) and HNF4-{alpha} regulated genes like ApoB are downregulated by HMW-Apm and this was confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. Therefore it is concluded that HMW-adiponectin may ameliorate dyslipidaemia by reducing the hepatic release of ApoB and ApoE, whereas ABCA1 function and ApoA-I secretion are not influenced.

Neumeier, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Sigruener, Alexander [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Eggenhofer, Elke [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weigert, Johanna [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schlitt, Hans J. [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Aslanidis, Charalampos [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Piso, Pompiliu [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Langmann, Thomas [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schmitz, Gerd [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schoelmerich, Juergen [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buechler, Christa [Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Medical Center, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

2007-01-12

7

Effects of Body Fat on the Associations of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW-) adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations. Methods Plasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women (35?54 yrs). Whole body and trunk fat mass were determined by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated NCEP/ATPIII criterion for Asian-Americans. Results HMW-adiponectin was inversely associated with MetS in multivariate model including fat mass index (FMI), inflammatory markers, leptin and sOB-R (OR in the highest quartile ?=?0.30, 95%CI 0.18?0.50, P<.0001). Plasma sOB-R was also inversely associated with MetS independent of body fatness and inflammatory markers, whereas the association was somewhat attenuated after adjusting HMW-adiponectin (OR for the highest quartile ?=?0.78, 95%CI 0.47?1.32, P?=?0.15). In contrast, leptin was associated with increased odds of MetS independent of inflammatory markers, HMW-adiponectin, and sOB-R (OR for the highest quartile ?=?2.64, 95%CI 1.35?5.18, P?=?0.006), although further adjustment for FMI abolished this association. Conclusions HMW-adiponectin exhibited strong inverse associations with MetS independent of body composition, inflammation, leptin and sOB-R; while the associations of leptin and sOB-R were largely explained by fat mass or HMW-adiponectin, respectively. PMID:21347230

Yu, Danxia; Yu, Zhijie; Sun, Qi; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Song, Jun; Mi, Ming; Wu, Hongyu; Lu, Ling; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Geng; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Xu

2011-01-01

8

High Molecular Weight (HMW) Glutenin Subunit Composition of Some Nordic and Middle European Wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 123 winter and 106 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines commonly grown in Nordic and Middle European countries were characterised for the composition of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits on the ground of data from literature and experiments of author. HMW glutenin subunit composition was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The

M. Tohver

2007-01-01

9

Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50–60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

2014-01-01

10

Adipose tissue depot and cell size dependency of adiponectin synthesis and secretion in human obesity  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing fat cell (FC) hormone whose levels are related to adipose tissue (AT) mass and depot distribution. We hypothesized that the nature of AT expansion (hypertrophy vs. hyperplasia) contributes to obesity-related reductions in serum adiponectin and that this effect is influenced by the regional distribution of AT to subcutaneous (S) and visceral (V) depots. Thirteen obese subjects provided paired AT biopsies. Serum total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. Secretion was quantified following 24-h explant culture. FC size, number, % large, and % small FC were determined by microscopic analysis. Secretion of total adiponectin was highest by SAT (P = 0.008) and correlated more strongly with serum adiponectin (total: P = 0.015, r = 0.77; HMW: P = 0.005, r = 0.83) than did secretion by VAT (P = 0.05, r = 0.66 for both). FC size was greatest in SAT and correlated negatively with both serum (total: P = 0.01, r = ?0.74; HMW: P = 0.03, r = ?0.69) and secreted (total: P = 0.05, r = ?0.72; HMW: P = 0.02, r = ?0.87) adiponectin. The % small FC in SAT correlated positively with both serum (total: P = 0.006, r = 0.87; HMW: P = 0.009, r = 0.79) and secreted (total: P = 0.03, r = 0.75; HMW: P = 0.01, r = 0.92) adiponectin. VAT FC size correlated negatively with serum HMW adiponectin (P = 0.01, r = ?0.76) but not with any measure of secretion. VAT had the greatest % small FC, which related positively to serum HMW (P = 0.004, r = 0.81) and to secreted total adiponectin (P = 0.02, r = 0.78). These studies indicate that differences in fat cell size and depot distribution of AT expansion are important influences on adiponectin in obesity. PMID:24052897

Meyer, Lauren K; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Henry, Robert R; Wittgrove, Alan C; Phillips, Susan A

2013-01-01

11

Adiponectin in mice with altered growth hormone action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high molecular weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered growth hormone (GH) signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH versus IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot-specific. Interestingly rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity. PMID:23261955

Lubbers, Ellen R.; List, Edward O.; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

2013-01-01

12

Adiponectin in mice with altered GH action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?  

PubMed

Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered GH signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH vs IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying that the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot specific. Interestingly, rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity. PMID:23261955

Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D; Kineman, Rhonda D; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

2013-03-01

13

Differential effects of endurance training and weight loss on plasma adiponectin multimers and adipose tissue macrophages in younger, moderately overweight men.  

PubMed

Obese individuals are characterized by low circulating adiponectin concentrations and an increased number of macrophages in adipose tissue, which is believed to be causally associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Regular physical exercise decreases overall morbidity in obese subjects, which may be due to modulations of inflammatory pathways. In this randomized clinical trial we investigated the separate effects of endurance training-induced weight loss, diet-induced weight loss, and endurance training per se (without weight loss) on plasma adiponectin multimer composition (Western blotting) and adipose tissue macrophage content (immunohistochemistry) in young, moderately overweight men. Weight loss and endurance training per se decreased whole body fat percentage in an additive manner. No intervention-induced changes were observed for plasma total adiponectin. Surprisingly, endurance training, irrespectively of any associated weight loss, shifted the adiponectin multimer distribution toward a lower molecular weight (21% decrease in HMW/LMW, P = 0.015), whereas diet-induced weight loss shifted the distribution toward a higher molecular weight (42% increase in HMW/MMW, P < 0.001). Furthermore, endurance training per se increased the number of anti-inflammatory CD163? macrophages [from 12.7 ± 2.1 (means ± SE) to 16.1 ± 3.1 CD163? cells/100 adipocytes, P = 0.013], whereas diet-induced weight loss tended to decrease CD68? macrophages in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Thus regular physical exercise influences systemic and adipose tissue inflammatory pathways differently than diet-induced weight loss in younger, moderately overweight men. Our data suggest that some of the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle may occur through modulations of anti- rather than pro-inflammatory pathways in young, overweight men. PMID:23842679

Auerbach, Pernille; Nordby, Pernille; Bendtsen, Line Q; Mehlsen, Jesper L; Basnet, Smita K; Vestergaard, Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil; Stallknecht, Bente

2013-09-01

14

Adiponectin Changes in Relation to the Macronutrient Composition of a Weight-Loss Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is an adipose-derived protein with beneficial metabolic effects. Low adiponectin is associated with obesity and related diseases. Significant weight loss increases adiponectin, reducing disease risk. This study compared the effects of two weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on adiponectin. Eighty-one obese women in two cohorts were randomized to a low-fat (LF) or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. All subjects

Suzanne S. Summer; Bonnie J. Brehm; Stephen C. Benoit; David A. D'Alessio

2011-01-01

15

DNA restriction-fragment variation in the gene family encoding high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction enzyme digests of DNA from nullisomic-tetrasomic and intervarietal chromosome substitution lines of wheat were probed with a high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin cDNA. Three restriction endonucleases were used to investigate restriction-fragment differences among five wheat varieties. The results suggest that the hybridizing fragments contain single gene copies and permit the identification of the subunit encoded by each gene. Restriction-fragment

N. P. Harberd; D. Bartels; R. D. Thompson

1986-01-01

16

Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI. PMID:22956782

Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

2012-12-01

17

Adiponectin Is Inversely Associated With Intramyocellular and Intrahepatic Lipids in Obese Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by adipocytes, exerts beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and has been found to improve insulin resistance by decreasing triglyceride content in muscle and liver in obese mice. Adiponectin is found in several isoforms and the high-molecular weight (HMW) form has been linked most strongly to the insulin-sensitizing effects. Fat content in skeletal muscle (intramyocellular lipids, IMCL) and liver (intrahepatic lipids, IHL) can be quantified noninvasively using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between HMW adiponectin and measures of glucose homeostasis, IMCL and IHL, and to determine predictors of adiponectin levels. We studied 66 premenopausal women (mean BMI 31.0 ± 6.6 kg/m2) who underwent 1H-MRS of calf muscles and liver for IMCL and IHL, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen for abdominal fat depots, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for fat and lean mass assessments, HMW and total adiponectin, fasting lipid profile and an oral glucose tolerance test (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR), glucose and insulin area under the curve). There were strong inverse associations between HMW adiponectin and measures of insulin resistance, IMCL and IHL, independent of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat. IHL was the strongest predictor of adiponectin and adiponectin was a predictor of HOMAIR. Our study showed that in premenopausal obese women HMW adiponectin is inversely associated with IMCL and IHL content. This suggests that adiponectin exerts positive effects on insulin sensitivity in obesity by decreasing intracellular triglyceride content in skeletal muscle and liver; it is also possible that our results reflect effects of insulin on adiponectin. PMID:21151017

Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Ghomi, Reza H.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Miller, Karen K.

2013-01-01

18

Specificity of mimotope-induced anti-high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) antibodies does not ensure biological activity.  

PubMed

Vaccines based on peptide mimics (mimotopes) of conformational tumor antigen epitopes have been investigated for a variety of human tumors including breast cancer, tumors expressing the carcinoembryonic antigen, B cell lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and melanoma. In our previous work, we designed a vaccine based on a mimotope of the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) that elicited HMW-MAA-specific antibodies (Abs) with anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to identify mimotopes of additional distinct HMW-MAA epitopes, since they could be used to construct a polymimotope melanoma vaccine. For this purpose, random peptide phage libraries were screened with the anti-HMW-MAA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) VT80.12 and VF1-TP43 yielding one peptide ligand for each mAb. Both peptides inhibited the binding of the corresponding mAb to the HMW-MAA. Furthermore, when coupled to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), both HMW-MAA mimotopes elicited peptide-specific Abs in rabbits or BALB/c mice, but only the mimotope isolated with the mAb VT80.12 elicited HMW-MAA-specific Abs and only in mice. However, the latter Abs had no detectable effect on HMW-MAA expressing human melanoma cells in vitro. These results describe limitations related to the phage display technique and emphasize the need to characterize the functional properties of the mAb utilized to isolate mimotopes of the corresponding epitopes. PMID:21573118

Latzka, Julia; Gaier, Sonja; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Balazs, Nina; Smole, Ursula; Ferrone, Soldano; Scheiner, Otto; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pehamberger, Hubert; Wagner, Stefan

2011-01-01

19

Cilnidipine regulates glucose metabolism and levels of high-molecular adiponectin in diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of the antihypertensive drug cilnidipine on glucose metabolism and adipocytokines, including adiponectin, in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The effects of cilnidipine on insulin sensitivity and the levels of adiponectin in DIO mice were examined after the mice had been treated with cilnidipine dissolved in water at a dose of 0.2?g?l(-1) for 14 days. As expected, treatment with cilnidipine decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in DIO mice, compared with control mice (P<0.05 for each parameter). Cilnidipine treatment improved glucose and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. In addition, cilnidipine treatment dramatically increased the level of adiponectin in white adipose tissue (P<0.05) and the circulating levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in DIO mice (P<0.01 for each parameter). Furthermore, the secretion of HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW adiponectin/total adiponectin were both increased after cilnidipine treatment. Finally, the secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes was increased after cilnidipine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that cilnidipine improves insulin tolerance and adiponectin levels, especially high-molecular type adiponectin, in DIO mice. PMID:23051658

Ueno, Daisuke; Masaki, Takayuki; Gotoh, Koto; Chiba, Seiichi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

2013-03-01

20

A large molecular size fraction of riverine high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW DOM) stimulates growth of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the concentration of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been observed during the last decades, and this material can stimulate marine plankton in coastal waters with significant freshwater input. We studied the effect of two size fractions of riverine high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW DOM), isolated with tangential ultrafiltration, on the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

Tony Fagerberg; Per Carlsson; Mikael Lundgren

2009-01-01

21

Oxidative stress associated with rapid weight reduction decreases circulating adiponectin concentrations.  

PubMed

The effect of stress associated with acute weight reduction on adipocytokine production is incompletely understood. In the present study, we have investigated the changes in circulating adipocytokine concentrations and urinary concentrations of stress markers in male collegiate wrestlers during acute weight reduction for a competition. Twenty healthy Japanese male wrestlers (18-22 years of age) who participated in the national collegiate wrestling tournament were studied. Body weight, body fat amount, serum testosterone, serum leptin, serum adiponectin, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and urinary biopyrrins were analyzed during acute weight reduction for the competition. Body weight, body fat amount and the serum concentrations of testosterone, leptin and adiponectin significantly decreased on the day of weigh-in compared with the levels 12 days before weigh-in. In contrast, urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG and biopyrrins significantly increased on the day of weigh-in compared with the concentrations 12 days before weigh-in. A positive correlation was observed between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and testosterone, and a negative correlation was observed between the concentrations of serum adiponectin and urinary biopyrrins. The present results suggest that rapid weight reduction increases the urinary concentrations of stress markers, which is associated with a decrease in serum concentrations of adiponectin. PMID:20179358

Yanagawa, Yoshimaro; Morimura, Tadashi; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Seki, Koji; Ogiwara, Takayuki; Kotajima, Nobuo; Machida, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Shingo; Adachi, Takumi; Murakami, Masami

2010-01-01

22

Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer,  

E-print Network

). In addi- tion, weight reduction by calorie restriction or gastric bypass sur- ISSN Print 0013-7227 ISSNUnique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer, and Relationship to Visceral Adiposity Gilbert L. Hendricks III,* Jill A. Hadley,* Susan M. Krzysik-Walker, K

Ramachandran, Ramesh

23

Increased serum C1q-binding adiponectin complex to total-adiponectin ratio in men with multi-vessel coronary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin plays a role as a positive contributor to the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Circulating total adiponectin (Total-APN) levels associates with the number of coronary vessels in men with coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently reported that adiponectin binds to C1q in human blood, and serum C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) /Total-APN levels are associated with CAD in type 2 diabetic subjects. The present study investigated the relationship between circulating C1q-APN levels and the number of angiographic coronary artery vessel in male subjects. Methods The study subjects were 53 male Japanese patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. Blood total adiponectin (Total-APN), high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio significantly increased in subjects with single and multi-vessel coronary diseases (p?=?0.029 for trend, the Kruskal-Wallis test). However, serum Total-APN, HMW-APN, C1q-APN and C1q levels did not correlate with number of diseased coronary vessels. Conclusion Serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio progressively increases in men with single and multi-vessel coronary disease. Trial registration UMIN000002997 PMID:24883115

2014-01-01

24

Adiponectin and Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined the potential impact of adiponectin on carotid ultrasound determined atherosclerosis in 210 (119 black and 91 white) RA patients in mixed regression models. Total adiponectin concentrations were smaller in patients with compared to those without the metabolic syndrome (MetS) defined waist criterion (median (range) = 6.47 (1.23–34.54) versus 8.38 (0.82–85.30)?ng/mL, P = 0.02, resp.); both total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations were larger in patients with compared to those without joint deformities (7.97 (0.82–85.30) and 3.51 (0.01–35.40) versus 5.36 (1.29–19.49) and 2.34 (0.01–19.49)?ng/mL, P = 0.003 and 0.02, resp.). Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations were associated with carotid artery plaque in patients with MetS waist (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.87 (0.76–0.99) and 0.92 (0.85–0.99) per 1-standard deviation increment, P = 0.02 for both) and those without joint deformities (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.88–0.99) and 0.94 (0.89–0.99), P = 0.03 for both). Plaque prevalence was lower in patients without compared to those with joint deformities (23.4% versus 42.6, P = 0.004 in multivariable analysis). In RA patients with abdominal obesity or no clinically evident joint damage, adiponectin concentrations are reduced but nevertheless associated with decreased carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:24994945

Dessein, Patrick H.; Tsang, Linda; Solomon, Ahmed; Woodiwiss, Angela J.; Millen, Aletta M. E.; Norton, Gavin R.

2014-01-01

25

Increased adiponectin receptor-1 expression in adipose tissue of impaired glucose-tolerant obese subjects during weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, the two recently cloned adiponectin receptors and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)g2 in adipose tissue of obese individuals before and during a very low calorie diet (VLCD) inducing weight loss. Methods: Twenty-three non-diabetic obese subjects with normal (NGT, nZ11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, nZ12) (age, 47G3 years; body

M J Kim; M Maachi; C Debard; E Loizon; K Clement; E Bruckert; B Hainque; J Capeau; H Vidal; J P Bastard

2006-01-01

26

Process For Autoclaving HMW PMR-II Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parts made of graphite-reinforced, high-molecular-weight (HMW) PMR-II polyimide easy to fabricate by autoclaving. Study showed autoclaved HMW PMR-II parts equal in quality to those made by compression molding. Well suited to use at temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). In aircraft engines, they offer advantages of strength and light weight.

Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

1990-01-01

27

Characterization of two HMW glutenin subunit genes from Taenitherum Nevski  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compositions of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits from three species of Taenitherum Nevski (TaTa, 2n = 2x = 14), Ta. caput-medusae, Ta. crinitum and Ta. asperum, were investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis. The electrophoresis mobility of the x-type HMW glutenin subunits were slower or\\u000a equal to that of wheat HMW glutenin subunit Dx2, and the electrophoresis mobility of the

Ze-Hong Yan; Yu-Ming Wei; Ji-Rui Wang; Deng-Cai Liu; Shou-Fen Dai; You-Liang Zheng

2006-01-01

28

Abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary school children, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed during annual health examinations of school children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan. Methods Subjects were all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005–2008 (N?=?1675). The height, weight, percent body fat, and waist circumference (WC) of each subject were measured. Blood samples were drawn from subjects to measure adiponectin isoform values. Childhood abdominal obesity was defined as “a waist-to-height ratio greater than or equal to 0.5” or “a WC greater than or equal to 75 cm”. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between abdominal obesity and each adiponectin isoform value. Results Data from 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. Adiponectin complexes were lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. Abdominal obesity significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for each adiponectin isoform level less than or equal to the median value in boys; the OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.50 (1.59-3.92) for high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adn), 2.47 (1.57-3.88) for medium molecular weight adiponectin (MMW-adn), and 1.75 (1.13-2.70) for low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-adn). In girls, the OR (95% CI) was 1.95 (1.18-3.21) for HMW-adn, 1.40 (0.86-2.28) for MMW-adn, and 1.06 (0.65-1.70) for LMW-adn. Conclusions Abdominal obesity was associated with lower adiponectin complexes and the influence of abdominal obesity varied by adiponectin isoform. Furthermore, the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls. The present study results suggest that prevention of abdominal obesity could contribute to the prevention of lower adiponectin levels, especially in boys. PMID:24670108

2014-01-01

29

Adiponectin Concentration in Umbilical Cord Serum Is Positively Associated with the Weight Ratio of Fetus to Placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Adiponectin (APN) concentration in umbilical cord se- rum is higher than that in adult serum. Except for the positive association between birth weight and cord APN concentration, little is known about the pathophysiological function of APN in fetal development. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation- ship of cord serum APN and IGF-I concentrations with

Kozo Kadowaki; Masako Waguri; Isao Nakanishi; Yoshihiro Miyashita; Masahiro Nakayama; Noriyuki Suehara; Tohru Funahashi; Iichiro Shimomura; Tomio Fujita

30

Identification of Unprecedented Anticancer Properties of High Molecular Weight Biomacromolecular Complex Containing Bovine Lactoferrin (HMW-bLf).  

PubMed

With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (?250 kDa), from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo) lactoferrin (?78-80 kDa), retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01) of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis) and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further. PMID:25222273

Ebrahim, Fawzi; Shankaranarayanan, Jayanth Suryanarayanan; Kanwar, Jagat R; Gurudevan, Sneha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Kanwar, Rupinder K

2014-01-01

31

Adiponectin Isoforms Differentially Affect Gene Expression and the Lipidome of Primary Human Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (APN) exerts multiple beneficial effects in obesity and protects from liver injury. Different APN isoforms circulate in serum, and here, the effect of low molecular weight (LMW) and higher molecular weight (HMW) APN on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) has been analyzed. APN is not detected in hepatocyte lysates; levels are strongly increased by HMW-APN, but not by LMW-APN, suggesting the distinct uptake/degradation of APN isoforms by PHH. Several genes with a role in fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism known to be regulated by HMW-APN are not affected by the LMW-isoform. Follistatin is reduced by HMW-APN and induced by LMW-APN in supernatants of PHH. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is repressed by both isoforms. Cellular triglycerides and cholesterol levels are not reduced by APN. Total phospholipids, including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins, are not changed upon APN incubation, while distinct species are either induced or repressed. Unexpectedly, total ceramide is increased by LMW-APN. Current data show that APN isoforms differentially affect hepatocyte gene expression, but do not grossly alter the hepatocyte lipidome. PMID:24957032

Wanninger, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Voggenreiter, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Weiss, Thomas S.; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

2014-01-01

32

Nuchal thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue is tightly associated with an increased LMW/total adiponectin ratio in obese juveniles.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) topography contributes significantly to metabolic risk profiles and atherosclerotic vascular burden in obese adults. However, little information exists concerning individual risk profiles in early phases of obesity found in childhood and adolescence. Thus, the rationale of this study was to evaluate possible impacts of SAT topography in obese juveniles on adiponectin subfractions, with special emphasis on low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin. To address this, we analysed associations between lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms and adiponectin subfractions in 71 obese juveniles and 75 normal weight controls of similar age and gender distribution. Compared to the controls, obese juveniles had a significantly decreased ratio between high molecular weight (HMW) and total adiponectin whereas the LMW/total adiponectin ratio was increased. The LMW/total adiponectin ratio correlated significantly positively with the SAT thickness of trunk-located lipometer measure points neck, biceps, upper back, lower back, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Further significant positive correlations were seen with systolic blood pressure, intima media thickness (IMT) of common carotid arteries, and metabolic parameters such as HOMA-index, leptin, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), liver transaminases, and HDL-triglycerides. This remained stable after controlling for gender. A stepwise multiple regression analysis encompassing all these variables revealed a robust positive association between LMW/total adiponectin ratio and nuchal SAT thickness defined by the lipometer measure point neck. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that nuchal SAT thickness is tightly positively associated with an increased LMW/total adiponectin ratio. PMID:18656877

Mangge, Harald; Almer, Gunter; Haj-Yahya, Samih; Grandits, Nadja; Gasser, Robert; Pilz, Stefan; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

2009-03-01

33

Weight Reduction Increases Plasma Levels of an Adipose-Derived Anti-Inflammatory Protein, Adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, was recently revealed to have anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular components of vascular wall. Its plasma levels were significantly lower in men than in women and lower in human subjects with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or coronary artery disease. Therefore, it may provide a biological link between obesity and obesity-related disorders such as

WEI-SHIUNG YANG; WEI-JEI LEE; TOHRU FUNAHASHI; SACHIYO TANAKA; YUJI MATSUZAWA; CHIA-LING CHAO; CHI-LING CHEN; TONG-YUAN TAI; LEE-MING CHUANG

2010-01-01

34

Characterization of a novel variant HMW-glutenin gene from Elymus canadensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) play a key role in the determination of end-use quality of wheat and other\\u000a cereal crops. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of both promoter region and ORF of novel HMW-GS\\u000a allele 1St1.3 from a perennial Triticeae species, Elymus canadensis. The amino acid (AA) sequences of E. canadensis 1St1.3 were

Qian-Tao Jiang; Yu-Ming Wei; Zhen-Xiang Lu; Tao Liu; Ji-Rui Wang; Zhi-En Pu; Xiu-Jin Lan; You-Liang Zhen

2010-01-01

35

Altered functional properties of tritordeum by transformation with HMW glutenin subunit genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of wheat glutenin are the major determinants of the gluten visco-elasticity that\\u000a allows wheat doughs to be used to make bread, pasta and other food products. In order to increase the proportions of the HMW\\u000a subunits, and hence improve breadmaking performance, particle bombardment was used to transform tritordeum, a fertile amphiploid\\u000a between wild barley and pasta

L. Rooke; F. Barro; A. S. Tatham; R. Fido; S. Steele; F. Békés; P. Gras; A. Martin; P. A. Lazzeri; P. R. Shewry; P. Barcelo

1999-01-01

36

Porcine Adiponectin Receptor 1 Transgene Resists High-fat/Sucrose Diet-Induced Weight Gain, Hepatosteatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin and its receptors have been demonstrated to play important roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease are highly correlated with down-regulated adiponectin signaling. In this study, we generated mice overexpressing the porcine Adipor1 transgene (pAdipor1) to study its beneficial effects in metabolic syndromes as expressed in diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Wild-type (WT) and pAdipor1 transgenic mice were fed ad libitum with a standard chow diet (Chow) or a high-fat/sucrose diet (HFSD) for 24 weeks, beginning at 6 to 7 weeks of age. There were 12 mice per genetic/diet/sex group. When challenged with HFSD to induce obesity, the pAdipor1 transgenic mice resisted development of weight gain, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. These mice had lowered plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and glycerol concentrations compared to WT mice. Moreover, we found that (indicated by mRNA levels) fatty acid oxidation was enhanced in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and liver lipogenesis was inhibited. The pAdipor1 transgene also restored HFSD-reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose transporter 4 mRNA in the adipose tissues, implying that the increased Pck1 may promote glyceroneogenesis to reduce glucose intolerance and thus activate the flux of glyceride-glycerol to resist diet-induced weight gain in the adipose tissues. Taken together, we demonstrated that pAdipor1 can prevent diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance. Our findings may provide potential therapeutic strategies for treating metabolic syndromes and obesity, such as treatment with an ADIPOR1 agonist or activation of Adipor1 downstream targets. PMID:24172199

Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Ya-Chin; Huang, Chao-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chien; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Mersmann, Harry J.; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Ding, Shih-Torng

2013-01-01

37

Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes

Gregory L. Florant; Heather Porst; Aubrey Peiffer; Susan F. Hudachek; Chris Pittman; Scott A. Summers; Michael W. Rajala; Philipp E. Scherer

2004-01-01

38

The Relationships Between IGF-1 and CRP, NO, Leptin, and Adiponectin During Weight Loss in the Morbidly Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), leptin, adiponectin, and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1)\\u000a is poorly defined in morbidly obese patients before and after gastric bypass and, in some cases, is controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We examined the plasma of 34 morbidly obese patients before and 1, 6, and 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Obese people had more CRP

Eva Pardina; Roser Ferrer; Juan Antonio Baena-Fustegueras; Albert Lecube; Jose Manuel Fort; Víctor Vargas; Roberto Catalán; Julia Peinado-Onsurbe

2010-01-01

39

Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia Adhesins of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Mediate Broad-Based Opsonophagocytic Killing of Homologous and Heterologous Strains  

PubMed Central

The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

Winter, Linda E.

2014-01-01

40

Relationship between Thyroid Volume and Iodine, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Obese Women before and after Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether or not reduction of thyroid volume during weight loss is related to adipocytokines and urinary iodine excretion in obese women. Subjects and Methods: 98 obese and 31 non-obese women consecutively admitted to the endocrinology and metabolism outpatient clinic of the School of Medicine, Akdeniz University were included in the study. Thyroid volume, thyroid function tests, leptin

Esin Eray; Funda Sari; Sabahat Ozdem; Ramazan Sari

2011-01-01

41

Serum bile acid along with plasma incretins and serum high–molecular weight adiponectin levels are increased after bariatric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve glucose tolerance, although the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Animal studies have suggested important roles of bile acid (BA) as a regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. However, little is known about its role in humans. We investigated the longitudinal changes of BA, incretins, and adipokines after significant weight reduction in

Hiroshi Nakatani; Kazunori Kasama; Takashi Oshiro; Mitsuhiro Watanabe; Hiroshi Hirose; Hiroshi Itoh

2009-01-01

42

Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).  

PubMed

Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes in lipid mass. We collected serum and tissue samples from marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in different seasons while measuring changes in fat mass, including fat-cell size. We found that leptin is positively associated with increasing fat mass and fat-cell size, while adiponectin is negatively associated with increasing lipid mass. These findings are consistent with the putative roles of these adipokines: leptin increases with fat mass and is involved in enhancing lipid oxidation while adiponectin appears to be higher in summer when hepatic insulin sensitivity should be maintained since the animals are eating. Our data suggest that during autumn/winter animals have switched from a lipogenic condition to a lipolytic state, which may include leptin resistance. PMID:15517283

Florant, Gregory L; Porst, Heather; Peiffer, Aubrey; Hudachek, Susan F; Pittman, Chris; Summers, Scott A; Rajala, Michael W; Scherer, Philipp E

2004-11-01

43

Changes of Serum Adiponectin Levels in Murine Experimental Sparganosis  

PubMed Central

The weight gain phenomenon associated with sparganosis has been well documented and was first recognized in the 1960s. Many studies have been conducted regarding the plerocercoid growth factor in the larva of Spirometra mansoni. In the present study, we hypothesized that the weight gain may be affected by the adipocyte secreted hormones, i.e., adiponectin, which is secreted from the adipose tissues in case of tissue migrating parasitic infections. Specifically, we attempted to ascertain whether the serum levels of adiponectin change in murine sparganosis. However, serum adiponectin levels assayed by ELISA evidenced no significant changes after an experimental infection (P > 0.05). Finally, the weight gain phenomenon in mouse sparganosis is not associated with changes in adiponectin levels, and further investigations involving parasitic infection-induced weight gain remain necessary. PMID:18552545

2008-01-01

44

Effects of interventions on adiponectin and adiponectin receptors  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin secreted from adipose tissue binds to two distinct adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) identified and exerts its anti-diabetic effects in insulin-sensitive organs including liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as well as amelioration of vascular dysfunction in the various vasculatures. A number of experimental and clinical observations have demonstrated that circulating levels of adiponectin are markedly reduced in obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Therapeutic interventions which can improve the action of adiponectin including elevation of circulating adiponectin concentration or up-regulation and/or activation of its receptors, could provide better understanding of strategies to ameliorate metabolic disorders and vascular disease. The focus of the present review is to summarize accumulating evidence showing the role of interventions such as pharmacological agents, exercise, and calorie restriction in the expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. PMID:24877039

Lee, Sewon; Kwak, Hyo-Bum

2014-01-01

45

Structural Insights into the Glycosyltransferase Activity of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-like Protein*  

PubMed Central

Glycosylation of proteins is a fundamental process that influences protein function. The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an N-linked glycoprotein that mediates adherence to respiratory epithelium, an essential early step in the pathogenesis of H. influenzae disease. HMW1 is glycosylated by HMW1C, a novel glycosyltransferase in the GT41 family that creates N-glycosidic linkages with glucose and galactose at asparagine residues and di-glucose linkages at sites of glucose modification. Here we report the crystal structure of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C (ApHMW1C), a functional homolog of HMW1C. The structure of ApHMW1C contains an N-terminal all ?-domain (AAD) fold and a C-terminal GT-B fold with two Rossmann-like domains and lacks the tetratricopeptide repeat fold characteristic of the GT41 family. The GT-B fold harbors the binding site for UDP-hexose, and the interface of the AAD fold and the GT-B fold forms a unique groove with potential to accommodate the acceptor protein. Structure-based functional analyses demonstrated that the HMW1C protein shares the same structure as ApHMW1C and provided insights into the unique bi-functional activity of HMW1C and ApHMW1C, suggesting an explanation for the similarities and differences of the HMW1C-like proteins compared with other GT41 family members. PMID:21908603

Kawai, Fumihiro; Grass, Susan; Kim, Youngchang; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

2011-01-01

46

Impact of Adiponectin Deficiency on Pulmonary Responses to Acute Ozone Exposure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Obese mice have increased responses to acute ozone (O3) exposure. T-cadherin is a binding protein for the high–molecular weight isoforms of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory hormone that declines in obesity. The objective of the present study was to determine whether adiponectin affects pulmonary responses to O3, and whether these effects are mediated through T-cadherin. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and measured pulmonary responsiveness to methacholine after acute air or O3 exposure (2 ppm for 3 h) in adiponectin-deficient (Adipo?/?) or T-cadherin–deficient (T-Cad?/?) mice. O3 increased pulmonary responses to methacholine and increased BAL neutrophils and protein to a greater extent in wild-type than in Adipo?/? mice, whereas T-cadherin deficiency had no effect. O3-induced increases in BAL IL-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), which contribute to O3-induced pulmonary neutrophilia, were also greater in wild-type than in Adipo?/? mice. In contrast, responses to O3 were not altered by transgenic overexpression of adiponectin. To determine which adiponectin isoforms are present in the lung, Western blotting was performed. The hexameric isoform of adiponectin dominated in serum, whereas BAL was dominated by the high–molecular weight isoform of adiponectin. Interestingly, serum adiponectin was greater in T-Cad?/? versus wild-type mice, whereas BAL adiponectin was lower in T-Cad?/? versus wild-type mice, suggesting that T-cadherin may be important for transit of high–molecular weight adiponectin from the blood to the lung. Our results indicate that adiponectin deficiency inhibits pulmonary inflammation induced by acute O3 exposure, and that T-cadherin does not mediate the effects of adiponectin responsible for these events. PMID:19915153

Zhu, Ming; Hug, Christopher; Kasahara, David I.; Johnston, Richard A.; Williams, Alison S.; Verbout, Norah G.; Si, Huiqing; Jastrab, Jordan; Srivastava, Amit; Williams, Erin S.; Ranscht, Barbara; Shore, Stephanie A.

2010-01-01

47

Adiponectin effects on the kidney.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is a 30-kDa polypeptide secreted primarily by adipose tissue and plays a key role in kidney disease. In obesity, reduced adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and obesity related kidney disease. The latter includes microalbuminuria, glomerulomegaly, overt proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetics also negatively correlate with early features of nephropathy. However, in patients with established chronic kidney disease, adiponectin levels are elevated and positively predict progression of disease. The mechanism of action of adiponectin in the kidney appears to be related to AMPK activation and NADPH oxidase. Further studies are needed to elucidate this pathway and investigate the role of potential targets of adiponectin-AMPK-Nox pathway for CKD as obesity-related CKD is increasing worldwide. PMID:24417947

Sweiss, Natalie; Sharma, Kumar

2014-01-01

48

Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000 ?g/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0–24h),we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose–response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-?g/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. PMID:23892310

Angle, Brittany M.; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Drury, Bertram E.; Nagel, Susan C.; Welshons, Wade V.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.

2013-01-01

49

Characterization and comparative analysis of HMW glutenin 1Ay alleles with differential expressions  

PubMed Central

Background High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) have been considered as most important seed storage proteins for wheat flour quality. 1Ay subunits are of great interest because they are always silent in common wheat. The presence of expressed 1Ay subunits in diploid and tetraploid wheat genotypes makes it possible to investigate molecular information of active 1Ay genes. Results We identified 1Ay subunits with different electrophoretic mobility from 141 accessions of diploid and tetraploid wheats, and obtained the complete ORFs and 5' flanking sequences of 1Ay genes including 6 active and 3 inactive ones. Furthermore, the 5' flanking sequences were characterized from 23 wild diploid species of Triticeae. All 6 active 1Ay possess a typical HMW-GS primary structure and some novel characteristics. The conserved cysteine residue within the repetitive domain of y-type subunits was replaced by phenylalanine residue in subunits of 1Ay (Tu-e1), 1Ay (Tu-e2), 1Ay (Ta-e2) and 1Ay (Td-e). Particularly, 1Ay (Ta-e3) has an unusual large molecular weight of 2202 bp and was one of the known largest y-type HMW-GSs. The translations of 1Ay (Tu-s), 1Ay (Ta-s) and 1Ay (Td-s) were disrupted by premature stop codons in their coding regions. The 5' flanking sequences of active and inactive 1Ay genes differ in a few base substitutions and insertions or deletions. The 85 bp deletions have been found in promoter regions of all 1Ay genes and the corresponding positions of 6 species from Aegilops and Hordeum. Conclusion The possession of larger molecular weight and fewer conserved cysteine residues are unique structural features of 1Ay genes; it would be interested to express them in bread wheat and further to examine their impact to processing quality of wheat. The 1Ay genes from T. urartu are closer to the genes from T. turgidum dicoccon and T. aestivum, than those from T. monococcum aegilopoides. The 85 bp deletion and some variations in the 5'flanking region, have not interrupted expression of 1Ay genes, whereas the defects in the coding regions could be responsible to the silence of the 1Ay genes. Some mutational events in more distant distal promoter regions are also possible causes for the inactivation of 1Ay genes. PMID:19196487

Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Feng; Wang, Ji-Rui; Yan, Ze-Hong; Zheng, You-Liang

2009-01-01

50

Human Milk Adiponectin Is Associated with Infant Growth in Two Independent Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin's oligomeric form. Design and Methods This is a study of two parallel longitudinal cohorts of breastfed infants born between 1998 and 2005. Forty-five mother–infant pairs from Cincinnati, OH and 277 mother–infant pairs from Mexico City, Mexico were analyzed. All participants were healthy, term infants breastfed at least 1 month who completed 6 months of follow-up. Monthly milk samples (n?=?1,379) up to 6 months were assayed for adiponectin by radioimmunoassay. Infant weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length Z-scores up to 6 months of age were calculated using World Health Organization standards. Repeated-measures analysis was conducted. The structural form of human milk adiponectin was assessed by western blot. Results In the population studies, initial milk adiponectin was 24.0?±?8.6??g/L and did not differ by cohort. Over the first 6 months, higher milk adiponectin was associated with lower infant weight-for-age Z-score (?0.20?±?0.04, p?weight-for-length Z-score (?0.29?±?0.08, p?=?0.0002) but not length-for-age Z-score, adjusted for covariates, with no difference by cohort. By western blot, human milk adiponectin was predominantly in the biologically active high-molecular-weight form. Conclusions Our data suggest milk adiponectin may play a role in the early growth and development of breastfed infants. PMID:19500050

Woo, Jessica G.; Guerrero, M. Lourdes; Altaye, Mekibib; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Martin, Lisa J.; Dubert-Ferrandon, Alix; Newburg, David S.

2009-01-01

51

Adiponectin signaling in the liver.  

PubMed

High glucose production contributes to fed and fasted hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The breakdown of the adiponectin signaling pathway in T1D and the reduction of circulating adiponectin in T2D contribute to this abnormal increase in glucose production. Sufficient amounts of insulin could compensate for the loss of adiponectin signaling in T1D and T2D and reduce hyperglycemia. However, the combination of low adiponectin signaling and high insulin resembles an insulin resistance state associated with cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease and decreased life expectancy. The future development of "adiponectin sensitizers", medications that correct the deficiency in adiponectin signaling, could restore the metabolic balance in T1D and T2D and reduce the need for insulin. This article reviews the adiponectin signaling pathway in the liver through T-cadherin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, AMPK, ceramidase activity, APPL1 and the recently discovered Suppressor Of Glucose from Autophagy (SOGA). PMID:24297186

Combs, Terry P; Marliss, Errol B

2014-06-01

52

Characterization of HMW-PBPs from the rod-shaped actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum: peptidoglycan synthesis in cells lacking actin-like cytoskeletal structures.  

PubMed

Analysis of the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum indicated that, in addition to ftsI, there are eight proteins with sequence motifs that are strongly conserved in penicillin binding proteins (PBPs): four genes that code for high-molecular-weight (HMW)-PBPs (PBP1a, PBP1b, PBP2a and PBP2b), two genes encoding low-molecular-weight PBPs (PBP4 and PBP4b) and two probable beta-lactamases (PBP5 and PBP6). Here, the function of the four HMW-PBPs in C. glutamicum was investigated using a combination of genetic knockouts, enhanced green fluorescent protein 2 (EGFP2) fusions and penicillin staining of membrane preparations. The four HMW-PBPs were expressed in a growing culture of C. glutamicum, but none of four pbp genes was individually essential for the growth of the bacterium, and only the simultaneous disruption of both pbp1b and pbp2b was lethal. The fused EGFP2-PBP proteins were functional in vivo, which allowed correct determination of their cellular localization. EGFP2 fusions to PBP1a, PBP1b and PBP2b localized at the poles and at the septum, whereas EGFP2-PBP2a was predominantly found at the septum. Cefsulodin treatment specifically delocalized PBP1a and PBP1b (class A HMW-PBPs), whereas mecillinam caused the specific delocalization of PBP2b and PBP2a (class B HMW-PBPs). The results provide new insight into the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of the cell wall in this bacterial species, which lacks a known actin-like cytoskeletal structure. PMID:17877698

Valbuena, Noelia; Letek, Michal; Ordóñez, Efrén; Ayala, Juan; Daniel, Richard A; Gil, José A; Mateos, Luis M

2007-11-01

53

Variation in Expression of the Haemophilus Influenzae HMW Adhesins: A Prokaryotic System Reminiscent of Eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of a number of eukaryotic genes is regulated by long stretches of tandem repeats located within the 5' untranslated region of the particular gene. In this study, we describe a regulatory system in Haemophilus influenzae with striking similarities to those found in eukaryotes. We show that expression of the HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins varies based on the number of

Suzanne Dawid; Stephen J. Barenkamp; Joseph W. St. Geme III

1999-01-01

54

Characterization of HMW-GS and evaluation of their diversity in morphologically elite synthetic hexaploid wheats.  

PubMed

High molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and variation in 95 Elite-1 synthetic hexaploid (SH) wheats (Triticum turgidum/Aegilops tauschii; 2n = 6× = 42; AABBDD) were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method (SDS-PAGE). Twenty two different alleles at Glu-1 loci in SHs were observed. Forty four different patterns of HMW-GS in synthetics were found. This higher HMW glutenin composition was due to higher proportion of D-genome encoded subunits in these SHs. 8% urea/SDS-PAGE better discriminated subunit 2* than 12% gels. However 12% urea/SDS-PAGE allowed differentiated mobility of Glu-D(t)1 subunits. Genetic variability at Glu-D(t)1 locus was greater than Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 loci. The relative high frequency of superior alleles, Glu-B1b and Glu-D(t)1d indicated the superior bread making quality attributes embedded in these synthetic hexaploid wheats. Of the 95 Elite-1 SHs 27.1% possessed superior alleles at Glu-A1 and 51% had superior alleles at Glu-B1 locus. At Glu-D(t)1 frequency of inferior allele 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 was very low (5.26%) and nine different rare alleles along with the higher frequency (22.1%) of D-genome encoded subunit, 1Dx5 + 1Dy10, were observed. These superior alleles shall form the priority selective sieve for their usage in wheat improvement efforts. PMID:23341752

Rasheed, Awais; Safdar, Tania; Gul-Kazi, Alvina; Mahmood, Tariq; Akram, Zahid; Mujeeb-Kazi, Abdul

2012-12-01

55

Analysis of HMW glutenin subunits encoded by chromosome 1A of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) indicates quantitative effects on grain quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin 1Ax1 was isolated from bread wheat cv Hope. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that previously reported for an allelic subunit, 1Ax2*, showed only minor differences, which were consistent with both subunits being associated with good bread-making quality. Quantitative analyses of total protein extracts from 22 cultivars of bread

N. G. Halford; J. M. Field; H. Blair; P. Urwin; K. Moore; L. Robert; R. Thompson; R. B. Flavell; A. S. Tatham; P. R. Shewry

1992-01-01

56

Homoeologous recombination within bread wheat to develop novel combinations of HMW-GS genes: transfer of the Glu-A1 locus to chromosome 1D  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve the bread-making quality within hexaploid wheat by elaborating novel high-molecular weight glutenin\\u000a subunits (HMW-GS) combinations useful in wheat-breeding programmes, a 1A chromosome fragment carrying the Glu-A1 locus encoding the subunit Ax2*, was translocated to the long arm of chromosome 1D. The partially isohomoeoallelic line,\\u000a designated RR239, had a meiotic behaviour as regular as cv. Courtot.

Jérôme Dumur; Gérard Branlard; Anne-Marie Tanguy; Mireille Dardevet; Olivier Coriton; Virginie Huteau; Jocelyne Lemoine; Joseph Jahier

2009-01-01

57

Adiponectin: a manifold therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary disease?  

PubMed

Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, being a key component in the interrelationship between adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Central obesity accompanied by insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and future macrovascular complications. Moreover, the remarkable correlation between coronary artery disease (CAD) and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the likelihood that atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may share a common biological background. We summarize here the current knowledge about the influence of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, discussing its forthcoming prospects and potential role as a therapeutic target for MS, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is present in the circulation as a dimer, trimer or protein complex of high molecular weight hexamers, >400 kDa. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are its major receptors in vivo mediating the metabolic actions. Adiponectin stimulates phosphorylation and AMP (adenosin mono phosphate) kinase activation, exerting direct effects on vascular endothelium, diminishing the inflammatory response to mechanical injury and enhancing endothelium protection in cases of apolipoprotein E deficiency. Hypoadiponectinemia is consistently associated with obesity, MS, atherosclerosis, CAD, T2DM. Lifestyle correction helps to favorably modify plasma adiponectin levels. Low adiponectinemia in obese patients is raised via continued weight loss programs in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals and is also accompanied by reductions in pro-inflammatory factors. Diet modifications, like intake of fish, omega-3 supplementation, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and coffee consumption also increase adiponectin levels. Antidiabetic and cardiovascular pharmacological agents, like glitazones, glimepiride, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are also able to improve adiponectin concentration. Fibric acid derivatives, like bezafibrate and fenofibrate, have been reported to enhance adiponectin levels as well. T-cadherin, a membrane-associated adiponectin-binding protein lacking intracellular domain seems to be a main mediator of the antiatherogenic adiponectin actions. The finding of novel pharmacologic agents proficient to improve adiponectin plasma levels should be target of exhaustive research. Interesting future approaches could be the development of adiponectin-targeted drugs chemically designed to induce the activaton of its receptors and/or postreceptor signaling pathways, or the development of specific adiponectin agonists. PMID:24957699

Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander

2014-01-01

58

Identification and molecular characterisation of HMW glutenin subunit 1By16* in wild emmer.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) in wild emmer wheat Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides (Körn.) accession KU1952 was identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Its electrophoretic mobility and molecular weight were similar to those of 1By16 and was designated as 1By16*. The complete coding sequence of the 1By16* gene isolated by allelic-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) consists of 2,157 bp, encoding 729 amino acid residues. The real presence and authenticity of the 1By16* gene in KU1952 were further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), heterologous expression and Western blotting. The molecular structure as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that 1By16* had 21 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations and possessed greater similarity with superior quality subunits 1By15 and 1By16 of common wheat. Secondary structure prediction displayed higher ?-helix and ?-strand contents in the 1By16* subunit, which could form a superior gluten structure and, consequently, might have positive effects on dough quality. Our results suggest that 1By16* is expected to be a new potential gene for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22644727

Jin, M; Xie, Z-Z; Ge, P; Li, J; Jiang, S-S; Subburaj, S; Li, X-H; Zeller, F-J; Hsam, S-L-K; Yan, Y-M

2012-08-01

59

Adiponectin Lowers Glucose Production by Increasing SOGA  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is a hormone that lowers glucose production by increasing liver insulin sensitivity. Insulin blocks the generation of biochemical intermediates for glucose production by inhibiting autophagy. However, autophagy is stimulated by an essential mediator of adiponectin action, AMPK. This deadlock led to our hypothesis that adiponectin inhibits autophagy through a novel mediator. Mass spectrometry revealed a novel protein that we call suppressor of glucose by autophagy (SOGA) in adiponectin-treated hepatoma cells. Adiponectin increased SOGA in hepatocytes, and siRNA knockdown of SOGA blocked adiponectin inhibition of glucose production. Furthermore, knockdown of SOGA increased late autophagosome and lysosome staining and the secretion of valine, an amino acid that cannot be synthesized or metabolized by liver cells, suggesting that SOGA inhibits autophagy. SOGA decreased in response to AICAR, an activator of AMPK, and LY294002, an inhibitor of the insulin signaling intermediate, PI3K. AICAR reduction of SOGA was blocked by adiponectin; however, adiponectin did not increase SOGA during PI3K inhibition, suggesting that adiponectin increases SOGA through the insulin signaling pathway. SOGA contains an internal signal peptide that enables the secretion of a circulating fragment of SOGA, providing a surrogate marker for intracellular SOGA levels. Circulating SOGA increased in parallel with adiponectin and insulin activity in both humans and mice. These results suggest that adiponectin-mediated increases in SOGA contribute to the inhibition of glucose production. PMID:20813965

Cowerd, Rachael B.; Asmar, Melissa M.; Alderman, J. McKee; Alderman, Elizabeth A.; Garland, Alaina L.; Busby, Walker H.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Rusyn, Ivan; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Tisch, Roland; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Swenberg, James A.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Combs, Terry P.

2010-01-01

60

Effects of aging on the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Gastric and adipose tissue secrete a number of hormones that are involved in energy metabolism. The biological functions of these hormones, including their effects on aging, are currently under investigation. Adiponectin was shown to be directly involved in appetite and the control of body weight. However, the effects of aging of nesfatin-1, an appetite-suppressing peptide that was recently identified, have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aging on the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin. Our results demonstrated no significant differences in the nesfatin-1 plasma levels among three age groups (2, 6 and 24 months) of female BALB/c mice. The plasma nesfatin-1 levels/visceral fat (VF) ratio in the 24-month-old mice was significantly lower compared to that in the 2- and 6-month-old mice. In addition, there were no significant differences in the plasma adiponectin levels among the three age groups. The plasma adiponectin levels/VF ratio in the 24-month-old mice was significantly lower compared to that in the 2- and 6-month-old mice. In conclusion, there were no age-related changes in the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin, although the ratio of plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin per VF was decreased with advancing age. Our results indicated that nesfatin-1 and adiponectin may be involved in controlling energy balance during aging. PMID:24649088

LI, JIANG-BO; NISHIDA, MIYUKI; KAIMOTO, KAORI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; CHAOLU, HUHE; CHENG, KAI-CHUN; LI, YING-XIAO; TERASHI, MUTSUMI; KOYAMA, KEN ICHIRO; AMITANI, HARUKA; SAKOGUCHI, TAKEO; USHIKAI, MIHARU; IKEDA, SATOSHI; AOYAMA, KOHJI; HORIUCHI, MASAHISA; LI, JIAN-ZHONG; INUI, AKIO

2014-01-01

61

Adiponectin and Breast Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone, is closely and inversely associated with insulin resistance and was recently found to be inversely and independently associated with en- dometrial cancer. Because insulin resistance in the setting of obesity has also been associated with the development of breast cancer, we have hypothesized that decreased adi- ponectin levels might underlie the association between breast cancer and

CHRISTOS MANTZOROS; ELENI PETRIDOU; NICK DESSYPRIS; CHARILAOS CHAVELAS; MARIA DALAMAGA; DELIA MARINA ALEXE; YANNIS PAPADIAMANTIS; CHRISTOS MARKOPOULOS; EVANGELOS SPANOS; GEORGE CHROUSOS; DIMITRIOS TRICHOPOULOS

62

Adiponectin Level in Serum and BAL Sample of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the only cause of mortality and morbidity with an increasing incidence. Adiponectin has recently gained the spotlight for its possible association with COPD or its exacerbation. This study evaluated the association of serum and alveolar adiponectin levels with COPD-related variables. Materials and Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 COPD patients. Number of cigarettes smoked (packs), years of smoking, number of disease exacerbations per year and BMI were all recorded. Patients underwent spirometry and their disease severity was determined based on BODE index. Venous blood sample was obtained to measure the adiponectin serum level, ESR and CRP. Bronchoscopy and BAL were performed as well and alveolar secretions were collected to assess the alveolar fluid level of adiponectin. Result The mean serum level of adiponectin in COPD patients was significantly higher than the upper limit of normal range in healthy individuals (P = 0.000). Level of alveolar adiponectin in smoker patients was significantly higher than non-smokers (P = 0.043) but serum adiponectin was not significantly different between them. Serum adiponectin level had a significant reverse correlation with BMI and a direct correlation with number of exacerbations per year and CRP. Level of alveolar adiponectin had a direct association with number of exacerbations per year and number of smoked cigarettes. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, smoking cessation is very important in COPD and more emphasis should be placed on patient's weight control especially those with low BMI as well as rehabilitation programs for these patients. PMID:25191474

Yazdani, Rostam; Hassanaghaei, Tarlan

2013-01-01

63

N-linked glycosylation of mouse adiponectin.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine with antidiabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective properties. Previously, some types of posttranslational modification on adiponectin have been reported. In this study, we demonstrate that mouse adiponectin protein migrated as 2 bands on SDS-PAGE gel. Slower migrating band of adiponectin was reduced by PNGase treatment. PNGase is known as N-glycosidase, and is able to change the mobility of N-glycosylated protein on SDS-PAGE gel. This result indicates the possibility that slower band shifted and overlapped with faster band by cleavage of N-glycan. To further clarify the N-glycosylation of adiponectin, we investigated the effect of N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Tunicamycin significantly reduced the ratio of slower band to faster band in culture medium from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This result also indicates the possibility that slower band of adiponectin is N-glycosylated. Lastly, to identify glycosylated asparagine residues, we established 3T3-L1 cell lines stably expressing wild type and mutant adiponectin in N-glycosylation sites. Wild-type adiponectin protein migrated as double bands, and mutant adiponectin in either asparagine at position 53 or threonine at 55 lacked slower band. These results suggest that a part of mouse adiponectin is modified by N-linked glycosylation at asparagine 53. PMID:21769758

Tanaka, M; Fukuhara, A; Shimomura, I

2011-07-01

64

Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity.  

PubMed

Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

Gabrielsen, J Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D; Hunt, Steven C; Hopkins, Paul N; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

2012-10-01

65

Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A.; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C.; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

2012-01-01

66

Adiponectin is critical in determining susceptibility to depressive behaviors and has antidepressant-like activity.  

PubMed

Depression is a debilitating mental illness and is often comorbid with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here we show that adiponectin levels in plasma are reduced in a chronic social-defeat stress model of depression, which correlates with decreased social interaction time. A reduction in adiponectin levels caused by haploinsufficiency results in increased susceptibility to social aversion, "anhedonia," and learned helplessness and causes impaired glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of an adiponectin neutralizing antibody precipitates stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Conversely, i.c.v. administration of exogenous adiponectin produces antidepressant-like behavioral effects in normal-weight mice and in diet-induced obese diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest a critical role of adiponectin in depressive-like behaviors and point to a potential innovative therapeutic approach for depressive disorders. PMID:22778410

Liu, Jing; Guo, Ming; Zhang, Di; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Liu, Meilian; Ding, Jun; Scherer, Philipp E; Liu, Feng; Lu, Xin-Yun

2012-07-24

67

Adiponectin is critical in determining susceptibility to depressive behaviors and has antidepressant-like activity  

PubMed Central

Depression is a debilitating mental illness and is often comorbid with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipocyte–derived hormone with antidiabetic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here we show that adiponectin levels in plasma are reduced in a chronic social-defeat stress model of depression, which correlates with decreased social interaction time. A reduction in adiponectin levels caused by haploinsufficiency results in increased susceptibility to social aversion, “anhedonia,” and learned helplessness and causes impaired glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of an adiponectin neutralizing antibody precipitates stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Conversely, i.c.v. administration of exogenous adiponectin produces antidepressant-like behavioral effects in normal-weight mice and in diet-induced obese diabetic mice. Taken together, these results suggest a critical role of adiponectin in depressive-like behaviors and point to a potential innovative therapeutic approach for depressive disorders. PMID:22778410

Liu, Jing; Guo, Ming; Zhang, Di; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Liu, Meilian; Ding, Jun; Scherer, Philipp E.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Xin-Yun

2012-01-01

68

Adiponectin and cardiovascular health: an update  

PubMed Central

The global epidemic of obesity is accompanied by an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), in particular stroke and heart attack. Dysfunctional adipose tissue links obesity to CVD by secreting a multitude of bioactive lipids and pro-inflammatory factors (adipokines) with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Adiponectin is one of the few adipokines that possesses multiple salutary effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular health. Clinical investigations have identified adiponectin deficiency (hypoadiponectinaemia) as an independent risk factor for CVD. In animals, elevation of plasma adiponectin by either pharmacological or genetic approaches alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, many therapeutic benefits of the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists, the thiazolidinediones, are mediated by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin protects cardiovascular health through its vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in both cardiac and vascular cells. This review summarizes recent findings in the understanding of the physiological role and clinical relevance of adiponectin in cardiovascular health, and in the identification of the receptor and postreceptor signalling events that mediate the cardiovascular actions of adiponectin. It also discusses adiponectin-targeted drug discovery strategies for treating obesity, diabetes and CVD. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3 PMID:21457225

Hui, Xiaoyan; Lam, Karen SL; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Xu, Aimin

2012-01-01

69

Adiponectin Abates Atherosclerosis by Reducing Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated whether the anti-atherosclerosis of adiponectin (APN) relates to the reduction of oxidative stress. We observed the overexpression of adiponectin gene with different titers on atherosclerosis (AS) models of high-fat apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE?/?) mice. Material/Methods We divided 48 male ApoE?/? mice into 4 groups: control group, high-fat diet group, low adiponectin group, and high adiponectin group. The low and high adiponectin group mice were treated with recombinant adenovirus expressing mice adiponectin (Ad-APN) with low-dose adiponectin 1.0×108 p.f.u. and high-dose adiponectin 5.0×108 p.f.u. via the tail every 2 weeks and given a high-fat diet for the last 8 weeks. On the 14th day after injection, blood samples were obtained from the vena cava. Results Along with increased serum adiponectin, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased (P<0.05) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased (P<0.05). Levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, especially TC and LDL-C (P<0.05). A real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction test was used to analyze levels of mRNA expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and adiponectin in the aorta. Along with increased adiponectin, the mRNA expression of eNOS in the aorta was increased significantly (P<0.05). The lesion formation in the aortic sinus was inhibited by 25% and 31% in the low-APN group and high-APN group, respectively (P<0.05). Along with the increase of adiponectin doses, the damage of atherosclerosis gradually eased. However, the differences between the low-APN group and high-APN group had no statistical significance. Conclusions Adiponectin may protect the aorta from atherosclerosis injury by reducing oxidative stress, reducing lesion formation size in the aortic root and reducing TC, TG, and LDL-C in serum. The molecular mechanism may involve preservation of SOD, reducing MDA in serum, and increasing eNOS and adiponectin mRNA expression in the aorta. PMID:25275545

Wang, Xuemei; Pu, Hongwei; Ma, Chuang; Jiang, Tao; Wei, Qin; Duan, Mingjun; Zhang, Chun; Shou, Xi; Su, Lipin; Zhang, Jianlong; Yang, Yining

2014-01-01

70

Adiponectin abates atherosclerosis by reducing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Background We investigated whether the anti-atherosclerosis of adiponectin (APN) relates to the reduction of oxidative stress. We observed the overexpression of adiponectin gene with different titers on atherosclerosis (AS) models of high-fat apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. Material and Methods We divided 48 male ApoE-/- mice into 4 groups: control group, high-fat diet group, low adiponectin group, and high adiponectin group. The low and high adiponectin group mice were treated with recombinant adenovirus expressing mice adiponectin (Ad-APN) with low-dose adiponectin 1.0×108 p.f.u. and high-dose adiponectin 5.0×108 p.f.u. via the tail every 2 weeks and given a high-fat diet for the last 8 weeks. On the 14th day after injection, blood samples were obtained from the vena cava. Results Along with increased serum adiponectin, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased (P<0.05) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased (P<0.05). Levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, especially TC and LDL-C (P<0.05). A real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction test was used to analyze levels of mRNA expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and adiponectin in the aorta. Along with increased adiponectin, the mRNA expression of eNOS in the aorta was increased significantly (P<0.05). The lesion formation in the aortic sinus was inhibited by 25% and 31% in the low-APN group and high-APN group, respectively (P<0.05). Along with the increase of adiponectin doses, the damage of atherosclerosis gradually eased. However, the differences between the low-APN group and high-APN group had no statistical significance. Conclusions Adiponectin may protect the aorta from atherosclerosis injury by reducing oxidative stress, reducing lesion formation size in the aortic root and reducing TC, TG, and LDL-C in serum. The molecular mechanism may involve preservation of SOD, reducing MDA in serum, and increasing eNOS and adiponectin mRNA expression in the aorta. PMID:25275545

Wang, Xuemei; Pu, Hongwei; Ma, Chuang; Jiang, Tao; Wei, Qin; Zhang, Chun; Duan, Mingjun; Shou, Xi; Su, Lipin; Zhang, Jianlong; Yang, Yining

2014-01-01

71

Isolation and characterization of five novel high molecular weight subunit of glutenin genes from Triticum timopheevi and Aegilops cylindrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis by SDS-PAGE of total protein fractions from single seeds of Aegilops cylindrica (genomes C and D) and Triticum timopheevi (genomes A and G) showed the presence of three bands corresponding to high molecular weight subunits of glutenin (HMW subunits) in the former and two major bands and a minor band corresponding to HMW subunits in the latter. Three Ae.

Y. Wan; D. Wang; P. R. Shewry; N. G. Halford

2002-01-01

72

Lithium decreases plasma adiponectin levels in bipolar depression.  

PubMed

Lithium, a first line treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), has been associated with significant weight gain, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. It has been suggested that changes in production/release of adipokines - molecules secreted by adipose tissue presenting anti-inflammatory (adiponectin) and pro-inflammatory (leptin, resistin) properties - might be implicated. Adiponectin, resistin and leptin were assessed in 25 acutely depressed BD individuals (88% medication-free and 68% treatment-naive) at baseline and after 6 weeks of lithium therapy, and in 23 healthy controls matched by age. The 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess depression severity. Levels of adiponectin significantly decreased after lithium monotherapy, while the levels of resistin and leptin remained stable after the follow-up period. Adipokine levels during depressive episodes in BD did not differ compared to controls. Pretreatment levels of leptin were higher in remitters and changes in resistin levels were negatively correlated to improvement of depressive symptoms with lithium. Our findings shed light in this pathophysiological process, which might be associated with metabolic syndrome, inflammation and other medical comorbidities in BD. PMID:24525248

Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Gold, Philip W; Brunoni, Andre R; de Sousa, Rafael T; Zanetti, Marcus V; Carvalho, André F; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

2014-04-01

73

Topic Modeling: Beyond Bag-of-Words Hanna M. Wallach hmw26@cam.ac.uk  

E-print Network

by computing estimators of both the marginal probability of word i and the con- ditional probability of word i estimator fi|j is smoothed by the marginal frequency estimator fi to give the predictive probability of wordTopic Modeling: Beyond Bag-of-Words Hanna M. Wallach hmw26@cam.ac.uk Cavendish Laboratory

Wallach, Hanna M.

74

Associations of Insulin Resistance and Adiponectin With Mortality in Women With Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Overweight or obese breast cancer patients have a worse prognosis compared with normal-weight patients. This may be attributed to hyperinsulinemia and dysregulation of adipokine levels associated with overweight and obesity. Here, we evaluate whether low levels of adiponectin and a greater level of insulin resistance are associated with breast cancer mortality and all-cause mortality. Patients and Methods We measured glucose, insulin, and adiponectin levels in fasting serum samples from 527 women enrolled in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study, a multiethnic, prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer. We evaluated the association between adiponectin and insulin and glucose levels (expressed as the Homeostatic Model Assessment [HOMA] score) represented as continuous measures and median split categories, along with breast cancer mortality and all-cause mortality, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Increasing HOMA scores were associated with reduced breast cancer survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.20) and reduced all-cause survival (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15) after adjustment for possible confounders. Higher levels of adiponectin (above the median: 15.5 ?g/mL) were associated with longer breast cancer survival (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.95) after adjustment for covariates. A continuous measure of adiponectin was not associated with either breast cancer–specific or all-cause mortality. Conclusion Elevated HOMA scores and low levels of adiponectin, both associated with obesity, were associated with increased breast cancer mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the association between low levels of adiponectin and increased breast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. PMID:21115858

Duggan, Catherine; Irwin, Melinda L.; Xiao, Liren; Henderson, Katherine D.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne

2011-01-01

75

Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

2014-01-01

76

Expression of adiponectin and its receptors in avian species.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ secreting a variety of hormones that affect physiological functions within the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, reproductive, and immune systems. The endocrine role of avian adipose tissue remains enigmatic as many of the classical hormones found in mammalian adipose tissue have not been found in avians. This mini-review summarizes our current knowledge on avian adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipose tissue hormones, and its receptors. We cloned the genes encoding chicken adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Using anti-chicken adiponectin antibody, we found that chicken adipose tissue and plasma predominantly contain a unique polymer of adiponectin with a mass greater than 669kDa, unlike mammalian adiponectin which is found as three distinct oligomers. Mass spectrometric analyses of chicken adiponectin revealed certain post-translational modifications that are likely to favor the unique multimerization of adiponectin in chickens. Unlike adiponectin, the nucleotide sequences of chicken AdipoR1- and AdipoR2 cDNA are highly similar to that of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Both adiponectin and adiponectin receptors are widely expressed in several tissues in the chicken. Herein, we review the unique biochemistry of adiponectin as well as expression of adiponectin and its receptors in the chicken. Future studies should focus on elucidating the role of adiponectin, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 on metabolism, steroidogenesis, and adipose tissue remodeling during growth and reproduction in birds. PMID:23707376

Ramachandran, Ramesh; Maddineni, Sreenivasa; Ocón-Grove, Olga; Hendricks, Gilbert; Vasilatos-Younken, Regina; Hadley, Jill A

2013-09-01

77

Adiponectin Promotes Functional Recovery after Podocyte Ablation  

PubMed Central

Low levels of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin correlate with albuminuria in both mice and humans, but whether adiponectin has a causative role in modulating renal disease is unknown. Here, we first generated a mouse model that allows induction of caspase-8–mediated apoptosis specifically in podocytes upon injection of a construct-specific agent. These POD-ATTAC mice exhibited significant kidney damage, mimicking aspects of human renal disease, such as foot process effacement, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis. After the initial induction, both podocytes and filtration function recovered. Next, we crossed POD-ATTAC mice with mice lacking or overexpressing adiponectin. POD-ATTAC mice lacking adiponectin developed irreversible albuminuria and renal failure; conversely, POD-ATTAC mice overexpressing adiponectin recovered more rapidly and exhibited less interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that adiponectin is a renoprotective protein after podocyte injury. Furthermore, the POD-ATTAC mouse provides a platform for further studies, allowing precise timing of podocyte injury and regeneration. PMID:23334396

Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Wang, Zhao V.; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Dihua; Hu, Ming Chang; Moe, Orson W.; Susztak, Katalin

2013-01-01

78

Adiponectin and IGFBP-1 in the development of gestational diabetes in obese mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is more common in pregnancies complicated by obesity and both diseases increase the risk for fetal overgrowth and long-term adverse health consequences for the mother and child. Previous studies have linked low maternal serum adiponectin to GDM in normal and overweight women. We hypothesized that lower adiponectin, in particular the high-molecular-weight form, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein (IGFBP-1) are associated with GDM in pregnant obese Hispanic women. Methods 72 obese, predominantly Hispanic (92%), women were recruited at 24–28?weeks of gestation. Adiposity was assessed, fasting serum samples were collected, and glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, adipokines, and hormones associated with obesity and insulin resistance were measured. 30 women had been recently diagnosed with GDM. Results Gestational weeks, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, serum leptin, IGF-I, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interleukin-6 did not differ in the two groups. Obese women with GDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, A1C, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGFBP-1 compared to obese women without GDM. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated to IGF-I and negatively correlated to adiponectin. Conclusions Obese pregnant women with recently diagnosed GDM had a significantly exacerbated metabolic profile, low serum adiponectin and IGFBP-1 levels at 24–28?weeks of gestation, as compared to women with obesity alone. Because low adiponectin is well established to cause insulin resistance and decreased IGFBP-1 indicates increased IGF-I bioavailability, we propose that these changes are mechanistically linked to the development of GDM in obese Hispanic women.

Ramirez, Vanessa I; Miller, Evelyn; Meireles, Christiane L; Gelfond, Jonathan; Krummel, Debra A; Powell, Theresa L

2014-01-01

79

Protein kinase CK2 interacts with adiponectin receptor 1 and participates in adiponectin signaling.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties. Its effects on energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism are mediated by two ubiquitously expressed seven-transmembrane receptors, AdipoR1 and -R2. With the exception of APPL1 and RACK1, no intracellular binding partners of adiponectin receptors are reported and thus signaling pathways downstream of these receptors remain largely unknown. To incorporate adiponectins protective potential in drug development it is essential to understand adiponectin signaling cascades in detail. A yeast two-hybrid approach employing AdipoR1s cytoplasmatic N-terminus led to the identification of the regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2. We confirmed the interaction in co-immunoprecipitation, ELISA experiments and co-localization analysis in mammalian cells. Furthermore we could localize the interaction site in an N-terminal basic region close to the transmembrane domain. In adiponectin stimulation experiments of C2C12 mouse myotubes and MCF7 cells incorporating CK2 inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benz-imidazole (DMAT) we found a modulator role of CK2 in adiponectin signaling. Accordingly we identified the regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2 as a novel intracellular partner of AdipoR1 and have strong evidence of CK2 as an effector molecule in adiponectin signaling. Since CK2 is involved in signaling cascades of other adipokines and hormones, e.g. leptin and insulin, our findings suggest a possible key function in crosstalk between adiponectin and insulin signaling pathways and could provide further insight into the anti-diabetic effects of adiponectin. PMID:19233263

Heiker, John T; Wottawah, Cornelia M; Juhl, Cathleen; Kosel, David; Mörl, Karin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

2009-06-01

80

Adiponectin Increases Secretion of Rat Submandibular Gland via Adiponectin Receptors-Mediated AMPK Signaling  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2) are expressed in various tissues and are involved in the regulation of multiple functions such as energy metabolism and inflammatory responses. However, the effect of adiponectin and AdipoRs in submandibular glands has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein of both adiponectin and AdipoR1/2 were expressed in rat submandibular glands and in the SMG-C6 cell line, as evidenced by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining showed that adiponectin was diffused in the cytoplasm, while AdipoR1/2 was concentrated in the membrane of acinar cells. Saliva flow was significantly increased by full length adiponectin (fAd) or globular adiponectin (gAd) perfusion in isolated rat submandibular glands. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, also increased saliva secretion. fAd, gAd, and AICAR all increased the average width of apical tight junctions in perfused submandibular glands, and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in SMG-C6 cells, suggesting that adiponectin promoted secretion by modulating paracellular permeability. fAd and gAd increased p-AMPK levels, while AraA, an AMPK antagonist, abolished fAd- and gAd-induced changes in secretion, tight junction ultrastructure, and TER. Moreover, both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were required for fAd- or gAd-induced p-AMPK and TER responses, suggesting from their inhibition following AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 knockdown, and co-knockdown of AdipoRs by RNA interference. Our results suggest that adiponectin functions as a promoter of salivary secretion in rat submandibular glands via activation of AdipoRs, AMPK, and paracellular permeability. PMID:23667684

Ding, Chong; Li, Li; Su, Yun-Chao; Xiang, Ruo-Lan; Cong, Xin; Yu, Hong-Kui; Li, Sheng-Lin; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-01-01

81

Central adiponectin acutely improves glucose tolerance in male mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. It is also antiinflammatory. During obesity, adiponectin levels and sensitivity are reduced. Whereas the action of adiponectin in the periphery is well established the neuroendocrine role of adiponectin is largely unknown. To address this we analyzed the expression of adiponectin and the 2 adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in response to fasting and to diet-induced and genetic obesity. We also investigated the acute impact of adiponectin on central regulation of glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin (1 ?g) was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), and glucose tolerance tests were performed in dietary and genetic obese mice. Finally, the influence of ICV adiponectin administration on central signaling cascades regulating glucose homeostasis and on markers of hypothalamic inflammation was assessed. Gene expression of adiponectin was down-regulated whereas AdipoR1 was up-regulated in the arcuate nucleus of fasted mice. High-fat (HF) feeding increased AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression in this region. In mice on a HF diet and in leptin-deficient mice acute ICV adiponectin improved glucose tolerance 60 minutes after injection, whereas normoglycemia in control mice was unaffected. ICV adiponectin increased pAKT, decreased phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, and did not change phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 immunoreactivity. In HF-fed mice, ICV adiponectin reversed parameters of hypothalamic inflammation and insulin resistance as determined by the number of phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 ?(Ser9) and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Thr183/Tyr185) immunoreactive cells in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamus. This study demonstrates that the insulin-sensitizing properties of adiponectin are at least partially based on a neuroendocrine mechanism that involves centrally synthesized adiponectin. PMID:24564394

Koch, Christiane E; Lowe, Chrishanthi; Legler, Karen; Benzler, Jonas; Boucsein, Alisa; Böttiger, Gregor; Grattan, David R; Williams, Lynda M; Tups, Alexander

2014-05-01

82

AdipoR1 and 2 are expressed on warm sensitive neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area and contribute to central hyperthermic effects of adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin can act in the brain to increase energy expenditure and reduce body weight by mechanisms not entirely understood. We found that adiponectin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in warm sensitive neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) which play a critical role in the regulation of core body temperature (CBT) and energy balance. Thus, we tested the ability of adiponectin to influence CBT in wild-type mice and in mice deficient for AdipoR1 or AdipoR2. Local injection of adiponectin into the POA induced prolonged elevation of core body temperature and decreased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indicating that increased energy expenditure is associated with increased oxidation of fat over carbohydrates. In AdipoR1 deficient mice, the ability of adiponectin to raise CBT was significantly blunted and its ability to decrease RER was completely lost. In AdipoR2 deficient mice, adiponectin had only diminished hyperthermic effects but reduced RER similarly to wild type mice. These results indicate that adiponectin can contribute to energy homeostasis by regulating CBT by direct actions on AdipoR1 and R2 in the POA. PMID:22000082

Klein, Izabella; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Tabarean, Iustin; Schaefer, Jean; Holmberg, Kristina H.; Klaus, Joe; Xia, Fengcheng; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Dubins, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, Brad; Zhukov, Viktor; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Mitsukawa, Kayo; Hadcock, John R.; Bartfai, Tamas; Conti, Bruno

2011-01-01

83

Hyperadiponectinemia in Newborns: Relationship with Leptin Levels and Birth Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adiponectin is the only adipose-specific hormone that, despite its exclusive production by adipose tissue, is reduced in obesity and is inversely correlated with leptin levels in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adiponectin concentration in umbilical cord blood at different gestational ages and to investigate its possible associations with leptin levels and birth weight.Research Methods

Inês M. C. G. Pardo; Bruno Geloneze; Marcos A. Tambascia; Antonio A. Barros-Filho

2004-01-01

84

A Role for Adiponectin in Trophoblast Function  

E-print Network

by the placenta that play a key role in the continued health and viability of the pregnancy. In addition, adiponectin induced a pro-inflammatory environment in trophoblast cells, with increases in production of both interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-8. We have gone...

McDonald, Emily

2010-07-28

85

Ethnicity Modifies the Relationships of Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Adiponectin With Obesity in a Multiethnic Asian Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The development of obesity-related metabolic disorders varies with ethnicity. We examined whether ethnicity modifies the relationship between BMI and three metabolic pathways (insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin) that are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 4,804 Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian residents of Singapore with complete data on insulin resistance (IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and total adiponectin levels. Linear regression models with an interaction term ethnicity*BMI were used to evaluate whether ethnicity modifies the association between BMI and IR, CRP, and adiponectin. RESULTS In both uni- and multivariate analyses, BMI was directly associated with IR and CRP and inversely with adiponectin across all ethnic groups. When compared with Chinese and Malays, Asian-Indians had higher IR and CRP and lower adiponectin levels. The associations between BMI and its metabolic pathways were significantly stronger in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The increase in IR and CRP and the decrease in adiponectin for each unit increase in BMI were greater in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The findings were similar when waist circumference was used in the analyses instead of BMI. CONCLUSIONS The impact of BMI on IR, CRP, and adiponectin appears greater in Chinese as compared with other major Asian ethnic groups. This may partly explain the rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes and CVD in Chinese populations and highlights the importance of weight management in Asian ethnic groups despite the apparently low levels of obesity. PMID:21464462

Khoo, Chin Meng; Sairazi, Sarina; Taslim, Siska; Gardner, Daphne; Wu, Yi; Lee, Jeannette; van Dam, Rob M.; Shyong Tai, E.

2011-01-01

86

Adiponectin ameliorates experimental periodontitis in diet-induced obesity mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine that sensitizes the body to insulin. Low levels of adiponectin have been reported in obesity, diabetes and periodontitis. In this study we established experimental periodontitis in male adiponectin knockout and diet-induced obesity mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and aimed at evaluating the therapeutic potential of adiponectin. We found that systemic adiponectin infusion reduced alveolar bone loss, osteoclast activity and infiltration of inflammatory cells in both periodontitis mouse models. Furthermore, adiponectin treatment decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue of diet-induced obesity mice with experimental periodontitis. Our in vitro studies also revealed that forkhead box O1, a key transcriptional regulator of energy metabolism, played an important role in the direct signaling of adiponectin in osteoclasts. Thus, adiponectin increased forkhead box O1 mRNA expression and its nuclear protein level in osteoclast-precursor cells undergoing differentiation. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling decreased nuclear protein levels of forkhead box O1. Furthermore, over-expression of forkhead box O1 inhibited osteoclastogenesis and led to decreased nuclear levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1. Taken together, this study suggests that systemic adiponectin application may constitute a potential intervention therapy to ameliorate type 2 diabetes-associated periodontitis. It also proposes that adiponectin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis involves forkhead box O1. PMID:24836538

Zhang, Lan; Meng, Shu; Tu, Qisheng; Yu, Liming; Tang, Yin; Dard, Michel M; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Valverde, Paloma; Zhou, Xuedong; Chen, Jake

2014-01-01

87

Adiponectin-Mediated Modulation of Lymphatic Vessel Formation and Lymphedema  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is linked with an increased risk of lymphedema, which is a serious clinical problem. Adiponectin is a circulating adipokine that is down?regulated in obese states. We investigated the effects of adiponectin on lymphatic vessel formation in a model of lymphedema and dissected its mechanisms. Methods and Results A mouse model of lymphedema was created via ablation of tail surface lymphatic network. Adiponectin?knockout mice showed the greater diameter of the injured tail compared with wild?type mice, which was associated with lower numbers of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Systemic delivery of adiponectin reduced the thickness of the injured tail and enhanced LEC formation in wild?type and adiponectin?knockout mice. Adiponectin administration also improved the edema of injured tails in obese KKAy mice. Treatment with adiponectin protein stimulated the differentiation of human LECs into tubelike structures and increased LEC viability. Adiponectin treatment promoted the phosphorylation of AMP?activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase n LECs. Blockade of AMPK or Akt activity abolished adiponectin?stimulated increase in LEC differentiation and viability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK activation also suppressed adiponectin?induced Akt phosphorylation in LECs. In contrast, inactivation of Akt signaling had no effects on adiponectin?mediated AMPK phosphorylation in LECs. Furthermore, adiponectin administration did not affect the thickening of the damaged tail in endothelial nitric oxide synthase–knockout mice. Conclusions Adiponectin can promote lymphatic vessel formation via activation of AMPK/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling within LECs, thereby leading to amelioration of lymphedema. PMID:24052499

Shimizu, Yuuki; Shibata, Rei; Ishii, Masakazu; Ohashi, Koji; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Yuasa, Daisuke; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

88

Adiponectin Deficiency, Diastolic Dysfunction, and Diastolic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Aldosterone infusion results in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and hypertension and may involve profibrotic and proinflammatory mechanisms. In turn, hypertension is the major cause of diastolic heart failure (HF). Adiponectin, an adipose-derived plasma protein, exerts antiinflammatory and anti-hypertrophic effects and is implicated in the development of hypertension and systolic HF. We thus tested the hypothesis that hypoadiponectinemia in aldosterone-induced hypertension exacerbated cardiac remodeling and diastolic HF. Wild-type (WT) or adiponectin-deficient (APNKO) mice underwent saline or aldosterone infusion and uninephrectomy and were fed 1% salt water for 4 wk. Blood pressure was increased in aldosterone-infused WT (132 ± 2 vs. 109 ± 3 mm Hg; P < 0.01) and further augmented in APNKO mice (140 ± 3 mm Hg; P < 0.05 vs. aldosterone-infused WT). LVH was increased in aldosterone-infused WT vs. WT mice (LV/body weight ratio, 4.8 ± 0.2 vs. 4.1 ± 0.2 mg/g) and further increased in aldosterone-infused APNKO mice (LV/body weight ratio, 6.0 ± 0.4 mg/g). Left ventricular ejection fraction was not decreased in either aldosterone-infused WT or APNKO hearts. Pulmonary congestion however was worse in APNKO mice (P < 0.01). The ratio of early ventricular filling over late ventricular filling (E/A) and the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e’), measures of diastolic function, were increased in aldosterone-infused WT hearts and further increased in APNKO hearts (P < 0.05 for both). Renal function and cardiac fibrosis were no different between both aldosterone-infused groups. Aldosterone increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in WT hearts (P < 0.05 vs. WT and P < 0.01 vs. APNKO). Myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide, interferon-?, and TNF-? expression were increased in aldosterone-infused WT hearts. Expression of these proteins was further increased in aldosterone-infused APNKO hearts. Therefore, hypoadiponectinemia in hypertension-induced diastolic HF exacerbates LVH, diastolic dysfunction, and diastolic HF. Whether or not adiponectin replacement prevents the progression to diastolic HF will warrant further study. PMID:19850745

Sam, Flora; Duhaney, Toni-Ann S.; Sato, Kaori; Wilson, Richard M.; Ohashi, Koji; Sono-Romanelli, Saki; Higuchi, Akiko; De Silva, Deepa S.; Qin, Fuzhong; Walsh, Kenneth; Ouchi, Noriyuki

2010-01-01

89

Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice  

SciTech Connect

We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, B5, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamura, Shinji [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kiso, Shinichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kiso@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hayashi, Norio [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2009-01-02

90

The leptin\\/adiponectin ratio: Potential implications for peritoneal dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines with respective pro-atherogenic and anti-atherogenic properties, defining the plasma leptin\\/adiponectin ratio as a novel marker for atherosclerosis. In non-renal patients, both hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia are associated with cardiovascular complications. In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, the leptin\\/adiponectin ratio is markedly elevated, which is consistent with their increased cardiovascular risk. As glucose metabolism regulates adipokines, we hypothesized

D Teta; M Maillard; G Halabi; M Burnier

2008-01-01

91

Effect of Ethnicity, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity on Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations Among Malaysian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The Malaysian Health and morbidity Survey (2006) reported the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the Indian population compared to the Malay and Chinese populations. Many studies have supported the important role of adiponectin in insulin-sensitizing, which is associated with T2DM. These studies have raised a research question whether the variation in prevalence is related to the adiponectin concentrations or the lifestyle factors. Objectives The purpose of this study is to determine whether the adiponectin concentrations differ between the Malay, Chinese and the Indian populations with T2DM. It is to investigate the association of adiponectin concentrations with ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity too. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 210 T2DM patients with mean (SD) age of 56.73 (10.23) years were recruited from Penang, Malaysia. Data on demographic background, medical history, anthropometry (weight, height, visceral fat, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), dietary intake (3 days 24 hours diet recall) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were obtained accordingly. Plasma adiponectin and routine laboratory tests (fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride) were performed according to standard procedure. Results After adjustment for physical activity and dietary intakes, the Indian population had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.003) when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations, The Indian population also had significantly higher value of HbA1c (P = 0.017) and significantly lower HDL (P = 0.013). Plasma adiponectin concentrations was significantly associated with ethnicity (P = 0.011), dietary carbohydrate (P = 0.003) and physical activity total MET score (P = 0.026), after medical history, age, sex, total cholesterol and visceral fat adjusted. However, dietary carbohydrate and physical activity did not show significantly difference among the various ethnic groups. Conclusions In conclusion, lower concentration of adiponectin in the Indian population when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations is not associated with lifestyle factors. The possibility of adiponectin gene polymorphism should be discussed further. PMID:24348588

Chin, Koo Hui; Sathyasurya, Daniel Robert; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

2013-01-01

92

The cardio-protective signaling and mechanisms of adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an endogenous insulin-sensitizing hormone which has been found to regulate energy metabolism throughout the body, including the heart. However, low levels of adiponectin are found in patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it has been suggested to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. Paradoxically, recent studies have also determined that adiponectin has cardioprotective effects against various cardiac related pathologies which lead to heart failure. These cardioprotective effects of adiponectin are attributed to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Further findings suggest that locally produced adiponectin in cardiomyocytes are functional and biologically significant. This ectopic derived adiponectin exerts its protective effects through an autocrine mechanism. These data suggest adiponectin may serve as a potential therapeutic target against the development of pathologies which develop into heart failure. The current manuscript has summarized the key findings to date which explore the cardioprotective mechanisms of adiponectin against various cardiac pathologies. Further we explore the roles of both circulating and endogenous heart specific adiponectin and their physiological importance in various heart diseases. PMID:23173099

Nanayakkara, Gayani; Kariharan, Thiruchelvan; Wang, Lili; Zhong, Juming; Amin, Rajesh

2012-01-01

93

Acute regulation of adiponectin by free fatty acids.  

PubMed

Little is known about the acute regulation of adiponectin in humans. In animal studies, adiponectin increases the clearance of free fatty acids (FFA) from the circulation by increasing skeletal uptake and oxidation of lipid, thereby regulating the FFA concentration. However, it is unknown if FFA regulate adiponectin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of an acute reduction in free fatty acids on adiponectin concentration in healthy subjects. Ten normal male subjects were admitted for 2 inpatient visits and randomized to receive either acipimox (500 mg orally at 2 am and again at 6 am) or placebo on the first visit and vice versa on the second visit. Adiponectin, FFA, insulin and glucose were measured at 7:45 am. FFA concentrations were significantly lower after acipimox than placebo administration (0.08 +/- 0.02 mEq/L v 0.35 +/- 0.53 mEq/L, P <.05). Adiponectin concentrations were also significantly lower after acipimox than placebo administration (7.4 +/- 1.2 microg/mL v 10.3 +/- 1.7 microg/mL, P <.05). The change in FFA between acipimox and placebo correlated significantly with the change in adiponectin (r = 0.66, P <.05), eg, the larger the reduction in FFA in response to acipimox, the larger the reduction in adiponectin. These results suggest that acute lowering of FFA is associated with decreased adiponectin concentrations. PMID:15164330

Bernstein, Elizabeth L; Koutkia, Polyxeni; Ljungquist, Karin; Breu, Jeff; Canavan, Bridget; Grinspoon, Steven

2004-06-01

94

Enhanced Metabolic Flexibility Associated with Elevated Adiponectin Levels  

PubMed Central

Metabolically healthy individuals effectively adapt to changes in nutritional state. Here, we focus on the effects of the adipocyte-derived secretory molecule adiponectin on adipose tissue in mouse models with genetically altered adiponectin levels. We found that higher adiponectin levels increased sensitivity to the lipolytic effects of adrenergic receptor agonists. In parallel, adiponectin-overexpressing mice also display enhanced clearance of circulating fatty acids and increased expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue with chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding. These adaptive changes to the HFD were associated with increased mitochondrial density in adipocytes, smaller adipocyte size, and a general transcriptional up-regulation of factors involved in lipid storage through efficient esterification of free fatty acids. The physiological response to adiponectin overexpression resembles in many ways the effects of chronic exposure to ?3-adrenergic agonist treatment, which also results in improvements in insulin sensitivity. In addition, using a novel computed tomography-based method for measurements of hepatic lipids, we resolved the temporal events taking place in the liver in response to acute HFD exposure in both wild-type and adiponectin-overexpressing mice. Increased levels of adiponectin potently protect against HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and preserve insulin sensitivity. Given these profound effects of adiponectin, we propose that adiponectin is a factor that increases the metabolic flexibility of adipose tissue, enhancing its ability to maintain proper function under metabolically challenging conditions. PMID:20093494

Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Scherer, Philipp E.

2010-01-01

95

Multicanonical Simulations of Five Tetrapeptide Sequences in the Central Domain of HMW Glutenin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the multicanonical simulation method to small proteins and peptides seems to be feasible and should be undertaken. In this work, the three-dimensional structures of five common tetrapeptide sequences (QPGQ, QSGQ, YPTS, SPQQ and QPGY, in one letter code) in the repetitive central domain of HMW glutenin subunits are investigated by using the multicanonical simulation procedure. Ramachandran plots were prepared and analyzed to predict the relative occurrence probabilities of ?-turn and ?-turn structures and helical states. Structural predictions of the five tetrapeptide sequences indicated the presence of high level of ?-turns and considerable level of ?-turns. It was also possible to distinguish different type of turns and their occurrence probabilities.

Arkin, Handan; Ya?ar, Fatih; Çelik, Tarik; Çelik, Süeda; Köksel, Hamit

96

Association of adiponectin gene -11377C>G polymorphism with adiponectin levels and the metabolic syndrome in Thais.  

PubMed

The metabolic syndrome is related to increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate adiponectin levels and biochemical parameters in metabolic-syndrome subjects and healthy controls. The study also sought to identify links between two polymorphisms, -11377C>G (rs266729) and +45T>G (rs2241766) of the adiponectin gene, in relation to adiponectin levels and the metabolic syndrome. Three hundres and thirty-two Thai volunteers: 164 metabolic-syndrome subjects and 168 healthy control subjects were investigated. The adiponectin and HDL-C levels of the metabolic-syndrome group were significantly lower than the control group (p<0.001). Decreased concentration of adiponectin was associated with -11377C>G polymorphism (p<0.001); this polymorphism was significantly more frequent in the metabolic syndrome group than in the control group (p<0.001). However, +45T>G polymorphism of the adiponectin gene was found not to be related to adiponectin level or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, -11377C>G polymorphism was related to the metabolic syndrome susceptibility, and this polymorphism impacted on circulating adiponectin concentrations among Thais. PMID:24561985

Suriyaprom, Kanjana; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

2014-01-01

97

Tracing the movement of adiponectin in a parabiosis model of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is exclusively synthesized by adipocytes and exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated in obese individuals with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for hypoadiponectinemia remain unclear. Here, we investigated adiponectin movement using hetero parabiosis model of wild type (WT) and adiponectin-deficient (KO) mice. WT mice were parabiosed with WT mice (WT–WT) or KO mice (WT–KO) and adiponectin levels were measured serially up to 63 days after surgery. In the WT–KO parabiosis model, circulating adiponectin levels of the WT partners decreased rapidly, on the other hand, those of KO partners increased, and then these reached comparable levels each other at day 7. Circulating adiponectin levels decreased further to the detection limit of assay, and remained low up to day 63. However, adiponectin protein was detected in the adipose tissues of not only the WT partner but also WT–KO mice. In the diet-induced obesity model, high adiponectin protein levels were detected in adipose stromal vascular fraction of diet-induced obese KO partner, without changes in its binding proteins. The use of parabiosis experiments shed light on movement of native adiponectin among different tissues such as the state of hypoadiponectinemia in obesity. PMID:24918039

Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

2014-01-01

98

Tracing the movement of adiponectin in a parabiosis model of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is exclusively synthesized by adipocytes and exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated in obese individuals with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for hypoadiponectinemia remain unclear. Here, we investigated adiponectin movement using hetero parabiosis model of wild type (WT) and adiponectin-deficient (KO) mice. WT mice were parabiosed with WT mice (WT-WT) or KO mice (WT-KO) and adiponectin levels were measured serially up to 63 days after surgery. In the WT-KO parabiosis model, circulating adiponectin levels of the WT partners decreased rapidly, on the other hand, those of KO partners increased, and then these reached comparable levels each other at day 7. Circulating adiponectin levels decreased further to the detection limit of assay, and remained low up to day 63. However, adiponectin protein was detected in the adipose tissues of not only the WT partner but also WT-KO mice. In the diet-induced obesity model, high adiponectin protein levels were detected in adipose stromal vascular fraction of diet-induced obese KO partner, without changes in its binding proteins. The use of parabiosis experiments shed light on movement of native adiponectin among different tissues such as the state of hypoadiponectinemia in obesity. PMID:24918039

Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

2014-01-01

99

Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits  

PubMed Central

The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs) in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs) and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator). In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression.

Ravel, Catherine; Fiquet, Samuel; Boudet, Julie; Dardevet, Mireille; Vincent, Jonathan; Merlino, Marielle; Michard, Robin; Martre, Pierre

2014-01-01

100

Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine as a non-viral vector for DNA delivery: comparison of physicochemical properties, transfection efficiency and in vivo distribution with high-molecular-weight polyethylenimine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (LMW-PEI) was synthesized by the acid-catalyzed, ring-opening polymerization of aziridine and compared with commercially available high-molecular-weight PEI (HMW-PEI) of 25 kDa. Molecular weights were determined by size-exclusion chromatography in combination with multi-angle laser light scattering. The weight average molecular weight (Mw) of synthesized LMW-PEI was determined as 5.4±0.5 kDa, whereas commercial HMW-PEI showed a Mw of 48±2 kDa.

Klaus Kunath; Anke von Harpe; Dagmar Fischer; Holger Petersen; Ulrich Bickel; Karlheinz Voigt; Thomas Kissel

2003-01-01

101

The role of adiponectin in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.  

PubMed

It has been two decades since the discovery of adiponectin, and today its role in insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are areas of major interest. Production of adiponectin is reduced in all inflammatory processes and states of insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin regulates carbohydrate metabolism, and may also regulate vascular homeostasis by affecting important signaling pathways in endothelial cells and modulating inflammatory responses in the subendothelial space. Clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between serum adiponectin concentrations and the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing changes in blood pressure. Antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been demonstrated to increase adiponectin levels in 3-6 months. Adiponectin has also been shown to play a role in cardiac injury in modulation of pro-survival reactions, cardiac energy metabolism, and inhibition of hypertrophic remodeling. The effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are believed to be partially mediated by the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways, reducing endothelial cell apoptosis, promoting nitric oxide production, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) activity, and preventing atherosclerotic proliferation and smooth muscle cell migration. Further evaluation of biologically active forms of adiponectin and its receptor should help to clarify how obesity affects the cardiovascular system. PMID:24924994

Rojas, Edward; Rodríguez-Molina, Daloha; Bolli, Peter; Israili, Zafar H; Faría, Judith; Fidilio, Enzamaría; Bermúdez, Valmore; Velasco, Manuel

2014-08-01

102

Adiponectin regulates albuminuria and podocyte function in mice  

PubMed Central

Increased albuminuria is associated with obesity and diabetes and is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. However, the link between early albuminuria and adiposity remains unclear. To determine whether adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is a communication signal between adipocytes and the kidney, we performed studies in a cohort of patients at high risk for diabetes and kidney disease as well as in adiponectin-knockout (Ad–/–) mice. Albuminuria had a negative correlation with plasma adiponectin in obese patients, and Ad–/– mice exhibited increased albuminuria and fusion of podocyte foot processes. In cultured podocytes, adiponectin administration was associated with increased activity of AMPK, and both adiponectin and AMPK activation reduced podocyte permeability to albumin and podocyte dysfunction, as evidenced by zona occludens–1 translocation to the membrane. These effects seemed to be caused by reduction of oxidative stress, as adiponectin and AMPK activation both reduced protein levels of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 in podocytes. Ad–/– mice treated with adiponectin exhibited normalization of albuminuria, improvement of podocyte foot process effacement, increased glomerular AMPK activation, and reduced urinary and glomerular markers of oxidant stress. These results suggest that adiponectin is a key regulator of albuminuria, likely acting through the AMPK pathway to modulate oxidant stress in podocytes. PMID:18431508

Sharma, Kumar; RamachandraRao, Satish; Qiu, Gang; Usui, Hitomi Kataoka; Zhu, Yanqing; Dunn, Stephen R.; Ouedraogo, Raogo; Hough, Kelly; McCue, Peter; Chan, Lawrence; Falkner, Bonita; Goldstein, Barry J.

2008-01-01

103

T-cadherin is essential for adiponectin-mediated revascularization.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue secretes protein factors that have systemic actions on cardiovascular tissues. Previous studies have shown that ablation of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin leads to endothelial dysfunction, whereas its overexpression promotes wound healing. However, the receptor(s) mediating the protective effects of adiponectin on the vasculature is not known. Here we examined the role of membrane protein T-cadherin, which localizes adiponectin to the vascular endothelium, in the revascularization response to chronic ischemia. T-cadherin-deficient mice were analyzed in a model of hind limb ischemia where blood flow is surgically disrupted in one limb and recovery is monitored over 28 days by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. In this model, T-cadherin-deficient mice phenocopy adiponectin-deficient mice such that both strains display an impaired blood flow recovery compared with wild-type controls. Delivery of exogenous adiponectin rescued the impaired revascularization phenotype in adiponectin-deficient mice but not in T-cadherin-deficient mice. In cultured endothelial cells, T-cadherin deficiency by siRNA knockdown prevented the ability of adiponectin to promote cellular migration and proliferation. These data highlight a previously unrecognized role for T-cadherin in limb revascularization and show that it is essential for mediating the vascular actions of adiponectin. PMID:23824191

Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tigges, Ulrich; Yoshida, Sumiko; Denzel, Martin S; Ranscht, Barbara; Walsh, Kenneth

2013-08-23

104

Serum adiponectin in patients with coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte derived hormone, a modulator of lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation. It has potential anti-atherogenic property. Adiponectin is present in low concentration in patients with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). In this case control study, we studied the association of Serum adiponectin with CHD. Sixty-four subjects were enrolled. Consecutive 31 CHD patients (Group I) and 33 healthy controls (Group II) were included. Serum adiponectin & lipid profile were estimated in all. Serum adiponectin was significantly lower in CHD patients (3.90±2.21?g/ml) in comparison with controls (5.09±2.13?g/ml)(P<0.05). There was no significant difference of any fraction of lipid profile between cases and controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between Serum adiponectin and Serum triacylglyceride (STG) in cases (P<0.01). It may be concluded that low serum adiponectin may have some important role in development of CHD and probably low adiponectin and dyslipidemia are linked in the development of atherosclerosis. Further study is recommended with larger sample size to explore the role of hypoadiponectinemia in the causation of CHD. PMID:21240167

Parul, S S; Mazumder, M; Debnath, B C; Haque, M E

2011-01-01

105

Adiponectin induces breast cancer cell migration and growth factor expression.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, the hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, has been shown to promote migration of the epithelial cells and angiogenesis in these cells. We sought to determine if adiponectin could induce the cellular migration and growth factor expression in breast cancer cells grown in vitro. The breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-436 and MFM-223 (estrogen-independent) were treated with adiponectin for different time periods. Supernatants of the cell cultures were obtained by centrifugation and were assayed for growth factor expression by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Becton-Dickinson-Falcon Transwell systems were used to assay adiponectin-induced migration. Adiponectin significantly induced the expression of various growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-?1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in MDA-MB-436 and MFM-223 cells. Adiponectin also enhanced the migration of breast cancer cells which were inhibited about 50-70 % by the inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Adiponectin treatment of the cancer cell induced an increased expression of different growth factors and migration of the cells. These effects are likely to contribute to the progression of breast cancer, implying that change in adiponectin levels associated with obesity may be considered as a high risk factor in breast cancer patients. PMID:24906235

Jia, Zhongming; Liu, Yan; Cui, Shouyong

2014-11-01

106

Identification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits from Agropyron intermedium  

PubMed Central

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1?4 and Glu-1Aiy1?3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

2014-01-01

107

Effect of exercise and high-fat diet on plasma adiponectin and nesfatin levels in mice.  

PubMed

Lifestyle-related diseases are associated with overeating and lack of exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and high-fat diet on plasma adiponectin and nesfatin levels. Mice were housed for 4 weeks in 4 groups, which included the non-exercise and normal diet (SN), exercise and normal diet (EN), non-exercise and high-fat diet (SF) and the exercise and high-fat diet (EF) group. The mice in the exercise groups were housed in cages with a running wheel and were subjected to voluntary exercise. The food intake (Kcal) of the mice in the exercise groups increased compared to that of the mice in the non-exercise groups (P<0.01). Body weight and visceral fat decreased in the mice in the EF group compared to the mice in the SF group (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The temperature of the mice in the EF group increased compared to that of the mice in the SN group (P<0.05). Blood glucose, insulin (P<0.01), cholesterol (P<0.01) and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.01) increased in the SF group compared to the normal diet groups. Furthermore, plasma insulin and cholesterol concentrations increased in the SF group compared to the exercise groups (P<0.01). Plasma adiponectin and nesfatin-1 levels in the SF group decreased compared to the SN group (P<0.05). Exercise under a high-fat diet antagonized the significant decrease in the nesfatin-1 level. Exercise together with a high-fat diet affected the plasma levels of adiponectin and nesfatin. It is therefore suggested that exercise together with a high-fat diet can affect various diseases via adiponectin and nesfatin. PMID:22977512

Chaolu, Huhe; Asakawa, Akihiro; Ushikai, Miharu; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Jiang-Bo; Zoshiki, Takahiro; Terashi, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Chie; Atsuchi, Kaori; Sakoguchi, Takeo; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Takeuchi, Toru; Inui, Akio

2011-03-01

108

Pre and post- prandial appetite hormone levels in normal weight and severely obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Appetite is affected by many factors including the hormones leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Ghrelin stimulates hunger, leptin promotes satiety, and adiponectin affects insulin response. This study was designed to test whether the pre- and postprandial response of key appetite hormones differs in normal weight (NW) and severely obese (SO) women. METHODS: Twenty three women ages 25–50 were recruited for

Joseph J Carlson; Amy A Turpin; Gail Wiebke; Steven C Hunt; Ted D Adams

2009-01-01

109

Effect of six-month lifestyle intervention on adiponectin, resistin and soluble tumor necrosis factor-? receptors in obese adolescents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a six-month lifestyle intervention on adiponectin, resistin, and two soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor-? receptor (sTNFR) in obese adolescents. A total of 54 obese adolescents aged 10 to 16 years completed the program. Twenty-four adolescents with normal weight at baseline were used as a control group. Our results demonstrated that obese adolescents had abnormal lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, adiponectin level (5.6±2.7 vs. 7.6±2.9 ?g/mL, p=0.005) as well as resistin level (31.0±9.0 vs. 24.3±8.5 ng/mL, p=0.003), whereas levels of both sTNFRs were similar to those in normal weight subjects. After the six-month lifestyle intervention, obese adolescents had a slight but significant drop in standard deviation score-body mass index (SDS-BMI), a significant decrease in waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA index, as well as resistin, and a significant increase in adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In adolescents without decreased SDS-BMI, no change was observed in adipokines. Changes in adiponectin correlated negatively with changes in waist circumference (r=-0.275, p=0.044). Changes in resistin correlated positively with changes in triglycerides (r=0.302, p=0.027). The study demonstrated the increase of resistin and the decrease of adiponectin in obese adolescents. Lifestyle intervention improved adipokine abnormalities in obese subjects. PMID:25029953

Huang, Fengyang; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Pérez-Ontiveros, José Alfredo; Ruiz-Bedolla, Eliseo; Saucedo-Ramírez, Omar Josué; Villafaña, Santiago; Bravo, Guadalupe; Mailloux-Salinas, Patrick; Hong, Enrique

2014-09-29

110

Adiponectin promotes monocyte-to-fibroblast transition in renal fibrosis.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived fibroblasts may contribute substantially to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis through the excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and activation of these fibroblasts are not understood. Here, we used a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis to determine whether adiponectin, which is elevated in CKD and is associated with disease progression, regulates monocyte-to-fibroblast transition and fibroblast activation in injured kidneys. In wild-type mice, the expression of adiponectin and the number of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney increased after renal obstruction. In contrast, the obstructed kidneys of adiponectin-knockout mice had fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts. Adiponectin deficiency also led to a reduction in the number of myofibroblasts, the expression of profibrotic chemokines and cytokines, and the number of procollagen-expressing M2 macrophages in injured kidneys. Consistent with these findings, adiponectin-deficiency reduced the expression of collagen I and fibronectin. Similar results were observed in wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury. In cultured bone marrow-derived monocytes, adiponectin stimulated the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and extracellular matrix proteins and activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, specific activation of AMPK increased the expression of ?-SMA and extracellular matrix proteins, while inhibition of AMPK attenuated these responses. Taken together, these findings identify adiponectin as a critical regulator of monocyte-to-fibroblast transition and renal fibrosis, suggesting that inhibition of adiponectin/AMPK signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target for fibrotic kidney disease. PMID:23833260

Yang, Jun; Lin, Song-Chang; Chen, Gang; He, Liqun; Hu, Zhaoyong; Chan, Lawrence; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L; Wang, Yanlin

2013-10-01

111

Effects of chronic vs. intermittent calorie restriction on mammary tumor incidence and serum adiponectin and leptin levels in MMTV-TGF-? mice at different ages  

PubMed Central

Calorie restriction prevents mammary tumor (MT) development in rodents. Usually, chronic calorie restriction (CCR) has been implemented. In contrast, intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) has been less frequently used. Recent studies indicate that when a direct comparison of the same degree of CCR vs. ICR was made using MMTV-TGF-? mice which develop MTs in the second year of life, ICR provided greater protection than CCR in delaying MT detection and reducing tumor incidence. Adiponectin and leptin are two adipocytokines secreted from adipose tissue which have opposite effects on many physiological functions, including proliferation of human breast cancer cells. A recent study indicated that a low adiponectin/leptin ratio was associated with breast cancer. We evaluated the relationship of adiponectin and leptin to MT development in MMTV-TGF-? calorie-restricted mice at several ages. Mice were enrolled at 10 weeks of age and subjected to 25% caloric reduction implemented either chronically or intermittently. Mice were euthanized at designated time points up to 74 weeks of age. Serum samples were collected to measure adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Both CCR and ICR mice had significantly reduced MT incidence. For the groups studied, serum leptin increased over time, while there was a trend for an increase in serum adiponectin levels in ad libitum and ICR mice, with no change in CCR mice between 10 and 74 weeks of age. The adiponectin/leptin ratio was significantly reduced as mice aged, but this ratio in ICR mice was significantly higher than that for ad libitum and CCR mice. No correlation was noted between serum adiponectin and leptin. These findings demonstrate that intermittent calorie restriction delays the early development of MTs. This delay was associated with reduced serum leptin levels following the restriction phases of the protocol. Additionally, serum leptin levels correlated with body weight and body fat in the groups studied. PMID:22966277

DOGAN, SONER; ROGOZINA, OLGA P.; LOKSHIN, ANNA E.; GRANDE, JOSEPH P.; CLEARY, MARGOT P.

2010-01-01

112

Adiponectin Levels Are Reduced While Markers of Systemic Inflammation and Aortic Remodelling Are Increased in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Mother-Child Couple  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study. To investigate the relationships between the adipocytokine levels, markers of inflammation, and vascular remodelling in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study. One hundred and forty pregnant patients were enrolled. Adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in IUGR, small for gestational age (SGA), and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) mother-child couples at delivery. IUGR and SGA fetuses were defined as fetuses whose estimated fetal weight (EFW) was below 10th percentile for gestational age with and without umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities, respectively. Fetal aorta intima media thickness (aIMT) was evaluated by ultrasound in the same fetal groups. Data were analyzed by R (version 2.15.2). Results. There were 37 IUGR mother-child couples, 33 SGA, and 70 AGA. Leptin, TNF?, IL-6, and CRP serum levels were higher in IUGR pregnant patients (P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in IUGR fetuses compared to SGA and AGA, while leptin, TNF?, and IL-6 levels were higher in IUGR group (P ? 0.05). Fetal aIMT was significantly higher in IUGR (P < 0.05) and in this group there was a negative correlation between aIMT and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L ratio) (P < 0.05) and between adiponectin and IL-6 levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In conclusion, compared to SGA and AGA, IUGR fetuses had reduced circulating levels of adiponectin and elevated measures of aIMT and several inflammatory markers. Moreover, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with aIMT in IUGR fetuses suggesting a possible causal link between reduced adiponectin and vessel remodelling. PMID:25045669

Visentin, Silvia; Lapolla, Annunziata; Londero, Ambrogio Pietro; Cosma, Chiara; Dalfra, Mariagrazia; Camerin, Martina; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Cosmi, Erich

2014-01-01

113

Chronic Ethanol Feeding to Rats Decreases Adiponectin Secretion by Subcutaneous Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Chronic ethanol feeding to mice and rats decreases serum adiponectin concentration and adiponectin treatment attenuates chronic ethanol-induced liver injury. While it is clear that lowered adiponectin has pathophysiological importance, the mechanisms by which chronic ethanol decreases adiponectin are not known. Here we have investigated the impact of chronic ethanol feeding on adiponectin expression and secretion by adipose tissue. Rats were fed a 36% Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid diet or pair-fed control diet for 4 weeks. Chronic ethanol feeding decreased adiponectin mRNA, but had no effect on adiponectin protein, in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Chronic ethanol feeding also reduced adiponectin secretion by isolated subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipocytes, despite the maintenance of equivalent intracellular concentrations of adiponectin between subcutaneous adipocytes from ethanol- and pair-fed rats. Treatment with brefeldin A suppressed adiponectin secretion by subcutaneous adipocytes from pair-fed rats, but had little effect after ethanol feeding. In subcutaneous adipocytes from pair-fed rats, adiponectin was enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi relative to plasma membrane; however, after chronic ethanol feeding, adiponectin was equally distributed between plasma membrane and ER/Golgi fractions. In conclusion, chronic ethanol feeding impaired adiponectin secretion by subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipocytes; impaired secretion likely contributes to decreased adiponectin concentrations after chronic ethanol feeding. PMID:17047161

Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M.; Nagy, Laura E.

2006-01-01

114

Role of adiponectin in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade in mice with diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin promotes fatty acid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity and thus plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Chronic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blockade also increases lipid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals or animals, resulting in reduced cardiometabolic risk. Chronic CB1 blockade reverses the obesity-related decline in serum adiponectin levels, which has been proposed to account for the metabolic effects of CB1 antagonists. Here, we investigated the metabolic actions of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese adiponectin knockout (Adipo(-/-)) mice and their wild-type littermate controls (Adipo(+/+)). HFD-induced obesity and its hormonal/metabolic consequences were indistinguishable in the two strains. Daily treatment of obese mice with rimonabant for 7 days resulted in significant and comparable reductions in body weight, serum leptin, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the two strains. Rimonabant treatment improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity to the same extent in Adipo(+/+) and Adipo(-/-) mice, whereas it reversed the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular damage only in the former. The adiponectin-dependent, antisteatotic effect of rimonabant was mediated by reduced uptake and increased ?-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. We conclude that reversal of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by chronic CB1 blockade, but not the parallel reduction in adiposity and improved glycemic control, is mediated by adiponectin. PMID:24381003

Tam, Joseph; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Earley, Brian J; Zhou, Liang; Jourdan, Tony; Szanda, Gergö; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George

2014-02-15

115

Randomized controlled trial for an effect of catechin-enriched green tea consumption on adiponectin and cardiovascular disease risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background Previous observational studies have indicated that green tea (GT) consumption is associated with reduced mortality from cerebral infarction but not with mortality from cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we hypothesized that GT exerts a direct antiatherosclerotic effect without any effect on hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we focused on adiponectin that seems to be among the several key players in atherosclerosis. Objective The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to assess whether the consumption of catechin-enriched GT affects serum adiponectin levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among apparently healthy subjects. Design A total of 51 individuals participated in the study. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into GT consumption groups with either high catechin (400 mg/day) or low catechin (100 mg/day). The study participants were asked to stop GT consumption for 2 weeks (washout period), following which they were to start drinking the provided GT beverages everyday for 9 weeks. The outcome measures were changes in the adiponectin levels and CVD risk factors (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein). Results After intervention for 9 weeks, we found no significant difference between the high- and low catechin group with respect to changes in the serum adiponectin level: 0.35 µg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): ?1.03, 1.74). Also, no significant difference was observed between the high- and low catechin groups with respect to changes in any of the measured CVD risk factors. Conclusion This RCT showed no significant difference between the high- and low catechin groups with respect to changes in the serum adiponectin level and any CVD risk factors. PMID:22144918

Sone, Toshimasa; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Shimazu, Taichi; Nomura, Kozue; Rikimaru, Shouzo; Tsuji, Ichiro

2011-01-01

116

AICAR stimulates adiponectin and inhibits cytokines in adipose tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) can be used as an experimental tool to activate 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. In parallel adiponectin also seems to activate AMPK and to improve insulin sensitivity. We have investigated the effects of AICAR on the gene expression of adiponectin and on gene expression and release of cytokines in human

Aina S Lihn; Niels Jessen; Steen B Pedersen; Sten Lund; Bjørn Richelsen

2004-01-01

117

Adiponectin Enhances the Responsiveness of the Olfactory System  

PubMed Central

The peptide hormone adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and the circulating concentration is reversely correlated with body fat mass; it is considered as starvation signal. The observation that mature sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium express the adiponectin receptor 1 has led to the concept that adiponectin may affect the responsiveness of the olfactory system. In fact, electroolfactogram recordings from olfactory epithelium incubated with exogenous adiponectin resulted in large amplitudes upon odor stimulation. To determine whether the responsiveness of the olfactory sensory neurons was enhanced, we have monitored the odorant-induced expression of the immediate early gene Egr1. It was found that in an olfactory epithelium incubated with nasally applied adiponectin the number of Egr1 positive cells was significantly higher compared to controls, suggesting that adiponectin rendered the olfactory neurons more responsive to an odorant stimulus. To analyze whether the augmented responsiveness of sensory neurons was strong enough to elicit a higher neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the number of activated periglomerular cells of a distinct glomerulus was determined by monitoring the stimulus-induced expression of c-fos. The studies were performed using the transgenic mOR256-17-IRES-tauGFP mice which allowed to visualize the corresponding glomerulus and to stimulate with a known ligand. The data indicate that upon exposure to 2,3-hexanedione in adiponectin-treated mice the number of activated periglomerular neurons was significantly increased compared to controls. The results of this study indicate that adiponectin increases the responsiveness of the olfactory system, probably due to a higher responsiveness of olfactory sensory neurons. PMID:24130737

Loch, Diana; Heidel, Christian; Breer, Heinz; Strotmann, Jorg

2013-01-01

118

PPAR-Activating Angiotensin Type1 Receptor Blockers Induce Adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adipose-specific protein adiponectin has been recently discovered to improve insulin sensitivity. Angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus by mostly unknown molecular mechanisms. To identify new antidiabetic mechanisms of ARBs, we studied the regulation of adiponectin by angiotensin II (Ang II) and different ARBs in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese Zucker rats.

Ronald Clasen; Michael Schupp; Anna Foryst-Ludwig; Christiane Sprang; Markus Clemenz; Maxim Krikov; Christa Thone-Reineke; Thomas Unger; Ulrich Kintscher

2005-01-01

119

Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)  

SciTech Connect

The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio (Tokuyama Soda Co., Ltd., Tokuyama-city (Japan))

1993-11-05

120

IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription  

SciTech Connect

The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States) [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2009-05-15

121

Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies  

PubMed Central

The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. PMID:24591772

Dobek, Aleksandra; Garczynski, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

2014-01-01

122

Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 in the porcine uterus, conceptus, and trophoblast during early pregnancy.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, one of the several adipocytokines secreted mainly by the adipose tissue, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and controls female fertility. Female reproductive functions are closely associated with nutritional status, and adiponectin seems to be an important factor linking the regulation of metabolic homeostasis with reproductive processes. The biological activity of adiponectin is mediated by two distinct receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). The objective of this study was to determine the presence of and changes in the gene and protein expression pattern of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy and on Days 10 to 11 of the estrous cycle and in the conceptus and trophoblast. The highest level of adiponectin transcript was observed on Days 15 to 16 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 15 to 16 of gestation in the myometrium. The highest expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes was detected on Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the endometrium, and Days 12 to 13 in the myometrium. The highest content of adiponectin protein was noted on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32 of gestation in the endometrium and Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the myometrium. The expression of adiponectin protein was higher on Days 27 to 28 and 30 to 32 in the conceptuses. AdipoR1 protein content in the myometrium was highest on Days 12 to 13 and 30 to 32. In contrast, in the endometrium, it was more constant. The highest content of AdipoR2 protein was detected on Days 15 to 16 and 30 to 32 of gestation, Days 10 to 11 of the cycle in the endometrium, and Days 10 to 11 of gestation in the myometrium. In the conceptuses, the highest AdipoR1 protein content was observed on Days 15 to 16, and the highest AdipoR2 protein expression was determined on Days 15 to 16 and 27 to 28. In the trophoblasts, AdipoR1 protein content was higher on Days 27 to 28 than on Days 30 to 32, whereas the expression of AdipoR2 was higher on Days 30 to 32. This study demonstrated the presence of adiponectin and its receptors in the uteri, conceptuses, and trophoblasts of pregnant pigs and that the local adiponectin system is dependent on the stage of pregnancy. PMID:25129870

Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Kiezun, Marta; Szeszko, Karol; Kaminski, Tadeusz

2014-10-15

123

The adiponectin gene is associated with adiponectin levels but not with characteristics of the insulin resistance syndrome in healthy Caucasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low concentrations of adiponectin, the protein product of the APM1 gene, have been reported to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. However, contrasting results have been described on the genetic variability in APM1 and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and adiponectin serum concentrations. In the present study, we investigated the association of the two most well-known SNPs of APM1

Vitolds Mackevics; Iris M Heid; Stefanie A Wagner; Paula Cip; Hildegard Doppelmayr; Aivars Lejnieks; Henning Gohlke; Günther Ladurner; Thomas Illig; Bernhard Iglseder; Florian Kronenberg; Bernhard Paulweber

2006-01-01

124

Abstract A partial promoter region of the high-molecu-lar weight (HMW) glutenin genes was studied in two  

E-print Network

wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Switzerland. Sequences were compared to a recent Swiss landrace T (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.) Schübl.) and the free-theshing wheats (Triticum aestivum/durum/turgid- um in two wheat specimens, a 300 year-old spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and an approximately 250 year-old bread

Jacomet, Stefanie

125

Stable expression of 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in transgenic rye drastically increases the polymeric glutelin fraction in rye flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated and characterized transgenic rye synthesizing substantial amounts of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from wheat. The unique bread-making characteristic of wheat flour is closely related to the elasticity and extensibility of the gluten proteins stored in the starchy endosperm, particularly the HMW-GS. Rye flour has poor bread-making quality, despite the extensive sequence and structure similarities of wheat and rye

Fredy Altpeter; Carlos Popelka Juan; Herbert Wieser

2004-01-01

126

Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes ?-cell regeneration.  

PubMed

As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute ?-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential role of adiponectin under insulinopenic conditions to maintain minimal lipid homeostasis. When insulin levels are marginal, adiponectin is critical for insulin signaling, endocytosis, and lipid uptake in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. In the absence of both insulin and adiponectin, severe lipoatrophy and hyperlipidemia lead to lethality. In contrast, elevated adiponectin levels improve systemic lipid metabolism in the near absence of insulin. Moreover, adiponectin is sufficient to mitigate local lipotoxicity in pancreatic islets, and it promotes reconstitution of ?-cell mass, eventually reinstating glycemic control. We uncovered an essential new role for adiponectin, with major implications for type 1 diabetes. PMID:25339419

Ye, Risheng; Holland, William L; Gordillo, Ruth; Wang, Miao; Wang, Qiong A; Shao, Mengle; Morley, Thomas S; Gupta, Rana K; Stahl, Andreas; Scherer, Philipp E

2014-01-01

127

Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism  

E-print Network

The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. ...

Liu, Qingqing

128

The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin decreases insulin resistance by decreasing triglyceride content in muscle and

T. Yamauchi; J. Kamon; H. Waki; Y. Terauchi; N. Kubota; K. Hara; Y. Mori; T. Ide; K. Murakami; N. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka; O. Ezaki; Y. Akanuma; O. Gavrilova; C. Vinson; M. L. Reitman; H. Kagechika; K. Shudo; M. Yoda; Y. Nakano; K. Tobe; R. Nagai; S. Kimura; M. Tomita; P. Froguel; T. Kadowaki

2001-01-01

129

Adiponectin is present in human milk and is associated with maternal factors1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Previousstudieshaveshownthathumanmilkhasarole inthegastrointestinal,neural,andimmunedevelopmentofneonates.If present in milk, adiponectin would be a promising candidate for influ- encing infant development, given its metabolic functions. Objectives: Our objectives were to determine whether adiponectin is present in human milk and to characterize maternal factors asso- ciated with potential variation in milk adiponectin concentrations. Design: We quantified adiponectin concentrations in human milk samples from donors to the

Lisa J Martin; Jessica G Woo; Sheela R Geraghty; Mekibib Altaye; Barbara S Davidson; Walter Banach; Lawrence M Dolan; Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios; Ardythe L Morrow

130

Metabolically Protective Cytokines Adiponectin and Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Are Increased by Acute Overfeeding in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Context Circulating levels of metabolically protective and adverse cytokines are altered in obese humans and rodent models. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines are altered rapidly in response to over-nutrition, or as a later consequence of the obese state. Methods Forty sedentary healthy individuals were examined prior to and at 3 and 28 days of high fat overfeeding (+1250 kCal/day, 45% fat). Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp), adiposity, serum levels of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), lipocalin-2 and plasminogen activator factor-1 (PAI1) were assessed. Statistics were performed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results Overfeeding increased weight, body fat and liver fat, fasting glucose, insulin and reduced insulin sensitivity by clamp (all P <0.05). Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF21 were increased at day 3 of overfeeding (P ?0.001) and adiponectin was also elevated at day 28 (P=0.001). FABP4, lipocalin-2 and PAI-1 were not changed by overfeeding at either time point. Conclusion Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF-21, were increased by over nutrition and weight gain in healthy humans, despite increases in insulin resistance. We speculate that this was in attempt to maintain glucose homeostasis in a state of nutritional excess. PAI-I, FABP4 and lipocalin 2 were not altered by overfeeding suggesting that changes in these cytokines may be a later consequence of the obese state. Clinical trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00562393) PMID:24205333

Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Campbell, Lesley V.; Xu, Aimin; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

2013-01-01

131

Effect of Drinking on Adiponectin in Healthy Men and Women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality and increases adiponectin concentrations, but effects might differ according to sex and beverage consumed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 72 healthy individuals (22–56 years) were enrolled in this randomized controlled crossover trial. After washout, two interventions for 3 weeks followed: ethanol (concentration 12.5%), beer (5.6%), or red wine (12.5%) equivalent to 30 g ethanol/day for men and 20 g/day for women or the same de-alcoholized beverages or water. Adiponectin was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Among women, adiponectin significantly increased after consuming red wine (29.8%, P < 0.05) and increased among men after ethanol solution (17.4%, P < 0.05) and consuming beer (16.1%, P < 0.05). De-alcoholized beverages had no substantial effect on adiponectin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Moderate amounts of ethanol-containing beverages increased adiponectin concentrations, but sex-specific effects might depend on type of beverage consumed. PMID:19244090

Imhof, Armin; Plamper, Ines; Maier, Steffen; Trischler, Gerlinde; Koenig, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

132

Genome-wide Linkage and Association Analyses to Identify Genes Influencing Adiponectin Levels: The GEMS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin has a variety of metabolic effects on obesity, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis. To identify genes influencing variation in plasma adiponectin levels, we performed genome-wide linkage and association scans of adiponectin in two cohorts of subjects recruited in the Genetic Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome Study. The genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in families of Turkish and southern European (TSE, n

Hua Ling; Dawn M. Waterworth; Heide A. Stirnadel; Toni I. Pollin; Philip J. Barter; Y. Antero Kesäniemi; Robert W. Mahley; Ruth McPherson; Gérard Waeber; Thomas P. Bersot; Jonathan C. Cohen; Scott M. Grundy; Vincent E. Mooser; Braxton D. Mitchell

2009-01-01

133

Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses  

PubMed Central

The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM—low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10–1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions. PMID:25368867

Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim D.; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John D.; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

2014-01-01

134

The effects of BADGE and caffeine on the time-course response of adiponectin and lipid oxidative enzymes in high fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice: correlation with reduced adiposity and steatosis.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, which is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue, has been shown to increase fatty acid oxidation via activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). ACC phosphorylation and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1) activity have been shown to be rate controlling factors in fatty acid oxidation. In high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, we analyzed the time-course of changes in the expression of adiponectin and lipid oxidative enzymes induced by treatment with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) or caffeine for 8 weeks, and investigated whether the changes of adiponectin and lipid oxidative enzymes expression correlated with reduced adiposity or steatosis after 8 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks of treatment, BADGE and caffeine had reduced body weight and epididymal adipose tissue weight in mice fed HFD, and markedly reduced the number of fatty droplets in the liver. Interestingly, the expression of adiponectin and lipid oxidative enzymes significantly increased after 2 weeks of treatment. These results indicate that the expression of adiponectin and lipid oxidative enzymes in the early stages of BADGE or caffeine treatment correlated well with the long-term anti-obesity effects. PMID:18946183

Yun, Jun-Won; Shin, Eui-Seok; Cho, Si-Young; Kim, Shin-Hyoung; Kim, Chae-Wook; Lee, Tae-Ryong; Kim, Bae-Hwan

2008-10-01

135

Modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis by adiponectin during delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to evaluate role of adiponectin in ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. This study showed significantly low circulating adiponectin level and a decline in expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in the ovary during the period of delayed embryonic development as compared with the normal development. The adiponectin treatment in vivo during the period of delayed development caused significantly increased in circulating progesterone and estradiol levels together with increased expression of AdipoR1 in the ovary. The in vitro study confirmed the stimulatory effect of adiponectin on progesterone synthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that the effects of adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis were mediated through increased expression of luteinizing hormone-receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3?-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase enzyme. The adiponectin treatment may also promote progesterone synthesis by modulating ovarian angiogenesis, cell survival and rate of apoptosis. PMID:24787661

Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

2014-09-01

136

Diagnosing Workflow Processes using Woflan H.M.W. Verbeek1, T. Basten2, and W.M.P. van der Aalst1,3,  

E-print Network

Diagnosing Workflow Processes using Woflan H.M.W. Verbeek1, T. Basten2, and W.M.P. van der Aalst1.A.Basten@tue.nl 3 Dept. of Computing Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Abstract Workflow management technology promises a flexible solution for business-process support facilitating the easy

van der Aalst, Wil

137

Augmented Plasma Adiponectin after Prolonged Fasting During Ramadan in Men  

PubMed Central

Background: Intermittent fasting during Ramadan entails major changes in metabolism and energy expenditure. This study sought to determine effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) as two inter-related peptides involved in cells sensitivity to insulin and glucose metabolism. Methods: Total of seventy healthy men, with age range equal or greater than 30, with at least three type2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk factors were selected. Serum lipid profile, anthropometric indices and plasma glucose levels were determined using conventional methods. Also, serum adiponectin and TNF- ? concentra­tions were assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Ramadan fasting resulted in a significant increase of serum adiponectin (P< 0.000), fasting glucose (P< 0.000) and triglycride (P< 0.001). Body mass index was lowered during the fasting (P< 0.000). Finally, no remarkable decrease was found in serum TNF-? levels (P= 0.100). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting resulted in augmented adipo­nectin levels which may help in improving metabolic stress induced by insulin resistance in men with predisposing factors of type2 DM. PMID:25097840

Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Rasuli, Javad; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

2014-01-01

138

Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6??g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6??g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Beatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

2010-01-01

139

Elevated adiponectin serum levels in women with systemic autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 ?g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 ?g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

2010-01-01

140

Common variants in genes encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1/2), adiponectin concentrations, and diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Aims Baseline adiponectin concentrations predict incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Diabetes Prevention Program. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the genes encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) would associate with circulating adiponectin concentrations and/or with diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program population. Methods Seventy-seven tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ (24), ADIPOR1 (22) and ADIPOR2 (31) were genotyped. Associations of SNPs with baseline adiponectin concentrations were evaluated using linear modelling. Associations of SNPs with diabetes incidence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results Thirteen of 24 ADIPOQ SNPs were significantly associated with baseline adiponectin concentrations. Multivariable analysis including these 13 SNPs revealed strong independent contributions from rs17366568, rs1648707, rs17373414 and rs1403696 with adiponectin concentrations. However, no ADIPOQ SNPs were directly associated with diabetes incidence. Two ADIPOR1 SNPs (rs1342387 and rs12733285) were associated with ~18% increased diabetes incidence for carriers of the minor allele without differences across treatment groups, and without any relationship with adiponectin concentrations. Conclusions ADIPOQ SNPs are significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort. This observation extends prior observations from unselected populations of European descent into a broader multi-ethnic population, and confirms the relevance of these variants in an obese/dysglycaemic population. Despite the robust relationship between adiponectin concentrations and diabetes risk in this cohort, variants in ADIPOQ that relate to adiponectin concentrations do not relate to diabetes risk in this population. ADIPOR1 variants exerted significant effects on diabetes risk distinct from any effect of adiponectin concentrations. [Clinical Trials Registry Nos; NCT 00004992 (Diabetes Prevention Program) and NCT 00038727 (Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study)] PMID:22443353

Mather, K. J.; Christophi, C. A.; Jablonski, K. A.; Knowler, W. C.; Goldberg, R. B.; Kahn, S. E.; Spector, T.; Dastani, Z.; Waterworth, D.; Richards, J. B.; Funahashi, T.; Pi-Sunyer, F. X.; Pollin, T. I.; Florez, J. C.; Franks, P. W.

2012-01-01

141

Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin genes in Polish triticale cultivars by PCR-based DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular markers were used to identify the allele\\/gene composition of complex lociGlu-A1 andGlu-B1 of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in triticale cultivars. Forty-six Polish cultivars of both winter and spring\\u000a triticale were analysed with 7 PCR-based markers. Amplified DNA fragments of HMW gluteninGlu-1 genes were separated by agarose slab-gel electrophoresis. Differences between all 3 alleles at the locusGlu-A1 [Glu-A1a (encoding Ax1),1b

Boles?aw P. Salmanowicz; Monika Dylewicz

2007-01-01

142

Selective expression of high molecular weight basic fibroblast growth factor confers a unique phenotype to NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed Central

The phenotypes of NIH 3T3 cells transfected with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) cDNAs that express only the high molecular weight (HMW) forms of bFGF, the 18-kDa form, or all forms were examined. Cells producing the 18 kDa or all forms of bFGF were transformed at high levels of growth factor expression but were nontransformed at low levels. Cell producing low levels of HMW forms of bFGF were growth impaired when compared with the parental cells. These cells tended to form multinucleated giant cells, did not grow in soft agar, were nontumorigenic, had a normal bFGF receptor number, and had a nontransformed morphology. Cells expressing high levels of HMW bFGFs had a transformed morphology and were tumorigenic. These data suggest a specific functional role for HMWbFGF. Images PMID:1660309

Quarto, N; Talarico, D; Florkiewicz, R; Rifkin, D B

1991-01-01

143

Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers’ eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was 23.6 ± 9.2 pg/ml, higher than that of current smokers (20.4 ± 6.1) and individuals who had never smoked (22.4 ± 5.8) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660, ? value = ?0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827, ? value = ?0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622, ? value = 0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895, ? value = 0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are risk factors for MetS and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071918

Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Roh, Ji won

2014-01-01

144

Targeting 11q23 positive acute leukemia cells with high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Background Acute leukemia with 11q23 aberrations is associated with a poor outcome with therapy. The lack of efficacy of conventional therapy has stimulated interest in developing novel strategies. Recent studies have shown that 11q23-positive acute leukemia cells express the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA). This tumor antigen represents a useful target to control growth of human melanoma tumors in patients and in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, utilizing antibody-based immunotherapy. This effect appears to be mediated by inhibition of the HMW-MAA function such as triggering of the focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) pathways. Therefore, in this study we tested whether HMW-MAA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could inhibit growth of 11q23-positive leukemia cells in SCID mice. Methods HMW-MAA-specific mAb were tested for their ability to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of an 11q23-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line and blasts from four patients with 11q23 aberrations and their in vivo growth in subcutaneous and disseminated xenograft models. Results The HMW-MAA-specific mAb did not affect in vitro proliferation although they down-regulated phosphorylated (P) Pyk2 expression. Furthermore, the mAb enhanced the in vitro anti-proliferative effect of cytarabine. In vivo the mAb inhibited the growth of leukemic cells in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect was detected on P-Pyk2 expression. Furthermore, HMW-MAA-specific mAb in combination with cytarabine did not improve tumor inhibition. Lastly, the combination of two mAb which recognize distinct HMW-MAA determinants had no detectable effect on survival in a disseminated xenograft model. Conclusions HMW-MAA-specific mAb down-regulated P-Pyk2 expression and enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of cytarabine in vitro, but had no detectable effect on survival or growth of leukemia cells in vivo. Whether the HMW-MAA-specific mAb can be used as carriers of toxins or chemotherapeutic agents against 11q23-acute leukemia remains to be determined. PMID:18677475

Drake, Allison S.; Brady, Michael T.; Wang, Xin Hui; Sait, Sheila J. N.; Earp, Justin C.; Ghoshal (Gupta), Sampa; Ferrone, Soldano; Wang, Eunice S.; Wetzler, Meir

2009-01-01

145

Differential effects of olanzapine and risperidone on plasma adiponectin levels over time: results from a 3-month prospective open-label study.  

PubMed

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA), especially clozapine and olanzapine, are associated with an increased metabolic risk. Recent research showed that plasma adiponectin levels, an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases insulin sensitivity, vary in the same way in schizophrenic patients as in the general population according to gender, adiposity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different SGAs differentially affect plasma adiponectin levels independent of body mass index (BMI) and MetS status. 113 patients with schizophrenia (65.5% males, 32.3years old) who were free of antipsychotic medication were enrolled in this open-label prospective single-center study and received either risperidone (n=54) or olanzapine (n=59). They were followed prospectively for 12weeks. Average daily dose was 4.4mg/day for risperidone and 17.4mg/day for olanzapine. Plasma adiponectin levels as well as fasting metabolic parameters were measured at baseline, 6weeks and 12weeks. The two groups had similar baseline demographic and metabolic characteristics. A significant increase in body weight was observed over time. This increase was significantly larger in the olanzapine group than in the risperidone group (+7.0kg versus +3.1kg, p<0.0002). Changes in fasting glucose and insulin levels and in HOMA-IR, an index of insulin resistance, were not significantly different in both treatment groups. MetS prevalence increased significantly more in the olanzapine group as compared to the risperidone groups where the prevalence did not change over time. We observed a significant (p=0.0015) treatment by time interaction showing an adiponectin increase in the risperidone-treated patients (from 10,154 to 11,124ng/ml) whereas adiponectin levels decreased in olanzapine treated patients (from 11,280 to 8988ng/ml). This effect was independent of BMI and the presence/absence of MetS. The differential effect of antipsychotic treatment (risperidone versus olanzapine) on plasma adiponectin levels over time, independent of changes in waist circumference and antipsychotic dosing, suggests a specific effect on adipose tissues, similar to what has been observed in animal models. The observed olanzapine-associated reduction in plasma adiponectin levels may at least partially contribute to the increased metabolic risk of olanzapine compared to risperidone. PMID:21511441

Wampers, Martien; Hanssens, Linda; van Winkel, Ruud; Heald, Adrian; Collette, Julien; Peuskens, Joseph; Reginster, Jean Yves; Scheen, Andre; De Hert, Marc

2012-01-01

146

Effects of Deletions of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles on Dough Properties and Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality  

E-print Network

In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW -GS) are synthesized by the loci Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 on the long arm of group 1 chromosome, and their variants play a significant role in the functional properties...

Tuncil, Yunus

2012-10-19

147

Degradation of high molecular weight compounds of Kraft pulp mill effluents by a combined treatment with fungi and bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of Kraft pulp mill effluents by mycelial pellets or extracellular ligninolytic liquid from Phanerochaete chrysosporium enhanced the anaerobic degradation of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds up to 79% and 72% respectively, against 45% when only anaerobic digestion was considered. Decolourization was obtained only after fungal pretreatment, since both anaerobic digestion and ligninolytic liquid pretreatment of Kraft effluent slightly increased

G. Feijoo; G. Vidal; M. T. Moreira; R. Méndez; J. M. Lema

1995-01-01

148

Plasma Concentrations of a Novel, Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.660.4

Kikuko Hotta; Tohru Funahashi; Yukio Arita; Masahiko Takahashi; Morihiro Matsuda; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Hiromi Iwahashi; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Noriyuki Ouchi; Kazuhisa Maeda; Makoto Nishida; Shinji Kihara; Naohiko Sakai; Tadahisa Nakajima; Kyoichi Hasegawa; Masahiro Muraguchi; Yasukazu Ohmoto; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Yuji Matsuzawa

2010-01-01

149

Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System Increases Adiponectin Concentrations in Patients With Essential Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, has been suggested to play an important role in insulin sensitivity. We examined the association between insulin sensitivity (M value) evaluated by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp and adiponectin concentrations in 30 essential hypertensives (EHT) and 20 normotensives (NT) and investigated the effect of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on adiponectin concentrations. EHT were divided into

Masato Furuhashi; Nobuyuki Ura; Katsuhiro Higashiura; Hideyuki Murakami; Marenao Tanaka; Norihito Moniwa; Daisuke Yoshida; Kazuaki Shimamoto

2010-01-01

150

Adiponectin Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption via APPL1-mediated Suppression of Akt1*  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipokine playing an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, the effect of adiponectin on bone metabolism shows contradictory results according to different research studies. In this study femurs were isolated from genetically double-labeled mBSP9.0Luc/?-ACT-EGFP transgenic mice and were transplanted into adiponectin knock-out mice or wild type mice to investigate the effect of temporary exposure to adiponectin deficiency on bone growth and metabolism. We found that the growth of bone explants in adiponectin knock-out mice was significantly retarded. Histological analysis, microcomputed tomography analysis, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining revealed reduced trabecular bone volume, decreased cortical bone, and increased osteoclast number in bone explants in adiponectin knock-out mice. We then found that adiponectin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis from RAW264.7 cells and down-regulates RANKL-enhanced expressions of osteoclastogenic regulators including NFAT2, TRAF6, cathepsin K, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Adiponectin also increases osteoclast apoptosis and decreases survival/proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells. Using siRNA specifically targeting APPL1, the first identified adaptor protein of adiponectin signaling, we found that the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on osteoclasts was induced by APPL1-mediated down-regulation of Akt1 activity. In addition, overexpression of Akt1 successfully reversed adiponectin-induced inhibition in RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation. In conclusion, adiponectin is important in maintaining the balance of energy metabolism, inflammatory responses, and bone formation. PMID:21300805

Tu, Qisheng; Zhang, Jin; Dong, Lily Q.; Saunders, Eileen; Luo, En; Tang, Jean; Chen, Jake

2011-01-01

151

Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

2013-01-01

152

Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin (5-hydroytryptamine or 5HT) is associated with numerous behavioral and psychological factors and is a biochemical marker of mood. 5HT is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy consumption. 5HT controls appetite in the central nerve system (CNS) and stimulates intestinal mobility. There are few studies looking at the role of 5HT and the relationship between peripheral circulating serotonin and obesity. The aim of this study was to find any differences in leptin, adiponectin, and 5HT between lean and obese dogs and to identify correlations among these factors. Results Leptin, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were higher in the obese group (all p < 0.01). Adiponectin and 5HT levels were higher in the lean group compared to the obese group (p < 0.01). Leptin (r = 0.628, p < 0.01), TG (r = 0.491, p < 0.01) and cholesterol (r = 0.419, p < 0.01) were positively correlated with body condition score (BCS), and adiponectin (r = -0.446, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.490, p < 0.01) were negatively correlated with BCS. Leptin was negatively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.294, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.343, p < 0.01). 5HT was negatively correlated with leptin (r = -0.343, p < 0.01), TG (r = -0.268, p < 0.05) and cholesterol (r = -0.357, p < 0.05). Conclusions 5HT is an important appetite control neurotransmitter, but there are limited studies for 5HT levels related to obesity in dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate peripheral 5HT levels in obese dogs. From this research, we can assume that 5HT may be correlated with canine obesity. Further studies will be needed to further elucidate the role of low serum 5HT levels in canine obesity. PMID:24886049

2014-01-01

153

Adiponectin regulates ACTH secretion and the HPAA in an AMPK-dependent manner in pituitary corticotroph cells.  

PubMed

It is known that adipokines can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). In this study, we confirmed that adiponectin regulates the HPAA by affecting pituitary corticotroph cells. Using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, we determined that adiponectin receptors were expressed in pituitary corticotroph tumour cells (AtT-20 cells and human corticotroph tumours). Adiponectin stimulated calcium influx and increased basal ACTH secretion without affecting corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated ACTH secretion, which was most likely due to the expression of adiponectin repressing CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1). Adiponectin also acutely stimulated ACTH release in primary culture pituitary cells. Lastly, adiponectin directly phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in AtT-20 cells. The effects of adiponectin were mimicked by AICAR, which was blocked by compound C. Taken together, our results suggested that adiponectin stimulated ACTH secretion and down-regulated CRHR1, possibly via an AMPK-dependent mechanism in pituitary corticotroph cells. PMID:24361598

Chen, Maopei; Wang, Zhiquan; Zhan, Ming; Liu, Ruixin; Nie, Aifang; Wang, Jiqiu; Ning, Guang; Ma, Qinyun

2014-03-01

154

Adiponectin: an adipocyte-derived hormone, and its gene encoding in children with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adiponectin (ADPN) is an adipocytokine that may have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Low adiponectin levels have previously been found in patients with high risk for CVD. Methods On seventy eight advanced CKD (stages 4 and 5) pediatric patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis( MHD) or conservative treatment (CT) the following parameters were studied: body mass index, left ventricular mass index(LVMI), serum adiponectin , cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP),interleukin 6(IL6) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene at positions 45, and 276. Seventy age-and gender-matched healthy subjects served as control subjects. Results Markedly (P?=?0.01) elevated plasma adiponectin levels were observed in CKD patients, especially CT patients, compared to control subjects. The wild type of ADIPOQ 45T > G (T) allele is the main gene for patients and controls. MHD and CT patients had significantly higher frequency of the TT genotypes of +276G > T gene (P?=?0.04) compared with control subjects. A significant positive correlation was observed between plasma adiponectin and IL6 level, whereas negative correlations were found between adiponectin level, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and hs CRP. In a stepwise backward multiple regression model only IL6 (P?=?0.001) was independently associated with plasma adiponectin levels. The adiponectin gene the 276 GT+TT genotypes were associated with a higher level of adiponectin . Conclusions The present study demonstrated that ADPN is related to several metabolic and inflammatory CV risk factors in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that this protein might have a protective role against these factors. We observed an association between the +276G>T SNP in the adiponectin gene and CKD in children. Genetic variation of +276 gene seemed to have a positive impact on circulating adiponectin levels in CKD patients. PMID:22471989

2012-01-01

155

Advances in the field of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in?depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR?1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four? and five?ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation. PMID:21255317

Kanaly, Robert A.; Harayama, Shigeaki

2010-01-01

156

Adiponectin promotes pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting apoptosis via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1? signaling  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine with pleiotropic actions. Clinical evidence has shown that serum adiponectin levels are increased and that adiponectin can protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis, which suggests that adiponectin may play an anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on PC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Adiponectin deficiency markedly attenuated pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. We found that adiponectin significantly inhibited the apoptosis of both human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells via adipoR1, but not adipoR2. Furthermore, adiponectin can increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) of PC cells. Knockdown of AMPK or Sirt1 can increase the apoptosis in PC cells. AMPK up-regulated Sirt1, and Sirt1 can inversely phosphorylate AMPK. Further studies have shown that Sirt1 can deacetylate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), which can increase the expression levels of mitochondrial genes. Thus, adiponectin exerts potent anti-apoptotic effects on PC cells via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? signaling. Finally, adiponectin can elevate ?-catenin levels. Taken together, these novel findings reveal an unconventional role of adiponectin in promoting pancreatic cancers, and suggest that the effects of adiponectin on tumorigenesis are highly tissue-dependent. PMID:25051362

Peng, Meiyu; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhi; Li, Min; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Rongxin

2014-01-01

157

The role of adiponectin on body composition, adipocyte differenetiation, preadipocyte proliferation and its modulation of inflammation with high fat diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing attributes of high circulating adiponectin concentrations in the mouse were recently suggested to occur as a result of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion. Although there is a plethora of data describing the affects adiponectin has on metabolism and inflammation, there are limited data on its role in the growth of adipose tissue. Our data in adiponectin

Douglas Robert Braucher

2010-01-01

158

Mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism for novel changes in high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in wheat-rye hybrids.  

PubMed

Wide hybrids can have novel traits or changed expression of a quantitative trait that their parents do not have. These phenomena have long been noticed, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are seed storage proteins encoded by Glu-1 genes that only express in endosperm in wheat and its related species. Novel HMW-GS compositions have been observed in their hybrids. This research elucidated the molecular mechanisms by investigating the causative factors of novel HMW-GS changes in wheat-rye hybrids. HMW-GS compositions in the endosperm and their coding sequences in the leaves of F(1) and F(2) hybrids between wheat landrace Shinchunaga and rye landrace Qinling were investigated. Missing and/or additional novel HMW-GSs were observed in the endosperm of 0.5% of the 2078 F(1) and 22% of 36 F(2) hybrid seeds. The wildtype Glu-1Ax null allele was found to have 42 types of short repeat sequences of 3-60 bp long that appeared 2 to 100 times. It also has an in-frame stop codon in the central repetitive region. Analyzing cloned allele sequences of HMW-GS coding gene Glu-1 revealed that deletions involving the in-frame stop codon had happened, resulting in novel ?1.8-kb Glu-1Ax alleles in some F(1) and F(2) plants. The cloned mutant Glu-1Ax alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the HMW-GSs produced matched the novel HMW-GSs found in the hybrids. The differential changes between the endosperm and the plant of the same hybrids and the data of E. coli expression of the cloned deletion alleles both suggested that mitotic illegitimate recombination between two copies of a short repeat sequence had resulted in the deletions and thus the changed HMW-GS compositions. Our experiments have provided the first direct evidence to show that mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism that produces novel phenotypes in wide hybrids. PMID:21887262

Yuan, Zhongwei; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Wenjie; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang; Zhang, Huaigang; Yen, Yang

2011-01-01

159

Adiponectin Normalization, A Clue To Anti-Metabolic Syndrome Action of Rimonabant  

E-print Network

Adiponectin Normalization, A Clue To Anti-Metabolic Syndrome Action of Rimonabant Magali Gary: obesity, metabolic syndrome, adipose tissue, adiponectin, rimonabant. Teaser: This review describes on the success of an anti-obesity and anti-metabolic syndrome drug as rimonabant. 1 inserm-00338419,version1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes ?-cell regeneration  

PubMed Central

As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute ?-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential role of adiponectin under insulinopenic conditions to maintain minimal lipid homeostasis. When insulin levels are marginal, adiponectin is critical for insulin signaling, endocytosis, and lipid uptake in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. In the absence of both insulin and adiponectin, severe lipoatrophy and hyperlipidemia lead to lethality. In contrast, elevated adiponectin levels improve systemic lipid metabolism in the near absence of insulin. Moreover, adiponectin is sufficient to mitigate local lipotoxicity in pancreatic islets, and it promotes reconstitution of ?-cell mass, eventually reinstating glycemic control. We uncovered an essential new role for adiponectin, with major implications for type 1 diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03851.001 PMID:25339419

Ye, Risheng; Holland, William L; Gordillo, Ruth; Wang, Miao; Wang, Qiong A; Shao, Mengle; Morley, Thomas S; Gupta, Rana K; Stahl, Andreas; Scherer, Philipp E

2014-01-01

161

The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Adiponectin has antidiabetic properties, and patients with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance have low plasma adiponectin levels. However, although kidney disease is associated with insulin resistance, adiponectin is elevated in end-stage renal disease. Here we determine whether adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in renal disease in a case-control study of 36 patients with end-stage renal disease and 23 kidney donors. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at kidney transplantation and donation. The mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased to 15.6?mg/ml in cases compared with 8.4?mg/ml in controls. Plasma levels of the inflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly higher in cases compared with controls. Adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat were significantly higher in cases than controls, while adiponectin receptor-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood cells, muscle, and adipose tissue in cases compared with controls. Thus, our study suggests that adipose tissue production of adiponectin contributes to the high plasma levels seen in end-stage renal disease. PMID:23283133

Martinez Cantarin, Maria P; Waldman, Scott A; Doria, Cataldo; Frank, Adam M; Maley, Warren R; Ramirez, Carlo B; Keith, Scott W; Falkner, Bonita

2013-03-01

162

The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end stage renal disease  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin has anti-diabetic properties and patients with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance have low plasma adiponectin levels. However, although kidney disease is associated with insulin resistance, adiponectin is elevated in end stage renal disease. Here we determine if adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in renal disease in a case-control study of 36 patients with end stage renal disease and 23 kidney donors. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at kidney transplantation and donation. The mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased to 15.6 mg/ml in cases compared to 8.4 mg/ml in controls. Plasma levels of the inflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat was significantly higher in cases than controls while adiponectin receptor 1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood cells, muscle and adipose tissue in cases compared to controls. Thus, our study suggests that adipose tissue production of adiponectin contributes to the high plasma levels seen in end stage renal disease. PMID:23283133

Cantarin, Maria P Martinez; Waldman, Scott; Doria, Cataldo; Frank, Adam M.; Maley, Warren R.; Ramirez, Carlo B.; Keith, Scott W.; Falkner, Bonita

2012-01-01

163

Adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effect on human placenta via modulation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of adiponectin on human placenta during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and on high glucose (HG)-induced BeWo cell proliferation. We examined the expression levels of adiponectin in control and GDM placenta using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using a colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8), PCNA immunocytochemical staining, and Western blot analysis of cyclin D1. Transfection of siRNA against c-jun was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell cycle analysis was performed using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Results show a decreased expression of adiponectin and an increased degree of trophoblast cell proliferation in GDM placenta compared to the normal placenta. Similarly, HG can promote BeWo cell proliferation that is associated with adiponectin down-regulation. This proliferation could be depressed by addition of exogenous adiponectin, i.e. adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effects on HG-induced trophoblast cells. Adiponectin suppresses the HG-induced BeWo cell proliferation by inhibiting the activation of JNK/c-jun. In conclusion, adiponectin inhibits HG-induced proliferation of BeWo cells through down-regulation of JNK/c-jun phosphorylation. PMID:25031708

Chen, Haitian; Chen, Hanqing; Wu, Yanxin; Liu, Bin; Li, Zhuyu; Wang, Zilian

2014-01-01

164

DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique wit...

165

Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cabral, J.A. (Inst. de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Amazonas (Brazil))

1999-07-15

166

Genetic variants of adiponectin receptor 2 are associated with increased adiponectin levels and decreased triglyceride\\/VLDL levels in patients with metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin acts as an antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the recently discovered adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine whether variations in the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes may contribute to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation. METHODS: We sequenced all seven coding exons of both

Uli C Broedl; Michael Lehrke; Elisabeth Fleischer-Brielmaier; Anne B Tietz; Jutta M Nagel; Burkhard Göke; Peter Lohse; Klaus G Parhofer

2006-01-01

167

Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese  

PubMed Central

Background: Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Prospective studies have consistently shown a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among those with higher circulating adiponectin levels. Objective: We examined prospectively the association between serum adiponectin levels and type 2 diabetes risk among Japanese workers, taking visceral fat mass into account. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 4591 Japanese employees who attended a comprehensive health screening in 2008; had biochemical data including serum adiponectin; were free of diabetes at baseline; and received health screening in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between adiponectin and incidence of diabetes among overall subjects, as well as subgroups. Stratified analyses were carried out according to variables including visceral fat area (VFA). Results: During 3 years of follow-up, 217 diabetic cases were newly identified. Of these, 87% had a prediabetes at baseline. Serum adiponectin level was significantly, inversely associated with incidence of diabetes, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) for the lowest through highest quartile of adiponectin of 1 (reference), 0.79 (0.55–1.12), 0.60 (0.41–0.88) and 0.40 (0.25–0.64), respectively (P-value for trend <0.01). This association was materially unchanged with adjustment for VFA instead of BMI. After further adjustment for both homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c, however, the association became statistically nonsignificant (P-value for trend=0.18). Risk reduction associated with higher adiponectin levels was observed in both participants with and without obesity or insulin resistance at baseline. Conclusions: Results suggest that higher levels of circulating adiponectin are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of overall and intra-abdominal fat deposition, and that adiponectin may confer a benefit in both persons with and without insulin resistance. PMID:25133442

Yamamoto, S; Matsushita, Y; Nakagawa, T; Hayashi, T; Noda, M; Mizoue, T

2014-01-01

168

MicroRNA-378 Regulates Adiponectin Expression in Adipose Tissue: A New Plausible Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Aims Mechanisms regulating adiponectin expression have not been fully clarified. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in biological processes, including obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated whether the miRNA-378 pathway is involved in regulating adiponectin expression. Methods and Results First, we determined a putative target site for miRNA-378 in the 3 prime untranslated region (3'UTR) of the adiponectin gene by in silico analysis. The levels of adiponectin mRNA and protein were decreased in 3T3-L1 cells overexpressing the mimic of miRNA-378. Luminescence activity in HEK293T cells expressing a renilla-luciferase-adiponectin-3'UTR sequence was inhibited by overexpressing the mimic of miRNA-378, and the decrease was reversed by adding the inhibitor of miRNA-378. Moreover, we confirmed the inhibitory effects of the mimic were cancelled in a deleted mutant of the miR-378 3?-UTR binding site. Addition of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) led a upregulation of miR-378 and downregulation of adiponectin at mRNA and protein levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Level of miR-378 was higher and mRNA level of adiponectin was lower in diabetic ob/ob mice than those of normal C57BL/6 mice and levels of miR378 and adiponectin were negatively well correlated (r?=??0.624, p?=?0.004). Conclusions We found that levels of miRNA-378 could modulate adiponectin expression via the 3'UTR sequence-binding site. Our findings warrant further investigations into the role of miRNAs in regulating the adiponectin expression. PMID:25379946

Ishida, Masayoshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Yagi, Shusuke; Nishimoto, Sachiko; Kozuka, Chisayo; Fukuda, Daiju; Soeki, Takeshi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Tsutsui, Masato; Sata, Masataka

2014-01-01

169

Natural killer cell-dependent immunoglobulin G2a anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) response elicited by high molecular weight dextran-BSA conjugates associated with dextran-mediated macrophage-natural killer cell interaction  

PubMed Central

The roles of the interferon-? (IFN-?) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) produced during natural killer (NK) cell interaction with macrophages (M?) were investigated as the basis for the induction of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) responses by high molecular weight dextran conjugated to BSA (HMW-DEX–BSA). BALB/c mice immunized with HMW-DEX–BSA produced significantly higher levels of both IgG1 and IgG2a anti-BSA than did mice immunized with BSA alone. Both IgG1 and IgG2a anti-BSA levels were higher in mice immunized with BSA conjugated to dextran of molecular weight (MW) 5 000 000–40 000 000 compared with dextran of MW 10 000–60 000. The enhancement of anti-BSA IgG2a levels but not of anti-BSA IgG1 levels was inhibited when free BSA was added to the HMW-DEX–BSA conjugate. NK cell depletion during HMW-DEX–BSA immunization of mice resulted in significantly lower anti-BSA IgG2a levels without affecting anti-BSA IgG1 levels. Naive splenocytes or M? + NK cell co-cultures incubated with HMW-DEX or HMW-DEX–BSA produced higher IFN-? levels than splenocytes or co-cultures incubated with BSA alone. HMW-DEX stimulated both IFN-? and IL-12 production by M? + NK cell co-cultures in a dose-dependent manner. DEX-induced IFN-? production by NK cells was dependent upon the presence of IL-12, and IL-12 production by M? was dependent upon the presence of IFN-? in these co-cultures. Both M? and NK cells bound DEX to their surfaces. These data demonstrate that BSA linked to HMW-DEX enhanced both T-helper-1- and T-helper-2-associated antibody responses to BSA. The results also indicate an IL-12-dependent positive feedback interaction between NK cells and M? that supports a NK cell/IFN-?-dependent mechanism for enhancement of anti-BSA IgG2a antibody responses in mice immunized with HMW-DEX–BSA protein conjugates. PMID:11122451

Ediriwickrema, C P; Tonkonogy, S L; Hammerberg, B

2000-01-01

170

Comparison of serum maternal adiponectin concentrations in women with isolated intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine growth retardation concomitant with pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to compare serum maternal adiponectin concentrations in pregnant women with isolated intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and in pregnant women with IUGR concomitant with pre-eclampsia (IUGRcwPE). Material and Methods Thirty patients with isolated IUGR (group 1), 20 patients with IUGRcwPE (group 2), and 30 healthy controls (group 3) between age 18–40 were included into the study. Venous blood samples of those patients were obtained in the starving state. Adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum obtained after centrifugation. To find the differences between the groups, student t-test and one-way ANOVA statistical methods were used. Results There were no differences between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, gestational age, and parity (p>0.05). The values of amniotic fluid index (p<0.001) and weight gained during pregnancy (p=0.017) were significantly different when compared among the three groups. The mean concentrations of adiponectin were 94.041 pg/mL in the IUGR group, 55.717 pg/mL in the IUGRcwPE group, and 51.831 pg/mL in the control group. Both of the differences between the IUGR and IUGRcwPE groups (p value; <0.05) and IUGR and control groups were statistically significant (p value; <0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the IUGRcwPE group and control group (p>0.05). Conclusion We found that IUGR increased maternal serum adiponectin concentrations; however, this rise does not occur in pregnant women with IUGRcwPE.

Buke, Bar?s; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Engin-Ustun, Yaprak; Dan?sman, Nuri

2014-01-01

171

Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.  

PubMed Central

Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measles had the expected high molecular weight (HMW) measles IgM in serum but 5 also had LMW measles IgM. Four young adults who had had measles in childhood had neither HMW nor LMW measles IgM in their sera. PMID:4022875

Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

1985-01-01

172

Adiponectin receptor signaling on dendritic cells blunts antitumor immunity.  

PubMed

Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) that interact with T cells represent a crucial site for the development of tolerance to tumor antigens, but there remains incomplete knowledge about how DC-tolerizing signals evolve during tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are sufficient to blunt antitumor immunity. Mechanistic investigations of ligand-receptor interactions on DCs revealed novel signaling pathways for each receptor. AdipoR1 stimulated IL10 production by activating the AMPK and MAPKp38 pathways, whereas AdipoR2 modified inflammatory processes by activating the COX-2 and PPAR? pathways. Stimulation of these pathways was sufficient to block activation of NF-?B in DC, thereby attenuating their ability to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into how DC-tolerizing signals evolve in cancer to promote immune escape. Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly applicable strategies for immunometabolic therapy in patients with cancer. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5711-22. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25261236

Tan, Peng H; Tyrrell, Helen E J; Gao, Liquan; Xu, Danmei; Quan, Jianchao; Gill, Dipender; Rai, Lena; Ding, Yunchuan; Plant, Gareth; Chen, Yuan; Xue, John Z; Handa, Ashok I; Greenall, Michael J; Walsh, Kenneth; Xue, Shao-An

2014-10-15

173

Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-? expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing. PMID:25121107

Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, S?ren; Jager, Andreas

2014-01-01

174

Increased levels of adiponectin and resistin in alcohol dependence--possible link to craving.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggested a role of appetite regulating peptides like leptin and ghrelin in alcohol dependence and particularly in the neurobiology of alcohol craving. Aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of the adipocytokines adiponectin and resistin in alcohol-dependent patients. We analyzed a sample of 88 patients at admission for alcohol detoxification and after 1 week of withdrawal treatment in comparison to 89 healthy controls. Adiponectin and resistin serum levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. The extent of alcohol craving was obtained using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Adiponectin and resistin serum levels were significantly elevated in patients with alcohol dependence at both dates (admission and after 1 week of treatment) compared to healthy controls. Adiponectin decreased significantly during the course of withdrawal (T=3.44, p=0.001) while resistin serum levels showed a slight increase (T=-1.83, p=0.071). In a multivariate approach the extent of alcohol craving was significantly associated with adiponectin but not with resistin serum levels in male patients (Beta=-0.255, p=0.025). Results for female patients were not significant. Our findings provide first evidence for an alteration of the adipocytokines adiponectin and resistin during alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, adiponectin may be involved in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, possibly via its effects on the hypothalamic circuits. PMID:18818026

Hillemacher, Thomas; Weinland, Christian; Heberlein, Annemarie; Gröschl, Michael; Schanze, Anja; Frieling, Helge; Wilhelm, Julia; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan

2009-01-01

175

Genetic Analysis of Adiponectin Variation and its Association with Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objective Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has been implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders, including T2D and cardiovascular disease. Studies evaluating genetic variants in ADIPOQ have been contradictory when testing association with T2D in different ethnic groups. Design and Methods In this study, 18 SNPs in ADIPOQ were tested for association with plasma adiponectin levels and diabetes status. SNPs were examined in two independent African-American cohorts (nmax=1116) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) and the African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS). Results Five polymorphisms were nominally associated with plasma adiponectin levels in the meta-analysis (p=0.035–1.02x10?6) including a low frequency arginine to cysteine mutation (R55C) which reduced plasma adiponectin levels to <15% of the mean. Variants were then tested for association with T2D in a meta-analysis of these and the Wake Forest T2D Case-Control study (n=3233 T2D, 2645 non-T2D). Association with T2D was not observed (p?0.08), suggesting limited influence of ADIPOQ variants on T2D risk. Conclusions Despite identification of variants associated with adiponectin levels, a detailed genetic analysis of ADIPOQ revealed no association with T2D risk. This puts into question the role of adiponectin in T2D pathogenesis: whether low adiponectin levels are truly causal for or rather a consequence. PMID:23512866

An, S. Sandy; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Hanley, Anthony J. G.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Brown, W. Mark; Freedman, Barry I.; Register, Thomas C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.

2013-01-01

176

PKA/AMPK signaling in relation to adiponectin's antiproliferative effect on multiple myeloma cells.  

PubMed

Obesity increases the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). Adiponectin is a cytokine produced by adipocytes, but paradoxically decreased in obesity, that has been implicated in MM progression. Herein, we evaluated how prolonged exposure to adiponectin affected the survival of MM cells as well as putative signaling mechanisms. Adiponectin activates protein kinase A (PKA), which leads to decreased AKT activity and increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. AMPK, in turn, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Adiponectin-induced apoptosis may be mediated, at least in part, by the PKA/AMPK-dependent decline in the expression of the enzyme acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), which is essential to lipogenesis. Supplementation with palmitic acid, the preliminary end product of fatty acid synthesis, rescues MM cells from adiponectin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an ACC inhibitor, exhibited potent antiproliferative effects on MM cells that could also be inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. Thus, adiponectin's ability to reduce survival of MM cells appears to be mediated through its ability to suppress lipogenesis. Our findings suggest that PKA/AMPK pathway activators, or inhibitors of ACC, may be useful adjuvants to treat MM. Moreover, the antimyeloma effect of adiponectin supports the concept that hypoadiponectinemia, as occurs in obesity, promotes MM tumor progression. PMID:24646889

Medina, E A; Oberheu, K; Polusani, S R; Ortega, V; Velagaleti, G V N; Oyajobi, B O

2014-10-01

177

Functional expression of the globular domain of human adiponectin in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine that predominantly synthesized and secreted from adipocytes mainly in the white adipose tissue. Here, we report that we have successfully expressed human gAdiponectin (the globular domain of adiponectin) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris after codon optimization and established the purification procedure. The human gAdiponectin gene was designed and synthesized by PCR according to the P. pastoris preferred codons, and then inserted into the P. pastoris pPIC9K expression vector. The plasmid was electroporated into the P. pastoris strain GS115 and only the G418 resistance colonies could produce the gAdiponectin. After fermentation and purification, we could get 1.2g of recombinant gAdiponectin (purity is approximately 95%) from a 24 L culture media. The recombinant gAdiponectin is fully functional as evidenced by induction the phosphorylation of ACC in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, significantly lowering the blood glucose level and accelerating the clearance of free fatty acid in animal models. PMID:17900532

Liu, De-Guo; Liu, Hong-Lei; Song, Tan-Jing; Huang, Hai-Yan; Li, Xi; Tang, Qi-Qun

2007-11-23

178

Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (? = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; ? = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

2014-01-01

179

The relationship between osteopontin and adiponectin in patients with essential hypertension.  

PubMed

The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) induces inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis, contributes to both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Osteopontin (OPN) is known as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and adiponectin is known as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. C-reactive protein (CRP) not only reflects an inflammatory state but also leads to inflammation. Previous studies clarified that OPN and adiponectin were regulated by RAAS. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma OPN level relates to serum adiponectin level in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). Sixty-two patients (32 females) with EHT were enrolled in this study. They were evaluated for conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis, further plasma aldosterone, plasma OPN, serum adiponectin, and CRP levels were assayed. There were significant gender differences in creatinine, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-denisty lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol, log transformed (ln) adiponectin and ln CRP. Osteopontin was correlated positively with aldosterone and ln CRP (r = 0.277, p = 0.029, r = 0.278, p = 0.029, respectively), negatively with adiponectin (r = -0.346, p = 0.006). Ln adiponectin was correlated positively with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.373, p = 0.003) and negatively with gender (male as 1), creatinine, triglyceride, aldosterone, and ln CRP (r = -0.55, p < 0.001, r = -0.279, p = 0.028, r = -0.406, p = 0.001, r = -0.307, p < 0.015, r = -0.289, p = 0.023, respectively). Stepwise regression analysis showed that adiponectin was an independent predictor of OPN ?= -0.0339, p = 0.004). Our results suggest that OPN and adiponectin are related to each other underlying the mechanisms of RAAS and inflammation. PMID:21028999

Kurata, Mie; Okura, Takafumi; Irita, Jun; Enomoto, Daijiro; Nagao, Tomoaki; Jotoku, Masanori; Miyoshi, Ken-ichi; Higaki, Jitsuo

2010-01-01

180

Decreased levels of circulating adiponectin in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, an adipocytokine released by the adipose tissue and has important roles in the metabolic regulation and inflammatory control, may play an important roles in the physiopathology of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present work was to evaluate adiponectin serum levels in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared to cognitively healthy elders and to correlate these levels with clinical and cognitive parameters. We further evaluated whether circulating adiponectin levels could predict progression from MCI to Alzheimer's disease upon follow-up. We recruited 157 subjects (41 with AD, 65 with MCI and 51 elderly controls) in the baseline assessment. Follow-up data were available for 54 subjects with MCI and 43 controls in whom we ascertained the conversion to AD and the progression of cognitive impairment. Adiponectin was assayed by sandwich ELISA. Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly lower in MCI and AD as compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for age, educational level and APOE genotype, adiponectin levels remained significantly reduced in these groups (p < 0.001). Circulating adiponectin levels did not predict cognitive decline in the elderly controls (i.e., progression from normal cognition to MCI) or progression to Alzheimer's disease in subjects with MCI. We conclude that lower levels of adiponectin were associated with cognitive dysfunction, though it did not predict additional cognitive decline and conversion to dementia in this cohort of elderly subjects. Decreased adiponectin may be a surrogate marker of the pathological process in AD, linking clinical comorbidities, inflammation and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23055000

Teixeira, Antonio L; Diniz, Breno S; Campos, Alline C; Miranda, Aline S; Rocha, Natalia P; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F; Forlenza, Orestes V

2013-03-01

181

Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in elderly patients with major depression.  

PubMed

Recent studies have implicated adiponectin and other adipocytokines in brain function, particularly in processes related to memory and cognition. Blood levels of adiponectin are reduced in patients with primary cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment, and in adult patients with major depression. The aim of the present study is to determine serum levels of adiponectin in a sample of elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) as compared to healthy older adults, and to examine the correlations between adiponectin levels and parameters indicative of mood and cognitive state. We recruited fifty-one unmedicated outpatients with late-life depression (LLD) and 47 age-matched controls in this study. The diagnosis of MDD was made according to the DSM-IV criteria, and the severity of depressive episode was determined with the 21-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HDRS). Cognitive state was ascertained with the Cambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Serum concentrations of adiponectin were determined using a sandwich ELISA method. Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly reduced in individuals with LLD (F = p < 0.001). Adiponectin level remained significantly reduced in after controlling for BMI index, scores on the CAMCOG, MMSE and HDRS and educational level (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed a negative correlation with HDRS scores (r = -0.59, p < 0.001) and BMI index (r = -0.42, p < 0.001); and showed a positive correlation with CAMCOG (r = 0.34, p < 0.01) and MMSE scores (r = 0.20, p = 0.05). The availability of circulating adiponectin is reduced in older adults with major depression, with likely implications on cognitive and mood state. Additional studies are required to determine whether this abnormality pertains to the pathophysiology of geriatric depression per se, or is a consequence of the morbid state. PMID:22633396

Diniz, Breno S; Teixeira, Antonio L; Campos, Alline C; Miranda, Aline S; Rocha, Natalia P; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F; Forlenza, Orestes V

2012-08-01

182

Relation of plasma adiponectin levels and aortic stiffness after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulse wave velocity is a measure of aortic stiffness and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is involved in atherosclerosis and inflammation. In the present study we aimed to explore the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and pulse wave velocity in the acute phase after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Forty-six consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 57±11 years) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma adiponectin was measured 2 days after index event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was calculated by the transit-time method with the use of a velocity-encoded, phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance protocol. Results: Median plasma adiponectin concentration was 2385 ng/ml (interquartile range 1735–5403). Males had lower plasma adiponectin values than females and current smokers had lower values than non-smokers (all p<0.02). Adiponectin was significantly associated with PWV (r=0.505, p<0.001), age (r=0.437, p=0.002), and total cholesterol (r=0.468, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin as a predictor of PWV independently of age, sex, smoking status, total cholesterol, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p=0.027). Conclusions: Plasma adiponectin concentrations are strongly associated with aortic stiffness in patients after acute STEMI treated with primary PCI. Our data support a possible role for adiponectin as an independent risk marker for increased aortic stiffness in STEMI patients. PMID:24337918

Reinstadler, SJ; Klug, G; Feistritzer, HJ; Mayr, A; Bader, K; Mair, J; Esterhammer, R; Schocke, M

2014-01-01

183

Decreased serum adiponectin in adolescents and young adults with familial primary hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased serum adiponectin is associated with dyslipidemia. However, serum adiponectin status has never before been studied\\u000a in patients with familial-related severe primary hypercholesterolemia (FRSPH). The aim of this study is to measure serum adiponectin\\u000a level in a group of young patients with FRSPH and determine its correlation with insulin-resistant status. Twenty-three patients\\u000a with FRSPH [average LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)=250.8 (190–610) mg\\/dL] without

Lian-Yu Lin; Chiau-Suong Liau; Wei-Shiung Yang; Ta-Chen Su

2005-01-01

184

Quality trait variations in [(60)Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.  

PubMed

With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

2014-01-01

185

Introduction to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and assessment for bread-making quality of alleles from T. boeoticum Boiss. ssp. thaoudar at Glu-A1 encoding two high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alleles, Glu-A1r encoding high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits 39+40 and Glu-A1s encoding HMW glutenin subunits 41+42, were introgressed to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Sicco from two accessions of T. boeoticum Boiss. ssp. thaoudar (A genome species, 2n=2x=14). Alleles at Glu-A1 in current commercial bread wheats encode zero or one subunit, and alleles at the homoeoloci Glu-B1 and Glu-D1

W. J. Rogers; T. E. Miller; P. I. Payne; J. A. Seekings; E. J. Sayers; L. M. Holt; C. N. Law

1997-01-01

186

Adiponectin Corrects High-Fat Diet-Induced Disturbances in Muscle Metabolomic Profile and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

We provide here a detailed and comprehensive analysis of skeletal muscle metabolomic profiles in response to adiponectin in adiponectin knockout (AdKO) mice after high-fat–diet (HFD) feeding. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed that adiponectin administration corrected HFD-induced defects in post/basal insulin stimulated Rd and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Lipidomic profiling of skeletal muscle from HFD-fed mice indicated elevated triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species (16:0–18:1, 18:1, and 18:0–18:2) as well as acetyl coA, all of which were mitigated by adiponectin. HFD induced elevated levels of various ceramides, but these were not significantly altered by adiponectin. Adiponectin corrected the altered branched-chain amino acid metabolism caused by HFD and corrected increases across a range of glycerolipids, fatty acids, and various lysolipids. Adiponectin also reversed induction of the pentose phosphate pathway by HFD. Analysis of muscle mitochondrial structure indicated that adiponectin treatment corrected HFD-induced pathological changes. In summary, we show an unbiased comprehensive metabolomic profile of skeletal muscle from AdKO mice subjected to HFD with or without adiponectin and relate these to changes in whole-body glucose handling, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial structure and function. Our data revealed a key signature of relatively normalized muscle metabolism across multiple metabolic pathways with adiponectin supplementation under the HFD condition. PMID:23238294

Liu, Ying; Turdi, Subat; Park, Taesik; Morris, Nicholas J.; Deshaies, Yves; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

2013-01-01

187

A new link between skeleton, obesity and insulin resistance: relationships between osteocalcin, leptin and insulin resistance in obese children before and after weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The skeleton is regarded recently as an endocrine organ that affects energy metabolism. However, there are very limited data available concerning the relationships between the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin, weight status, adiponectin and leptin in obese humans, especially in children.Methods:We analyzed osteocalcin, adiponectin, leptin and insulin resistance (IR) index homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in 60 obese and 19 age- and gender-matched

T Reinehr; C L Roth

2010-01-01

188

Relationship between polymorphism of insulin receptor gene, and adiponectin gene with PCOS  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease having both genetic and environmental components and candidate genes on obesity and insulin metabolism have been hypothesized to be involved in its etiology. Objective: We examined the possible association of adiponectin and insulin receptor gene polymorphisms with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 186 women with PCOS using NIH criteria and 156 healthy women were recruited. Their samples were genotyped for the polymorphism in exon 17 and 8 of the insulin receptor gene or exon and intron 2 of the adiponectin gene. Results: The distributions of genotypes and alleles of both polymorphisms were not different in women with PCOS and controls. There was no significant differences on the anthropometric and hormonal profiles of various adiponectin and insulin receptor genes polymorphisms among both groups. Conclusion: Adiponectin and insulin receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with PCOS in a sample of Iranian population. PMID:24639745

Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Daneshpour, Maryam; Hashemi, Somayeh; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Feridoun

2013-01-01

189

Leptin and Adiponectin in the HIV Associated Metabolic Syndrome: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414

Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos

2006-01-01

190

Evidence that an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment triggers the release of a cell-associated high-molecular-weight amylase in Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980.  

PubMed

During growth on starch medium, the S-layer-carrying Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and an S-layer-deficient variant each secreted three amylases, with identical molecular weights of 58,000, 122,000, and 184,000, into the culture fluid. Only the high-molecular-weight amylase (hmwA) was also identified as cell associated. Extraction and reassociation experiments showed that the hmwA had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and to the S-layer surface, but the interactions with the peptidoglycan-containing layer were stronger than those with the S-layer surface. For the S-layer-deficient variant, no changes in the amount of cell-associated and free hmwA could be observed during growth on starch medium, while for the S-layer-carrying strain, cell association of the hmwA strongly depended on the growth phase of the cells. The maximum amount of cell-associated hmwA was observed 3 h after inoculation, which corresponded to early exponential growth. The steady decrease in cell-associated hmwA during continued growth correlated with the appearance and the increasing intensity of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This protein had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and was identified as an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment which did not result from proteolytic cleavage of the whole S-layer protein but seems to be a truncated copy of the S-layer protein which is coexpressed with the hmwA under certain culture conditions. During growth on starch medium, the N-terminal S-layer protein fragment was integrated into the S-layer lattice, which led to the loss of its regular structure over a wide range and to the loss of amylase binding sites. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein is responsible for the anchoring of the subunits to the peptidoglycan-containing layer, while the surface-located C-terminal half could function as a binding site for the hmwA. PMID:8824603

Egelseer, E M; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

1996-10-01

191

Evidence that an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment triggers the release of a cell-associated high-molecular-weight amylase in Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980.  

PubMed Central

During growth on starch medium, the S-layer-carrying Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and an S-layer-deficient variant each secreted three amylases, with identical molecular weights of 58,000, 122,000, and 184,000, into the culture fluid. Only the high-molecular-weight amylase (hmwA) was also identified as cell associated. Extraction and reassociation experiments showed that the hmwA had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and to the S-layer surface, but the interactions with the peptidoglycan-containing layer were stronger than those with the S-layer surface. For the S-layer-deficient variant, no changes in the amount of cell-associated and free hmwA could be observed during growth on starch medium, while for the S-layer-carrying strain, cell association of the hmwA strongly depended on the growth phase of the cells. The maximum amount of cell-associated hmwA was observed 3 h after inoculation, which corresponded to early exponential growth. The steady decrease in cell-associated hmwA during continued growth correlated with the appearance and the increasing intensity of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This protein had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and was identified as an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment which did not result from proteolytic cleavage of the whole S-layer protein but seems to be a truncated copy of the S-layer protein which is coexpressed with the hmwA under certain culture conditions. During growth on starch medium, the N-terminal S-layer protein fragment was integrated into the S-layer lattice, which led to the loss of its regular structure over a wide range and to the loss of amylase binding sites. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein is responsible for the anchoring of the subunits to the peptidoglycan-containing layer, while the surface-located C-terminal half could function as a binding site for the hmwA. PMID:8824603

Egelseer, E M; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

1996-01-01

192

Adiponectin Expression Protects against Angiotensin II-Mediated Inflammation and Accelerated Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (APN), an adipocytokine produced by adipose tissue, exerts pleiotropic actions regulating inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. APN levels are inversely correlated with obesity, type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation in these interrelated metabolic syndrome components increases angiotensin II (AngII) levels leading to vascular damage, it is unknown whether APN under these conditions provides atheroprotection. We investigated whether increasing plasma APN provides atheroprotection in a hypertensive and accelerated atherosclerosis model. Using adenoviral gene transfer, sustained APN expression increased plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight APN, leading to a significant elevation of plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Elevated APN levels were strongly atheroprotective, yet had no impact on blood pressure. Notably, gene expression analyses revealed that APN significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and atherogenic genes while it increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 and the cholesterol efflux transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the artery wall. These findings suggest that increasing APN levels may be an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis associated with RAS activation in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24466075

van Stijn, Caroline M. W.; Kim, Jason; Barish, Grant D.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.

2014-01-01

193

Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin\\/ACRP30  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we investigated the biological functions of adiponectin\\/ACRP30, a fat-derived hormone, by disrupting the gene that encodes it in mice. Adiponectin\\/ACRP30-knockout (KO) mice showed delayed clearance of free fatty acid in plasma, low levels of fatty-acid transport protein 1 (FATP-1) mRNA in muscle, high levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA in adipose tissue and high plasma TNF-? concentrations. The

Norikazu Maeda; Ken Kishida; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Morihiro Matsuda; Hiroyuki Nagaretani; Naoki Furuyama; Hidehiko Kondo; Masahiko Takahashi; Yukio Arita; Ryutaro Komuro; Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yoshihiro Tochino; Keiichi Okutomi; Masato Horie; Satoshi Takeda; Toshifumi Aoyama; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura

2002-01-01

194

The Helix-Loop-Helix Factors Id3 and E47 Are Novel Regulators of Adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine with beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and the development of atherosclerosis. Id3 is a helix-loop-helix factor that binds to E-proteins such as E47 and inhibits their binding to DNA. Although the helix-loop-helix factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c is a known activator of adiponectin transcription, this study provides the first evidence of a role

Amanda C. Doran; Nahum Meller; Alexis Cutchins; Hamid Deliri; R. Parker Slayton; Stephanie N. Oldham; Jae B. Kim; Susanna R. Keller; Coleen A. McNamara

2010-01-01

195

High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed

Cristiane de Oliveira; Ana BM de Mattos; Carolina Biz; Lila M Oyama; Eliane B Ribeiro; Cláudia Maria Oller do Nascimento

2011-01-01

196

Adiponectin Receptor 1 Gene (ADIPOR1) as a Candidate for Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable data support adiponectin as an important adipose-derived insulin sensitizer that enhances fatty acid oxidation and alters hepatic gluconeogenesis. Adi- ponectin acts by way of two receptors, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. ADIPOR1 is widely expressed in tissues, including muscle, liver, and pancreas, and binds the globular form of adiponectin with high affinity. To test the hypothesis that sequence variations in or

Hua Wang; Hailing Zhang; Yiwen Jia; Zhengxian Zhang; Rebekah Craig; Xiaoqin Wang; Steven C. Elbein

2004-01-01

197

Inhibition of leptin-induced vascular extracellular matrix remodelling by adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which is the result of disruption in the balance of ECM synthesis and degradation, induces vessel fibrosis and thereby leads to hypertension. Leptin is known to promote tissue fibrosis, while adiponectin has recently been demonstrated to be anti-fibrogenic in tissue fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin and to further elucidate the mechanisms through which adiponectin dampens leptin signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells, thus preventing excess ECM production, in our already established 3D co-culture vessel models. Our 3D co-culture vessel model, which mimics true blood vessels, is composed of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen type I. We validated the profibrogenic effects of leptin and analysed matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and collagen types II/IV secretion in 3D vessel models. The protective/inhibitory effects of adiponectin were re-analysed by inhibiting adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR) and AdipoR2 expression in endothelial cells using RNAi technology. In the 3D vessel models, adiponectin blocked the leptin-stimulated secretion of collagen types II/IV and TIMP1 while significantly increasing MMP2/9 activity. In endothelial cells, adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMPK, thereby suppressing leptin-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of SOCS3 in smooth muscle cells. Our findings indicate that adiponectin disrupted the leptin-induced vascular ECM remodelling via AdipoR1 and enhanced AMPK signalling in endothelial cells, which, in turn, promoted SOCS3 up-regulation in smooth muscle cells to repress leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3. PMID:24982243

Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Fang; Wang, Bing-jian; Chu, Guang; Cao, Qunan; Sun, Bao-Gui; Dai, Qiu-Yan

2014-01-01

198

Population-specific coding variant underlies genome-wide association with adiponectin level  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is a protein hormone that can affect major metabolic processes including glucose regulation and fat metabolism. Our previous genome-wide association (GWA) study of circulating plasma adiponectin levels in Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) detected a 100 kb two-SNP haplotype at KNG1–ADIPOQ associated with reduced adiponectin (frequency = 0.050, P = 1.8 × 10?25). Subsequent genotyping of CLHNS young adult offspring detected an uncommon variant [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.025] located ?800 kb from ADIPOQ that showed strong association with lower adiponectin levels (P = 2.7 × 10?15, n = 1695) and tagged a subset of KNG1–ADIPOQ haplotype carriers with even lower adiponectin levels. Sequencing of the ADIPOQ-coding region detected variant R221S (MAF = 0.015, P = 2.9 × 10?69), which explained 17.1% of the variance in adiponectin levels and largely accounted for the initial GWA signal in Filipinos. R221S was not present in 12 514 Europeans with previously sequenced exons. To explore the mechanism of this substitution, we re-measured adiponectin level in 20 R221S offspring carriers and 20 non-carriers using two alternative antibodies and determined that the presence of R221S resulted in artificially low quantification of adiponectin level using the original immunoassay. These data provide an example of an uncommon variant responsible for a GWA signal and demonstrate that genetic associations with phenotypes measured by antibody-based quantification methods can be affected by uncommon coding SNPs residing in the antibody target region. PMID:22010046

Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Wu, Ying; Li, Yun; Fogarty, Marie P.; Lange, Leslie A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.; Borja, Judith B.; Luo, Jingchun; AbdelBaky, Omar; Combs, Terry P.; Adair, Linda S.; Lange, Ethan M.; Mohlke, Karen L.

2012-01-01

199

Novel Modulator for Endothelial Adhesion Molecules Adipocyte-Derived Plasma Protein Adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated whether adiponectin could modulate endothelial function and relate to coronary disease.

Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yukio Arit; Kazuhisa Maeda; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Kikuko Hott; Makoto Nishida; Masahiko Takahashi; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

200

Lifestyle plus Exercise Intervention Improves Metabolic Syndrome Markers without Change in Adiponectin in Obese Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Little is known about whether lifestyle plus exercise intervention improves obesity, metabolic syndrome markers, and circulating adiponectin concentrations in obese girls. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week lifestyle plus exercise intervention on adiponectin and metabolic syndrome markers in Korean obese adolescents. Methods: A total of 44 obese adolescent girls (13–15 years old),

Tae-Gon Park; Hae-Ryen Hong; Jiyoung Lee; Hyun-Sik Kang

2007-01-01

201

Relationships between adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids in physically active postmenopausal females.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between adiponectin and leptin with blood lipids (CHOL, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG) in physically active postmenopausal women. One hundred and thirty-four physically active practicing gymnastics (2-3 times per week) women between the ages of 51 to 85 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Body height, body mass, waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), and BMI were used as anthropometrical parameters. Body composition parameters (fat%, fat mass, fat free mass) were measured by DXA. The fasting adiponectin, leptin, CHOL, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG were measured. From the anthropometrical and body composition parameters, only WHR correlated significantly with adiponectin (r = -0.306). In addition, adiponectin correlated with TG (r = -0.277) and leptin (r = -0.381). Leptin was positively related to body mass (r = 0.261), and BMI (r = 0.274) from anthropometrical parameters and body fat% (r = 0.288) and fat mass (r = 0.298) from body composition variables. No relationships emerged between leptin and blood lipids. We found that there are some significant relationships between adiponectin, leptin and anthropometrical and body composition parameters in physically active postmenopausal females. From blood lipids, only TG correlated significantly with adiponectin. PMID:20737607

Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Leppik, Aire; Tafeit, Erwin; Kums, Tatjana

2010-01-01

202

Regulatory Role of Autophagy in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, exhibits diverse biological responses, including metabolism of glucose and lipid, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Recently, adiponectin has been shown to modulate autophagy as well. While emerging evidence has demonstrated that autophagy plays a role in the modulation of proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, the role of autophagy in apoptosis of cancer cell caused by adiponectin has not been explored. In the present study, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induces both apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), as evidenced by increase in caspase-3 activity, Bax, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3 II) protein levels, and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, gene silencing of LC3B, an autophagy marker, significantly enhanced gAcrp-induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, whereas induction of autophagy by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, significantly prevented gAcrp-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells HepG2. Furthermore, modulation of autophagy produced similar effects on gAcrp-induced Bax expression in HepG2 cells. These results implicate that induction of autophagy plays a regulatory role in adiponectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and thus inhibition of autophagy would be a novel promising target to enhance the efficiency of cancer cell apoptosis by adiponectin.

Nepal, Saroj; Park, Pil-Hoon

2014-01-01

203

Enhanced reactive lysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes. Studies on C9 binding and incorporation into high molecular weight complexes  

PubMed Central

As part of a broader analysis of the mechanism(s) by which the most sensitive (type III) paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) erythrocytes are excessively sensitive to reactive lysis by isolated C5b6, C7, C8, and C9, we have compared type III PNH (PNH-III) and normal human E in respect to both total specific binding of 125I-C9 and the proportion of cell-bound C9 appearing in high molecular weight (HMW) complexes. In a previous report, we found that after exposure to purified C5b6 and 125I-C7, specific C7 binding and, by implication, EC5b-7 formation were equal for PNH-III E and normal E. In the present study, C8-dependent binding of 125I-C9 to PNH-III EC5b-7 and normal EC5b-7 was also similar, although lysis of the PNH-III E was up to five times greater; that is, PNH-III E required fewer bound C9 molecules to produce an effective lytic site than did normal E. To quantify radioactivity in monomeric and HMW forms of membrane-bound C9, lysed and unlysed E were subjected to low ionic strength buffers to convert all E to ghosts. These ghosts were solubilized in 0.1 or 2% SDS (without reduction) and electrophoresed on 2.4-11% polyacrylamide gradient gels followed by autoradiography and densitometric scanning. With 0.1% SDS, broad, heterodisperse zones of HMW C9 were recovered from both PNH and normal ghosts; the amounts of C9 incorporated into the HMW complexes were similar for PNH-III E and normal E. In selected experiments, 125I-C7 could be shown in these same HMW bands. When membranes were solubilized in 2% SDS, the overall proportion of HMW C9 complexes compared with dimer and monomer C9 was reduced on both PNH and normal membranes. In many, but not all experiments, more of the highest mol wt C9 complexes were detected from PNH-III E membranes solubilized in 2% SDS than from normal or PNH-II E membranes similarly treated. When antibody-sensitized E were lysed by purified C1-C9, PNH- III EA bound far more C9 than did normal EA, and both lysis and C9 incorporation into HMW complexes were markedly and proportionately increased over normal; however, lytic efficiency of 125I-C9 bound to PNH EA was equal to or less than that bound to normal EA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3760783

1986-01-01

204

Adiponectin suppresses proliferation and superoxide generation and enhances eNOS activity in endothelial cells treated with oxidized LDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein or Acrp30) is an abundant adipocyte-derived plasma protein with anti-atherosclerotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. In order to investigate the potential mechanism(s) of the vascular protective effect of adiponectin, we used cultured bovine endothelial cells (BAECs) to study the effect of recombinant globular adiponectin (gAd) on cellular proliferation and the generation of reactive oxygen

Hiroyuki Motoshima; Xiangdong Wu; Kalyankar Mahadev; Barry J Goldstein

2004-01-01

205

Paradoxically High Adiponectin and the Healthy Obese Phenotype In Obese Black and White 16 year old Girls  

PubMed Central

Although adiponectin is inversely correlated with obesity, some obese adults without metabolic complications of obesity have paradoxically high adiponectin. Therefore, we assessed adiponectin-risk factor relations in 133 obese 16-year-old schoolgirls from a cohort of 448, focusing on paradoxically high adiponectin in obesity and the healthy obese phenotype. Median adiponectin (11.9 mg/L) in non-obese girls (BMI <24.6 kg/m2) was selected as a cutpoint to identify high adiponectin in obese girls. Of 90 black and 43 white obese girls (BMI ? 24.6), 25 black (28%) and 13 white (30%) girls had paradoxically high adiponectin (>11.9). The 38 obese girls with adiponectin >11.9 vs the 95 obese girls with adiponectin ? 11.9 had higher median HDL cholesterol (54 vs 46 mg/dl, p=.0007) and ApoA1 (181 vs 164 mg/dl, p=.011), and lower insulin (14 vs 20 uU/ml, p=.0006). In the 133 obese girls, by stepwise regression, adiponectin category (>11.9, ? 11.9 mg/L) was a significant independent positive determinant of HDL cholesterol (partial R2 = 8.4%, p =.001), and apolipoprotein A1 (partial R2 = 4.1%, p =.025), and was inversely associated with fasting serum insulin (partial R2 = 5.4%, p =.0074). By stepwise logistic regression in the 133 obese girls, adiponectin category (high vs. low) was a significant inverse explanatory variable for metabolic syndrome, odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence intervals 0.04-0.95, p=.043. We conclude that paradoxically high adiponectin is associated with the healthy obese phenotype in obese adolescent black and white girls. PMID:20970753

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J.; Daniels, Stephen; Wang, Ping; Horn, Paul; Stroop, Davis

2010-01-01

206

Association of adiponectin levels and insulin demand in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Intensive care unit patients usually have a deregulated glucose homeostasis and present with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, suggesting overall insulin resistance. Adiponectin has significant anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects and is diminished in morbidly obese and in critically ill patients. Reduced adiponectin could contribute to insulin resistance in these patients. We examined how far insulin demand in critically ill patients is correlated with patient adiponectin levels. Patients and methods: Adiponectin, resistin, leptin, insulin demand, minimal and maximal blood sugar levels, epinephrine, and hydrocortisone demand were measured 1 day after diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock in 25 patients (8 female, 17 male; median age 65 years; range: 31 to 87 years). Results: Insulin demand (range: 0–8 IU/h; median 3.5 IU) was positively correlated with serum adiponectin levels (median: 10.1 ?g/mL; range: 2.9–47.6 ?g/mL; r = +0.56, P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between insulin demand and leptin serum levels (median: 18.1 ng/mL; range: 0.3–80.7 ng/mL; r = +0.29, P = 0.08) or resistin serum levels (median: 103.9 ng/mL; range: 14.7–352.3 ng/mL; r = +0.13, P = 0.27). Epinephrine demand (median: 0.08 ?g/kg*min; range: 0.02–0.63 ?g/kg*min) was negatively correlated with male adiponectin levels (r = ?0.58; P < 0.01; females: r = ?0.36; P = 0.19) and positively correlated with resistin levels (r = 0.43; P = 0.02). Patient body mass index (median 26 kg/m2; range: 18–37) was positively correlated with serum leptin (r = 0.60; P < 0.01) but was not correlated with insulin demand (r = 0.19; P = 0.19), or adiponectin (females: r = ?0.37, P = 0.18; males: r = ?0.16, P = 0.27), or resistin levels (r = +0.17; P = 0.21). Conclusion: Adiponectin levels and insulin demand were positively correlated during sepsis. Adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with epinephrine demand in male patients and epinephrine demand was positively correlated with resistin levels, which might have increased insulin resistance. The relationship between adiponectin and insulin action in humans is more complex than often suggested. PMID:21448321

Hillenbrand, Andreas; Weiss, Manfred; Knippschild, Uwe; Stromeyer, Hans G; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Huber-Lang, Markus; Wolf, Anna M

2011-01-01

207

Bacterial Diversity of a Consortium Degrading High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Two-Liquid Phase Biosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that persist in the environment due to\\u000a their low solubility in water and their sequestration by soil and sediments. Although several PAH-degrading bacterial species\\u000a have been isolated, it is not expected that a single isolate would exhibit the ability to degrade completely all PAHs. A consortium\\u000a composed of different microorganisms can better

Isabelle Lafortune; Pierre Juteau; Eric Déziel; François Lépine; Réjean Beaudet; Richard Villemur

2009-01-01

208

Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin plays a key role in the regulation of growth hormone secretion and energy homeostasis. Adiponectin is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue and is abundantly present in the circulation, with important effects on metabolism. We studied five lean and five obese young men [ages: 24.2 ± 1.0 (lean) and 21.8 ± 1.6 (obese) years (difference not significant); body mass indexes: 35.0 ± 1.3 and 23.0 ± 0.3 kg/m2 (P = 0.01)], sampled blood every 7 min over 24 h, and measured ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in 2,070 samples for a total of 6,210 data points. Circulating 24-h ghrelin showed significant ultradian fluctuations and an orderly pattern of release in lean and obese subjects with similar pulsatility characteristics. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in the obese group, with lower pulse height. In contrast to leptin, which is secreted in an orderly manner, the 24-h patterns of adiponectin were not significantly different from random in both the lean and obese groups. We show here that adipocytes can simultaneously secrete certain hormones, such as leptin, in patterns that are orderly, whereas other hormones, such as adiponectin, are secreted in patterns that appear to be random. The cross-approximate entropy statistic revealed pattern synchrony among ghrelin–leptin, ghrelin–adiponectin, and leptin–adiponectin hormone time series in the lean and obese subjects. Plasma ghrelin concentrations showed a nocturnal rise that exceeded the meal-associated increases in lean subjects, and this newly identified nocturnal rise was blunted in the obese. We suggest that the blunting of the nocturnal rise of ghrelin is a biological feature of human obesity. PMID:15231997

Yildiz, Bulent O.; Suchard, Marc A.; Wong, Ma-Li; McCann, Samuel M.; Licinio, Julio

2004-01-01

209

Low adiponectin serum level--reduced protective effect on the left ventricular wall thickness.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, secreted by fat tissue, is down - regulated in obesity and may be involved in obesity-related disorders. It has anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic and antidiabetic effect. Obesity is a strong predictor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies showed that adiponectin level has important role in metabolic disorders, arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease but its effect on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been fully clarified. The aim of this research is to determine whether the protective effect of adiponectin against development of left ventricular hypertrophy is decreased in hypertensive overweight patients. The study included 61 adult, overweight hypertensive patients, with body mass index in range 25-30 kg/m2. Patients had regular morning glucose serum values and regular creatinine level. They were divided into four groups, according to sex and the presence of LVH. There were 16 female and 15 male hypertensive patients with LVH and 15 female and 15 male hypertensive patients without LVH, who were a control group. Glucose profile, lipidogram, creatinine clearance and anthropometric measures were determined in all patients. Cardiovascular measurements were taken applying two-dimensional ultrasound. Adiponectin serum level was measured using enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Results showed that adiponectin serum level was significantly lower in hypertensive, overweight females and males with LVH than in the control groups without LVH. Adiponectin serum level did not correlate significant with intraventricular or with posterior wall thickness of left ventricle. Hypoadiponectinemia presents part of neurohumoral, non-haemodynamic system who contributes to obesity-related hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy development. Low adiponectin level together with others adipokines, cytokines and chemokines secreted by fat tissue could contribute to pathophysiologic changes of the myocardium via unknown molecular mechanisms yet. PMID:22053557

Selthofer-Relati?, Kristina; Radi?, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Steiner, Robert; Vizjak, Vedrana; Sram, Miroslav; Tripolski, Marija; Kosovi?, Pasezada; Bosnjak, Ivica; Selthofer, Robert

2011-09-01

210

Effect of Chronic and Intermittent Calorie Restriction on Serum Adiponectin and Leptin and Mammary Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The effect of chronic (CCR) and intermittent (ICR) caloric restriction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels was investigated in relation to mammary tumorigenesis. 10-wks old MMTV-TGF-? female mice were assigned to ad libitum-fed (AL) (AIN-93M diet), ICR (3-wks 50% caloric restriction, AIN-93M–mod diet, 2x protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals followed by 3-wks 100% AL consumption of AIN-93M), and CCR (calorie and nutrient intake matched for each 6-wks ICR cycle, ?75% of AL) groups. Mice were sacrificed at 79 (end of restriction) or 82 (end of refeeding) wks of age. Serum was obtained in cycles 1, 3, 5, 8, 11 and terminal. Mammary tumor incidence was 71.0%, 35.4%, and 9.1% for AL, CCR and ICR mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin levels were similar among groups with no impact of either CCR or ICR. Serum leptin level rose in AL mice with increasing age but was significantly reduced by long-term CCR and ICR. The ICR protocol was also associated with an elevated adiponectin:leptin ratio. In addition, ICR-Restricted mice had increased mammary tissue AdipoR1 expression and decreased leptin and ObRb expression compared to AL mice. Mammary fat pads from tumor-free ICR-mice had higher adiponectin expression than AL and CCR mice while all tumor-bearing mice had weak adiponectin signal in mammary fat pad. Although we did not demonstrate an association of either adiponectin or leptin with individual mice in relation to mammary tumorigenesis, we did find that reduced serum leptin and elevated adiponectin:leptin ratio were associated with the protective effect of intermittent calorie restriction. PMID:21257708

Rogozina, Olga P.; Bonorden, Melissa J.L.; Seppanen, Christine N.; Grande, Joseph P.; Cleary, Margot P.

2011-01-01

211

Lower Adiponectin is Associated with Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease among HIV-infected Men  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine if altered levels of adipokines, adipose-derived peptides associated with myocardial infarction in the general population, may contribute to subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in HIV-infected persons. Design Nested cohort study. Methods We studied HIV-infected(HIV+) and HIV-uninfected(HIV?) men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study with noncontrast CT to measure coronary artery calcium and regional adiposity; 75% additionally underwent coronary CT angiography to measure plaque composition and stenosis. Adiponectin and leptin levels were assessed. Multiple regression models were used to assess associations between adipokine levels and HIV disease parameters, regional adiposity, and plaque adjusted for age, race, HIV serostatus and CVD risk factors (RFs). Results Significant findings were limited to adiponectin. HIV+ men (n=493) had lower adiponectin levels than HIV? men (n=250) after adjusting for CVD RFs (p<0.0001), which became non-significant after adjustment for abdominal visceral and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue. Among HIV+ men, lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher CD4+ T cell counts (p= 0.004), longer duration of antiretroviral therapy (p= 0.006) and undetectable HIV RNA levels (p = 0.04) after adjusting for age, race and CVD RFs; only CD4+ cell count remained significant after further adjustment for adipose tissue. In both groups, lower adiponectin levels were associated with increased odds of coronary stenosis > 50% (p <0.007). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with increased extent of plaque in HIV+ and of mixed plaque in HIV? men. Conclusions Adiponectin levels were lower in HIV-infected men and related to the severity of subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:24401646

KETLOGETSWE, Kerunne S.; POST, Wendy S.; LI, Xiuhong; PALELLA, Frank; JACOBSON, Lisa P.; MARGOLICK, Joseph B.; KINGSLEY, Lawrence A.; WITT, Mallory D.; DOBS, Adrian; BUDOFF, Matthew J.; BROWN, Todd T.

2014-01-01

212

Is adiponectin a bystander or a mediator in heart failure? The tangled thread of a good-natured adipokine in aging and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokine abundant in human plasma. Increasing evidence from experimental studies\\u000a suggests that adiponectin plays a protective role in the cardiovascular system. However, epidemiological studies revealed\\u000a that high levels of adiponectin were associated with increased mortality and severity of congestive heart failure. Furthermore,\\u000a several prospective studies indicated that high levels of adiponectin were positively correlated with

Ken Shinmura

2010-01-01

213

Adiponectin in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases  

PubMed Central

Circulating levels of adiponectin (APN) are reduced in obesity and associated comorbidities, with inflammation playing an important role in downregulating APN production. In contrast to obesity and metabolic disease, elevated systemic and local levels of APN are present in patients with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune and pulmonary conditions, heart and kidney failure, viral hepatitis, organ transplantation and perhaps critical illness. A positive association between inflammation and APN is usually reported in inflammatory/immune pathologies, in contrast with the negative correlation typical of metabolic disease. This review discusses the role of APN in modulation of inflammation and immunity and the potential mechanisms leading to increased levels of APN in inflammatory/immune diseases, including modification of adipose tissue physiology; relative contribution of different tissues and adipose depots; hormonal, pharmacological, nutritional and life style factors; the potential contribution of the microbiota as well as the role of altered APN clearance and release from T-cadherin-associated tissue reservoirs. Potential reasons for some of the apparently contradictory findings on the role of APN as a modulator of immunity and inflammation are also discussed, including a comparison of types of recombinant APN used for in vitro studies and strain-dependent differences in the phenotype of APN KO mice. PMID:23850004

Fantuzzi, Giamila

2013-01-01

214

Adiponectin attenuates osteolysis in aseptic loosening of total hip replacements.  

PubMed

Joint replacements have a longer durability in patients with high serum levels of adiponectin (APN) than in patients with low levels. We aimed to characterize the unknown pathophysiological effects of APN on wear particle-induced inflammation, apoptosis and osteolysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect APN, its receptors and apoptosis in patients with and without aseptic loosening. Additionally, APN knockout mouse studies and pharmacological intervention of APN were performed in an established calvarial mouse model. Osteolysis and inflammation were quantified by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography, apoptosis by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. In a cell culture model, human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with or without metal wear debris particles and partially treated with APN. Expression of APN, AdipoR1 and calreticulin in specimens from patients with aseptic loosening were significantly higher than in patients without aseptic loosening. Administration of APN in mice significantly reduced wear particle-induced inflammation, osteolysis and the number of caspase-3-positive macrophages. The cell culture model showed that APN leads to significantly lower values of TNF-?. These findings support a prominent role of APN in the development of particle-induced osteolysis and APN may be therapeutically useful in patients with aseptic loosening. PMID:23994269

Landgraeber, Stefan; Putz, S; Schlattjan, M; Bechmann, Lars P; Totsch, Martin; Grabellus, Florian; Hilken, Gero; Jäger, M; Canbay, A

2014-01-01

215

An FGF21-Adiponectin-Ceramide Axis Controls Energy Expenditure and Insulin Action in Mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily has recently emerged as a novel regulator of metabolism and energy utilization. However, the exact mechanism(s) whereby FGF21 mediates its actions have not been elucidated. There is considerable evidence that insulin resistance may arise from aberrant accumulation of intracellular lipids in insulin responsive tissues due to lipotoxicity. In particular the sphingolipid ceramide has been implicated in this process. Here, we show that FGF21 rapidly and robustly stimulates adiponectin secretion in rodents, while diminishing accumulation of ceramides in obese animals. Importantly, adiponectin knockout mice are refractory to changes in energy expenditure and ceramide-lowering effects evoked by FGF21 administration. Moreover, FGF21 lowers blood glucose levels and enhances insulin sensitivity in diabetic Lepob/ob mice and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, only when adiponectin is functionally present. Collectively, these data suggest that FGF21 is a potent regulator of adiponectin secretion, and that FGF21 critically depends on adiponectin to exert its glycemic and insulin sensitizing effects. PMID:23663742

Holland, William L.; Adams, Andrew C.; Brozinick, Joseph T.; Bui, Hai H.; Miyauchi, Yukiko; Kusminski, Christine M.; Bauer, Steven M.; Wade, Mark; Singhal, Esha; Cheng, Christine C.; Volk, Katherine; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Gordillo, Ruth; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Scherer, Philipp E.

2013-01-01

216

Adiponectin, a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the functions of macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

These results suggest that adiponectin predominantly inhibits proliferation of my- elomonocytic lineage cells. At least one mechanism of the growth inhibition is induction of apoptosis because treat- ment of acute myelomonocytic leukemia lines with adiponectin induced the appear- ance of subdiploid peaks and oligonucleo- somal DNA fragmentation. Aside from inhibiting growth of myelomonocytic pro- genitors, adiponectin suppressed mature macrophage functions.

Takafumi Yokota; Kenji Oritani; Isao Takahashi; Jun Ishikawa; Akifumi Matsuyama; Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Tohru Funahashi; Andrea J. Tenner; Yoshiaki Tomiyama; Yuji Matsuzawa

2000-01-01

217

The Effects of Adiponectin and Metformin on Prostate and Colon Neoplasia Involve Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population studies provide evidence that obesity and insulin resistance are associated not only with elevated serum insulin levels and reduced serum adiponectin levels but also with increasedrisk of aggressive prostate andcolon cancer. We show here that adiponectin ac- tivates AMP-activatedprotein kinase (AMPK) in colon (HT-29) andprostate (PC-3) cancer cells. These results are consistent with prior observations in myocytes, but we

Mahvash Zakikhani; Ryan J. O. Dowling; Nahum Sonenberg; N. Pollak

2008-01-01

218

Adiponectin mediated APPL1-AMPK signaling induces cell migration, MMP activation, and collagen remodeling in cardiac fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Defects in adiponectin action have been implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Cardiac fibroblasts play an important role in regulating extracellular matrix remodeling yet little is known regarding the direct effects of adiponectin on cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, we first demonstrated temporal relocalization of cellular APPL1 in response to adiponectin in primary cardiac fibroblasts and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of APPL1 attenuated stimulation of AMPK by adiponectin. The cell surface content of MT1-MMP and activation of MMP2 were induced by adiponectin and these responses were dependent on AMPK signaling. Enhanced MMP activity facilitated increased fibroblast migration in response to adiponectin which was also prevented by inhibition of AMPK, with no change in cell proliferation observed. Collagen and elastin immunofluorescence demonstrated reorganization of the extracellular matrix in accordance with increased MMP activity, whereas quantitative mRNA analysis, (3) H-proline incorporation and picrosirius red assays showed no change in intracellular or extracellular total collagen levels in response to adiponectin. In summary, these data are the first to report the adiponectin stimulated APPL1-AMPK signaling axis in cardiac fibroblasts and characterize MT1-MMP translocation, MMP2 activity and cell migration as functional outcomes. These effects may be of significance in heart failure associated with obesity and diabetes. PMID:24255018

Dadson, Keith; Chasiotis, Helen; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

2014-04-01

219

Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. Approach: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobio- chemistry and

Ursula Meier; Axel M. Gressner

2004-01-01

220

ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. PMID:24012818

Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

2013-12-01

221

Association between adiponectin and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study  

PubMed Central

Limited data are available on the association between adiponectin and incident heart failure. In the current ancillary study to the Physicians' Health Study, we used a prospective nested-case control design to examine whether plasma adiponectin concentration was related to the risk of heart failure. We selected 787 incident heart failure cases and 787 matched controls for the current analysis. Each control was selected using a risk set sampling technique at the time of the occurrence of the index case and matched on year of birth, age at blood collection, and race. Adiponectin was measured using ELISA. Heart failure occurrence was self-reported in annual follow-up questionnaire. Validation of self-reported heart failure in this cohort has been published. The mean age was 58.7 years. In a conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, race, time of blood collection, year of birth, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, smoking, alcohol intake, and exercise, estimates of the relative risk (95% confidence interval) were 1.0 (ref), 0.74 (0.53–1.04), 0.67 (0.48–0.94), 0.70 (0.50–0.99), and 0.92 (0.65–1.30) from the lowest to the highest quintile of adiponectin, respectively, p for quadratic trend 0.004. Additional adjustment for potential mediating factors including diabetes, C-reactive protein, and body mass index led to the attenuation of the estimate of effect [1.0 (ref), 0.81 (0.57–1.15), 0.75 (0.53–1.06), 0.83 (0.58–1.18), and 1.26 (0.87–1.81) across consecutive quintiles of adiponectin]. Our data are consistent with a J-shaped association between total adiponectin and the risk of heart failure among US male physicians. PMID:23712986

Djousse, Luc; Wilk, Jemma B.; Hanson, Naomi Q.; Glynn, Robert; Tsai, Michael Y.; Gaziano, J. Michael

2012-01-01

222

Adiponectin Receptors Form Homomers and Heteromers Exhibiting Distinct Ligand Binding and Intracellular Signaling Properties*  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes. PMID:23255609

Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R.; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M.

2013-01-01

223

Adiponectin receptors form homomers and heteromers exhibiting distinct ligand binding and intracellular signaling properties.  

PubMed

Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes. PMID:23255609

Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M

2013-02-01

224

Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.  

PubMed

Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored. PMID:23222083

Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

2013-08-01

225

Effects of different molecular weight fractions of dissolved organic matter on the growth of bacteria, algae and protozoa from a highly humic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of different molecular size fractions (< 1000 MW, < 10 000 MW, < 100 000 MW and <0.1 µm) of dissolved organic matter\\u000a (DOM) on the growth of bacteria, algae and protozoa from a highly humic lake were investigated. DOM from catchment drainage\\u000a water as well as from the lake consisted mostly (59–63%) of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds

T. Tulonen; K. Salonen; L. Arvola

1992-01-01

226

Deficiency of individual high molecular weight glutenin subunits affords flexibility in breeding strategies for bread-making quality in wheat Triticum aestivum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in wheat Triticumaestivum L., allelic variation for which affects bread-making quality, areencoded by Glu-1 homoeoloci located on the homoeologous group1 chromosomes. Many alleles at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 producetwo subunits, an x-type of low electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamidegels, and a y-type of high mobility. In the current study, a combination ofnear isogenic lines of cultivar `Sicco' has

W. J. Rogers; E. J. Sayers; K. L. Ru

2001-01-01

227

Adiponectin attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through the AMPK/mTOR pathway.  

PubMed

Vascular calcification is common in patients with peripheral artery diseases and coronary artery diseases. The osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes significantly to vascular calcification. Adiponectin has been demonstrated to exert a protective effect in osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through regulating mTOR activity. However, the upstream and downstream signaling molecules of adiponectin-regulated mTOR signaling have not been identified in VSMCs with osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, the VSMC differentiation model was established by beta-glycerophosphate (?-GP) induction. The mineralization was identified by Alizarin Red S staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation were detected by Western blot or immunofluorescence. Adiponectin attenuated osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of ?-GP-treated VSMCs. Adiponectin inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through increasing the level of p-AMPK?. Pretreatment of VSMCs with AMPK inhibitor blocked while AMPK activator enhanced the effect of adiponectin on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs. Adiponectin upregulated TSC2 expression and downregulated mTOR and S6K1 phosphorylation in ?-GP-treated VSMCs. Adiponectin treatment significantly attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs through modulation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-S6K1 signal pathway. PMID:24607448

Zhan, Jun-Kun; Wang, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Yi; Tang, Zhi-Yong; Tan, Pan; Huang, Wu; Liu, You-Shuo

2014-05-01

228

Association of Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease with Adiponectin Genes SNP+45 and SNP+276: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We hypothesized that adiponectin gene SNP+45 (rs2241766) and SNP+276 (rs1501299) would be associated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Furthermore, the association between circulating adiponectin levels, fetuin-A, and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease was investigated. Method. Several blood parameters (such as adiponectin, fetuin-A, and TNF-?) were measured in 346 patients, 226 with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and 120 without symptomatic PAD (non-PAD). Two common SNPs of the ADIPOQ gene represented by +45T/G 2 and +276G/T were also investigated. Results. Adiponectin concentrations showed lower circulating levels in the PAD patients compared to non-PAD patients (P < 0.001). Decreasing adiponectin concentration was associated with increasing serum levels of fetuin-A in the PAD patients. None of the investigated adiponectin SNPs proved to be associated with the subjects' susceptibility to PAD (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrated that neither adiponectin SNP+45 nor SNP+276 is associated with the risk of PAD. PMID:23819115

Gherman, Claudia D.; Bolboaca, Sorana D.

2013-01-01

229

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADIPOQ SNPS WITH PLASMA ADIPONECTIN AND GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS AND ADIPOSITY PHENOTYPES IN THE IRAS FAMILY STUDY  

PubMed Central

Context Adiponectin is an adipocytokine associated with a variety of metabolic traits. These associations in human studies, in conjunction with functional studies in model systems, have implicated adiponectin in multiple metabolic processes. Objective We hypothesize that genetic variants associated with plasma adiponectin would also be associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity phenotypes. Design and Setting The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study was designed to identify the genetic and environmental basis of insulin resistance and adiposity in the Hispanic- (n=1,424) and African-American (n=604) population. Main Outcome Measures High quality metabolic phenotypes, e.g. insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI), fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and waist circumference, were explored. Results Based on association analysis of more than 40 genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ), we found no consistent association of ADIPOQ variants with plasma adiponectin levels and adiposity phenotypes. However, there were two promoter variants, rs17300539 and rs822387, associated with plasma adiponectin levels (P=0.0079 and 0.021, respectively) in the Hispanic-American cohort that were also associated with SI (P=0.0067 and 0.013, respectively). In contrast, there was only a single promoter SNP, rs17300539, associated with plasma adiponectin levels (P=0.0018) and fasting glucose (P=0.042) in the African-American cohort. Strikingly, high impact coding variants did not show evidence of association. Conclusions The lack of consistent patterns of association between variants, adiponectin levels, glucose homeostasis, and adiposity phenotypes suggests a reassessment of the influence of adiponectin in these pathways. PMID:23102667

An, S. Sandy; Hanley, Anthony J. G.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Brown, W. Mark; Haffner, Steven M.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

2012-01-01

230

High adiponectin levels fail to protect against the risk of hypertension and, in women, against coronary disease: involvement in autoimmunity?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether serum adiponectin protects against cardiometabolic risk in a population sample with prevailing metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Middle-aged adults representative of a general population with baseline circulating adiponectin measurements (n = 1224) were analyzed prospectively at a mean of 3.8 years’ follow-up, using continuous values or sex-specific tertiles. Total adiponectin was assayed by an ELISA kit. Type-2 diabetes was identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ? 140 mmHg and/or ? 90 mmHg and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Outcomes were predicted using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that were controlled for potential confounders. RESULTS: In models of multiple linear regression, sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting insulin (inverse) and, in men, age were significant independent covariates of serum adiponectin which further tended in women to be positively associated with serum creatinine. Cox regression analyses for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusted for sex, age, non-HDL cholesterol, waist circumference and C-reactive protein, revealed significant inverse association with adiponectin tertiles in men but not women (HR = 0.66; 95%CI: 0.32-1.38 for highest tertile). Cox regression for type-2 diabetes in a similar model (wherein glucose replaced non-HDL cholesterol), adiponectin tertiles appeared to protect in each gender. HR for incident hypertension roughly displayed unity in each of the adiponectin tertiles (P-trend = 0.67). CONCLUSION: High adiponectin levels failed to protect against the development of hypertension and, in women, against CHD, presumably paralleling impairment in renal function as well. Involvement of adiponectin in autoimmune complex with loss of antioxidative-antiatherogenic properties may be underlying. PMID:24147206

Onat, Altan; Ayd?n, Mesut; Can, Günay; Köro?lu, Bayram; Karagöz, Ahmet; Altay, Servet

2013-01-01

231

Adiponectin, Leptin, and Resistin in Asthma: Basic Mechanisms through Population Studies  

PubMed Central

Adipokines, factors produced by adipose tissue, may be proinflammatory (such as leptin and resistin) or anti-inflammatory (such as adiponectin). Effects of these adipokines on the lungs have the potential to evoke or exacerbate asthma. This review summarizes basic mechanistic data through population-based and clinical studies addressing the potential role of adipokines in asthma. Augmenting circulating concentrations of adiponectin attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Murine data is supported by human data that suggest that low serum adiponectin is associated with greater risk for asthma among women and peripubertal girls. Further, higher serum total adiponectin may be associated with lower clinical asthma severity among children and women with asthma. In contrast, exogenous administration of leptin results in augmented allergic airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Alveolar macrophages obtained from obese asthmatics are uniquely sensitive to leptin in terms of their potential to augment inflammation. Consistent with this basic mechanistic data, epidemiologic studies demonstrate that higher serum leptin is associated with greater asthma prevalence and/or severity and that these associations may be stronger among women, postpubertal girls, and prepubertal boys. The role of adipokines in asthma is still evolving, and it is not currently known whether modulation of adipokines may be helpful in asthma prevention or treatment. PMID:24288549

Shore, Stephanie A.

2013-01-01

232

New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

2014-01-01

233

Effects of Simvastatin Treatment on Serum Adiponectin Concentrations in Patients With Dislipidemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived protein with anti-inflammatory properties. Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: In the current study, we aimed to assess the effects of simvastatin on serum levels of adiponectin in patients with dyslipidemia, recruited from Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 patients with dyslipidemia were treated with simvastatin or placebo during a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. The adiponectin levels were measured before and after each treatment period. Seventy seven participants completed the study. Results: There was a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (approxmately 21%), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (approxmately 28%), and triglycerides (approxmately 11%), after four weeks of treatment with simvastatin (P < 0.001). Conclusions: No significant change in serum adiponectin concentrations was observed after treatment with simvastatin. This may be because of the relatively short duration of treatment and longer treatment duration may be necessary to investigation in future studies.

Moezzi, Atefeh; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Tavallaie, Shima; Mazidi, Mohsen; Afzali, Fariba; Adab, Afrouz; Ferns, Gordon; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid

2014-01-01

234

Heme Oxygenase-Mediated Increases in Adiponectin Decrease Fat Content and Inflammatory Cytokines Tumor Necrosis  

E-print Network

and symbiotic relationship of HO-1 and adiponectin in the modulation of the metabolic syn- drome phenotype Tumor Necrosis Factor- and Interleukin-6 in Zucker Rats and Reduce Adipogenesis in Human Mesenchymal TNF- and IL-6 were decreased (p 0.04 and p 0.008, respec- tively). Treatment of human bone marrow

Abraham, Nader G.

235

Designer adiponectin receptor agonist stabilizes metabolic function and prevents brain injury caused by HIV protease inhibitors.  

PubMed

HIV protease inhibitors (PI) are fundamental to combination antiretroviral therapy, which has revolutionized HIV clinical care and produced significant reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. However, PI administration is frequently associated with severe metabolic impairment, including lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance; all of which can contribute to cardiovascular and neurologic co-morbidities. Experimental and epidemiological data support a potentially important role for the adipokine adiponectin in both metabolic and neurologic physiology. This study examined if ADP355, a novel, peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist, could neutralize the detrimental effects of PI treatment in experimental animal models. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a clinically relevant, 4-week regimen of lopinavir/ritonavir, with daily injections of ADP355 administered only during the final 2 weeks of PI exposure. Comprehensive metabolic, neurobehavioral, and biochemical analyses revealed that ADP355 administration partially reversed PI-induced loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue, attenuated PI-induced hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoadiponectinemia, and prevented PI-induced cognitive impairment and brain injury. Collectively, these data reinforce the link between metabolic co-morbidities and cognitive impairment and suggest that pharmacological reactivation of adiponectin pathways could remediate key aspects of PI-induced metabolic syndrome in clinical settings. Furthermore, therapeutic targeting of adiponectin receptors could show utility in reducing the prevalence and/or severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:24562631

Pepping, Jennifer K; Otvos, Laszlo; Surmacz, Eva; Gupta, Sunita; Keller, Jeffrey N; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J

2014-06-01

236

Maternal leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in normal and gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common medical complication associated with pregnancy. The present study evaluates the changes in maternal adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF-?) in pregnancy complicated with GDM compared to normal pregnancy at 2nd and 3rd trimesters. The study included total number of 142 pregnant women classified into 4 groups: normal pregnancy (n = 33) and pregnancy with GDM (n = 24) both at 2nd trimester and normal pregnancy (n = 38) and GDM (n = 47) at 3rd trimester. Both GDM groups were significantly presented with elevated body mass index, fasting blood sugar and abnormal oral glucose tolerance test compared to their matched control. Results indicated reduction in maternal serum leptin and adiponectin in GDM compared to normal pregnancy at 3rd trimester. Elevated resistin and TNF-? were evident among pregnancy complicated with GDM at both tested trimesters. On the other hand, significant elevation in maternal visfatin was noted between GDM and matched control at 2nd trimester only. Significant increase in maternal leptin and visfatin and resistin was noted by advances in gestational period in healthy pregnancy. On the other hand, reduced adiponectin and elevated visfatin mean values were noticed in GDM at 3rd compared to 2nd trimester. It could be concluded that increased insulin resistance accompanies GDM is associated with suppressed leptin and adiponectin and increased resistin and TNF-? which might suggest their involvement in the development of GDM. PMID:25298627

Noureldeen, Amani F H; Qusti, Safaa Y; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Bagais, Maram H

2014-10-01

237

REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the chicken testis  

E-print Network

through two distinct receptors, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. While adipose tissue is the primary site, adiponectin-immunoreactive (ir) and ADIPOR1-ir cells were found exclusively in the peritubular cells as well as in Leydig cells. However, ADIPOR2-ir cells were found in the adluminal and luminal compartments

Ramachandran, Ramesh

238

Hormonal and Metabolic Effects of Olanzapine and Clozapine Related to Body Weight in Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism.Research Methods and Procedures: Chronically, olanzapine or clozapine was self-administered via cookie dough to rodents (Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats; C57Bl\\/6J or A\\/J mice). Chronic studies measured food intake, body weight, adiponectin, active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, tissue wet weights, glucose, clinical chemistry endpoints, and brain dopaminergic D2 receptor

Vance L. Albaugh; Cathy R. Henry; Nicholas T. Bello; Andras Hajnal; Susan L. Lynch; Beth Halle; Christopher J. Lynch

2006-01-01

239

Serum Adiponectin Helps to Differentiate Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Young Asian Indians  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This study assessed whether serum adiponectin could be used as a biochemical marker to differentiate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among young Asian Indians. Research Design and Methods We recruited age- and sex-matched individuals with physician-diagnosed T1DM (n=70) and T2DM (n=72). All were 12–27 years of age with a duration of diabetes of >2 years, at a large tertiary-care diabetes center in Chennai, southern India. Age- and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=68) were selected from an ongoing population study. NGT was defined using World Health Organization criteria. Serum total adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify adiponectin cut points for discriminating T1DM from T2DM. Results Adiponectin levels were higher in T1DM and lower in T2DM compared with the NGT group (9.89, 3.88, and 6.84??g/mL, respectively; P<0.001). In standardized polytomous regression models, adiponectin was associated with T1DM (odds ratio [OR]=1.131 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025–1.249) and T2DM (OR=0.628 per SD; 95% CI, 0.504–0.721) controlled for age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, family history of T2DM, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Using ROC analysis, an adiponectin cut point of 5.1??g/mL had a C statistic of 0.886 (95% CI, 0.836–0.953), sensitivity of 80.6%, and specificity of 80.6% to differentiate T1DM from T2DM. Using the 5.1??g/mL cut point, 80.6% of T1DM and 81.8% of T2DM would be correctly classified. Conclusions Serum adiponectin is a useful biochemical marker for differentiating T1DM and T2DM among young Asian Indians. PMID:23902401

Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Abhijit, Shiny; Ranjani, Harish; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjith; Miranda, Priya; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

2013-01-01

240

Relation of dietary and other lifestyle traits to difference in serum adiponectin concentration of Japanese in Japan and Hawaii: the  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In initial analyses, we found significant differences between serum adiponectin in Japanese living in Japan and Hawaii. Objective:Weinvestigatedwhetherdifferencesindietaryandother lifestyle factors explain higher serum adiponectin concentrations in JapaneseinJapancomparedwithJapaneseemigrantslivingaWest- ern lifestyle in Hawaii. Design: Serum adiponectin and nutrient intakes were examined by standardized methods in men and women aged 40-59 y from 2 populationsamples,oneJapaneseAmericaninHawaii(99men,104 women),theotherJapaneseincentralJapan(124men,125women). Multiple linear regression models were used

Yasuyuki Nakamura; Hirotsugu Ueshima; Nagako Okuda; Aya Higashiyama; Yoshikuni Kit; Takashi Kadowaki; Tomonori Okamura; Yoshitaka Murakami; Akira Okayama; Sohel Reza Choudhury; Beatriz Rodriguez

241

Association of Adiponectin rs1501299 and rs266729 Gene Polymorphisms With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adiponectin is a white and brown adipose tissue hormone, and have been found to play essential roles in the regulation of energy homoeostasis. Recent reports have identified a possible role of adiponectin in NAFLD via PPAR? pathway. Objectives The present study was designed to find out the impact of adiponectin rs1501299 (276G/T) and rs266729 (-11377C/G) gene polymorphisms in NAFLD. Patients and Methods Eighty-three patients with diagnosis of NAFLD, and 93 healthy subjects were included in the study. Tetra ARMS-PCR was designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results A significant difference was found between NAFLD and control group regarding the rs266729 polymorphism (?2 = 7.35, P = 0.025). The rs266729 polymorphism increased the risk of NAFLD in codominant (CC vs. CG: OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.16 - 4.12, P = 0.016) and dominant (CC vs. CG/GG: OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.27; P = 0.008) inheritance tested models. The G allele increased the risk of NAFLD (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.57, P = 0.037) in comparison with C allele. No significant difference was found between the groups concerning adiponectin rs1501299 gene polymorphism (?2 = 0.70, P = 0.697). Conclusions adiponectin rs266729 polymorphism might be a candidate gene, which determines the susceptibility to NAFLD. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings in various populations. PMID:23922565

Hashemi, Mohammad; Hanafi Bojd, Hamideh; Eskandari Nasab, Ebrahim; Bahari, Ali; Hashemzehi, Noor Allah; Shafieipour, Sara; Narouie, Behzad; Taheri, Mohsen; Ghavami, Saeid

2013-01-01

242

Phycocyanin prevents hypertension and low serum adiponectin level in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Endothelial dysfunction is associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. Phycocyanin is a pigment found in the blue-green algae, Spirulina, which possesses antihypertensive effect. In this study, we hypothesized that phycocyanin derived from Spirulina exerts antihypertensive actions by improving endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. Spontaneously hypertensive/NIH-corpulent (SHR/NDmcr-cp) rats were divided into 4 groups then fed a normal diet with or without phycocyanin (2500-, 5000-, or 10,000-mg/kg diet) for 25 weeks. At 34 weeks of age, although systolic blood pressure was not significantly different among groups, phycocyanin-fed groups exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure. Serum levels of adiponectin and messenger RNA levels of adiponectin and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? in the adipose tissue of rats fed diets containing phycocyanin tended to be higher than those of rats fed a normal diet, but the differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed a significant and positive correlation between aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression levels, a downstream target of the adiponectin receptor, and serum adiponectin levels, although there were no significant differences in eNOS expression among groups. There was also no significant correlation between eNOS expression levels and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that long-term administration of phycocyanin may ameliorate systemic blood pressure by enhancing eNOS expression in aorta that is stimulated by adiponectin. Phycocyanin may be beneficial for preventing endothelial dysfunction-related diseases in metabolic syndrome. PMID:23684441

Ichimura, Mayuko; Kato, Shigeko; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Matsutake, Sachiko; Kamogawa, Mai; Hirao, Eri; Miyata, Ayako; Mori, Sawako; Yamaguchi, Noriaki; Suruga, Kazuhito; Omagari, Katsuhisa

2013-05-01

243

Effects of radioiodine administration on serum concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, adiponectin and thrombospondin-1  

PubMed Central

Background In order to assess safety of radioactive iodine administration in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, we measured concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), its main inhibitor – TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), its main inhibitor – TIMP-1, adiponectin, as well as pro-inflammatory and procancerogenic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Design and patients The study involved 23 patients treated with radioiodine for thyrotoxicosis. Serum concentrations of TSH, free T4, free T3, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, total adiponectin and TSP-1 were measured by immunoassays just before radioiodine administration (visit 1), and subsequently, after 7 days (visit 2), 3 months (visit 3), 6 to 8 months (visit 4) and 15–18 months after radioiodine administration (visit 5). Results There were no acute changes in serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, adiponectin and TSP-1 (visit 1 vs. 2). Subsequently, there was an increase in MMP-2 (from 393±106 ng/ml to 774±424 ng/ml), TIMP-1 (from 177±76 ng/ml to 296±118 ng/ml), and adiponectin (from 16442±9490 ng/ml to 23518±9840 ng/ml), visit 1 to 5, respectively (p?adiponectin, as well as possible decrease of free MMP-9 concentration after radioiodine administration. In contrast, there was no significant change of TSP-1. This might indicate overall safety of radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis in terms of the risks of subsequent cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. PMID:23919647

2013-01-01

244

Integral Role of PTP1B in Adiponectin-Mediated Inhibition of Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in Breast Carcinogenesis1 2  

PubMed Central

The molecular effects of obesity are mediated by alterations in the levels of adipocytokines. High leptin level associated with obese state is a major cause of breast cancer progression and metastasis, whereas adiponectin is considered a “guardian angel adipocytokine” for its protective role against various obesity-related pathogenesis including breast cancer. In the present study, investigating the role of adiponectin as a potential inhibitor of leptin, we show that adiponectin treatment inhibits leptin-induced clonogenicity and anchorage-independent growth. Leptin-stimulated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells is also effectively inhibited by adiponectin. Analyses of the underlying molecular mechanisms reveal that adiponectin suppresses activation of two canonical signaling molecules of leptin signaling axis: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Pretreatment of breast cancer cells with adiponectin protects against leptin-induced activation of ERK and Akt. Adiponectin increases expression and activity of the physiological inhibitor of leptin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is found to be integral to leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin. Inhibition of PTP1B blocks adiponectin-mediated inhibition of leptin-induced breast cancer growth. Our in vivo studies show that adenovirus-mediated adiponectin treatment substantially reduces leptin-induced mammary tumorigenesis in nude mice. Exploring therapeutic strategies, we demonstrate that treatment of breast cancer cells with rosiglitazone results in increased adiponectin expression and inhibition of migration and invasion. Rosiglitazone treatment also inhibits leptin-induced growth of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data show that adiponectin treatment can inhibit the oncogenic actions of leptin through blocking its downstream signaling molecules and raising adiponectin levels could be a rational therapeutic strategy for breast carcinoma in obese patients with high leptin levels. PMID:23358729

Taliaferro-Smith, LaTonia; Nagalingam, Arumugam; Knight, Brandi Brandon; Oberlick, Elaine; Saxena, Neeraj K; Sharma, Dipali

2013-01-01

245

Metaproteomic characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in surface seawaters in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important reservoir of carbon and energy in the marine environment and plays a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle. This study characterized proteins of high-molecular-weight DOM (size between 5 kDa and <0.2 ?m, HMW-DOM) collected from the surface seawaters in the South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach in combination with the global ocean sampling combined assembly protein database. A total of 367 protein groups matched by 993 unique peptides from 1991 spectra were identified from four surface HMW-DOM samples. Proteins with unknown taxonomic classification and function dominated the dissolved protein pool (43-53%) while the remaining proteins presented close similarity in biological origin among the four sampling sites. Rhodospirillaceae, Prochlorococcus, SAR11 clade and viruses were the major contributors to dissolved proteins in the HMW-DOM from surface seawaters while very few proteins were from the eukaryotic phytoplankton and no archaeal proteins were detected. Transporters with substrate specificities for nitrogen- and carbon-containing compounds (1.5% of the total spectra for each) were highly detected while no phosphate transporters were found, suggesting that carbon and nitrogen might be more limiting than phosphorus in the surface seawater. Viral proteins were assigned into three families: Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae, and the Myoviridae proteins were the most abundant. Among them, structure proteins were the most abundant viral proteins. This study indicated that the dissolved proteins of HMW-DOM presented compositional and biologically original homogeneity in the surface seawaters of the South China Sea, and bacteria and viruses dominated the dissolved protein pool.

Dong, Hong-Po; Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Dai, Min-Han; Hong, Hua-Sheng

2013-05-01

246

Sleep fragmentation during late gestation induces metabolic perturbations and epigenetic changes in adiponectin gene expression in male adult offspring mice.  

PubMed

Sleep fragmentation (SF) is a common condition among pregnant women, particularly during late gestation. Gestational perturbations promote the emergence of adiposity and metabolic disease risk in offspring, most likely through epigenetic modifications. Adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression inversely correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The effects of SF during late gestation on metabolic function and AdipoQ expression in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) of offspring mice are unknown. Male offspring mice were assessed at 24 weeks after dams were exposed to SF or control sleep during late gestation. Increased food intake, body weight, VWAT mass, and insulin resistance, with reductions in AdipoQ expression in VWAT, emerged in SF offspring. Increased DNMT3a and -b and global DNA methylation and reduced histone acetyltransferase activity and TET1, -2, and -3 expression were detected in VWAT of SF offspring. Reductions in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and H3K4m3 and an increase in DNA 5-methylcytosine and H3K9m2 in the promoter and enhancer regions of AdipoQ emerged in adipocytes from VWAT and correlated with AdipoQ expression. SF during late gestation induces epigenetic modifications in AdipoQ in male offspring mouse VWAT adipocytes along with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Thus, altered gestational environments elicited by SF impose the emergence of adverse, long-lasting metabolic consequences in the next generation. PMID:24812424

Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Mutskov, Vesco; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

2014-10-01

247

Troglitazone and ?2Troglitazone Enhance Adiponectin Expression in Monocytes/Macrophages through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (?2troglitazone, (?2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-dependent pathway whereas ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and ?2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-?-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and ?2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and ?2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis. PMID:25328285

Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chen, Ching-Yu

2014-01-01

248

Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.  

PubMed

Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported. PMID:24240086

Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maïmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

2014-01-01

249

The Light Curve of V713 Per (HMW 15): Evidence for Gravitational Sculpting by an Object Embedded in the Circumstellar Disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HMW 15 (V713 Per, H 187, TJ 108, LRLL 35) is a G-type weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) in the extremely young cluster IC 348. It has an age of about 3 My, a mass of about 1.5 solar mass and a distance of 300 pc. What distinguishes it from other WTTS is a cyclic variation in optical brightness with an amplitude of about 0.8 mag and a period of 1717 d or 4.7 yr (Nordhagen et al. 2006, ApJ 646, 151). The star shows no detectable radial velocity variations to stringent limits (Grinin et al. 2008, A&A 489,1233) indicating that the periodicity is not caused by a stellar companion. Two complete cycles of this variation have now been observed and we present and discuss its form and features. We suggest that the main cause of the periodic variation is a massive embedded planet or protoplanet orbiting at a distance of 3.3 AU from the central (single) star. Other features in the light curve can be seen at the Lagrangian points (L3, L4 and L5) of this system, where we suppose that gravitational sculpting by the planet has been active. Continued monitoring of this unique and potentially important system is obviously warranted and is needed to test our hypothesis. We thank the NASA-Origins program for its support of this work through a grant to WH and the NSF/REU program for supporting the participation of one us (AY).

Herbst, William; Yau, A.; Semkov, E.

2010-01-01

250

Weight and metabolic effects of cpap in obstructive sleep apnea patients with obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rapidly mitigates OSA in obese subjects but its metabolic effects are not well-characterized. We postulated that CPAP will decrease IR, ghrelin and resistin and increase adiponectin levels in this setting. Methods In a pre- and post-treatment, within-subject design, insulin and appetite-regulating hormones were assayed in 20 obese subjects with OSA before and after 6 months of CPAP use. Primary outcome measures included glucose, insulin, and IR levels. Other measures included ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels. Body weight change were recorded and used to examine the relationship between glucose regulation and appetite-regulating hormones. Results CPAP effectively improved hypoxia. However, subjects had increased insulin and IR. Fasting ghrelin decreased significantly while leptin, adiponectin and resistin remained unchanged. Forty percent of patients gained weight significantly. Changes in body weight directly correlated with changes in insulin and IR. Ghrelin changes inversely correlated with changes in IR but did not change as a function of weight. Conclusions Weight change rather than elimination of hypoxia modulated alterations in IR in obese patients with OSA during the first six months of CPAP therapy. PMID:21676224

2011-01-01

251

PGC-1alpha Gly482Ser polymorphism is associated with the plasma adiponectin level in type 2 diabetic men.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a multifunctional transcriptional regulator for the pathways controlling mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative metabolism, and glucose homeostasis. Genetic studies have suggested that Gly482Ser polymorphism of the PGC-1alpha gene is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Adiponectin is an antidiabetic and antiatherogenic adipocytokine that is specifically produced by adipose tissue, and the transcription of the adiponectin gene is regulated by PPARgamma. In this study, we examined the effect of Gly482Ser polymorphism on the plasma adiponectin level in Japanese type 2 diabetics. The Gly482Ser genotype was associated with a lower plasma adiponectin level in type 2 diabetic men, but not in type 2 diabetic women. The impact of this variation on the adiponectin promoter was also assessed by a reporter gene assay, but there was no significant difference between activation by the wild type and Gly482Ser- PGC-1alpha proteins, indicating that this variation itself has no functional effect. Evaluation of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium revealed that the Gly482Ser polymorphism is located in the largest linkage disequilibrium block of the PGC-1alpha gene. Therefore the observed gender-specific association between PGC-1alpha and the plasma adiponectin level may reflect linkage disequilibrium of Gly482Ser polymorphism with other causative variations. PMID:18614852

Okauchi, Yukiyoshi; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Okita, Kohei; Yuan, Ming; Matsuda, Morihiro; Tanaka, Toshiya; Miyagawa, Junichiro; Funahashi, Tohru; Horikawa, Yukio; Shimomura, Iichiro; Yamagata, Kazuya

2008-12-01

252

Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1,349 subjects in a random population sample  

PubMed Central

Background Objective of the present study was to examine the association between adiponectin and hepatic steatosis, and other biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy subjects. Results A total of 1349 subjects (age 18–65?years) underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Mean adiponectin concentration for the study collective was 11.35?±?6.28??g/mL. The following parameters were assessed for their association with adiponectin: body-mass index (BMI); age; sex; arterial blood pressure; nicotine use; alcohol consumption; physical activity; metabolic syndrome; total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT); alkaline phosphatase (AP); C-reactive protein (CRP); insulin sensitivity according to the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA); random blood glucose; and the degree of steatosis of the liver. The numerical differences in the variables influencing adiponectin returned in the descriptive analysis were confirmed at bivariate analysis for BMI, ALT, AST, GGT, AP, total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, arterial blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, nicotine use and alcohol consumption. The logistic regression of the multivariate analysis showed that male sex, hepatic steatosis, BMI, metabolic syndrome, tobacco smoking and CRP correlate negatively with adiponectin, while age, moderate alcohol consumption and HDL cholesterol exhibit a positive association. Conclusions The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous research. Adiponectin correlates negatively with cardiometabolic risk factors and is an independent indicator for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:24693952

2014-01-01

253

ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling.  

PubMed

The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2beta, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling. PMID:20074551

Charlton, Hayley K; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A; Whitehead, Jonathan P

2010-02-01

254

ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling  

SciTech Connect

The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)] [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

2010-02-05

255

Arterial Stiffness Is Inversely Related to Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Young Normotensive Patients With Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This study investigated the association between arterial stiffness and plasma adiponectin in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were normotensive patients with type 1 diabetes who were up to age 40 years. Subjects on statins with macrovascular disease or overt nephropathy were excluded. Large artery stiffness was assessed by measurement of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), whereas plasma adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS Data from 80 patients (age 27.1 ± 6.1 years, BMI 24.2 ± 3.1 kg/m2, HbA1c 7.5 ± 1.6%, 39 men, adiponectin 13.9 ± 6.7 ?g/mL, and PWV 5.6 ± 0.9 m/s) were analyzed. Log adiponectin inversely correlated with age-adjusted PWV (r = ?0.291, P = 0.009) and waist circumference (r = ?0.427, P < 0.001). In a fully adjusted model, age, expiration/inspiration index, and log adiponectin were independently associated with PWV, explaining 39.6% of its variance. CONCLUSIONS Arterial stiffness is inversely related to adiponectin concentration in young patients with type 1 diabetes without major complications. PMID:23002087

Tsiakou, Afroditi; Liatis, Stavros; Alexiadou, Kleopatra; Diakoumopoulou, Evanthia; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Kyriaki, Despoina; Katsilambros, Nicholas

2013-01-01

256

Paradoxically High Adiponectin in Obese 16-Year-Old Girls Protects against appearance of the Metabolic Syndrome and its components 7 years later  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationships of adiponectin levels at age 16 years in obese schoolgirls to metabolic syndrome and its components at age 23 years. Study design Seven year prospective study of 381 females. Results In 144 white and 129 black non-obese 16-year old girls (BMI <24.6 kg/m2), race-specific median adiponectin levels (white 12 mg/L, black 11) was used to identify paradoxically high adiponectin levels in obese girls. Of 34 white and 74 black obese girls, 12 (35%) and 19 (26%) had paradoxically high adiponectin levels. In these 108 obese girls, adiponectin levels at age 16 years independently predicted HDLC (positive) and waist (negative), insulin (negative), and glucose (negative) at age 23 years; paradoxically high adiponectin levels at age 16 years was a negative independent predictor for waist, HOMA IR, and for the number of abnormal components of the metabolic syndrome at age 23 years. In 31 pairs of obese girls with and without paradoxically high adiponectin levels, matched by race and age 16 BMI, adiponectin levels at age 16 years was a negative predictor for the number of abnormal metabolic syndrome components at age 23 years. Conclusion Paradoxically high adiponectin levels in obese 16 year old girls protects against metabolic syndrome and its components at age 23 years. PMID:20869727

Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J.; Daniels, Stephen; Wang, Ping; Stroop, Davis

2010-01-01

257

Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n?=?2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55?±?11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9?±?3.0 ?g/mL vs. 6.0?±?4.4 ?g/mL; p?adiponectin (??=?? 0.13; p?adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (??=?0.18; p?=?0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of SAT. Insulin resistance mediated the association of SAT with adiponectin in women. Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men. PMID:23433085

2013-01-01

258

High serum adiponectin levels during steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin (ADPN), exclusively expressed and secreted from adipocytes, is a recently discovered protein hormone with anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties in contrast to other well-known adipocytokines. It has independent negative associations with obesity and hyperinsulinemia\\/insulin resistance. Apart from chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome was suggested as the only renal disease condition associated with raised plasma ADPN levels in adults. We aimed

Sevcan A. Bakkaloglu; Oguz Soylemezoglu; Necla Buyan; Tohru Funahashi; Atilla H. Elhan; Harun Peru; Kibriya Fidan; Sebahat Y?lmaz; Enver Hasanoglu

2005-01-01

259

Adiponectin receptors are present in RANK-L-induced multinucleated osteoclast-like cells.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine that has been related to bone metabolism. Data on adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, -R2) in osteoclasts have shown discrepancies. In this study we carried out observations of AdipoR1, -R2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were induced to differentiate into osteoclasts. AdipoR1, -R2 were screened using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Acid phosphatase and Cathepsin-K were evaluated as osteoclastic markers. Results showed that acid phosphatase was expressed from day 1 whereas Cathepsin-K started from day 7. AdipoR1 and -R2 showed expression from day 1, with greater expression for AdipoR1 than AdipoR2. The immunofluorescent patterns were observed in the cells cultured under three different conditions: non-supplemented medium, added M-CSF, or medium with M-CSF, and RANK-L. The non-supplemented control did not display specific fluorescence whereas specific and strong signals were detected in cells cultured with combined M-CSF and RANK-L from day 7. The fluorescence patterns were detected mainly at the periphery of the cells, and in the cytoplasm, showing a localized patchy pattern for both receptors. In contrast, a diffuse fluorescent pattern was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells with M-CSF alone. In summary, AdipoR1 and -R2 were detected by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. The immunofluorescence patterns suggest that adiponectin receptors are located, or re-located, in the plasma membrane with distribution in the cytoplasm when mononuclear cells are committed to differentiate to osteoclasts. These findings could be a reasonable explanation for the controversy found in the published literature regarding the role of adiponectin in bone metabolism. PMID:23971629

Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda L; Waring, Victoria J; Wilson, Peter J M; Fraser, William D; Gallagher, James A

2013-10-01

260

Globular adiponectin induces platelet activation through the collagen receptor GPVI-Fc receptor ? chain complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: The adipocyte-derived cytokine, adiponectin (Ad), exerts potent vascular effects, although the direct effects of Ad on blood platelets are unclear. Objective: The influence of globular Ad (gAd) on blood platelet function was investigated. Research design and methods: We measured platelet aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation signaling events in human and mouse platelets. The ability of gAd to activate Glycoprotein

R. RIBA; C. E. HUGHES; A. GRAHAM; S. P. WATSON; K. M. NASEEM

2008-01-01

261

Conjugated linoleic acid improves blood pressure by increasing adiponectin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to reduce blood pressure in obese insulin-resistant rats, but its mechanism of action has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine whether CLA isomers can reduce obesity-related hypertension in the fa\\/fa Zucker rat in relation to adiponectin production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Obese fa\\/fa Zucker rats

Vanessa DeClercq; Carla G. Taylor; Jeffrey Wigle; Brenda Wright; Leslee Tworek; Peter Zahradka

262

Plasma Adiponectin and Soluble Leptin Receptor and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Adipokines are adipocyte-secreted hormones that may mediate the etiologic link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the evidence from large prospective studies is limited. We prospectively evaluated the association of plasma adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) with CRC risk within the Nurses’ Health Study (1990–2008) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1994–2008) among 616 incident CRC cases and 1,205 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on age and date of blood draw. In unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for matching factors and multiple risk factors, plasma adiponectin was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC among men, but not among women. Compared to men in the lowest quartile of adiponectin, men in the highest quartile had a relative risk for CRC of 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.86; Ptrend = 0.02). The corresponding relative risk in women was 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 1.39; Ptrend = 0.74). Plasma sOB-R was not associated with overall CRC risk in either men or women. A significant heterogeneity was noted in the association between sOB-R and CRC by subsite in women (P-heterogeneity = 0.004); sOB-R was significantly associated with increased risk of rectal cancer but not colon cancer. These findings support a role for adiponectin in colorectal carcinogenesis in men. Further studies are warranted to confirm these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:23872505

Song, Mingyang; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chan, Andrew T.

2013-01-01

263

Weight set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-11

264

Regulation of adiponectin receptor 1 in human hepatocytes by agonists of nuclear receptors  

SciTech Connect

The adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been identified to mediate the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin. Although AdipoR2 was suggested to be the main receptor for this adipokine in hepatocytes, AdipoR1 protein is highly abundant in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocytic cell lines. Nuclear receptors are main regulators of lipid metabolism and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} and {gamma}, retinoid X receptor (RXR), and liver X receptor (LXR) by specific ligands may influence AdipoR1 abundance. AdipoR1 protein is neither altered by RXR or LXR agonists nor by pioglitazone. In contrast, fenofibric acid reduces AdipoR1 whereas hepatotoxic troglitazone upregulates AdipoR1 protein in HepG2 cells. Taken together this work shows for the first time that AdipoR1 protein is expressed in human hepatocytes but that it is not a direct target gene of nuclear receptors. Elevated AdipoR1 induced by hepatotoxic troglitazone may indicate a role of this receptor in adiponectin-mediated beneficial effects in liver damage.

Neumeier, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weigert, Johanna [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weiss, Thomas [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Kirchner, Stefan [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg (Germany); Laberer, Sabine [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schoelmerich, Juergen [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buechler, Christa [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

2005-09-02

265

Gender-Specific Differences in the Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study evaluated possible associations of +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic Iranians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved two groups of subjects: 243 diabetic patients and 173 non-diabetic subjects recruited from Rafsanjan city in the south-east of Iran. RESULTS: No significant association was found between +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. However, male carriers of the TT genotype of +45T/G had a significantly higher mean BMI than male GG homozygotes (p = 0.018). Also, male carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean BMI than male GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.041). Female carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean WC than female GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly higher BMI in women, and GA or AA carriers of -11391G/A polymorphism. Also, there was a significantly lower WC in females and GG carriers of +45T/G. These results point to a gender-specific impact of the studied genotypes on BMI and WC. PMID:21409316

Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Amoli, Mahsa M.; Heshmat, Ramin; Sajadi, Mohammadali; Derakhshan, Reza; Amiri, Parvin; Namakchian, Mahsa; Rezazadeh, Ebrahim; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Larijani, Bagher

2010-01-01

266

Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood–brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

2014-01-01

267

Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

2014-11-01

268

Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1? Regulates a SOCS3-STAT3-Adiponectin Signal Transduction Pathway in Adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) regulates pathways in energy metabolism that become dysregulated in obesity. Earlier studies revealed that HIF1? in adipose tissue is markedly elevated in high-fat diet-fed mice that are obese and insulin-resistant. Genetic ablation of HIF1? in adipose tissue decreased insulin resistance and obesity, accompanied by increased serum adiponectin levels. However, the exact mechanism whereby HIF1? regulates adiponectin remains unclear. Here, acriflavine (ACF), an inhibitor of HIF1?, induced the expression of adiponectin and reduced the expression of SOCS3 in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that HIF1? suppressed the expression of adiponectin through a SOCS3-STAT3 pathway. Socs3 was identified as a novel HIF1? target gene based on chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays. STAT3 directly regulated adiponectin in vitro in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACF was found to prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In vivo, ACF also regulated the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway, and inhibition of HIF1? in adipose tissue was essential for ACF to improve the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway to counteract insulin resistance. This study provides evidence for a novel target gene and signal transduction pathway in adipocytes and indicates that inhibitors of HIF1? have potential utility for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23255598

Jiang, Changtao; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Li, Fei; Qu, Aijuan; Gavrilova, Oksana; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

2013-01-01

269

Effects of short-term lifestyle activity modification on adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations.  

PubMed

Adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations were reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known, whether exercise - induced change in AT, increases adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term lifestyle activity modification (LAM) on adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations. Sixteen obese and overweight middle-aged men (age, 35-50 years) with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to LAM group (n=8) or control group (n=8). The subjects in LAM group walked two miles in 30 min on a treadmill on 4 days per week for 12 weeks according to the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Sports Medicine. The results showed that body mass, body mass index, central visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume and hip and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (hip and thigh SAT) volume were decreased in the LAM group compared to the control group (P<0.05). Adiponectin mRNA in abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous AT were increased significantly in the LAM group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while plasma adiponectin concentrations, hs-CRP and insulin resistance did not change significantly. In conclusion, adiponectin mRNA levels increase after 12 weeks of LAM; however, plasma adiponectin levels were not affected by this protocol in obese and overweight middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23834543

Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid

2013-01-01

270

Chronic effects of centrally administered adiponectin on appetite, metabolism and blood pressure regulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Acute studies suggest that adiponectin may reduce sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP) via actions on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the chronic effects of adiponectin on energy expenditure and cardiovascular function are still poorly understood. We tested if chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of adiponectin (1 or 7?g/day) in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and at the high dose (7?g/day) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a hypertensive model associated with sympathetic overactivity, evoked chronic reductions in BP and heart rate (HR). We also determined if chronic ICV adiponectin infusion alters appetite, whole body oxygen consumption (VO(2)), and insulin and leptin levels. Neither dose of adiponectin infused for 7 days significantly altered BP or HR in the HFD group (115±2 to 112±2mmHg and 384±6 to 379±6bpm at 1?g/day; 109±3 to 111±3mmHg and 366±5 and 367±5bpm at 7?g/day). The higher dose slightly reduced food intake (14±1 to 11±1g/day), whereas VO(2), insulin and leptin levels were not affected by the treatment. In SHRs, ICV adiponectin infusion reduced appetite (22±2 to 12±2g/day) and insulin levels (?55%), but did not alter BP (162±4 to 164±3mmHg) or HR (312±5 to 322±8bpm). These results suggest that adiponectin, acting via its direct actions on the CNS, has a small effect to reduce appetite and insulin levels, but it has no long-term action to reduce BP or HR, or to alter whole body metabolic rate. PMID:22749987

Bassi, Mirian; do Carmo, Jussara M; Hall, John E; da Silva, Alexandre A

2012-09-01

271

Acute effects of intravenous and rectal acetate on glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, adiponectin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.  

PubMed

In animals, colonic infusion of SCFA does not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release whereas intravenous infusion does and SCFA may directly stimulate peptide YY (PYY) release. It is unknown whether SCFA and their route of administration affect human blood concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY. Our aim was to conduct a pilot study to determine the effects of intravenous and rectal acetate on blood concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in hyperinsulinaemic human subjects. Six hyperinsulinaemic female subjects were given 20 mmol sodium acetate intravenously, 60 mmol acetate rectally, or normal saline rectally or intravenously on four separate occasions in randomised order, with blood samples collected at 0, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Change in plasma PYY was significantly higher after acetate and rectal infusions (9.69 and 13.78 pg/ml) compared with saline and intravenous (0.60 and - 3.1 pg/ml; P < 0.01), respectively. Change in plasma GLP-1 was increased by rectal and acetate infusions (0.25 and 0.23 mmol/l) v. intravenous and saline ( - 0.26 and - 0.19 mmol/l; P < 0.01). Acetate decreased TNF-alpha v. saline ( - 0.8 and 0.15 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Rectal infusions increased TNF-alpha and ghrelin (0.2 and 98.27 pg/ml) v. intravenous ( - 0.9 and - 40 pg/ml; P < 0.01). There was no effect of treatment on plasma adiponectin. These preliminary results suggest that acetate raises plasma PYY and GLP-1, and suppresses TNF-alpha. Also, distending the rectum increases PYY, GLP-1, TNF-alpha and ghrelin in hyperinsulinaemic females. Increasing colonic fermentation products, particularly acetate, could yield a new mechanism for modifying weight gain. PMID:19818198

Freeland, Kristin R; Wolever, Thomas M S

2010-02-01

272

Transformations of the chemical compositions of high molecular weight DOM along a salinity transect: Using two dimensional correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a study of chemical transformations of estuarine high-molecular-weight (HMW, >1000 Da) dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected over a period of two years along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA, ?13C values, N/C ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) of the solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of HMW-DOM show an abrupt change in both its sources and chemical structural composition occurring around salinity 20. HMW-DOM in the lower salinity region had lighter isotopic values, higher aromatic and lower carbohydrate contents relative to that in the higher salinity region. These changes around a salinity of 20 are possibly due to introduction of a significant amount of new carbon (autotrophic DOM) to the transect. PC-1 loadings plot shows that spatially differing DOM components are similar to previously reported 13C NMR spectra of heteropolysaccharides (HPS) and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM). Applying two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques to 1H NMR spectra from the same samples reveals increases in the contribution of N-acetyl amino sugars, 6-deoxy sugars, and sulfated polysaccharides to HPS components along the salinity transect, which suggests a transition from plant derived carbohydrates to marine produced carbohydrates within the HMW-DOM pool. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, our combined results from 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FTIR indicate that CRAM consists of at least two different classes of compounds (aliphatic polycarboxyl compounds and lignin-like compounds).

Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

2013-10-01

273

Adiponectin exerts its negative effect on bone metabolism via OPG/RANKL pathway: an in vivo study.  

PubMed

To explore the effects of adiponectin on the bone metabolism in vivo. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone microstructure, serum adiponectin levels, and biochemical markers of the bone turnover were measured in 12-week-old male Adipo-/- and WT mice. In addition, the osteoclast formation, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) expression were examined. The serum adiponectin levels were normal in the WT mice while undetectable in the Adipo-/- mice. Compared with the WT mice, the Adipo-/- mice had higher BMD, more trabecular bone, greater bone volume fraction, and trabecular thickness in the left femur. On the contrary, fewer osteoclasts were observed in the Adipo-/- mice when compared with the WT mice. Meanwhile, the Adipo-/- mice had a significantly decreased serum carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)/osteocalcin (OC) ratio. Interestingly, both the adiponectin and RANKL would cause a significant increase of CTX/OC ratio in the co-culture of the CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the osteoblasts from Adipo-/- mice. Further, immunohistochemistry assays in tibias and both the RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses in the cultured osteoblasts showed the Adipo-/- mice expressed lower levels of RANKL but higher levels of OPG. Adiponectin had a negative effect on the bone metabolism, and this negative effect might be mediated, at least in part, by the OPG/RANKL pathway. PMID:24627163

Wang, Qing-Ping; Li, Xian-Ping; Wang, Min; Zhao, Li-Ling; Li, Hui; Xie, Hui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

2014-12-01

274

Adiponectin is a candidate biomarker of lower extremity bone density in men with chronic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a major regulator of bone metabolism and in the general population obesity is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD). However, bone-fat interactions are multifactorial, and may involve pathways that influence both bone formation and resorption with competing effects on the skeleton. One such pathway involves adipocyte production of adipokines that regulate bone metabolism. In this study we determined the association between BMD, walking status, and circulating adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) in 149 men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Although adipokine levels did not vary significantly based on walking status, there was a significant inverse association between adiponectin and BMD in wheelchair users independent of body composition. We found no association between adiponectin and BMD in the walkers and no association between leptin and BMD in either group. These findings suggest that for subjects with chronic SCI, walking may mitigate the effect of adiponectin mediated bone loss. For wheelchair users, adipose-derived adiponectin may contribute to SCI-induced osteoporosis because the osteoprotective benefits of obesity appear to require mechanical loading during ambulation. PMID:23787489

Doherty, Ashley L; Battaglino, Ricardo A; Donovan, Jayne; Gagnon, David; Lazzari, Antonio A; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

2014-01-01

275

Serum Adiponectin is Related to Plasma HDL-Cholesterol but not to Plasma Insulin-Concentration in Healthy Children. The FLVS II Study.  

E-print Network

1 Serum Adiponectin is Related to Plasma HDL-Cholesterol but not to Plasma Insulin- Concentration circumference (WC, and percent body fat (bioimpedance)), blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol.04) but not with other adiposity variables. After taking into account WC, adiponectin was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol

276

Recurrent solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura with malignant transformation and non-islet cell tumor-induced hypoglycemia due to paraneoplastic overexpression and secretion of high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man was diagnosed with a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura in the posterior mediastinum. Despite two surgeries for excision, the SFT recurred and progressed with direct invasion of the chest wall and bone metastases. He was hospitalized because of cerebral infarction and presented with recurrent severe hypoglycemia fourteen years later. High-molecular-weight (HMW) insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) was identified in the serum and tumor using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. These findings suggested that the cause of the recurrent severe hypoglycemia was SFT production of HMW IGF-II, a mediator of non-islet cell tumor-induced hypoglycemia (NICTH). PMID:23207122

Tominaga, Naoto; Kawarasaki, Chiaki; Kanemoto, Keiko; Yokochi, Akio; Sugino, Keishi; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Uekusa, Toshimasa; Fukuda, Izumi; Aiba, Motohiko; Hizuka, Naomi; Uda, Susumu

2012-01-01

277

Globular Adiponectin, Acting via AdipoR1/APPL1, Protects H9c2 Cells from Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important remodeling event contributing to heart failure and adiponectin may mediate cardioprotective effects at least in part via attenuating apoptosis. Here we used hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells to examine the effect of adiponectin and cellular mechanisms of action. We first used TUNEL labeling in combination with laser scanning cytometry to demonstrate that adiponectin prevented H/R-induced DNA fragmentation. The anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin was also verified via attenuation of H/R-induced phosphatidylserine exposure using annexin V binding. H/R-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as assessed by cytochrome c release into cytosol and caspase-3 activation, both of which were attenuated by adiponectin. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that adiponectin enhanced anti-oxidative potential in these cells which led to attenuation of the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by H/R. To further address the mechanism of adiponctins anti-apoptotic effects we used siRNA to efficiently knockdown adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) expression and found that this attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin on ROS production and caspase 3 activity. Knockdown of APPL1, an important intracellular binding partner for AdipoR, also significantly reduced the ability of adiponectin to prevent H/R-induced ROS generation and caspase 3 activity. In summary, H/R-induced ROS generation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was prevented by adiponectin via AdipoR1/APPL1 signaling and increased anti-oxidant potential. PMID:21552570

Park, Min; Youn, ByungSoo; Zheng, Xi-long; Wu, Donghai; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

2011-01-01

278

ESTIMATING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF RARE AND COMMON GENETIC VARIATIONS AND CLINICAL MEASURES TO A MODEL TRAIT: ADIPONECTIN  

PubMed Central

Common genetic variation frequently accounts for only a modest amount of inter-individual variation in quantitative traits and complex disease susceptibility. Circulating adiponectin, an adipocytokine implicated in metabolic disease, is a model for assessing the contribution of genetic and clinical factors to quantitative trait variation. The adiponectin locus, ADIPOQ, is the primary source of genetically-mediated variation in plasma adiponectin levels. This study sought to define the genetic architecture of ADIPOQ in the comprehensively phenotyped Hispanic (n=1151) and African American (n=574) participants from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Through resequencing and bioinformatic analysis, rare/low frequency (<5% MAF) and common variants (>5% MAF) in ADIPOQ were identified. Genetic variants and clinical variables were assessed for association with adiponectin levels and contribution to adiponectin variance in the Hispanic and African American cohorts. Clinical traits accounted for the greatest proportion of variance (POV) at 31% (p=1.16×10?47) and 47% (p=5.82×10?20), respectively. Rare/low frequency variants contributed more than common variants to variance in Hispanics: POV=18% (p= 6.40×10?15) and POV=5% (p=0.19), respectively. In African Americans, rare/low frequency and common variants both contributed approximately equally to variance: POV=6% (p=5.44×10?12) and POV=9% (P=1.44×10?10), respectively. Importantly, single low frequency alleles in each ethnic group were as important as, or more important than, common variants in explaining variation in adiponectin. Cumulatively, these clinical and ethnicity-specific genetic contributors explained half or more of the variance in Hispanic and African Americans and provide new insight into the sources of variation for this important adipocytokine. PMID:23032297

An, S. Sandy; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Hanley, Anthony J. G.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Brown, W. Mark; Haffner, Steven M.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.

2013-01-01

279

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... weight... Read full story >> Healthy Weight Loss share Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your ... your own skin share The ABC's of Positive Body Image Feeling comfortable in your own skin can be ...

280

Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

281

Globular adiponectin increases GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake but reduces glycogen synthesis in rat skeletal muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to determine whether adiponectin elicits glucose uptake via increased GLUT4 translocation and to investigate the metabolic fate of glucose in skeletal muscle cells treated with globular adiponectin.Materials and methods  Basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-d-[3H]glucose uptake, cell surface myc-tagged GLUT4 content, production of 14CO2 by oxidation of d-[U-14C]glucose and [1-14C]oleate, and incorporation of d-[U-14C]glucose into glycogen and

R. B. Ceddia; R. Somwar; A. Maida; X. Fang; G. Bikopoulos; G. Sweeney

2005-01-01

282

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms at the Adiponectin Locus and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to examine the association of 5 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin locus with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in men and women.Methods and Procedures: We genotyped five common SNPs in the adiponectin gene (rs266729, ?11365C>G; rs822395, ?4034A>C; rs822396, ?3964A>G; rs2241766, +45T>G; and rs1501299, +276G>T) in men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study) and women

Tobias Pischon; Jennifer K. Pai; JoAnn E. Manson; Frank B. Hu; Kathryn M. Rexrode; David Hunter; Eric B. Rimm

2007-01-01

283

Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children  

PubMed Central

Objective In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. Methods In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525–1,706)] (p<0.001) and southern (2,515 (3,137–2,016)) (p<0.001) living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353–5,847)] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370–3,785)] (p=0.021) and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444–4,085)] (p=0.052). Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573–19,428)] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] and girls [26,609 (28,994–24,420)] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406–12,728)] and girls [18,864 (22,640–15,717)] (both p<0.001), respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%), aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. Conclusions In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile. PMID:23940841

Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob; Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Helge, J?rn W.

2013-01-01

284

Adiponectin Receptor1 C-Terminal Fragment (CTF) in Plasma: Putative Biomarker for Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Polypeptide fragments from cell surface receptors when found in plasma may be indicators of receptor regulation in disease\\u000a conditions. It is known that subjects with diabetes have significantly lower plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a hormone\\u000a released by adipose tissue, compared with nondiabetic controls. This hormone interacts with cell surface receptors in muscle\\u000a (AdipoR1) and liver (AdipoR2).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed the relative

Michael J. Pugia; Deanna D. H. Franke; Sean L. Barnes; Amy Zercher; David Brock; Mary Foltz; Roland Valdes Jr; Saeed A. Jortani

2009-01-01

285

Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, coronary artery disease and adiponectin in a Mexican population  

PubMed Central

Background The amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) around the heart has been identified as an independent predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD), potentially through local release of inflammatory cytokines. Ethnic differences have been observed, but no studies have investigated this relationship in the Mexican population. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a relationship exist between EAT thickness assessed via echocardiography with CAD and adiponectin levels in a Mexican population. Methods We studied 153 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). EAT thickness on the free wall of the right ventricle was measured at the end of systole from parasternal long and short axis views of three consecutive cardiac cycles. Coronary angiograms were analyzed for the presence, extent and severity of CAD. Serum adiponectin, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were determined. Results EAT thickness was greater in patients with CAD than in those without CAD from both parasternal long (5.39?±?1.75 mm vs 4.00?±?1.67 mm p?adiponectin or with the severity of CAD. Conclusions EAT thickness was greater in patients with CAD. However, no correlation was observed with the severity of the disease or with serum adiponectin levels. EAT thickness measured by echocardiography might provide additional information for risk assessment and prediction of CAD. PMID:25200587

2014-01-01

286

Peanut sprouts extract (Arachis hypogaea L.) has anti-obesity effects by controlling the protein expressions of PPAR? and adiponectin of adipose tissue in rats fed high-fat diet  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT element binding protein ? (C/EBP ?), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. RESULTS After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPAR? in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP ? and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPAR? which regulates the expression of adiponectin. PMID:24741399

Kang, Nam E; Ha, Ae Wha; Woo, Hye Won

2014-01-01

287

Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL) (men: 12, women: 14) or weight stable (WS) group (men: 12, women: 13). WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin?:?adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P < 0.100) and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group. PMID:23326650

Miller, Gary D.; Jenks, Monica Z.; Vendela, Mandolyn; Norris, James L.; Muday, Gloria K.

2012-01-01

288

IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight

Judith L Ngondi; Blanche C Etoundi; Christine B Nyangono; Carl MF Mbofung; Julius E Oben

2009-01-01

289

Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunit genes from the Ns genome of Psathyrostachys juncea.  

PubMed

The Ns genome of the genus Psathyrostachys possesses superior traits useful for wheat improvement. However, very little is known about the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin encoded by the Ns genome. In this paper, we report the isolation of four alleles of HMW glutenin subunit gene from Psathyrostachys juncea. Sequence alignment data shows the four alleles have similar primary structure with those in wheat and other wheat-related grasses, with some unique modifications. All four sequences more closely resemble y-type, rather than x-type, glutenins. However, our results show three of the subunits (1Ns2-4) contain an extra glutamine residue in the N-terminal region not found on typical y-type subunits, as well as the x-type subunit specific sequence LAAQLPAMCRL. These three subunits likely represent an intermediate state in the divergence between x- and y-type subunits. Results also indicate that the Ns genome is more closely related to the St genome of Pseudoroegneria than any other Triticeae genomes. PMID:25081411

Kong, Lina; Liang, Yu; Qin, Lumin; Sun, Lei; Xia, Guangmin; Liu, Shuwei

2014-12-01

290

Lipidomic analysis of the liver identifies changes of major and minor lipid species in adiponectin deficient mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin protects from hepatic fat storage but adiponectin deficient mice (APN-/-) fed a standard chow do not develop liver steatosis. This indicates that other pathways might be activated to compensate for adiponectin deficiency. An unbiased and comprehensive screen was performed to identify hepatic alterations of lipid classes in these mice. APN-/- mice had decreased hepatic cholesteryl esters while active SREBP2 and systemic total cholesterol were not altered. Upregulation of cytochromes for bile acid synthesis suggests enhanced biliary cholesterol excretion. Analysis of 37 individual fatty acid species showed reduced stearate whereas total fatty acids were not altered. Total amount of triglycerides and phospholipids were equally abundant. A selective increase of monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine which positively correlate with hepatic and systemic triglycerides with the latter being elevated in APN-/- mice, was identified. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is involved in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and despite higher mRNA expression enzyme activity was not enhanced. Glucosylceramide postulated to contribute to liver damage was decreased. This study demonstrates that adiponectin deficiency is associated with hepatic changes in lipid classes in mice fed a standard chow which may protect from liver steatosis. PMID:22465357

Wanninger, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Bauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Walsh, Kenneth; Buechler, Christa

2013-04-01

291

Adiposity in childhood is related to C-reactive protein and adiponectin in young adulthood: from the Bogalusa Heart Study.  

PubMed

To determine the association between cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in childhood and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and adiponectin in adulthood, 835 eligible white and African-American young adult subjects (age range 24-42 years, average 34 years, 43% men, 31% African Americans) who had CV risk-factor variable data from their childhood (20 years earlier, age range 5-18 years, average 14 years) were selected. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that mean logarithmic hsCRP level in adulthood was 0.02 greater with every increase of 1 mm in skinfold thickness in childhood, 0.25 greater for African Americans than whites, 0.36 greater for girls than boys, and 0.15 greater for every unit increase in BMI z score. Mean logarithmic adiponectin level in adulthood was 0.36 greater for girls than boys, 0.22 greater for whites than African Americans, and 0.01 less with every increase of 1 mm of childhood skinfold thickness. Seventy participants (8%) were overweight or obese in their childhood, and 64 of these (91%) remained obese in their young adulthood. In conclusion, childhood adiposity and African-American race were associated with higher hsCRP and lower adiponectin levels in their adulthood. Skinfold thickness and BMI z score in childhood were the main obesity determinants for higher hsCRP and lower adiponectin levels in young adulthood. PMID:20360758

Toprak, Demet; Toprak, Ahmet; Chen, Wei; Xu, Ji Hua; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Berenson, Gerald S

2011-01-01

292

Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance. PMID:24705360

Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

2014-01-01

293

Drug Discov Today. Author manuscript Adiponectin normalization: a clue to the anti-metabolic syndrome action of  

E-print Network

-metabolic syndrome action of rimonabant Maynadier Marie , Basile Ilaria , Gary-Bobo Magali * IRCM, Institut de tissue and on adiponectin level. Rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug presents a dual effect by decreasing regulation in the success of rimonabant and suggests that this adipohormone may be considered

Boyer, Edmond

294

Adiponectin receptor 1 gene (ADIPOR1) variant is associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration in Finnish population.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-expressed protein that regulates the glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism via adiponectin receptors 1 and 2. Obesity is a known risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We, therefore, examined associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and Adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) genes with the prevalence of advanced AMD in Finnish population. Thirty-seven markers for ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were genotyped in a sample collection of 91 men and 177 women having exudative AMD and 18 men and 26 women having severe atrophic AMD. Patients were diagnosed by fundus photographs and fluorescein angiography. The control group (no signs of AMD in fundus photographs) consisted of 55 men and 111 women. Inclusion criteria age was over 65 years old without diabetes diagnosis. Out of the tested SNPs, rs10753929 located in intron of ADIPOR1 gene was significantly associated (p=0.0471) with AMD status when using a permutation procedure that controlled for the number of tested genotypes and genetic models. Odds ratio (OR) for the association was 1.699 (95% CI 1.192-2.423). The SNP consists of C/T alleles and the risk allele T had a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 20.4%. Distribution of proportion of cases/controls between alleles revealed an additive genetic model. Our findings reveal that rs10753929 ADIPOR1 variant is a novel candidate for AMD genetic risk factor in Finnish population. PMID:22387454

Kaarniranta, Kai; Paananen, Jussi; Nevalainen, Tanja; Sorri, Iiris; Seitsonen, Sanna; Immonen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antero; Pulkkinen, Leena; Uusitupa, Matti

2012-04-01

295

Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a,c,  

E-print Network

Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women Norah S. Simpson a for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, Level 7, Playford Building, City East Campus, Frome Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia c Unit for Experimental Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology

Pennsylvania, University of

296

Association between Adiponectin Concentrations and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies evaluates the association between adiponectin concentrations and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods PubMed and Embase were searched for prospective studies on the association of adiponectin concentrations and risk of CVD up to June 2013. Random-effect model was selected to pool the relative risk (RR) and 95% CI. Results Five prospective cohort studies and one nested case-control studies met the included criterion. The estimated summary RR and 95% CI of five prospective cohort studies for type 2 diabetes comparing top vs low tertile of adiponectin concentrations was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.67–1.45), with significant heterogeneity between studies (p?=?0.037, I2?=?60.9%). This heterogeneity was explained by one study conducted in Korean. Conclusions This study represents the first meta-analysis between adiponectin levels and CVD in diabetic patients and indicated no association was found. This result should be verified further by large sample size, long duration of follow-up, and well-designed prospective clinical trials. PMID:24223814

Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Li, Bixun

2013-01-01

297

Adiponectin Provides Additional Information to Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Assessing the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Both Genders  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women) from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima–media-thickness (CIMT) was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated. Results After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI) of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25–0.72) in men and 0.47 (0.29–0.75) in women. The area under the curve (AUC) on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p?=?0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p?=?0.041). The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13–0.50, p<0.001), and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01–0.04, p<0.001) for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02–0.34, p?=?0.031) and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: ?0.002–0.008, p?=?0.189). Conclusion Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116054

Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Sung-Kyung; Choi, Ho-June; Choi, Soo-In; Cha, So-Youn; Koh, Sang-Baek

2013-01-01

298

Association between Vitamin D and Adiponectin and Its Relationship with Body Mass Index: The META-Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Low vitamin D and adiponectin levels are both associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have indicated that vitamin D levels are directly associated with adiponectin, and that this association varies across body mass index (BMI) categories; stronger with increasing BMI. Few studies examined this association in African-Americans (AA), known to have lower levels of vitamin D and adiponectin, and in whites. Methods: We assessed whether serum vitamin D is associated with serum adiponectin in a biracial population-based sample. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 426 non-diabetic participants (218 whites and 208 AA) from the META-Health Study, a random sample from the metro Atlanta. Age-adjusted correlations and multivariable linear regression were used for analyses. We investigated the effect modification of the BMI categories of lean, overweight, and obese as defined by standard cut-points (25 and 30?kg/m2). Results: The mean (SD) age of our study sample was 50.5 (9) years. The mean (SD) levels of vitamin D were 27.4 (9.8) ng/mL in white women, 25.5 (9.3) ng/mL in white men, 16.9 (7.3) ng/mL in AA women, and 18.8 (7.3) ng/mL in AA men. The mean (SD) levels of adiponectin were 17.0 (17.1) ?g/mL in white women, 9.9 (11.3) ?g/mL in white men, 6.6 (4.8) ?g/mL in AA women, and 9.4 (11.6) ?g/mL in AA men. Among lean white women (n?=?63), there was a significant direct association between vitamin D and adiponectin (??=?0.02, p?=?0.04) after adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, income, and season of blood drawing. On the contrary, in lean AA women (n?=?23), there was a significant inverse association (??=??0.06, p?=?0.01). Conclusion: The association of vitamin D and adiponectin is dependent on race, gender, and BMI category. Among lean white women, there was a significant direct association, whereas in lean AA women the association was inverse. No association was present among obese individuals. PMID:25353014

Bidulescu, Aurelian; Morris, Alanna A.; Stoyanova, Neli; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

2014-01-01

299

Serum adiponectin and leptin in relation to risk for preeclampsia: results from a large case-control study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Conditions resulting in insulin resistance, as well as metabolic, immune and angiogenic perturbations, have been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (PE). Our purpose was to assess whether the adipose tissue secreted hormones: adiponectin, which has immune modulating, metabolic and angiogenic properties, and leptin, which reflects overall fat mass, are associated with PE risk. METHODS We performed a case-control design study within a hospital-based cohort of 368 pregnant women (106 with PE and 262 controls; mean age: 26.6 ± 6.8 years; mean gestational age at admission: 38.2 ± 2.8 weeks) between March 2005 and August 2007 at the Hospital of Pennsylvania University. Serum adiponectin and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of data was performed using simple and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS No significant differences in adiponectin or leptin levels between pre-eclamptic and control pregnant women emerged in univariate analyses (p=0.57 and p=0.15 respectively). Among pre-eclamptic women, there were also no differences in adipokines between those with mild and severe disease. Serum adiponectin and leptin were not associated with higher risk of PE before and after adjustment for maternal age, race, primigravida, smoking status, body mass index at screening, gestational age at admission, history of preeclampsia, chronic hypertension and gestational diabetes (OR: 0.93, 95% C.I.: 0.83–1.04 and OR: 1, 95% C.I.0.97–1.03, respectively). CONCLUSION Maternal serum adiponectin and leptin levels, drawn at the time of PE diagnosis, were not associated with PE. PMID:21632080

Dalamaga, Maria; Srinivas, Sindhu K.; Elovitz, Michal A.; Chamberland, John; Mantzoros, Christos S.

2011-01-01

300

HCV core-induced nonobese hepatic steatosis is associated with hypoadiponectinemia and is ameliorated by adiponectin administration.  

PubMed

Obesity-related hepatic steatosis is commonly associated with central fat accumulation and alterations in adipocytokine secretion; however, the connection between nonobese hepatic steatosis and adipocytokines remains unclear. We aim to investigate this connection using an animal model of conditional hepatitis C virus (HCV) core-transgenic mice. Double transgenic mice (DTM) with doxycycline (dox)-regulated hepatic overexpression of the HCV core protein were fed standard rodent chow ad libitum following 1 month of a dox-rich diet. The mice exhibited nonobese hepatic steatosis at 2 months of age. The levels of leptin and adiponectin were assessed in 2-month-old DTM (i.e., HCV core-tetracycline transactivator (tTA)) and single transgenic mice (STM; i.e., tTA). The total fat mass and the body fat distribution of the mice were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Microarray analyses and quantitative real-time PCR were conducted using RNA obtained from the visceral fat of paired DTM and STM. Adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally to the 2-month-old DTM. No significant differences of the various fat components were noted between the DTM and STM. Leptin mRNA was downregulated in the visceral fat of DTM (P = 0.011), and serum adiponectin protein levels were reduced in the DTM compared with those in the STM (P = 0.035). Adiponectin treatment also significantly ameliorated hepatic steatosis in the DTM compared to the controls (P = 0.024). In conclusion, HCV core-induced nonobese hepatic steatosis is associated with downregulation of the leptin gene in visceral fat and concurrent hypoadiponectinemia; however, these effects may be ameliorated by adiponectin treatment. PMID:22421894

Chang, Ming-Ling; Yeh, Huei-Chung; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Wang, Chao-Jan; Cheng, Hsiao-Yang; Sung, Chang-Mu; Ho, Yu-Pin; Chen, Tsung-Hsing; Yeh, Chau-Ting

2012-07-01

301

Improved Hepatic Lipid Composition Following Short-Term Exercise in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Context: Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors. Design and Participants: Obese individuals (N = 17, 34.3 ± 1.0 kg/m2) with clinically confirmed NAFLD were enrolled in a short-term aerobic exercise program that consisted of 7 consecutive days of treadmill walking at ?85% of maximal heart rate for 60 minutes per day. Preintervention and postintervention measures included hepatic triglyceride content, and a lipid saturation index and polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI) of the liver, obtained by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (N = 14). Insulin sensitivity was estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and mononuclear cells were isolated to assess reactive oxygen species production during the OGTT. Circulating glucose, insulin, and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were determined from plasma. Main Outcome: Short-term aerobic exercise training improved hepatic lipid composition in patients with NAFLD. Results: Exercise training resulted in an increase in liver PUI (P < .05), increased insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index: P < .05), HMW adiponectin (P < .05), and maximal oxygen consumption (P < .05). Reactive oxygen species production during the OGTT was reduced following exercise training (P < .05). HMW adiponectin was increased after the exercise program and the increase was positively correlated with the increase in liver PUI (r = 0.52, P = .05). Body weight remained stable during the program (P > .05). Conclusion: Short-term exercise can target hepatic lipid composition, which may reduce the risk of NAFLD progression. The improvement in hepatic lipid composition may be driven by adiponectin. PMID:23616151

Haus, Jacob M.; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Kelly, Karen R.; Fealy, Ciaran E.; Kullman, Emily L.; Scelsi, Amanda R.; Lu, Lan; Pagadala, Mangesh R.; McCullough, Arthur J.; Flask, Chris A.

2013-01-01

302

Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.  

PubMed

Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876

You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

2013-01-01

303

Clinical and genetic predictors of weight gain in patients diagnosed with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Post-diagnosis weight gain in breast cancer patients has been associated with increased cancer recurrence and mortality. Our study was designed to identify risk factors for this weight gain and create a predictive model to identify a high-risk population for targeted interventions. Methods: Chart review was conducted on 459 breast cancer patients from Northwestern Robert H. Lurie Cancer Centre to obtain weights and body mass indices (BMIs) over an 18-month period from diagnosis. We also recorded tumour characteristics, demographics, clinical factors, and treatment regimens. Blood samples were genotyped for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and adiponectin pathway genes (ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1). Results: In all, 56% of patients had >0.5?kg?m–2 increase in BMI from diagnosis to 18 months, with average BMI and weight gain of 1.9?kg?m–2 and 5.1?kg, respectively. Our best predictive model was a primarily SNP-based model incorporating all 14 FTO and adiponectin pathway SNPs studied, their epistatic interactions, and age and BMI at diagnosis, with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85 for 18-month weight gain. Conclusion: We created a powerful risk prediction model that can identify breast cancer patients at high risk for weight gain. PMID:23922112

Reddy, S M; Sadim, M; Li, J; Yi, N; Agarwal, S; Mantzoros, C S; Kaklamani, V G

2013-01-01

304

Proteogenomic Characterization of Novel x-Type High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1.1  

PubMed Central

Analysis of Portuguese wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landrace ‘Barbela’ revealed the existence of a new x-type high molecular weight-glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) encoded at the Glu-A1 locus, which we named 1Ax1.1. Using one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we compared subunit 1Ax1.1 with other subunits encoded at the Glu-A1 locus. Subunit 1Ax1.1 has a theoretical molecular weight of 93,648 Da (or 91,508 Da for the mature protein) and an isoelectric point (pI) of about 5.7, making it the largest and most acidic HMW-GS known to be encoded at Glu-A1. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence 2601 bp of the Glu-A1 locus from the ‘Barbela 28’ wheat genome. A very high level of identity was found between the sequence encoding 1Ax1.1 and those encoding other alleles of the locus. The major difference found was an insertion of 36 amino acids in the central repetitive domain. PMID:23478438

Ribeiro, Miguel; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Faye, Annie; Dardevet, Mireille; Ravel, Catherine; Branlard, Gerard; Igrejas, Gilberto

2013-01-01

305

Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats.  

PubMed

Chromium and cysteine supplementation can improve glucose metabolism in animal studies. This study examined the hypothesis that a cysteinate complex of chromium is significantly beneficial than either of them in lowering blood glucose and vascular inflammation markers in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Starting at the age of 6 wk, ZDF rats were supplemented orally (daily gavages for 8 more weeks) with saline-placebo (D) or chromium (400 microg Cr/Kg body weight) as chromium dinicocysteinate (CDNC), chromium dinicotinate (CDN) or chromium picolinate (CP) or equimolar L-cysteine (LC, img/Kg body weight), and fed Purina 5008 diet for 8 wk. ZDF rats of 6 wk age before any supplementations and onset of diabetes were considered as baseline. D rats showed elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA(1), CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and lower adiponectin and vitamin C, when compared with baseline rats. In comparison to D group, CDNC group had significantly lower blood glucose, HbA(1), CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and lipid peroxidation and increased vitamin C and adiponectin levels. CDN, CP or LC showed significantly less or no effect on these biomarkers. Only CDNC lowered blood creatinine levels in comparison to D. While CDN and CP had no effect, activation of NFkappaB, Akt and glucose transporter-2 levels were decreased, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) activation increased in livers of CDNC-rats. CDNC effect on glycemia, NFkappaB, Akt and IRS-1 in liver was significantly greater compared with LC. Blood chromium levels did not differ between Cr-groups. Exogenous vitamin C supplementation significantly inhibited MCP-1 secretion in U937 monocytes cultured in high-glucose-medium. CDNC is a potent hypoglycemic compound with anti-inflammatory activity apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 and increased IRS-1 activation in livers of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:20306473

Jain, Sushil K; Croad, Jennifer L; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Rains, Justin L; Bull, Rebeca

2010-09-01

306

Body Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add ...

307

Weight simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

308

Regulation of Insulin Resistance and Adiponectin Signaling in Adipose Tissue by Liver X Receptor Activation Highlights a Cross-Talk with PPAR?  

PubMed Central

Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been recognized as a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis; however, their role in insulin sensitivity is controversial. Adiponectin plays a unique role in maintaining insulin sensitivity. Currently, no systematic experiments elucidating the role of LXR activation in insulin function based on adiponectin signaling have been reported. Here, we investigated the role of LXR activation in insulin resistance based on adiponectin signaling, and possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice maintained on a regular chow received the LXR agonist, T0901317 (30 mg/kg.d) for 3 weeks by intraperitoneal injection, and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with T0901317 or GW3965. T0901317 treatment induced significant insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. It decreased adiponectin gene transcription in epididymal fat, as well as serum adiponectin levels. Activity of AMPK, a key mediator of adiponectin signaling, was also decreased, resulting in decreased Glut-4 membrane translocation in epididymal fat. In contrast, adiponectin activity was not changed in the liver of T0901317 treated mice. In vitro, both T0901317 and GW3965 decreased adiponectin expression in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, an effect which was diminished by LXR? silencing. ChIP-qPCR studies demonstrated that T0901317 decreased the binding of PPAR? to the PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) of the adiponectin promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, T0901317 exerted an antagonistic effect on the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes co-treated with 3 µM Pioglitazone. In luciferase reporter gene assays, T0901317 dose-dependently inhibited PPRE-Luc activity in HEK293 cells co-transfected with LXR? and PPAR?. These results suggest that LXR activation induces insulin resistance with decreased adiponectin signaling in epididymal fat, probably due to negative regulation of PPAR? signaling. These findings indicate that the potential of LXR activation as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis may be limited by the possibility of exacerbating insulin resistance-related disease. PMID:24972069

Lu, Weina; Wu, Fang; Yin, Xueyao; Yu, Dan; Pan, Qianqian; Li, Hong

2014-01-01

309

Adipocytes decrease Runx2 expression in osteoblastic cells: roles of PPAR? and adiponectin.  

PubMed

The mechanisms through which bone marrow adipocytes might influence differentiation and function of osteoblasts are not completely understood. To investigate the direct effects of bone marrow fat cells on osteoblast function, an ex vivo co-culture system was utilized comprising either primary fat cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and osteoblastic cells on transwells. In co-culture, both adipocytes and osteoblastic cells were differentiated into adipocytes or osteoblasts, respectively, before culturing on transwells. Co-culture with either primary fat cells or fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in osteoblastic cells. An increase in mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) occurred concomitantly with the reduction of Runx2 expression. Adiponectin concentration was increased in the media by co-culture. In addition, co-culture with conditioned media from fat cells increased PPAR? promoter activity and decreased Runx2 promoter activity. Knockdown of PPAR? or adiponectin receptor 1 in osteoblastic cells by siRNA prevented the down-regulation of mRNA expression of Runx2 in osteoblastic cells cultured with fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, co-transfection with PPAR? decreased Runx2 promoter activity. A marker of osteogenesis, alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblastic cells was significantly decreased by co-culture. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining showed that co-culture did not induce apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Thus, we conclude that adipocytes modulate key metabolic functions of osteoblasts through the release of secretory products. PPAR? plays a key role in mediating the effects of adipocytes on osteoblasts. PMID:20589837

Liu, Li-Fen; Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhong Hua; Wang, Li Juan; Kraemer, Fredric B

2010-11-01

310

Adiponectin Agonist ADP355 Attenuates CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is a growing global health problem characterized by excess deposition of fibrillar collagen, and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Adiponectin is known to possess anti-fibrotic properties; however a high physiological concentration and multiple forms circulating in blood prohibit clinical use. Recently, an adiponectin-like small synthetic peptide agonist (ADP355: H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2) was synthesized for the treatment of murine breast cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ADP355 as an anti-fibrotic agent in the in vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced in eight-week old male C57BL/6J mice by CCl4-gavage every other day for four weeks before injection of a nanoparticle-conjugated with ADP355 (nano-ADP355). Control gold nanoparticles and nano-ADP355 were administered by intraperitoneal injection for two weeks along with CCl4-gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks, and serum and liver tissue were collected for biochemical, histopathologic and molecular analyses. Biochemical studies suggested ADP355 treatment attenuates liver fibrosis, determined by reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase ALT) and hydroxyproline. Histopathology revealed chronic CCl4-treatment results in significant fibrosis, while ADP355 treatment induced significantly reversed fibrosis. Key markers for fibrogenesis–?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP1) were also markedly attenuated. Conversely, liver lysates from ADP355 treated mice increased phosphorylation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and AMPK while AKT phosphorylation was diminished. These findings suggest ADP355 is a potent anti-fibrotic agent that can be an effective intervention against liver fibrosis. PMID:25310107

Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Thorn, Natalie E.; Anania, Frank A.

2014-01-01

311

Salsalate and adiponectin ameliorate hepatic steatosis by inhibition of the hepatokine fetuin-A.  

PubMed

Fetuin-A was recently identified as a novel hepatokine which is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Salsalate, a prodrug of salicylate with an anti-inflammatory effect and lower side effect profile, significantly lowers glucose and triglyceride levels, and increased adiponectin concentrations in randomized clinical trials. In this study, we examined the effects and regulatory mechanisms of salsalate and full length-adiponectin (fAd) on fetuin-A expression, steatosis and lipid metabolism in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. Incubation of hepatocytes with palmitate significantly increased fetuin-A and SREBP-1c expression which lead to steatosis and knock-down of fetuin-A by siRNA restored these changes. Salsalate significantly down-regulated palmitate-induced fetuin-A mRNA expression and secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of palmitate-induced fetuin-A by salsalate was mediated by AMPK-mediated reduction of NF?B activity, which was blocked by AMPK siRNA or an inhibitor of AMPK. Salsalate attenuated the excessive steatosis by palmitate through SREBP-1c regulation in hepatocytes. Furthermore, fAd also showed suppression of palmitate-induced fetuin-A through the AMPK pathway and improvement of steatosis accompanied by restoration of SREBP-1c, PAPR-? and CD36. In preliminary in vivo experiments, salsalate treatment inhibited high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis as well as fetuin-A mRNA and protein expression in SD rats. In conclusion, salsalate and fAd improved palmitate-induced steatosis and impairment of lipid metabolism in hepatocytes via fetuin-A inhibition through the AMPK-NF?B pathway. PMID:23948064

Jung, Tae Woo; Youn, Byung-Soo; Choi, Hae Yoon; Lee, So Young; Hong, Ho Cheol; Yang, Sae Jeong; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Baek-Hui; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

2013-10-01

312

Therapeutic effects of globular adiponectin in diabetic rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the therapeutic role of globular adiponectin (gAd) in high-fat diet/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seven rats were fed a basic diet (normal control group; NC) during the experiment. Experimental rats (14 rats) were given a high-fat diet for 4 wk and were then injected with STZ to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and NAFLD. Half of the T2DM/NAFLD rats were randomly injected intraperitoneally with gAd for 7 d (gAd-treated group), while the other 7 rats (T2DM/NAFLD group) received 0.9% saline. Plasma biochemical parameters and insulin concentrations were measured. Liver histopathology was examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Insulin receptor expression in the liver was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the T2DM/NAFLD group had increased levels of glucolipid and decreased levels of insulin. Plasma glucose and lipid levels were decreased in the gAd-treated group, while serum insulin levels increased. The expression of insulin receptor in the T2DM/NAFLD group increased compared with the NC group, and gAd downregulated insulin receptor expression in the livers of T2DM/NAFLD rats. Steatosis of the liver was alleviated in the gAd-treated group compared to the T2DM/NAFLD group (NAS 1.39 ± 0.51 vs 1.92 ± 0.51, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Globular adiponectin exerts beneficial effects in T2DM rats with NAFLD by promoting insulin secretion, mediating glucolipid metabolism, regulating insulin receptor expression and alleviating hepatic steatosis. PMID:25356056

Ma, Hong; Cui, Fan; Dong, Jing-Jing; You, Guo-Ping; Yang, Xiang-Jiu; Lu, Hua-Dong; Huang, Yan-Ling

2014-01-01

313

The adiponectin receptor homologs in C. elegans promote energy utilization and homeostasis.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising actions in vertebrates. Its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are PAQR-type proteins with 7-transmembrane domains and topologies reversed that of GPCR's, i.e. their C-termini are extracellular. We identified three adiponectin receptor homologs in the nematode C. elegans, named paqr-1, paqr-2 and paqr-3. These are differently expressed in the intestine (the main fat-storing tissue), hypodermis, muscles, neurons and secretory tissues, from which they could exert systemic effects. Analysis of mutants revealed that paqr-1 and -2 are novel metabolic regulators in C. elegans and that they act redundantly but independently from paqr-3. paqr-2 is the most important of the three paqr genes: mutants grow poorly, fail to adapt to growth at low temperature, and have a very high fat content with an abnormal enrichment in long (C20) poly-unsaturated fatty acids when combined with the paqr-1 mutation. paqr-2 mutants are also synthetic lethal with mutations in nhr-49, sbp-1 and fat-6, which are C. elegans homologs of nuclear hormone receptors, SREBP and FAT-6 (a ?9 desaturase), respectively. Like paqr-2, paqr-1 is also synthetic lethal with sbp-1. Mutations in aak-2, the C. elegans homolog of AMPK, or nhr-80, another nuclear hormone receptor gene, suppress the growth phenotype of paqr-2 mutants, probably because they restore the balance between energy expenditure and storage. We conclude that paqr-1 and paqr-2 are receptors that regulate fatty acid metabolism and cold adaptation in C. elegans, that their main function is to promote energy utilization rather than storage, and that PAQR class proteins have regulated metabolism in metazoans for at least 700 million years. PMID:21712952

Svensson, Emma; Olsen, Louise; Mörck, Catarina; Brackmann, Christian; Enejder, Annika; Faergeman, Nils J; Pilon, Marc

2011-01-01

314

Regulation of adiponectin and leptin gene expression in white and brown adipose tissues: influence of ?3-adrenergic agonists, retinoic acid, leptin and fasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating adiponectin levels fall whereas leptin levels rise with obesity, suggesting that regulation of these two adipocyte-derived hormones may be simultaneously influenced by common obesity-related factors. We examined adiponectin mRNA levels in WAT and in some instances, brown adipose tissue (BAT) following fasting and refeeding, acute and chronic administration of a ?3-adrenergic agonist, acute treatment with retinoic acid (RA) and

Yi Zhang; Michael Matheny; Sergei Zolotukhin; Nihal Tumer; Philip J Scarpace

2002-01-01

315

Modulation of metabolic and cardiac dysfunctions by swimming in overweight rats on a high cholesterol and fructose diet: possible role of adiponectin.  

PubMed

Western diet rich in cholesterol and sucrose with decreased physical activity cause overweight and metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of swimming on the cardiac adiponectin mRNA expression in high cholesterol and fructose fed rats. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats divided into 2 equal groups. First group - control, that was fed with chow diet for 15 weeks. Second group was fed with high cholesterol and fructose diet (HCFD) for 15 weeks. Ten rats from both groups performed swimming during the last 4 weeks. After 15 weeks serum glucose, insulin, lipogram, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and cardiac enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase - MB) levels were measured. HOMA-IR index was calculated, evaluation of cardiac adiponectin gene expression using RT-PCR and cardiac histopathological examination were studied. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax were measured by isolated Langendorff-perfused heart. Swimming exercise in rats fed HCFD resulted in improvement of the glucose homeostasis and lipogram with decreased leptin, resistin and HOMA-IR index with elevation in serum adiponectin. Also, there was an over-expression of down-expressed cardiac adiponectin gene. Also, ventricular functions were ameliorated by swimming exercise training. Swimming exercise partially improved the ventricular function that could be possibly explained through increased the cardiac expression of adiponectin. PMID:23756398

Sakr, H F

2013-04-01

316

Aldehyde oxidase 1 is highly abundant in hepatic steatosis and is downregulated by adiponectin and fenofibric acid in hepatocytes in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Adiponectin protects the liver from steatosis caused by obesity or alcohol and therefore the influence of adiponectin on human hepatocytes was analyzed. GeneChip experiments indicated that recombinant adiponectin downregulates aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) expression and this was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot. AOX1 is a xenobiotic metabolizing protein and produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), that promote cell damage and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin and fenofibric acid activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR-{alpha}) and both suppress AOX1 protein and this is blocked by the PPAR-{alpha} antagonist RU486. Obesity is associated with low adiponectin, reduced hepatic PPAR-{alpha} activity and fatty liver, and AOX1 was found induced in the liver of rats on a high-fat diet when compared to controls. Free fatty acids and leptin, that are elevated in obesity, failed to upregulate AOX1 in vitro. The current data indicate that adiponectin reduces AOX1 by activating PPAR-{alpha} whereas fatty liver disease is associated with elevated hepatic AOX1. High AOX1 may be associated with higher ROS well described to induce fibrogenesis in liver tissue but may also influence drug metabolism and activity.

Neumeier, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weigert, Johanna [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Schaeffler, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Center for Liver Cell Research, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmidl, Christian [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buettner, Roland [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Bollheimer, Cornelius [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Aslanidis, Charalampos [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schoelmerich, Juergen [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany); Buechler, Christa [Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

2006-11-24

317

Pentamethylquercetin improves adiponectin expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells via a mechanism that implicates PPAR? together with TNF-? and IL-6.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Up-regulation of adiponectin expression and production has been shown to benefit for metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, etc. The present study investigated whether the novel polymethoxylated flavonoid pentamethylquercetin (PMQ), a member of polymethoxylated flavonoids family which is present in seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) would affect adiponectin production in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It was found that PMQ increased the adiponectin mRNA and protein expressions in adipocytes in time- and concentration-dependent manners. The PPAR? pathway plays a important roles in this effect of PMQ because blockade of PPAR? by GW9662 eliminates the PMQ-induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression. Furthermore, significant decreases of mRNA expression and secretion of TNF-? and IL-6 were also observed in PMQ-treated cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated that PMQ up-regulates adiponectin expression via a mechanism that implicates PPAR? together with TNF-? and IL-6, suggesting that PMQ might be a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:21734632

Chen, Lei; He, Ting; Han, Yi; Sheng, Ji-Zhong; Jin, Si; Jin, Man-Wen

2011-01-01

318

Adiponectin regulates bone mass accrual through two opposite mechanisms, one local and one central, that both rely on FoxO1  

PubMed Central

Summary The synthesis of adiponectin, an adipokine with ill-defined functions in animals fed a normal diet, is enhanced by the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin. Here we show that adiponectin signals back in osteoblasts to hamper their proliferation and favor their apoptosis, altogether decreasing bone mass and circulating osteocalcin levels. Adiponectin fulfills these functions, independently of its known receptors and signaling pathways, by decreasing FoxO1 activity in a PI3 kinase-dependent manner. Overtime however, these local effects are masked because adiponectin signals in neurons of the locus coeruleus, also through FoxO1, to decrease the sympathetic tone thereby increasing bone mass, and decreasing energy expenditure. This study reveals that adiponectin has the unusual ability to regulate the same function in two opposite manners depending on where it acts and that it opposes, partially, leptin’s influence on the sympathetic nervous system. It also proposes that adiponectin regulation of bone mass occurs through a PI3 kinase-FoxO1 pathway. PMID:23684624

Kajimura, Daisuke; Lee, Ha Won; Riley, Kyle J.; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Ferron, Mathieu; Zhou, Bin; Clarke, Christopher J.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; DePinho, Ronald A; Guo, Edward X.; Mann, J. John; Karsenty, Gerard

2013-01-01

319

Effect of adiponectin on kidney crystal formation in metabolic syndrome model mice via inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to elucidate a possible mechanism of kidney crystal formation by using a metabolic syndrome (MetS) mouse model and to assess the effectiveness of adiponectin treatment for the prevention of kidney crystals. Further, we performed genome-wide expression analyses for investigating novel genetic environmental changes. Wild-type (+/+) mice showed no kidney crystal formation, whereas ob/ob mice showed crystal depositions in their renal tubules. However, this deposition was remarkably reduced by adiponectin. Expression analysis of genes associated with MetS-related kidney crystal formation identified 259 genes that were >2.0-fold up-regulated and 243 genes that were <0.5-fold down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the up-regulated genes belonged to the categories of immunoreaction, inflammation, and adhesion molecules and that the down-regulated genes belonged to the categories of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Expression analysis of adiponectin-induced genes related to crystal prevention revealed that the numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were 154 and 190, respectively. GO analyses indicated that the up-regulated genes belonged to the categories of cellular and mitochondrial repair, whereas the down-regulated genes belonged to the categories of immune and inflammatory reactions and apoptosis. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that the mechanism of kidney crystal formation in the MetS environment involves the progression of an inflammation and immunoresponse, including oxidative stress and adhesion reactions in renal tissues. This is the first report to prove the preventive effect of adiponectin treatment for kidney crystal formation by renoprotective activities and inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:23630583

Fujii, Yasuhiro; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Hirose, Masahito; Kubota, Yasue; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

2013-01-01

320

Adiponectin Receptor 2 Deficiency Results in Reduced Atherosclerosis in the Brachiocephalic Artery in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin has been shown to have beneficial cardiovascular effects and to signal through the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. The original aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 deficiency (AdipoR1-/-AdipoR2-/-) on atherosclerosis. However, we made the interesting observation that AdipoR1-/-AdipoR2-/- leads to embryonic lethality demonstrating the critical importance of the adiponectin signalling system during development. We then investigated the effect of AdipoR2-ablation on the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. AdipoR2-/-ApoE-/- mice fed an atherogenic diet had decreased plaque area in the brachiocephalic artery compared with AdipoR2+/+ApoE-/- littermate controls as visualized in vivo using an ultrasound biomicroscope and confirmed by histological analyses. The decreased plaque area in the brachiocephalic artery could not be explained by plasma cholesterol levels or inflammatory status. However, accumulation of neutral lipids was decreased in peritoneal macrophages from AdipoR2-/-ApoE-/- mice after incubation with oxidized LDL. This effect was associated with lower CD36 and higher ABCA1 mRNA levels in peritoneal macrophages from AdipoR2-/-ApoE-/- mice compared with AdipoR2+/+ApoE-/- controls after incubation with oxidized LDL. In summary, we show that adiponectin receptors are crucial during embryonic development and that AdipoR2-deficiency slows down the progression of atherosclerosis in the brachiocephalic artery of ApoE-deficient mice. PMID:24324556

Lindgren, Anna; Levin, Malin; Rodrigo Blomqvist, Sandra; Wikstrom, Johannes; Ahnmark, Andrea; Mogensen, Christina; Bottcher, Gerhard; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Boren, Jan; Gan, Li-Ming; Linden, Daniel

2013-01-01

321

The Negative Correlation Between Plasma Adiponectin and Blood Pressure Depends on Obesity: A Family-based Association Study In SAPPHIRe  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe association between plasma adiponectin level and blood pressure remains inconclusive. Because obese subjects may have different mechanisms to regulate blood pressure, we hypothesized that obesity may be an important modifier. In order to minimize confounding effects from unidentified factors, a family-based design was employed to explore the relationship.MethodsA total of 1,048 subjects from 478 Chinese or Japanese families with

Hung-Yuan Li; Yen-Feng Chiu; Chii-Min Hwu; Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu; Yi-Jen Hung; Wilfred Fujimoto; Thomas Quertermous; J. David Curb; Tong-Yuan Tai; Lee-Ming Chuang

2008-01-01

322

Gender differences in the relationships among obesity, adiponectin and brachial artery distensibility in adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Obesity-related reduction in vascular protective adipose-derived proteins, such as adiponectin (APN), has an important role.Methods:We compared brachial artery distensibility (BrachD) with APN, the level of adiposity and other CV risk factors (CVRFs) in 431 post-pubertal subjects (mean 17.9 years). Gender differences in average values were examined by t-tests.

E M Urbina; P Khoury; L J Martin; D D'Alessio; L M Dolan; EM Urbina

2009-01-01

323

Impact of diet, exercise and diet combined with exercise programs on plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of three programs, diet restriction (D), individualized exercise training (E) at the maximal lipid oxida- tion point (LIPOXmax) and diet combined with exercise (D+E), on body mass, plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls. Eighteen obese adolescents girls aged 12-14 years were studied. A longitudinal intervention was carried out, con- sisting of a two-month diet

Omar Ben Ounis; Mohamed Elloumi; Mohamed Amri; Abdelkarim Zbidi; Zouhair Tabka; Gerard Lac

2008-01-01

324

Baby Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use a rule of thumb about the weight of babies to practice doubling and halving numbers. They complete an organized table and compare data using vertical and horizontal double bar graphs. The lesson includes a student activity sheet and extension ideas.

Cook, Marcy

2008-01-01

325

Green Tea Polyphenols Reduced Fat Deposits in High Fat-Fed Rats via erk1/2-PPAR?-Adiponectin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Objective Hypoadiponectinemia contributes to the development of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on adiponectin levels and fat deposits in high fat (HF) fed rats, the mechanism of signaling pathway was explored as well. Methods and Results Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet. GTPs (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L) were administered via drinking water. Serum adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA, mRNA levels of adiponectin and PPAR? in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by Real-time PCR, protein levels of PPAR?, phospho (p) - PPAR?, extracellular signal regulated kinase (erk) 1/2 and p-erk1/2 in VAT were determined by western blot. GTPs treatment attenuated the VAT accumulation, hypoadiponectinemia and the decreased mRNA level of adiponectin in VAT induced by HF. Decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of PPAR? (the master regulator of adiponectin), and increased activation of erk1/2 were observed in HF group, and these effects could be alleviated by GTPs treatment. To explore the underlying mechanism, VAT was cultured in DMEM with high glucose to mimic the hyperglycemia condition in vitro. Similar to the results of in vivo study, decreased adiponectin levels, decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of PPAR?, and elevated erk1/2 phosphorylation in cultured VAT were observed. These effects could be ameliorated by co-treatment with GTPs or PD98059 (a selective inhibitor of erk1/2). Conclusion GTPs reduced fat deposit, ameliorated hypoadiponectinemia in HF-fed rats, and relieved high glucose-induced adiponectin decrease in VAT in vitro. The signaling pathway analysis indicated that PPAR? regulation mediated via erk1/2 pathway was involved. PMID:23342006

Tian, Chong; Ye, Xiaolei; Zhang, Rui; Long, Jia; Ren, Weiye; Ding, Shibin; Liao, Dan; Jin, Xin; Wu, Hongmei; Xu, Shunqin; Ying, Chenjiang

2013-01-01

326

Comparison of plasma adiponectin & certain inflammatory markers in angiographically proven coronary artery disease patients with & without diabetes - A study from India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The association between adiponectin and risk of cardiovascular disease is well known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adiponectin and certain inflammatory markers and to determine the correlations between them in angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in subjects with and without diabetes. Methods: A total of 180 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for symptoms suggestive of CAD were categorised into groups based on their diabetes and/or CAD status: group1 (non-diabetic non-CAD); group2 (non-diabetic CAD); group3 (diabetic non-CAD) and group4 (diabetic CAD). Adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and soluble form of E-selectin (sE-selectin) were estimated using quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) by particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric method. Results: Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in subjects with either diabetes or CAD and were much lower in subjects who had both. hsCRP was elevated in CAD and diabetes but did not differ significantly between groups. sE-selectin and TNF-? levels were elevated in CAD. Adiponectin negatively correlated with age, glucose, sE-selectin, total and LDL cholesterol. hsCRP correlated with BMI, sE-selectin and urea. sE-selectin correlated with BMI, triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol, whereas TNF-? correlated with fasting plasma glucose. In the logistic regression analysis, adiponectin had a significant inverse association with CAD. sE-selectin and TNF-? also showed significant independent association with CAD. Interpretation & conclusions: Adiponectin and other inflammatory markers such as sE-selectin and TNF-? showed a significant association with CAD. Hence, early assessment of such markers can help to identify high risk patients, and to reduce the inflammatory component of diabetes and CAD. PMID:25109718

Kumpatla, Satyavani; Karuppiah, Kirubakaran; Immaneni, Sathyamurthy; Muthukumaran, Parthiban; Krishnan, Jayanthi; Narayanamoorthy, Srinivasan Kanthallu; Viswanathan, Vijay

2014-01-01

327

Assessment of adiponectin level in obese and lean Nepalese population and its possible correlation with lipid profile: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Adiponectin- one of the most important adipokines plays a pivotal role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and vascular biology. Changing food trend and lifestyle has tremendously affected the health status of Nepalese population. Studies have shown that between 1996 and 2006 obesity in Nepal has increased from 1.6% to 10%. Studies have been conducted in Nepal on the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with lipid profile. But based on our knowledge, this is the first study correlating adiponectin with obesity and lipid profile in Nepal. This piece of work will certainly help to assess the impact of obesity in Nepalese population. Materials and Methods: Fifty four obese and Thirty six normal/lean participants were included from different locations of Kathmandu Valley. Anthropometric measurements like age, BMI, Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, mid thigh circumference and chest circumferences were taken from each participant. Blood glucose, lipid profile and serum adiponectin levels were measured from overnight fasting samples. Results: Significant differences were observed in BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) and Chest circumference between obese and normal groups. Fasting Blood Glucose, Serum Triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio, Non-HDL Cholesterol and Adiponectin Levels were significant between the groups. Inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin level and BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Waist to Hip ratio, Chest Circumference, Fasting Blood Glucose, Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio, LDL/HDL Cholesterol ratio and Non-HDL Cholesterol levels. Positive correlation was found between adiponectin and HDL Cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Our study showed significant inverse association of serum adiponectin with obesity and lipid profile parameters except for Serum HDL Cholesterol level in Nepalese population. PMID:24251211

Tamang, Hem K.; Timilsina, Uddhav; Singh, Khelanand P.; Shrestha, Sanjit; Pandey, Bishal; Basnet, Sameer; Waiba, Binod; Shrestha, Umang

2013-01-01

328

Serum Lectin-Like Oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 and Adiponectin Levels Are Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Accompanied With Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major public health problem for developed and developing countries and is the single leading cause of death worldwide. Objectives: There is very few evidence regarding changes of both serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and adiponectin in patients with CAD accompanied with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we aimed to evaluate serum levels of LOX-1 and adiponectin in patients with CAD accompanied with MS. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with coronary artery disease without metabolic syndrome, 30 patients with coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome, 30 ones with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. For all subjects, a questionnaire was filled to collect data, and peripheral blood samples were collected aseptically from the antecubital vein to measure serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 and adiponectin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Serum LOX-1 level was highest in CAD + MS group; the difference between control and disease groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Adiponectin level had the lowest value in CAD + MS group; the difference between control and disease groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1and adiponectin in patients with different ages and gender. Serum LOX-1 level was changed negatively and linearly (R2 = 0.721) correlated with adiponectin level in different groups. Conclusions: Patient with CAD and MS had higher risk than those with only CAD because of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities. Combination measurements of serum LOX-1 and adiponectin levels may be helpful to evaluate the severity of CAD together with MS.

Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Zhao, Zhenyu; Guo, Lanyan; Li, Fei; Deng, Xu; Deng, Hai; Xia, Ke; Yang, Tianlun

2014-01-01

329

Weighted Hypernetworks  

E-print Network

Complex network theory has been used to study complex systems. However, many real life systems involve multiple kinds of objects . They can't be described by simple graphs. In order to provide complete information of these systems, we extend the concept of evolving models of complex networks to hypernetworks. In this work, we firstly propose a non-uniform hypernetwork model with attractiveness, and obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the non-uniform hypernetwork. Furthermore, we develop a model for weighted hypernetworks that couples the establishment of new hyperedges and nodes and the weights' dynamical evolution. We obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution by using the hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork model with attractiveness. In particular, the model yields a nontrivial time evolution of nodes' properties and scale-free behavior for the hyperdegree distribution. It is expected that our work may give help to the study of the hypernetworks in real-world syste...

Zhu, Xin-Yun

2014-01-01

330

Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management.  

PubMed

The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m². Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m²; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

Stern, Judith S; Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

2013-06-01

331

Efficacy and Tolerability of an Herbal Formulation for Weight Management  

PubMed Central

Abstract The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40?kg/m2. Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400?mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000?kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30?min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2?kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2?kg/m2; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9?cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3?cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T.; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

2013-01-01

332

Association between prehypertension, metabolic and inflammatory markers, decreased adiponectin and enhanced insulinemia in obese subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is associated with development of the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of risk factors, such as insulin resistance, inflammatory response, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure that predispose affected individuals to well-characterized medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney chronic disease. The study was designed to establish relationship between metabolic and inflammatory disorder, renal sodium retention and enhanced blood pressure in a group of obese subjects compared with age-matched, lean volunteers. Methods The study was performed after 14 h overnight fast after and before OGTT in 13 lean (BMI 22.92?±?2.03 kg/m2) and, 27 obese (BMI 36.15?±?3.84 kg/m2) volunteers. Assessment of HOMA-IR and QUICKI index were calculated and circulating concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and C-reactive protein, measured by immunoassay. Results The study shows that a hyperinsulinemic (HI: 10.85?±?4.09 ?g/ml) subgroup of well-characterized metabolic syndrome bearers-obese subjects show higher glycemic and elevated blood pressure levels when compared to lean and normoinsulinemic (NI: 5.51?±?1.18 ?g/ml, P?adiponectin measured in basal period was significantly enhanced in NI subjects when compared to HI groups (P?adiponectin levels and dysfunctional inflammatory modulation associated with hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and renal dysfunction in a particular subgroup of obeses. PMID:24966877

2014-01-01

333

Association of Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ) rs2241766 Polymorphism with Obesity in Adults: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin plays an important role in regulating glucose levels and fatty acid oxidation. Multiple studies have assessed the association between rs2241766 polymorphism in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and obesity susceptibility. However, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate this association in adults. Method Several electronic databases were searched for relevant literature published up to November 2013. Statistical analyses were performed using software Review Manager (Version 5.02) and STATA (Version 10.0). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model or a fixed-effect model depending on heterogeneity among studies. Q tests and Egger’s tests were performed to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to confirm the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis. Results A total of 2,819 obese and 3,024 controls in 18 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that compared with TT genotype, the ADIPOQ-rs2241766 GG genotype was associated with an increased risk for obesity (OR?=?1.39, 95% CI: 1.11–1.73, P for heterogeneity?=?0.520, I2?=?0%) in overall studies. Whereas, GT genotype was associated with a borderland increased risk for obesity (OR?=?1.13, 95% CI: 0.94–1.36, P for heterogeneity?=?0.006, I2?=?51%). The susceptibility of obesity was increased based on genotypes of TT

Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Zheng; Meng, Kai; Zhang, Ling

2014-01-01

334

Adiponectin Alleviates Genioglossal Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Background Genioglossal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea hypoxia syndrome (OSAHS) characterized by nocturnal chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The pathophysiology of genioglossal dysfunction and possible targeted pharmacotherapy for alleviation of genioglossal injury in CIH require further investigation. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats in the control group were exposed to normal air, while rats in the CIH group and CIH+adiponectin (AD) group were exposed to the same CIH condition (CIH 8 hr/day for 5 successive weeks). Furthermore, rats in CIH+AD group were administrated intravenous AD supplementation at the dosage of 10 µg, twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. We found that CIH-induced genioglossus (GG) injury was correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in the numbers of mitochondrias, impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure, and a reduction in type I fibers. Compared with the CIH group, impaired mitochondrial structure and function was significantly improved and a percentage of type I fiber was elevated in the CIH+AD group. Moreover, compared with the control group, the rats’ GG in the CIH group showed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of LKB1, AMPK, and PGC1-?, whereas there was significant rescue of such reduction in phosphorylation within the CIH+AD group. Conclusions CIH exposure reduces mitochondrial biogenesis and impairs mitochondrial function in GG, while AD supplementation increases mitochondrial contents and alleviates CIH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction possibly through the AMPK pathway. PMID:25329318

Dong, Yanbin; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Ning; Liu, Jiannan; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Xilong

2014-01-01

335

Selective activation of PPARgamma in skeletal muscle induces endogenous production of adiponectin and protects mice from diet-induced insulin resistance.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma plays a key role in regulating whole body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Although it is expressed most highly in adipose, it is also present at lower levels in many tissues, including skeletal muscle. The role muscle PPARgamma plays in metabolic regulation and in mediating the antidiabetic effects of the thiazolidinediones is not understood. The goal of this work was to examine the molecular and physiological effects of PPARgamma activation in muscle cells. We found that pharmacological activation of PPARgamma in primary cultured myocytes, and genetic activation of muscle PPARgamma in muscle tissue of transgenic mice, induced the production of adiponectin directly from muscle cells. This muscle-produced adiponectin was functional and capable of stimulating adiponectin signaling in myocytes. In addition, elevated skeletal muscle PPARgamma activity in transgenic mice provided a significant protection from high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and associated changes in muscle phenotype, including reduced myocyte lipid content and an increase in the proportion of oxidative muscle fiber types. Our findings demonstrate that PPARgamma activation in skeletal muscle can have a significant protective effect on whole body glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance and that myocytes can produce and secrete functional adiponectin in a PPARgamma-dependent manner. We propose that activation of PPARgamma in myocytes induces a local production of adiponectin that acts on muscle tissue to improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19843873

Amin, Rajesh H; Mathews, Suresh T; Camp, Heidi S; Ding, Liyun; Leff, Todd

2010-01-01

336

Serum Adiponectin Relates to Shortened Overall Survival in Men with Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer Treated with Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background The convergence of nutritional, genetic, and inflammatory factors plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of squamous cell esophageal cancer (SCEC). The parameters of inflammation, indices of nutritional status, and adipocyte-derived hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin have been shown to be prognostic factors in some gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancers. Material/Methods Forty-two patients with SCEC were subjected to a multimodal regimen of concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of pretreatment values of serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble leptin receptor, C-reactive protein, TNF alpha, leukocytes, and indices of nutritional status (BMI, plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols) on overall survival (OS). Results Univariate analysis revealed significant a negative correlation between OS and serum adiponectin (p=0.027), and a positive relationship was found between serum albumin (p=0.002), cholesterol (p=0.049) level, and OS. In multivariate analysis, only the trend (p=0.086) for negative serum adiponectin association with the OS was observed. Conclusions In men with SCEC treated by neoadjuvant concurrent CRT and esophagectomy, high pretreatment level of serum adiponectin was associated with shorter OS while the serum albumin and cholesterol were associated with longer OS. PMID:25408239

Zemanová, Milada; Sta?ková, Barbora; Ušiaková, Zuzana; Tvrzická, Eva; Pazdro, Alexandr; Petruželka, Luboš; Zeman, Miroslav

2014-01-01

337

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

338

Complement Protein C1q and Adiponectin Stimulate Mer Tyrosine Kinase-Dependent Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells through a Shared Pathway.  

PubMed

The failure to clear apoptotic cells is linked to defects in development and autoimmunity. Complement component C1q is required for efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), and C1q deficiency leads to the development of lupus. We recently identified a novel molecular mechanism for C1q-dependent efferocytosis in murine macrophages. C1q elicited the expression of Mer tyrosine kinase (Mer), a receptor that regulates efficient efferocytosis and prevention of autoimmunity. To characterize the C1q-dependent signal transduction mechanism, pathway analysis of the transcriptome from C1q-activated macrophages was performed, and it identified the adiponectin signaling pathway as significantly upregulated with C1q. Adiponectin is structurally homologous to C1q and regulates cellular metabolism via downstream activation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Macrophage stimulation with C1q resulted in the activation of AMPK, and silencing of AMPK expression using siRNA-inhibited C1q-dependent efferocytosis. Adiponectin signaling also stimulates activation of nuclear receptors, and inhibition of the nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor abrogated C1q-dependent Mer expression and efferocytosis. Furthermore, adiponectin elicited Mer expression and Mer-dependent efferocytosis in macrophages similar to cells stimulated with C1q. Collectively, our results suggest that C1q and adiponectin share a common signal transduction cascade to promote clearance of apoptotic cells, and identify a novel molecular pathway required for efficient efferocytosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24942043

Galvan, Manuel D; Hulsebus, Holly; Heitker, Thomas; Zeng, Erliang; Bohlson, Suzanne S

2014-01-01

339

Leptin and Adiponectin Stimulate the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Prostaglandins from Human Placenta and Maternal Adipose Tissue via Nuclear Factor B, Peroxisomal Proliferator-Activated Receptor  and Extracellularly Regulated Kinase 1\\/2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond their effects on central metabolic functions, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin have profound effects on a number of other physiologic processes, including immune function and inflammation. Although leptin, resistin, and adiponectin are produced in human placenta and adipose tissue, their immunoregulatory actions in these tissues are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of

Martha Lappas; Michael Permezel; Gregory E. Rice

2005-01-01

340

Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and glucose-related variables. Methods: Fifty-one Japanese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids; glucose-related markers including glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; insulin-related markers including insulin, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and adipocytokines including adiponectin and leptin were determined. The association of PFAA and other metabolic profiles were analyzed, and stratified analyses of the PFAAs and clinical characteristics were performed according to the fasting plasma insulin and HbA1c levels. In addition, the PFAA indices that correlate to visceral fat obesity were evaluated. Results: Although strong correlations between PFAAs and glucose-related markers were not observed, several amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, glutamate and proline) and PFAA indices that evaluate visceral obesity were highly correlated with insulin-related markers and adiponectin (P<0.001). In the group of diabetic patients with hyperinsulinemia, the amino acid levels were significantly increased, which generally demonstrated good concordance with insulin-related markers and adiponectin levels. Conclusions: The PFAA profiles in diabetic patients were strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, which might become risk evaluation factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25177913

Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

2014-01-01

341

Weight Trimming and Propensity Score Weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propensity score weighting is sensitive to model misspecification and outlying weights that can unduly influence results. The authors investigated whether trimming large weights downward can improve the performance of propensity score weighting and whether the benefits of trimming differ by propensity score estimation method. In a simulation study, the authors examined the performance of weight trimming following logistic regression, classification

Brian K. Lee; Justin Lessler; Elizabeth A. Stuart; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

2011-01-01

342

Religion, weight perception, and weight control behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion's relationships with weight perception and weight control behavior were examined using data (3032 adults aged 25–74) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Religion was conceptualized as denomination, religious attendance\\/practice, religious social support, religious commitment, religious application, and religious identity. Weight perception was conceptualized as underestimating body weight, overestimating body weight, and accurately assessing body

Karen Hye-cheon Kim

2007-01-01

343

Variation of High-Molecular-Weight Secalin Subunit Composition in Rye (Secale cereale L.) Inbred Lines.  

PubMed

In this study, identification and characterization of the rye HMW secalin subunit (HMW-SS) composition in 68 inbred rye (Secale cereale L.) lines was performed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The HMW-SS were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary using an isoelectric iminodiacetic buffer in combination with poly(ethylene oxide), lauryl sulfobetaine, and acetonitrile as the separation buffer. The separations of the nonalkylated HMW-SS provided very good resolution and high reproducibility. Generally, the x-type rye HMW-SS were more abundant and have longer migration times than the y-type subunits. Both types of rye HMW-SS were separated into the major protein peak and one or two minor peaks. In total, seven x-type HMW-SS, five of which were newly identified subunits, and six y-type subunits, four of which were new, were distinguished on the basis of their CZE migration times. The migration order of the rye HMW-SS using CZE differed considerably from the relative electrophoretic mobilities in the SDS-PAGE gels. PMID:25307487

Salmanowicz, Boles?aw P; Langner, Monika; Kubicka-Matusiewicz, Helena

2014-10-29

344

Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids are related to plasma C-reactive protein and adiponectin in middle-aged German women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Modulation of circulating inflammatory markers and adiponectin may link PUFA to risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.\\u000a We investigated erythrocyte n-6 and n-3 PUFA in relation to plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin, and whether the\\u000a Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR?2 gene (PPARG2) modified these associations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 1,222 women and 758 men participating in the

Cornelia Enzenbach; Janine Kröger; Vera Zietemann; Eugène H. J. M. Jansen; Andreas Fritsche; Frank Döring; Heiner Boeing; Matthias B. Schulze

345

Changes in Bone Mineral Density, Body Composition and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Patients after Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Gastric bypass surgery (GBP) is increasingly used as a treatment option in morbid obesity. Little is known about the effects\\u000a of this surgery on bone mineral density (BMD) and the underlying mechanisms. To evaluate changes on BMD after GBP and its\\u000a relation with changes in body composition and serum adiponectin, a longitudinal study in morbid obese subjects was conducted.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-two

Fernando Carrasco; Manuel Ruz; Pamela Rojas; Attila Csendes; Annabella Rebolledo; Juana Codoceo; Jorge Inostroza; Karen Basfi-fer; Karin Papapietro; Jorge Rojas; Fernando Pizarro; Manuel Olivares

2009-01-01

346

Central adiponectin administration reveals new regulatory mechanisms of bone metabolism in mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (APN), the most abundant adipocyte-secreted adipokine, regulates energy homeostasis and exerts well-characterized insulin-sensitizing properties. The peripheral or central effects of APN regulating bone metabolism are beginning to be explored but are still not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice fed a normal diet exhibited decreased trabecular structure and mineralization and increased bone marrow adiposity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. APN intracerebroventricular infusions decreased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue, epinephrine and norepinephrine serum levels, and osteoclast numbers, whereas osteoblast osteogenic marker expression and trabecular bone mass increased in APN-KO and WT mice. In addition, centrally administered APN increased hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C (Htr2C) expressions but decreased hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor-1 expression. Treatment of immortalized mouse neurons with APN demonstrated that APN-mediated effects on TPH2, CART, and Htr2C expression levels were abolished by downregulating adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 expression. Pharmacological increase in sympathetic activity stimulated adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and reversed APN-induced expression of the lysine-specific demethylases involved in regulating their commitment to the osteoblastic lineage. In conclusion, we found that APN regulates bone metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms to decrease sympathetic tone, inhibit osteoclastic differentiation, and promote osteoblastic commitment of BMSC. PMID:24780611

Wu, Yuwei; Tu, Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma; Zhang, Jin; Murray, Dana; Dong, Lily Q; Cheng, Jessica; Jiang, Hua; Rios, Maribel; Morgan, Elise; Tang, Zhihui; Chen, Jake

2014-06-15

347

Recombinant Adiponectin Ameliorates Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Activating the AMPK/eNOS Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background It is of importance to minimize ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury during liver operations. Reducing the inflammatory reaction is an effective way to achieve this goal. Notably, adiponectin (APN) was found to have anti-inflammatory activity in heart and renal I/R injury. Herein, we investigated the role of APN in liver I/R injury. Methods Wistar rats were randomized to four groups: (1) sham group; (2) I/R control group; (3) I/R+APN group; and (4) I/R+APN+AMPK inhibitor group. Liver and blood samples were collected 6h and 24h after reperfusion. Liver function and histopathologic changes were assessed. Macrophage and neutrophil infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry staining, while pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines released in the liver were measured using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 expression in the liver. Downstream molecules of APN were investigated by Western blotting. Results Circulatory APN was down-regulated during liver I/R. When exogenous APN treatment was administered during liver I/R, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were decreased, and less hepatocyte necrosis was observed. Less inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines release were also observed in the I/R+APN group when compared with the I/R control group. APN treatment also reduced hepatocyte apoptosis, evidenced by reduced TUNEL positive cells and less caspase-3 expression in the reperfused liver. Finally, the AMPK/eNOS pathway was found to be activated by APN, and administration of an AMPK inhibitor reversed the beneficial effects of APN. Conclusion APN can protect the liver from I/R injury by reducing the inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis, a process that likely involves the AMPK/eNOS pathway. The current study provides a potential pharmacologic target for liver I/R injury. PMID:23762489

Li, Qiang; Chen, Maogen; Zhao, Qiang; Deng, Ronghai; Wu, Chenglin; Yang, Anli; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Dongping; He, Xiaoshun

2013-01-01

348

Adiponectin knockout accentuates high fat diet-induced obesity and cardiac dysfunction: Role of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, offers cardioprotective effects although the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. This study was designed to examine the role of APN in high fat diet-induced obesity and cardiac pathology. Adult C57BL/6 wild-type and APN knockout mice were fed a low or high fat diet for 22 weeks. After 40 day feeding, mice were treated with 2 mg/kg rapamycin or vehicle every other day for 42 days on respective fat diet. Cardiomyocyte contractile and Ca2+ transient properties were evaluated. Myocardial function was evaluated using echocardiography. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate adiposity. Energy expenditure, metabolic rate and physical activity were monitored using a metabolic cage. Lipid deposition, serum triglyceride, glucose tolerance, markers of autophagy and fatty acid metabolism including LC3, p62, Beclin-1, AMPK, mTOR, fatty acid synthase (FAS) were evaluated. High fat diet intake induced obesity, systemic glucose intolerance, cardiac hypertrophy, dampened metabolic ability, cardiac and intracellular Ca2+ derangements, the effects of which were accentuated by APN knockout. Furthermore, APN deficiency augmented high fat diet-induced upregulation in the autophagy adaptor p62 and the decline in AMPK without affecting high fat diet-induced decrease in LC3II and LC3II-to-LC3I ratio. Neither high fat diet nor APN deficiency altered Beclin-1. Interestingly, rapamycin negated high fat diet-induced/APN-deficiency-accentuated obesity, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction as well as AMPK dephosphorylation, mTOR phosphorylation and p62 buildup. Our results collectively revealed that APN deficiency may aggravate high fat diet-induced obesity, metabolic derangement, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction possibly through decreased myocardial autophagy. PMID:23524376

Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yingmei; Turdi, Subat; Ren, Jun

2013-01-01

349

Increased Hs-CRP/adiponectin ratio is associated with increase carotid intima-media thickness  

PubMed Central

Background High sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and adiponectin (APN) are two critical cytokines and exert inverse effects on atherosclerosis initiation and progression. The purpose of our study was to investigate the value of Hs-CRP and ANP ratio (Hs-CRP/APN ratio) on evaluating atherosclerosis progression. Method One hundred sixty consecutive participants underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by ultrasound were enrolled and drawn fasting blood samples for plasma levels Hs-CRP and APN, serum levels of lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose evaluation. Other anthropometrics and clinical status were collected by questionnaire. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to the baseline Hs-CRP/APN ratio and underwent CIMT measurement every 6 months. CIMT increment and composite cardiovascular endpoints were compared after 24 months’ follow-up. Results At baseline, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetic mellitus, usage of statins, Hs-CRP and APN independently correlated with Hs-CRP/APN ratio as analyzed by spearman rank correlation. Smoking, serum level of LDL-C, plasma level of Hs-CRP and Hs-CRP/APN ratio were positively correlated with CIMT while usage of statins and plasma level of APN were negatively correlated with CIMT as analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. After 24 months’ follow-up, the progression of CIMT was the most prominent in the fourth quartile of baseline Hs-CRP/APN ratio. In addition, the incidence of composite cardiovascular endpoint was also higher in the fourth quartile as compared to the other 3 lower quartiles. Conclusion Hs-CRP/APN ratio was a useful predictor to discriminate subjects who were at increased risk of atherosclerosis progression. PMID:25070472

2014-01-01

350

Effect of maternal weight, adipokines, glucose intolerance and lipids on infant birth weight among women without gestational diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background: The delivery of excess maternal nutrients to the fetus is known to increase the risk of macrosomia, even among infants of women without gestational diabetes mellitus. With the current obesity epidemic, maternal adiposity and its associated effects on circulating adipokines and inflammatory proteins may now have a greater impact on fetal growth. We sought to evaluate the independent effects of maternal glycemia, lipids, obesity, adipokines and inflammation on infant birth weight. Methods: We included 472 women who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy and were found not to have gestational diabetes; 104 (22.0%) had gestational impaired glucose tolerance. We also measured fasting levels of insulin, low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein. Obstetric outcomes were assessed at delivery. Results: The mean birth weight was 3481 g (standard deviation 493 g); 68 of the infants were large for gestational age. On multiple linear regression analysis, positive determinants of birth weight were length of gestation, male infant, weight gain during pregnancy up to the time of the oral glucose tolerance test, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels were each negatively associated with birth weight. On logistic regression analysis, the significant metabolic predictors of having a large-for-gestational-age infant were BMI before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.27, per 1 kg/m2 increase), weight gain during pregnancy up to the time of the oral glucose tolerance test (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19, per 1 kg increase) and leptin level (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.82, per 1 standard deviation change). Interpretation: Among women without gestational diabetes, maternal adiposity and leptin levels were the strongest metabolic determinants of having a large-for-gestational-age infant rather than glucose intolerance and lipid levels. PMID:22619341

Retnakaran, Ravi; Ye, Chang; Hanley, Anthony J.G.; Connelly, Philip W.; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hamilton, Jill K.

2012-01-01

351

Weight structures, weight ltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for  

E-print Network

Weight structures, weight #28;ltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for basic notion is the new de#28;nition of a weight structure for a triangulated C. We prove that a weight to cohomology zero". For Hw being the heart of the weight structure we de#28;ne a canonical conservative weakly

352

Beta-conglycinin lowers very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride levels by increasing adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in rats.  

PubMed

The relationship between insulin sensitivity and the plasma triglyceride-lowering effect induced by beta-conglycinin was investigated. Male Wistar rats (19 weeks old) were fed diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, or beta-conglycinin for 4 weeks. In oral glucose administration, the beta-conglycinin-fed rats showed a significant decrease in the area under the glucose curve (0-60 min) as compared with the casein-fed rats. The hypoglycemic effect was significantly higher in the beta-conglycinin-fed rats than in the casein-fed rats at 30 min after intraperitoneal insulin injection. The liver sterol regulatory element-binding-protein-1 mRNA expression level was significantly lower and the plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly higher in the beta-conglycinin-fed rats than in the casein-fed rats. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of beta-conglycinin depended on a significant decrease in the concentration of very-low-density-lipoprotein triglycerides. These results indicate that beta-conglycinin increases adiponectin levels and improves glucose tolerance. The ability of beta-conglycinin to lower plasma lipid levels might be due to increased insulin sensitivity of the liver. PMID:20530915

Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Iwaoka, Yasue; Hirotsuka, Motohiko; Horio, Fumihiko; Kohno, Mitsutaka

2010-01-01

353

Interleukin-6 and insulin incrase and nitric oxide and adiponectin decrease in blind dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.  

PubMed

In this study, two populations of dogs with pituitary dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) were compared over a 2-year period. One group had normal vision (Group A, n=27) and one group was blind (Group B, n=20). Group B was characterised by the rapid appearance of the clinical signs of PDH that precede blindness. We found increases in pre-adrenocorticotropic hormone cortisol (P=0.002), IL-6 (P=0.0001), insulin, and insulin sensitivity (detected with the Homeostatic Model Assessment, P<0.0001) in Group B but not in Group A. The nitric oxide (NO) and the total adiponectin concentrations decreased (P=0.0001 and P=0.02, respectively) in Group B versus Group A. The IL-6 and insulin concentrations and the HOMA-A index were positively correlated with the cortisol concentration and were negatively correlated with the NO concentration. With the exception of adiponectin, the other variables were associated with blindness. We concluded that blindness in PDH is a haemodynamic event associated with metabolic changes, with the increase in the IL-6 concentration and the decrease in the NO concentration affecting the retinal vasculature and producing a high risk of vision loss. PMID:22381588

Cabrera Blatter, M F; del Prado, B; Miceli, D D; Gomez, N; Ivanic, J; Di Tollo, B; Gallelli, M F; Castillo, V A

2012-12-01

354

Trans-cinnamic acid increases adiponectin and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase through G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Adiponectin and intracellular 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are important modulators of glucose and fat metabolism. Cinnamon exerts beneficial effects by improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipids, e.g., through increasing adiponectin concentrations and AMPK activation. The underlying mechanism is unknown. The Gi/Go-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A stimulates adiponectin secretion after binding its ligand niacin. Trans-cinnamic acid (tCA), a compound of cinnamon is another ligand. We hypothesize whether AMPK activation and adiponectin secretion by tCA is transmitted by GPR signaling. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G(i)/G(o)-protein-coupling, and treated with different tCA concentrations. Treatment with tCA increased adiponectin and the pAMPK/AMPK ratio (p ? 0.001). PTX incubation abolished the increased pAMPK/AMPK ratio and adiponectin secretion. The latter remained increased compared to controls (p ? 0.002). tCA treatment stimulated adiponectin secretion and AMPK activation; the inhibitory effect of PTX suggests GPR is involved in tCA stimulated signaling. PMID:24557583

Kopp, Christina; Singh, Shiva P; Regenhard, Petra; Müller, Ute; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

2014-01-01

355

Preparation and characterization of bioadhesive microparticles comprised of low degree of quaternization trimethylated chitosan for nasal administration: effect of concentration and molecular weight.  

PubMed

Toward the development of microparticulate carriers for nasal administration, N-trimethylchitosan chloride (TMC) of low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) and low degree of quaternization (16% and 27%, respectively) was co-formulated into microparticles comprising of dipalmatoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) via the spray-drying technique. The chitosan derivatives were characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transfrom infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The size and morphology of the produced microparticles were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas their mucoadhesive properties were investigated by means of atomic force microscopy-force spectroscopy (AFM-FS). The results showed that microparticles exhibit mucoadhesion when TMC is present on their surface above a threshold of TMC (>0.3% w/w). PMID:25247739

Karavasili, Christina; Katsamenis, Orestis L; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Nazar, Hamde; Thurner, Philipp J; van der Merwe, Susanna M; Fatouros, Dimitrios G

2014-10-21

356

Expression of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-?1 and adiponectin in nipple aspirate fluid and plasma of pre and post-menopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) contains large amounts of protein thought to reflect the microenvironment of the breast, and is of interest in breast cancer prevention research. The correlation between specific NAF proteins to plasma concentrations have not been well studied in healthy women. We collected matched NAF and plasma from 43 healthy pre and postmenopausal women participating in an early phase clinical study to compare the levels of putative cancer protein biomarkers. We compared baseline NAF and plasma levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1), and adiponectin and evaluated menopausal status and body mass index (BMI) as potential modifying factors. Findings NAF and plasma levels of EGF, TGF-?1 and adiponectin were not correlated. EGF and TGF-?1 levels in NAF of premenopausal women were significantly higher than postmenopausal women (P’s?adiponectin levels were non-significantly higher in postmenopausal women. NAF biomarker levels were not associated with BMI whereas plasma EGF, TGF-?1 and adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women were all inversely correlated with BMI (P’s?

2013-01-01

357

Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.  

PubMed

Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

Glenn, Nicole M

2013-03-01

358

Plasma Adiponectin, Clinical Factors, and Patient Outcomes during the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective Adiponectin (APN) is an anti-inflammatory hormone derived from adipose tissue that attenuates acute lung injury in rodents. In this study, we investigated the association between circulating APN and outcomes among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using data and plasma samples from participants in the multicenter ARDS Network Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial. Results Plasma APN concentrations were measured in 816 (81.6%) trial participants at baseline and in 568 (56.8%) subjects at both baseline and day 7 after enrollment. Clinical factors associated with baseline APN levels in multivariable-adjusted models included sex, body mass index, past medical history of cirrhosis, and central venous pressure (model R2?=?9.7%). We did not observe an association between baseline APN and either severity of illness (APACHE III) or extent of lung injury (Lung Injury Score). Among patients who received right heart catheterization (n?=?384), baseline APN was inversely related to mean pulmonary artery pressure (??=??0.015, R2 1.5%, p?=?0.02); however, this association did not persist in multivariable models (??=??0.009, R2 0.5%, p?=?0.20). Neither baseline APN levels [HR per quartile1.04 (95% CI 0.91–1.18), p?=?0.61], nor change in APN level from baseline to day 7 [HR 1.04 (95% CI 0.89–1.23), p?=?0.62)] were associated with 60 day mortality in Cox proportional hazards regression models. However, subgroup analysis identified an association between APN and mortality among patients who developed ARDS from extra-pulmonary etiologies [HR per quartile 1.31 (95% CI 1.08–1.57)]. APN levels did not correlate with mortality among patients developing ARDS in association with direct pulmonary injury [HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.83–1.13)], pinteraction?=?0.016. Conclusions Plasma APN levels did not correlate with disease severity or mortality in a large cohort of patients with ARDS. However, higher APN levels were associated with increased mortality among patients developing ARDS from extra-pulmonary etiologies. PMID:25259893

Walkey, Allan J.; Demissie, Serkalem; Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Puklin, Leah; Summer, Ross S.

2014-01-01

359

Beta-Cell Preservation…Is Weight Loss the Answer?  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pancreatic beta-cell failure is an early event in the development of glucose dysregulation and diabetes. Interventions to halt beta-cell failure in T2D include diet modification, exercise, and use of pharmacologic agents. There is evidence that abdominal obesity may contribute to diabetes through insulin resistance and beta-cell impairment. Pivotal long-term studies into the prevention of T2D have shown the importance of weight loss beside diet, lifestyle, and medication. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that weight loss gradually reduces the risk of diabetes, and that even modest weight loss can significantly reduce the incidence of T2D. Similarly, in the US DPP, weight loss as part of intensive lifestyle modification was the major factor in reducing the incidence of T2D in high-risk subjects, being more effective than drug intervention. While understanding the relationship between obesity and diabetes is complex, we know that weight loss has positive effects on adipose tissue. It causes an increase in the beneficial fat cell hormone adiponectin, and a decrease in adipose tissue inflammation. Also, it is associated with reduced insulin resistance and a consequential reduction in glucolipotoxicity, which can improve beta-cell function. In summary, weight loss improves glycemic control and thereby mitigates diabetes symptoms and complications, possibly through the preservation of beta-cell function. Therefore, efforts to prevent diabetes and preserve beta-cell function in patients with T2D should more rigorously emphasize and target weight loss. PMID:22580726

Mazza, Angela D.; Pratley, Richard E.; Smith, Steven R.

2011-01-01

360

Weight structures, weight oltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for  

E-print Network

Weight structures, weight oltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for and func- tors. Our basic notion is the new deonition of a weight structure for a triangulated C_. We prove that a weight structure deones Postnikov towers of objects of C_; these towers

361

Novel Loci for Adiponectin Levels and Their Influence on Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Traits: A Multi-Ethnic Meta-Analysis of 45,891 Individuals  

PubMed Central

Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P?=?4.5×10?8–1.2×10?43). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N?=?4,232 African Americans, N?=?1,776 Asians, and N?=?29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10?4). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p?=?4.3×10?3, n?=?22,044), increased triglycerides (p?=?2.6×10?14, n?=?93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p?=?1.8×10?5, n?=?77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p?=?4.4×10?3, n?=?15,234), increased fasting insulin (p?=?0.015, n?=?48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p?=?4.5×10?13, n?=?96,748) and decreased BMI (p?=?1.4×10?4, n?=?121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance. PMID:22479202

Tanaka, Toshiko; Morris, Andrew P.; Small, Kerrin; Isaacs, Aaron; Beekman, Marian; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Qi, Lu; Kanoni, Stavroula; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Vollenweider, Peter; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Frants, Rune; Willems-vanDijk, Ko; Oostra, Ben A.; Willems, Sara M.; Lamina, Claudia; Winkler, Thomas W.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kahonen, Mika; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Evans, David M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andrew R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; Bohringer, Stefan; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Deloukas, Panos; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Adair, Linda S.; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Johnson, Toby; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Liu, Yongmei; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Ferrucci, Luigi; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Salomaa, Veikko; Eriksson, Johan G.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, J. Brent

2012-01-01

362

A selective cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist, PF-95453, reduces body weight and body fat to a greater extent than pair-fed controls in obese monkeys.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid-1 (CB(1)) receptor antagonists exhibit pharmacological properties favorable to treatment of obesity