These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10?8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

2011-01-01

2

Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer,  

E-print Network

Unique Profile of Chicken Adiponectin, a Predominantly Heavy Molecular Weight Multimer adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform

Ramachandran, Ramesh

3

Changes of adiponectin oligomer composition by moderate weight reduction.  

PubMed

Adiponectin affects lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers that may also have distinct biological functions. We aimed to analyze the role of these oligomers in obesity and lipid metabolism after weight reduction. A total of 17 obese volunteers (15 women and 2 men) participated in a weight reduction program. Individuals were characterized before and after 6 months of a balanced diet. Adiponectin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and oligomers were detected by nondenaturating Western blot. BMI decreased (35.1 +/- 1.2 to 32.8 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2), P < 0.001), which was associated with an improved metabolite profile. Total adiponectin increased from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 6.1 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (P = 0.076). High (HMW) and medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin oligomers significantly increased during weight reduction (HMW: 0.37 +/- 0.07 to 0.4 +/- 0.08 microg/ml, P = 0.042; MMW: 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.3 microg/ml, P = 0.007), while low molecular weight (LMW) did not significantly change. Body weight inversely correlated with HMW (r = -0.695, P = 0.002) and positively with LMW (r = 0.579, P = 0.015). Interestingly, HDL cholesterol and HMW were strongly correlated (r = 0.665, P = 0.007). Indeed, HMW and free fatty acids before weight reduction predicted approximately 60% of HDL changes during intervention. In conclusion, weight reduction results in a relative increase of HMW/MMW adiponectin and a reduction of LMW adiponectin. Total adiponectin and especially HMW adiponectin are related to circulating HDL cholesterol. PMID:16123361

Bobbert, Thomas; Rochlitz, Helmut; Wegewitz, Uta; Akpulat, Suzan; Mai, Knut; Weickert, Martin O; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

2005-09-01

4

Selective Suppression of Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by the High Molecular Weight Form of Adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, antiatherogenic protein that is present in serum as three isoforms. Total adiponectin levels are decreased in obese or diabetic humans or animal models. This study was designed to elucidate the relative isoform distribution of adiponectin in human disease states and identify the active form of adiponectin toward vascular endothelial cells. The percentage of high molecular weight form (HMW) per total adiponectin was significantly lower in patients with coronary artery disease than control subjects, whereas the hexamer form was similar and the trimer form was significantly higher. During weight reduction in obese subjects, the HMW form increased and the trimer and hexamer forms decreased. Recombinant adiponectin dose-dependently suppressed apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transduction with dominant-negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) abolished the suppressive effect of adiponectin on HUVECs. Gel filtration chromatography was used to separate the adiponectin isoforms, and the antiapoptotic effect toward HUVECs was only observed with the HMW form. These data suggest that HMW adiponectin specifically confers the vascular-protective activities of this adipocytokine. PMID:14752031

Kobayashi, Hideki; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Walsh, Kenneth; Kumada, Masahiro; Abe, Yuki; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

2015-01-01

5

Inherent insulin sensitivity is a major determinant of multimeric adiponectin responsiveness to short-term weight loss in extreme obesity  

PubMed Central

High molecular weight (HMW-A) adiponectin levels mirror alterations in glucose homeostasis better than medium (MMW-A) and low molecular weight (LMW-A) components. In 25 patients with wide-range extreme obesity (BMI 40-77?kg/m2), we aimed to explore if improvements of multimeric adiponectin following 4-wk weight loss reflect baseline OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (ISIOGTT) and disposition index (DIOGTT). Compared to 40 lean controls, adiponectin oligomers were lower in extreme obesity (p < 0.001) and, within this group, HMW-A levels were higher in insulin-sensitive (p < 0.05) than -resistant patients. In obese patients, short-term weight loss did not change total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance, while the distribution pattern of adiponectin oligomers changed due to significant increment of HMW-A (p < 0.01) and reduction of MMW-A (p < 0.05). By multivariate analysis, final HMW-A levels were significantly related to baseline ISIOGTT and final body weight (adjusted R2 = 0.41). Our data suggest that HMW adiponectin may reflect baseline insulin sensitivity appropriately in the context of extreme obesity. Especially, we documented that HMW-A is promptly responsive to short-term weight loss prior to changes in insulin resistance, by a magnitude that is proportioned to whole body insulin sensitivity. This may suggest an insulin sensitivity-dependent control operated by HMW-A on metabolic dynamics of patients with extreme obesity. PMID:25056918

Mai, Stefania; Walker, Gillian E.; Brunani, Amelia; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Grossi, Glenda; Oldani, Alberto; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Scacchi, Massimo; Marzullo, Paolo

2014-01-01

6

Effects of Body Fat on the Associations of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLittle is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW-) adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations.MethodsPlasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women (35?54 yrs). Whole body and trunk fat mass were determined by

Danxia Yu; Zhijie Yu; Qi Sun; Liang Sun; Huaixing Li; Jun Song; Ming Mi; Hongyu Wu; Ling Lu; Chen Liu; Geng Zhang; Frank B. Hu; Xu Lin; Cuilin Zhang

2011-01-01

7

Adiponectin Multimers in Normal Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective Adiponectin is an anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic adipokine that circulates in oligomeric complexes including: low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in adiponectin multimers in pregnancy and as a function of maternal weight. Study design In this cross-sectional study, serum concentrations of total, HMW, MMW and LMW adiponectin were determined in women included in three groups: 1) normal pregnant women of normal body mass index (BMI) (n=466); 2) overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI ?25; n=257); and 3) non-pregnant women of normal weight (n=40). Blood samples were collected once from each pregnant woman between 11 and 42 weeks of gestation. Serum adiponectin multimers concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) The median HMW adiponectin concentration and the median HMW/Total adiponectin ratio were significantly higher and the median LMW adiponectin concentration was significantly lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women; 2) among pregnant women, the median serum concentration of total, HMW and MMW adiponectin was significantly higher in normal weight women than in overweight/obese patients; 3) HMW adiponectin was the most prevalent multimer in maternal serum regardless of gestational age or BMI status; 4) there were no significant differences in the median concentration of total, MMW, LMW adiponectin, and their relative distribution with advancing gestation. Conclusion Human pregnancy is characterized by quantitative and qualitative changes in adiponectin multimers, especially of the most active isoform, HMW adiponectin. PMID:19031276

MAZAKI-TOVI, S.; ROMERO, R.; KUSANOVIC, J.P.; EREZ, O.; VAISBUCH, E.; GOTSCH, F.; MITTAL, P.; THAN, N. G.; NHAN-CHANG, C.L.; CHAIWORAPONGSA, T.; EDWIN, S.; CAMACHO, N.; GOMEZ, R.; NIEN, J.K.; HASSAN, S.S.

2009-01-01

8

High molecular weight adiponectin correlates positively with myeloperoxidase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (APN) is present in human plasma as a low molecular weight (LMW), a middle molecular weight (MMW) and a high molecular weight form (HMW). As a support to determine properties such as anti-atherogenic or atherogenic effects, recent clinical studies suppose to determine the ratio of each APN multimer to total APN but not the absolute plasma concentration of APN. In the present study, the correlation of APN and its multimers with myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme with pro-inflammatory properties, was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. MPO and APN serum levels were assessed in 49 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the beginning and at the end of an anti-diabetic treatment. After treatment a significant increase in the ratio of HMW to total APN (from 0.43+/-0.16 to 0.59+/-0.14, p<0.05) was found. Before treatment, HMW-APN was correlated positively with MPO (r=0.314, p<0.05). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the increased HMW ratio and MPO during treatment (r=0.304, p<0.05). HMW-APN correlates positively with MPO in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, HMW-APN may exert possible pro-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetes. PMID:18778866

Bobbert, P; Rauch, U; Stratmann, B; Goldin-Lang, P; Antoniak, S; Bobbert, T; Schultheiss, H P; Tschoepe, D

2008-11-01

9

Adiponectin profiles are affected by chronic and acute changes in carbohydrate intake in healthy cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is a key adipokine that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It circulates in stable low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) forms. The aims of this study were to characterize baseline adiponectin profiles (total, LMW and HMW multimers) in healthy cats and to assess the effects of varying dietary carbohydrate content on adiponectin profiles. Cats were maintained on a

Heok Yit Tan; Jacquie S. Rand; John M. Morton; Linda M. Fleeman; P. Jane Armstrong; Marcia Coradini; Katsumi Ishioka; Kurt R. Verkest; Ayanthi A. Richards; John M. Rawlings; Felicity J. Rose; Jonathan P. Whitehead

2011-01-01

10

Relations of plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin to new-onset heart failure in adults ?65 years of age (from the Cardiovascular Health study).  

PubMed

Adiponectin exhibits cardioprotective properties in experimental studies, but elevated levels have been linked to increased mortality in older adults and patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The adipokine's association with new-onset HF remains less well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with incident HF (n = 780) and, in a subset, echocardiographic parameters in a community-based cohort of adults aged ?65 years. Total and HMW adiponectin were measured in 3,228 subjects without prevalent HF, atrial fibrillation or CVD. The relations of total and HMW adiponectin with HF were nonlinear, with significant associations observed only for concentrations greater than the median (12.4 and 6.2 mg/L, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios per SD increment in total adiponectin were 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.21) for concentrations less than the median and 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.38) higher than the median. There was a suggestion of effect modification by body mass index, whereby the association appeared strongest in participants with lower body mass indexes. Consistent with the HF findings, higher adiponectin tended to be associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and left atrial enlargement. Results were similar for HMW adiponectin. In conclusion, total and HMW adiponectin showed comparable relations with incident HF in this older cohort, with a threshold effect of increasing risk occurring at their median concentrations. High levels of adiponectin may mark or mediate age-related processes that lead to HF in older adults. PMID:24169012

Karas, Maria G; Benkeser, David; Arnold, Alice M; Bartz, Traci M; Djousse, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ix, Joachim H; Zieman, Susan J; Siscovick, David S; Tracy, Russell P; Mantzoros, Christos S; Gottdiener, John S; deFilippi, Christopher R; Kizer, Jorge R

2014-01-15

11

Adiponectin Multimers and Metabolic Syndrome Traits: Relative Adiponectin Resistance in African Americans  

PubMed Central

African Americans (AAs) tend to have lower total adiponectin levels compared to European Americans (EA); however, it is not known whether race affects adiponectin multimer distribution and their relationships to metabolic traits. We measured total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW), low molecular weight (LMW) (i.e., hexamer), and trimer adiponectin in 132 normoglycemic premenopausal women (75 AAs, 57 EAs), together with measures of total and abdominal fat, plasma lipids, insulin sensitivity (Si), and genetic admixture estimates. We found that lower total adiponectin in AAs was explained by reduced LMW, and trimer forms because levels of HMW did not differ between races. In EAs, HMW was highly correlated with multiple metabolic syndrome traits. In contrast, the LMW and trimer forms were most highly correlated with metabolic traits in AAs, including abdominal adiposity, lipids, and Si. At similar levels of visceral adiposity, AAs exhibited significantly lower LMW adiponectin than EAs. Similarly, at comparable levels of HMW and LMW adiponectin, AAs were more insulin resistant than their EA counterparts. In conclusion, (i) serum adiponectin is lower in AAs predominantly as a result of reduced concentrations of LMW and trimers multimeric forms; (ii) LMW and trimer, not HMW, are most broadly correlated with metabolic traits in AAs. Thus, HMW adiponectin may exert less bioactivity in explaining the metabolic syndrome trait cluster in populations of predominant African genetic background. PMID:18820653

Lara-Castro, Cristina; Doud, Erin C.; Tapia, Patrick C.; Munoz, Andres J.; Fernandez, Jose R.; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barbara A.; Garvey, W. Timothy

2009-01-01

12

Independent associations of total and high molecular weight adiponectin with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether adiponectin levels associate with atherogenesis in RA is uncertain. We examined the independent relationships of total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with RA. Methods We determined total and HMW adiponectin concentrations and those of endothelial activation molecules including soluble E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in 210 (119 black and 91 white) RA patients. Associations were determined in potential confounder and mediator adjusted mixed regression models. Results Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations related similarly to metabolic risk factors and endothelial activation. In all patients, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated paradoxically with high systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (partial R = 0.155 to 0.241, P ?0.03). Ethnic origin did not impact on these relationships (interaction P ?0.09). Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated with those of glucose in white and black patients respectively (partial R = -0.304, P = 0.006 and -0.246, P = 0.01). In black but not white participants, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations also related favorably to lipid profiles (partial R = 0.292 to 0.360, P ?0.003 for HDL cholesterol concentrations, -0.269 to -0.299, P ?0.006 for triglyceride concentrations and -0.302 to -0.390, P ?0.002 for total-HDL cholesterol ratio) and the number of metabolic risk factors (partial R = -0.210 to -0.238, P ?0.03). In white but not black patients, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated paradoxically with overall endothelial activation as estimated by a standard z-score of endothelial activation molecule concentrations (partial R = 0.262, P = 0.01 and 0.252, P = 0.02); in the respective models, the extent of effect of total and HMW adiponectin concentrations on endothelial activation was larger in white compared to black participants (standardized ? (SE) = 0.260 (0.107) versus -0.106 (0.107), P = 0.01 and 0.260 (0.120) versus -0.100 (0.111), P = 0.02). The HMW-total adiponectin ratio related inconsistently to metabolic risk factors and not to endothelial activation. Conclusion In this study, total and HMW adiponectin concentrations associated with increased blood pressure parameters, and in white patients additionally with endothelial activation. The potential mechanism(s) underlying these paradoxical relationships between adiponectin concentrations and cardiovascular risk in RA merit further investigation. PMID:24286214

2013-01-01

13

Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50–60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25435686

Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

2014-01-01

14

Effect of dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations in overweight to moderately obese men and women123  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies indicated that dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increase circulating adiponectin concentrations in rodents. Objective We aimed to investigate whether a diet rich in n–3 PUFAs increased plasma concentrations of total or high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in healthy overweight-to-moderately obese men and women. Design Sixteen women and 10 men with a body mass index (in kg/m2) between 28 and 33 were randomly assigned to consume a diet rich in n–3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake) from both plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n–3 PUFAs). For the first 2 wk, these diets were consumed under isocaloric conditions; then followed a 12-wk period of ad libitum consumption that was associated with a moderate loss of ?3.5% of body weight in both groups. Total and HMW adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured before and after each diet phase. Results Plasma fasting adiponectin concentrations did not change during the isocaloric period, but they increased modestly (?10%) during the ad libitum period when subjects lost weight [P = 0.009 for time in repeated-measures analysis of variance] and to a similar extent in subjects consuming the control (x? ± SD: 0.42 ± 0.69 ?g/mL) and n–3 PUFA (0.45 ± 0.85 ?g/mL) diets (P = 0.920 for time × treatment interaction). Plasma concentrations of HMW adiponectin did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion Dietary n–3 PUFAs consumed at levels of 3.5% of energy intake do not significantly increase plasma or HMW adiponectin concentrations in overweight-to-moderately obese healthy men and women over the course of 14 wk. PMID:18258624

Kratz, Mario; Swarbrick, Michael M; Callahan, Holly S; Matthys, Colleen C; Havel, Peter J; Weigle, David S

2008-01-01

15

Adiponectin multimer distribution in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is secreted from adipocytes in different multimers, of which the high molecular weight (HMW) form is supposed to mediate favorable metabolic and anti-atherogenic effects. We determined adiponectin multimers in 29 female and 22 male patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) and 51 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched controls in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We observed a clear sexual dimorphism of total adiponectin and its multimers. Female, but not male, FCH patients had significant lower total adiponectin and both HMW and low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin than controls. The adiponectin sensitivity index (ASI), reflected by HMW/total adiponectin, and the LMW/HMW adiponectin ratio did not differ significantly between FCH females and control females. However, FCH females with CVD exhibited significantly lower ASI (34.2+/-10.1% vs 46.0+/-7.1%) and higher LMW/HMW ratio (1.5+/-0.8 vs 0.7+/-0.3) compared to FCH females without CVD, reflecting a more atherogenic adiponectin multimer distribution. PMID:18762168

Koenen, Tim B; van Tits, Lambertus J H; Holewijn, Suzanne; Lemmers, Heidi L M; den Heijer, Martin; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline

2008-11-01

16

Extracellular conversion of adiponectin hexamers into trimers  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that exists as trimers, hexamers and larger species collectively referred to as HMW (high-molecular-weight) adiponectin. Whether hexamers or HMW adiponectin serve as precursors for trimers outside the circulation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that adiponectin trimers can be generated from larger oligomers secreted from primary rat adipose cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Purified hexameric, but not HMW, adiponectin converted into trimers in conditioned media separated from 3T3-L1 adipocytes or, more efficiently, when enclosed in the dialysis membrane in the presence of adipocytes. Several lines of evidence indicate that the conversion is mediated by an extracellular redox system. First, N-terminal epitope-tagged hexamers converted into trimers without proteolytic removal of the tag. Secondly, appearance of trimers was associated with conversion of disulfide-bonded dimers into monomers. Thirdly, thiol-reactive agents inhibited conversion into trimers. Consistent with a redox-based mechanism, purified hexamers reductively converted into trimers in defined glutathione redox buffer with reduction potential typically found in the extracellular environment while the HMW adiponectin remained stable. In addition, conversion of hexamers into trimers was enhanced by NADPH, but not by NADP+. Collectively, these data strongly suggest the presence of an extracellular redox system capable of converting adiponectin oligomers. PMID:22973892

Kim, Jeong-a; Nuńez, Martha; Briggs, David B.; Laskowski, Bethany L.; Chhun, Jimmy J.; Eleid, Joseph K.; Quon, Michael J.; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen

2012-01-01

17

Adiponectin profiles are affected by chronic and acute changes in carbohydrate intake in healthy cats.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is a key adipokine that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It circulates in stable low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) forms. The aims of this study were to characterize baseline adiponectin profiles (total, LMW and HMW multimers) in healthy cats and to assess the effects of varying dietary carbohydrate content on adiponectin profiles. Cats were maintained on a diet with moderate carbohydrate content (37% metabolisable energy [ME]) for 4 weeks and then randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate (19% ME) or high carbohydrate (52% ME) diet for 4 weeks. Fasting and postprandial plasma adiponectin profiles were measured by ELISA and sucrose gradient/Western blot. After consuming the moderate carbohydrate diet for 4 weeks, fasting total, HMW and LMW plasma adiponectin concentrations were 5.0±0.6, 2.5±0.5 and 2.6±0.2 ?g/mL, respectively. After changing to the low carbohydrate diet, fasting total adiponectin was unchanged but HMW adiponectin increased and LMW adiponectin decreased. No significant postprandial changes were observed. Cats consuming the high carbohydrate diet had increased fasting total and LMW adiponectin with no change in HMW adiponectin. In the postprandial state total adiponectin was reduced and there was a trend towards a decrease in HMW (p=0.086) but not LMW multimers. These data indicate that feline adiponectin multimer profiles are similar to those reported in other species and demonstrate that changes in plasma adiponectin occur in response to chronic and acute carbohydrate intake and these reflect differential changes in adiponectin multimers. PMID:21530529

Tan, Heok Yit; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M; Fleeman, Linda M; Armstrong, P Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Ishioka, Katsumi; Verkest, Kurt R; Richards, Ayanthi A; Rawlings, John M; Rose, Felicity J; Whitehead, Jonathan P

2011-07-01

18

Adipose tissue depot and cell size dependency of adiponectin synthesis and secretion in human obesity  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing fat cell (FC) hormone whose levels are related to adipose tissue (AT) mass and depot distribution. We hypothesized that the nature of AT expansion (hypertrophy vs. hyperplasia) contributes to obesity-related reductions in serum adiponectin and that this effect is influenced by the regional distribution of AT to subcutaneous (S) and visceral (V) depots. Thirteen obese subjects provided paired AT biopsies. Serum total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. Secretion was quantified following 24-h explant culture. FC size, number, % large, and % small FC were determined by microscopic analysis. Secretion of total adiponectin was highest by SAT (P = 0.008) and correlated more strongly with serum adiponectin (total: P = 0.015, r = 0.77; HMW: P = 0.005, r = 0.83) than did secretion by VAT (P = 0.05, r = 0.66 for both). FC size was greatest in SAT and correlated negatively with both serum (total: P = 0.01, r = ?0.74; HMW: P = 0.03, r = ?0.69) and secreted (total: P = 0.05, r = ?0.72; HMW: P = 0.02, r = ?0.87) adiponectin. The % small FC in SAT correlated positively with both serum (total: P = 0.006, r = 0.87; HMW: P = 0.009, r = 0.79) and secreted (total: P = 0.03, r = 0.75; HMW: P = 0.01, r = 0.92) adiponectin. VAT FC size correlated negatively with serum HMW adiponectin (P = 0.01, r = ?0.76) but not with any measure of secretion. VAT had the greatest % small FC, which related positively to serum HMW (P = 0.004, r = 0.81) and to secreted total adiponectin (P = 0.02, r = 0.78). These studies indicate that differences in fat cell size and depot distribution of AT expansion are important influences on adiponectin in obesity. PMID:24052897

Meyer, Lauren K; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Henry, Robert R; Wittgrove, Alan C; Phillips, Susan A

2013-01-01

19

Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI. PMID:22956782

Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

2012-12-01

20

CRP and Adiponectin and Its Oligomers in the Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers an increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations are higher and adiponectin concentrations lower in MetS, there is no reliable biochemical measure that can capture its various features. We evaluated whether hsCRP, adiponectin, or the ratio of adiponectin or its oligomers, especially the high-molecular-weight (HMW) oligomer, to hsCRP predict MetS in 123 subjects with MetS compared with that in 91 healthy control subjects. MetS subjects had significantly higher hsCRP levels and lower total adiponectin and oligomer levels relative to control subjects (P < .0001). The HMW/total adiponectin and adiponectin/CRP ratios were significantly lower in MetS subjects than control subjects (P < .005). The odds ratio (OR) of MetS using the 75th percentile cutoff for CRP was 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–6.8) and equivalent to low total adiponectin (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3–4.5), its oligomers, or the adiponectin/hsCRP ratio (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5, 4.8). Thus, measurements of CRP, adiponectin, or its oligomers provide robust biomarkers for predicting MetS. PMID:18426744

Devaraj, Sridevi; Swarbrick, Michael M.; Singh, Uma; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Havel, Peter J.; Jialal, Ishwarlal

2009-01-01

21

The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18–25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ?27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml whisky (?32 g alcohol) or water daily for 4 weeks in a randomised, controlled, crossover trial. After each treatment period, muscle biopsies and fasting blood samples were collected. Results Adiponectin concentrations increased (p?HMW adiponectin by 57% (p?=?0.07) and medium molecular weight adiponectin by 12.5% (p?=?0.07), but not low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase and ?-3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (?-HAD) activity were not changed after moderate alcohol consumption, but an interaction between alcohol consumption and BMI was observed for cytochrome c oxidase (p?=?0.072) and citrate synthase (p?=?0.102) activity. Among lean men, moderate alcohol consumption tended to increase cytochrome c oxidase (p?=?0.08) and citrate synthase activity (p?=?0.12) by 23 and 26%, respectively, but not among overweight men. In particular, plasma HMW adiponectin correlated positively with activities of skeletal muscle citrate synthase (r?=?0.64, p?=?0.009), cytochrome c oxidase (p?=?0.59, p?=?0.009) and ?-HAD (r?=?0.46, p?=?0.056), while such correlation was not present for LMW adiponectin. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content were not affected by moderate alcohol consumption. Conclusions/interpretation Moderate alcohol consumption increases adiponectin concentrations, and in particular HMW adiponectin. Concentrations of HMW adiponectin in particular were positively associated with skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. PMID:17492425

Beulens, J. W. J.; van Loon, L. J. C.; Kok, F. J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.

2007-01-01

22

Cilnidipine regulates glucose metabolism and levels of high-molecular adiponectin in diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of the antihypertensive drug cilnidipine on glucose metabolism and adipocytokines, including adiponectin, in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The effects of cilnidipine on insulin sensitivity and the levels of adiponectin in DIO mice were examined after the mice had been treated with cilnidipine dissolved in water at a dose of 0.2?g?l(-1) for 14 days. As expected, treatment with cilnidipine decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in DIO mice, compared with control mice (P<0.05 for each parameter). Cilnidipine treatment improved glucose and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. In addition, cilnidipine treatment dramatically increased the level of adiponectin in white adipose tissue (P<0.05) and the circulating levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in DIO mice (P<0.01 for each parameter). Furthermore, the secretion of HMW adiponectin and the ratio of HMW adiponectin/total adiponectin were both increased after cilnidipine treatment. Finally, the secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes was increased after cilnidipine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that cilnidipine improves insulin tolerance and adiponectin levels, especially high-molecular type adiponectin, in DIO mice. PMID:23051658

Ueno, Daisuke; Masaki, Takayuki; Gotoh, Koto; Chiba, Seiichi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

2013-03-01

23

Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon  

PubMed Central

High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload) have higher levels of 2?h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n?=?4) and without (n?=?5) iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2?h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean?±?SD) at 763?±?298 and 727?±?291?pmol/ml, respectively (p?=?0.91); however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared to controls (30.0?±?6.3 versus 17.0?±?6.6%, respectively; p?=?0.016). Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r?=?0.999, p? adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with metabolic disorders. PMID:24065958

Neely, Benjamin A.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Arthur, John M.; McFee, Wayne E.; Janech, Michael G.

2013-01-01

24

Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with increased circulating total and high molecular weight adiponectin and decreased resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), is associated with a lower risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Whether these benefits are mediated by changes in plasma adipokine concentrations remains to be elucidated. Objective To determine whether adherence to the AHEI is associated with higher plasma total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations and lower concentrations of resistin, as well as biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Design Evaluation of 1922 women from the Nurses’ Health Study, 62% of whom were overweight, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, plasma biomarker concentrations measured in 1990 and data on dietary intake from SFFQs administered in 1984, 1986, and 1990, averaged to account for long-term dietary exposure and reduce within subject variability. Results After adjustment for age and energy intake, women with the highest average adherence to the AHEI had 24% higher median total adiponectin and 32% higher median HMW adiponectin concentrations, as well as 16% lower resistin, 41% lower CRP, 19% lower sE-selectin, 24% lower ferritin concentrations (P<0.01 for all). These associations remained significant after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, and smoking status. Inverse associations between the AHEI and sTNF-?RII, IL-6, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, c-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c were evident, but were not significant after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions The preventive effects of healthier dietary patterns on risk for diabetes and atherosclerosis may be mediated by improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines or other biomarkers of risk for diabetes and CVD. PMID:18996855

Fargnoli, Jessica L.; Fung, Teresa T.; Olenczuk, Deanna M.; Chamberland, John P.; Hu, Frank B.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

2015-01-01

25

THE ASSOCIATION OF SNP276G>T AT ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CIRCULATING ADIPONECTIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN RESPONSE TO MILD WEIGHT LOSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and the features of insulin resistance in response to a weight loss intervention. 294 nondiabetic/overweight-obese Koreans ...

26

T-cadherin is a receptor for hexameric and high-molecular-weight forms of Acrp30/adiponectin.  

PubMed

Acrp30/adiponectin is reduced in the serum of obese and diabetic individuals, and the genetic locus of adiponectin is linked to the metabolic syndrome. Recombinant adiponectin, administered to diet-induced obese mice, induced weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. In muscle and liver, adiponectin stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase activation and fatty acid oxidation. To expression-clone molecules capable of binding adiponectin, we transduced a C2C12 myoblast cDNA retroviral expression library into Ba/F3 cells and panned infected cells on recombinant adiponectin linked to magnetic beads. We identified T-cadherin as a receptor for the hexameric and high-molecular-weight species of adiponectin but not for the trimeric or globular species. Only eukaryotically expressed adiponectin bound to T-cadherin, implying that posttranslational modifications of adiponectin are critical for binding. An adiponectin mutant lacking a conserved N-terminal cysteine residue required for formation of hexamer and high-molecular-weight species did not bind T-cadherin in coimmunoprecipitation studies. Although lacking known cellular functions, T-cadherin is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, where it is positioned to interact with adiponectin. Because T-cadherin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored extracellular protein, it may act as a coreceptor for an as-yet-unidentified signaling receptor through which adiponectin transmits metabolic signals. PMID:15210937

Hug, Christopher; Wang, Jin; Ahmad, Naina Shehzeen; Bogan, Jonathan S; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen; Lodish, Harvey F

2004-07-13

27

Influence of androgens on circulating adiponectin in male and female rodents.  

PubMed

Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5? reducible androgen 17?-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM), gonadectomy (GX), or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05). GX increased total adiponectin by 29-34% in both sexes (p<0.05), while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46-53% below respective SHAMs (p?0.001) and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r = -0.746 and females: r = -0.742, p?0.001); however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p?0.001) in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p?0.001). Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05). In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05). Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r = 0.596, p?0.001) and adult animals (r = 0.657, p?0.001). Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW adiponectin. This change is directionally similar to the androgen-induced lipolytic effects on visceral adiposity and equal in magnitude between TE and TREN, suggesting that neither the aromatization nor the 5? reduction of androgens is required for this effect. PMID:23071783

Yarrow, Joshua F; Beggs, Luke A; Conover, Christine F; McCoy, Sean C; Beck, Darren T; Borst, Stephen E

2012-01-01

28

Influence of Androgens on Circulating Adiponectin in Male and Female Rodents  

PubMed Central

Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5? reducible androgen 17?-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM), gonadectomy (GX), or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05). GX increased total adiponectin by 29–34% in both sexes (p<0.05), while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46–53% below respective SHAMs (p?0.001) and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r?=??0.746 and females: r?=??0.742, p?0.001); however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p?0.001) in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p?0.001). Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05). In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05). Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r?=?0.596, p?0.001) and adult animals (r?=?0.657, p?0.001). Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW adiponectin. This change is directionally similar to the androgen-induced lipolytic effects on visceral adiposity and equal in magnitude between TE and TREN, suggesting that neither the aromatization nor the 5? reduction of androgens is required for this effect. PMID:23071783

Yarrow, Joshua F.; Beggs, Luke A.; Conover, Christine F.; McCoy, Sean C.; Beck, Darren T.; Borst, Stephen E.

2012-01-01

29

Obesity and sex influence insulin resistance and total and multimer adiponectin levels in adult neutered domestic shorthair client-owned cats.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated insulin sensitivity and determined plasma concentrations of total-, low-molecular-weight (LMW), and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin in 72 domestic shorthair, neutered, client-owned cats. Glucose tolerance was assessed with an intravenous glucose tolerance test and body fat percentage (BF%) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total adiponectin was measured with 2 different ELISAs. Low-molecular-weight and HMW adiponectin plasma concentrations were determined by Western blot analysis after sucrose-gradient velocity centrifugation, and the adiponectin multimer ratio [SA = HMW/(HMW + LMW)] was calculated. Differences in glucose tolerance, leptin, total adiponectin, and multimer ratio among lean (BF% <35; n = 26), overweight (35 45; n = 18) cats as well as between male (n = 34) and female (n = 38) neutered cats were evaluated by linear regression and 2-way ANOVA. Sex and age were included as covariates for analysis of BF%, whereas BF%, fat mass, and lean body mass were covariates for analysis of sex differences. Increased BF% was negatively correlated with multimer ratio (SA, r = -45; P < 0.002), whereas no differences were found in total adiponectin concentrations among BF% groups (P > 0.01). Male cats had indices of decreased insulin tolerance and significantly lower total adiponectin concentrations than did female cats (mean ± SEM, 3.7 ± 0.4 vs 5.4 ± 0.5 ?g/mL; P < 0.02). Altered SAs could contribute to an obesity-associated decreasing glucose tolerance in cats, and low total adiponectin concentrations may relate to increased risk of diabetes mellitus in neutered male cats. PMID:24373250

Bjornvad, C R; Rand, J S; Tan, H Y; Jensen, K S; Rose, F J; Armstrong, P J; Whitehead, J P

2014-04-01

30

Abstract A partial promoter region of the high-molecu-lar weight (HMW) glutenin genes was studied in two  

E-print Network

in two wheat specimens, a 300 year-old spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and an approximately 250 year-old bread. aestivum cultivars, whereas in the historical and the recent spelt specific alleles were detected. Pairwise genetic distances up to 0.03 within 200 bp from the HMW Glu-A1-2, Glu-B1-1 and Glu-B1-2 alleles in spelt

Jacomet, Stefanie

31

Dissociation between adipose tissue expression and serum levels of adiponectin during and after diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to examine if dysmetabolic subjects (MetS+) have lower adiponectin gene expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels than non-dysmetabolic obese subjects (MetS?) at baseline, if adiponectin expression and adiponectin concentration rise more in the dysmetabolic group during weight loss, and if v-SNARE Vti1a (vesicle transport soluble NSF attachment protein receptor vps10p tail interacting 1a) expression increases during the

Carl Johan Behre; Anders Gummesson; Margareta Jernås; Theodore C. Lystig; Björn Fagerberg; Björn Carlsson; Lena M. S. Carlsson

2007-01-01

32

Serum adiponectin multimer complexes and liver cancer risk in a large cohort study in Japan.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests a link between adiponectin, an adipocytokine, and liver tumorigenesis. Different multimer complexes of adiponectin, with low-molecular weight (LMW), middle-molecular weight (MMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW), may have different roles. Therefore the present study was performed with the aim of assessing associations between these multimers and liver cancer development. A nested case-control study (59 liver cancer cases [mean age=63.5 years] and 334 controls [62.7 years]) was conducted as a part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study recruiting healthy participants, aged 40-79 years, for the follow-up period from 1988-1990 to 1999. The end point was liver cancer occurrence/death. Serum levels of HMW, MMW and LMW adiponectin were determined at baseline using an ELISA assay. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses comparing the tertile levels of adiponectin multimers showed that the groups stratified with the highest percentage of LMW tended to have lower odds ratios (ORs) than the lowest group (OR adjusted for sex, age and area=0.54 [95%CI: 0.26-1.11] and adjusted for sex, age, area, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, coffee consumption, diabetes history and HCV-antibody positivity =0.50 [95%CI: 0.22-1.15]), albeit without statistical significance (set at p<0.05). Higher percentages of circulating LMW adiponectin may lead to a reduction of liver cancer risk and relationships with multimer composition may merit further study. PMID:20553088

Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wakai, Kenji; Shibata, Akira; Fujita, Yuki; Ogimoto, Itsuro; Naito, Mariko; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

2009-12-01

33

Adiponectin levels do not change with moderate dietary induced weight loss and exercise in obese postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in adiponectin levels with moderate weight loss, weight loss plus aerobic exercise, or weight loss plus resistive exercise in overweight and obese, sedentary postmenopausal women.DESIGN: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study of 6-month (3 × \\/week) program of either weight loss (WL, n=15), weight loss + aerobic exercise (WL+AEX, n=16), or weight

A S Ryan; B J Nicklas; D M Berman; D Elahi

2003-01-01

34

Abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary school children, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed during annual health examinations of school children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan. Methods Subjects were all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005–2008 (N?=?1675). The height, weight, percent body fat, and waist circumference (WC) of each subject were measured. Blood samples were drawn from subjects to measure adiponectin isoform values. Childhood abdominal obesity was defined as “a waist-to-height ratio greater than or equal to 0.5” or “a WC greater than or equal to 75 cm”. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between abdominal obesity and each adiponectin isoform value. Results Data from 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. Adiponectin complexes were lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. Abdominal obesity significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for each adiponectin isoform level less than or equal to the median value in boys; the OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.50 (1.59-3.92) for high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adn), 2.47 (1.57-3.88) for medium molecular weight adiponectin (MMW-adn), and 1.75 (1.13-2.70) for low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-adn). In girls, the OR (95% CI) was 1.95 (1.18-3.21) for HMW-adn, 1.40 (0.86-2.28) for MMW-adn, and 1.06 (0.65-1.70) for LMW-adn. Conclusions Abdominal obesity was associated with lower adiponectin complexes and the influence of abdominal obesity varied by adiponectin isoform. Furthermore, the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls. The present study results suggest that prevention of abdominal obesity could contribute to the prevention of lower adiponectin levels, especially in boys. PMID:24670108

2014-01-01

35

Increases in ghrelin and decreases in leptin without altering adiponectin during extreme weight loss in male competitive bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate responses of ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin to a weight reduction period of 10 weeks in male subjects with high lean body mass and low body fat values. Fourteen male bodybuilders (7 competitors: 28.3 ± 10.3 years, 175.3 ± 5.4 cm, 82.2 ± 9.3 kg; 7 controls: 22.4 ± 3.0 years, 182.4 ±

Jarek Mäestu; Jaak Jürimäe; Ivo Valter; Toivo Jürimäe

2008-01-01

36

Resistin and Adiponectin Expression in Visceral Fat of Obese Rats: Effect of Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity-related insulin resistance is closely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Several adipocyte-secreted molecules have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes, among them, the recently discovered adiponectin and resistin proteins. Some of these adipocytokines are also present in the immune system, thus suggesting an intriguing functional connection.Research Methods and Procedures: We determined adiponectin and resistin expressions in

Gabriella Milan; Marnie Granzotto; Alessandro Scarda; Alessandra Calcagno; Claudio Pagano; Giovanni Federspil; Roberto Vettor

2002-01-01

37

Adiponectin Isoforms Differentially Affect Gene Expression and the Lipidome of Primary Human Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (APN) exerts multiple beneficial effects in obesity and protects from liver injury. Different APN isoforms circulate in serum, and here, the effect of low molecular weight (LMW) and higher molecular weight (HMW) APN on primary human hepatocytes (PHH) has been analyzed. APN is not detected in hepatocyte lysates; levels are strongly increased by HMW-APN, but not by LMW-APN, suggesting the distinct uptake/degradation of APN isoforms by PHH. Several genes with a role in fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism known to be regulated by HMW-APN are not affected by the LMW-isoform. Follistatin is reduced by HMW-APN and induced by LMW-APN in supernatants of PHH. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is repressed by both isoforms. Cellular triglycerides and cholesterol levels are not reduced by APN. Total phospholipids, including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins, are not changed upon APN incubation, while distinct species are either induced or repressed. Unexpectedly, total ceramide is increased by LMW-APN. Current data show that APN isoforms differentially affect hepatocyte gene expression, but do not grossly alter the hepatocyte lipidome. PMID:24957032

Wanninger, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Voggenreiter, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Weiss, Thomas S.; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

2014-01-01

38

Characterization of adiponectin concentrations and molecular weight forms in serum, seminal plasma, and ovarian follicular fluid from cattle.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (AdipoQ), an adipocyte-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant adipokines in the blood circulation. Adiponectin has various metabolic functions, such as improving insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents. The role of AdipoQ in reproduction is not yet fully understood, but the expression of AdipoQ in reproductive tissues has been observed in various animals and humans, including chicken testis, bovine ovary, and human placenta. The objective of this study was to characterize AdipoQ in the bovine body fluids related to reproduction. Therefore, we evaluated the seminal plasma (SP) from breeding bulls (n = 29) and follicular fluid (FF) from heifers (n = 14), and we also collected blood samples from these animals. In addition, blood samples from other bulls (n = 30) and heifers (n = 14) were assayed for AdipoQ. The concentrations were assessed using a bovine-specific ELISA, and the molecular weight (MW) pattern of the AdipoQ protein was estimated by the Western blot analysis. The SP AdipoQ concentrations were approximately 180-fold lower compared with that in the serum concentrations. Furthermore, the AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP were positively correlated. The MW patterns of AdipoQ in the serum and SP were different such that the high MW form of AdipoQ was more abundant in the SP than serum. The AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP also increased with age: old bulls (>6 years) had higher AdipoQ concentrations in the serum and SP than bulls aged 24 months or lesser (P < 0.05). In the FF, the AdipoQ concentrations were 1.6-fold lower than those in the corresponding serum samples, and the concentrations in the serum and FF were not correlated (P > 0.1). In the FF, only the middle MW forms of AdipoQ were detectable by Western blotting. The MW pattern in the serum did not differ between the sexes. Our data provide both the AdipoQ concentration and the MW patterns for bovine body fluids related to reproduction. PMID:25468552

Heinz, Johanna F L; Singh, Shiva P; Janowitz, Ulrich; Hoelker, Michael; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Sauerwein, Helga

2015-02-01

39

Human High Molecular Weight Melanoma-Associated Antigen (HMW-MAA) Mimicry by Mouse Anti-Idiotypic Monoclonal Antibody MK2-23: Induction of Humoral Anti-HMW-MAA Immunity and Prolongation of Survival in Patients with Stage IV Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five patients with stage IV melanoma were immunized with the mouse anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mAb) MK2-23 (2 mg per injection), which bears the internal image of the determinant defined by anti-HMW-MAA mAb 763.74. Two patients were inevaluable, since they did not complete 4 weeks of therapy. Only 14 patients developed antibodies that were shown by serological and immunochemical assays to

Abraham Mittelman; Zhi Jian Chen; Hong Yang; George Y. Wong; Soldano Ferrone

1992-01-01

40

Differential transendothelial transport of adiponectin complexes  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin’s effects on systemic physiology and cell-specific responses are well-defined, but little is known about how this insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory adipokine reaches its target cells. All molecules face active and passive transport limitations, but adiponectin is particularly noteworthy due to the diverse size range and high molecular weights of its oligomers. Additionally, its metabolic target organs possess a range of endothelial permeability. Methods Full-length recombinant murine adiponectin was produced and oligomer fractions isolated by gel filtration. Adiponectin complex sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering to determine Stokes radii. Transendothelial transport of purified oligomers was quantitatively assessed under a number of different conditions in vitro using murine endothelial cells and in vivo using several mouse models of altered endothelial function. Results Adiponectin oligomers exhibit large transport radii that limit transendothelial transport. Oligomerization is a significant determinant of flux across endothelial monolayers in vitro; low molecular weight adiponectin is preferentially transported. In vivo sampled sera from the heart, liver, and tail vein demonstrated significantly different complex distribution of lower molecular weight oligomers. Pharmacological interventions, such as PPAR? agonist treatment, differentially affect adiponectin plasma clearance and tissue uptake. Exercise induces enhanced adiponectin uptake to oxidative skeletal muscles, wherein adiponectin potently lowers ceramide levels. In total, endothelial barriers control adiponectin transport in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Conclusions Adiponectin oligomer efficacy in a given tissue may therefore be endothelial transport mediated. Targeting endothelial dysfunction in the metabolic syndrome through exercise and pharmaceuticals may afford an effective approach to increasing adiponectin’s beneficial effects. PMID:24552349

2014-01-01

41

Porcine Adiponectin Receptor 1 Transgene Resists High-fat/Sucrose Diet-Induced Weight Gain, Hepatosteatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin and its receptors have been demonstrated to play important roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease are highly correlated with down-regulated adiponectin signaling. In this study, we generated mice overexpressing the porcine Adipor1 transgene (pAdipor1) to study its beneficial effects in metabolic syndromes as expressed in diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Wild-type (WT) and pAdipor1 transgenic mice were fed ad libitum with a standard chow diet (Chow) or a high-fat/sucrose diet (HFSD) for 24 weeks, beginning at 6 to 7 weeks of age. There were 12 mice per genetic/diet/sex group. When challenged with HFSD to induce obesity, the pAdipor1 transgenic mice resisted development of weight gain, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. These mice had lowered plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and glycerol concentrations compared to WT mice. Moreover, we found that (indicated by mRNA levels) fatty acid oxidation was enhanced in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and liver lipogenesis was inhibited. The pAdipor1 transgene also restored HFSD-reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose transporter 4 mRNA in the adipose tissues, implying that the increased Pck1 may promote glyceroneogenesis to reduce glucose intolerance and thus activate the flux of glyceride-glycerol to resist diet-induced weight gain in the adipose tissues. Taken together, we demonstrated that pAdipor1 can prevent diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance. Our findings may provide potential therapeutic strategies for treating metabolic syndromes and obesity, such as treatment with an ADIPOR1 agonist or activation of Adipor1 downstream targets. PMID:24172199

Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Ya-Chin; Huang, Chao-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chien; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Mersmann, Harry J.; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Ding, Shih-Torng

2013-01-01

42

Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants.Subjects/Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10<weight for length percentile<85) who were between 2 and 5 months of age were enrolled. Anthropometric indices of infants and mothers were measured by routine methods. Breast milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.Results:The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50?pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00?pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04?ng/ml) and without (0/038?ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P>0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups.Conclusions:This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.205. PMID:25351650

Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

2014-11-01

43

Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes

Gregory L. Florant; Heather Porst; Aubrey Peiffer; Susan F. Hudachek; Chris Pittman; Scott A. Summers; Michael W. Rajala; Philipp E. Scherer

2004-01-01

44

Characterizing HMW-GS alleles of decaploid Agropyron elongatum in relation to evolution and wheat breeding.  

PubMed

Bread wheat quality is mainly correlated with high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of endosperm. The number of HMW-GS alleles with good processing quality is limited in bread wheat cultivars, while there are plenty of HMW-GS alleles in wheat-related grasses to exploit. We report here on the cloning and characterization of HMW-GS alleles from the decaploid Agropyron elongatum. Eleven novel HMW-GS alleles were cloned from the grass. Of them, five are x-type and six y-type glutenin subunit genes. Three alleles Aex4, Aey7, and Aey9 showed high similarity with another three alleles from the diploid Lophopyrum elongatum, which provided direct evidence for the Ee genome origination of A. elongatum. It was noted that C-terminal regions of three alleles of the y-type genes Aey8, Aey9, and Aey10 showed more similarity with x-type genes than with other y-type genes. This demonstrates that there is a kind of intermediate state that appeared in the divergence between x- and y-type genes in the HMW-GS evolution. One x-type subunit, Aex4, with an additional cysteine residue, was speculated to be correlated with the good processing quality of wheat introgression lines. Aey4 was deduced to be a chimeric gene from the recombination between another two genes. How the HMW-GS genes of A. elongatum may contribute to the improvement of wheat processing quality are discussed. PMID:17992503

Liu, Shuwei; Gao, Xin; Xia, Guangmin

2008-02-01

45

Structural variation and evolutionary relationship of novel HMW glutenin subunits from Elymus glaucus.  

PubMed

High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GS) are important seed storage proteins relevant to the end-use quality of wheat and other cereal crops. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel HMW-GS alleles (1St 1.4 and 1St1.1) from the perennial Triticeae species Elymus glaucus. The amino acid (aa) sequences of E. glaucus 1St1.4 and 1St1.1 were predicted as 434 aa and 358 aa, respectively. Both subunits comprise a signal peptide with a conserved N-terminal domain, a central repetitive domain and a C-terminal domain. Elymus glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 exhibit several distinct characteristics different from other known HMW-GSs. The lengths of repetitive domains in E. glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 are substantially smaller than those of other known HMW-GSs, in which 1St1.1 (only 358 aa) is the smallest subunit identified so far. The N-terminal domains of E. glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 are homologous to y-type subunits, whereas their C-terminal domains are similar to x-type subunits. Our results indicate that E. glaucus 1St 1.4 and 1St1.1 are novel HMW-GS variants or isoforms, and the characterization of both subunits can enhance our understanding on the structural differentiation and evolutionary relationship of HMW-GSs in Triticeae species. PMID:20626769

Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Pu, Zhi-En; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Zheng, You-Liang

2010-06-01

46

Cardiometabolic effects of adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, adiponectin has been studied in more than eleven thousand publications. A classical adipokine, adiponectin was among the first factors secreted from adipose tissue that were found to promote metabolic function. Circulating levels of adiponectin consistently decline with increasing body mass index. Clinical and basic science studies have identified adiponectin’s cardiovascular-protective actions, providing a mechanistic link to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in obese individuals. While progress has been made in identifying receptors essential for the metabolic actions of adiponectin (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), few studies have examined the receptor-mediated signaling pathways in cardiovascular tissues. T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored adiponectin-binding protein, was recently identified as critical for the cardiac-protective and revascularization actions of adiponectin. Adiponectin is abundantly present on the surfaces of vascular and muscle tissues through a direct interaction with T-cadherin. Consistent with this observation, adiponectin is absent from T-cadherin-deficient tissues. Since T-cadherin lacks an intracellular domain, additional studies would further our understanding of this signaling pathway. Here, we review the diverse cardiometabolic actions of adiponectin. PMID:24417948

Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Walsh, Kenneth

2014-01-01

47

CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ADIPONECTIN MULTIMERS INCREASE FOLLOWING ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS SURGERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to weight loss, bariatric surgery for severe obesity has been reported to rapidly improve insulin sensitivity, often leading to a sustained resolution of type-2 diabetes mellitus 1. This effect has been proposed to result from the marked early restriction of food intake and/or increased ...

48

Fat-cell mass, serum leptin and adiponectin changes during weight gain and loss in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).  

PubMed

Leptin and adiponectin are proteins produced and secreted from white adipose tissue and are important regulators of energy balance and insulin sensitivity. Seasonal changes in leptin and adiponectin have not been investigated in mammalian hibernators in relationship to changes in fat cell and fat mass. We sought to determine the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with seasonal changes in lipid mass. We collected serum and tissue samples from marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in different seasons while measuring changes in fat mass, including fat-cell size. We found that leptin is positively associated with increasing fat mass and fat-cell size, while adiponectin is negatively associated with increasing lipid mass. These findings are consistent with the putative roles of these adipokines: leptin increases with fat mass and is involved in enhancing lipid oxidation while adiponectin appears to be higher in summer when hepatic insulin sensitivity should be maintained since the animals are eating. Our data suggest that during autumn/winter animals have switched from a lipogenic condition to a lipolytic state, which may include leptin resistance. PMID:15517283

Florant, Gregory L; Porst, Heather; Peiffer, Aubrey; Hudachek, Susan F; Pittman, Chris; Summers, Scott A; Rajala, Michael W; Scherer, Philipp E

2004-11-01

49

Adiponectin oligomers in human serum during acute and chronic exercise: relation to lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.  

PubMed

Beneficial effects of physical exercise include improved insulin sensitivity, which may be affected by a modulated release of adiponectin, which is exclusively synthesized in white adipose tissue and mediates insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers, which also have a distinct biological function. We therefore aimed to investigate the distribution of adiponectin oligomers in human serum in relation to physical activity. Thirty-eight lean and healthy individuals were investigated. Seven healthy women and 8 healthy men volunteered to investigate the effect of chronic exercise, at 3 different time points with different training intensities. These individuals were all highly trained and were compared to a control group with low physical activity (n = 15). For studying acute exercise effects, 8 healthy men participated in a bicycle test. Adiponectin was determined by ELISA, oligomers were detected by non-denaturating western blot. Total adiponectin and oligomers were unchanged by acute exercise. LDL cholesterol was significantly lower in the chronic exercise group (p = 0.03). Total adiponectin levels and oligomers were not different between these two groups and were unaltered by different training intensities. However, total adiponectin and specifically HMW oligomers correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.459; p = 0.009). We conclude that acute and chronic exercise does not directly affect circulating adiponectin or oligomer distribution in lean and healthy individuals. Whether such regulation is relevant in individuals with a metabolic disorder remains to be determined. However, our data suggest that adiponectin oligomers have distinct physiological functions IN VIVO, and specifically HMW adiponectin is closely correlated with HDL cholesterol. PMID:17133288

Bobbert, T; Wegewitz, U; Brechtel, L; Freudenberg, M; Mai, K; Möhlig, M; Diederich, S; Ristow, M; Rochlitz, H; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J

2007-01-01

50

The Role of Adiponectin in Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence  

PubMed Central

Excess body weight is associated not only with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also with various types of malignancies. Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, exhibits insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, proapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties. Circulating adiponectin levels, which are determined predominantly by genetic factors, diet, physical activity, and abdominal adiposity, are decreased in patients with diabetes, CVD, and several obesity-associated cancers. Also, adiponectin levels are inversely associated with the risk of developing diabetes, CVD, and several malignancies later in life. Many cancer cell lines express adiponectin receptors, and adiponectin in vitro limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Recent in vitro studies demonstrate the antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties of adiponectin. Studies in both animals and humans have investigated adiponectin and adiponectin receptor regulation and expression in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role of adiponectin as a novel risk factor and potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer. In addition, either adiponectin per se or medications that increase adiponectin levels or up-regulate signaling pathways downstream of adiponectin may prove to be useful anticancer agents. This review presents the role of adiponectin in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and examines the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the association between adiponectin and malignancy in the context of a dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. Understanding of these mechanisms may be important for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against obesity-associated malignancies. PMID:22547160

Dalamaga, Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope N.

2012-01-01

51

RESISTANCE TRAINING INCREASES SERUM ADIPONECTIN IN OLDER ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adiponectin, a circulating hormone secreted exclusively by fat cells, is reduced with obesity and insulin resistance. Low serum adiponectin is a predictor of type 2 diabetes risk. Weight loss increases adiponectin but little is known about its responsiveness to exercise. Resistance training improves...

52

Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia adhesins of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae mediate broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous strains.  

PubMed

The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

Winter, Linda E; Barenkamp, Stephen J

2014-05-01

53

Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia Adhesins of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Mediate Broad-Based Opsonophagocytic Killing of Homologous and Heterologous Strains  

PubMed Central

The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

Winter, Linda E.

2014-01-01

54

Novel variants of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops section Sitopsis species in relation to evolution and wheat breeding  

PubMed Central

Background High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), encoded by the genes at Glu-1 loci in wheat and its related species, are significant in the determination of grain processing quality. However, the diversity and variations of HMW-GSs are relatively low in bread wheat. More interests are now focused on wheat wild relatives in Triticeae. The genus Aegilops represents an important germplasm for novel HWM-GSs and other useful genes for wheat genetic improvement. Results Six novel Glu-1 alleles and HMW-GSs were identified and characterized from three species of Aegilops section Sitopsis (S genome). Both open reading frames (ORFs) and promoter regions of these Glu-1 alleles were sequenced and characterized. The ORFs of Sitopsis Glu-1 genes are approximately 2.9?kb and 2.3?kb for x-type and y-type subunits, respectively. Although the primary structures of Sitopsis HMW-GSs are similar to those of previously reported ones, all six x-type or y-type subunits have the large fragment insertions. Our comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences verified that Aegilops section Sitopsis species encode novel HMW-GSs with their molecular weights larger than almost all other known HMW-GSs. The Glu-1 promoter sequences share the high homology among S genome. Our phylogenetic analyses by both network and NJ tree indicated that there is a close phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of x-type and y-type subunit between S and D genome. Conclusions The large molecular weight of HMW-GSs from S genome is a unique feature identified in this study. Such large subunits are resulted from the duplications of repetitive domains in Sitopsis HMW-GSs. The unequal crossover events are the most likely mechanism of variations in glutenin subunits. The S genome-encoded subunits, 1Dx2.2 and 1Dx2.2* have independent origins, although they share similar evolutionary mechanism. As HMW-GSs play a key role in wheat baking quality, these large Sitopsis glutenin subunits can be used as special genetic resources for wheat quality improvement. PMID:22646663

2012-01-01

55

High frequency of HMW-GS sequence variation through somatic hybridization between Agropyron elongatum and common wheat.  

PubMed

A symmetric somatic hybridization was performed to combine the protoplasts of tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Fertile regenerants were obtained which were morphologically similar to tall wheatgrass, but which contained some introgression segments from wheat. An SDS-PAGE analysis showed that a number of non-parental high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were present in the symmetric somatic hybridization derivatives. These sequences were amplified, cloned and sequenced, to deliver 14 distinct HMW-GS coding sequences, eight of which were of the y-type (Hy1-Hy8) and six x-type (Hx1-Hx6). Five of the cloned HMW-GS sequences were successfully expressed in E. coli. The analysis of their deduced peptide sequences showed that they all possessed the typical HMW-GS primary structure. Sequence alignments indicated that Hx5 and Hy1 were probably derived from the tall wheatgrass genes Aex5 and Aey6, while Hy2, Hy3, Hx1 and Hy6 may have resulted from slippage in the replication of a related biparental gene. We found that both symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization could promote the emergence of novel alleles. We discussed the origination of allelic variation of HMW-GS genes in somatic hybridization, which might be the result from the response to genomic shock triggered by the merger and interaction of biparent genomes. PMID:19902245

Gao, Xin; Liu, Shu Wei; Sun, Qun; Xia, Guang Min

2010-01-01

56

Characteristics and potential functions of human milk adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low molecular weight trimer to the high molecular weight octodecamer (18mer) Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control, and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high molecular weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breastfed infant was observed, and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin, and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breastfeeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breastfed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:20105665

Newburg, David S; Woo, Jessica G.; Morrow, Ardythe L

2010-01-01

57

Variations of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in autistic patients.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with pathogenesis not completely understood. Although a genetic origin has been recognized, it has been hypothesized a role for environmental factors, immune dysfunctions, and alterations of neurotransmitter systems. In young autistic patients we investigated plasma leptin and adiponectin levels over a year period. Thirty-five patients, mean age at the basal time 14.1+/-5.4 years, were enrolled. Controls were 35 healthy subjects, sex and age matched. Blood samples were withdrawn in the morning at the baseline and 1 year after. In patients leptin concentrations significantly increased, while adiponectin did not significantly change. Leptin values in patients were significantly higher than those found in controls at each time; adiponectin values did not differ at each time between patients and controls. Since patients were not obese, we could hypothesize that leptin might participate to clinical manifestations other than weight balance. The role of adiponectin in autism is still debatable. PMID:20478355

Blardi, Patrizia; de Lalla, Arianna; Ceccatelli, Linda; Vanessa, Guerri; Auteri, Alberto; Hayek, Joseph

2010-07-19

58

Spelt-specific alleles in HMW glutenin genes from modern and historical European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial promoter region of the high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin genes was studied in two wheat specimens, a 300 year-old\\u000a spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and an approximately 250 year-old bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Switzerland. Sequences were compared to a recent Swiss landrace T. spelta ’Oberkulmer.’ The alleles from the historical bread wheat were most similar to those of

Robert H. E. Blatter; Stefanie Jacomet; Angela Schlumbaum

2002-01-01

59

Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000 ?g/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0–24h),we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose–response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-?g/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. PMID:23892310

Angle, Brittany M.; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Drury, Bertram E.; Nagel, Susan C.; Welshons, Wade V.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.

2013-01-01

60

Leptin and Adiponectin Responses in Overweight Inactive Elderly following Resistance Training and Detraining Are Intensity Related  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Adiponectin and leptin are closely related to weight control and energy balance, whereas exercise affects elderly metabolic reg- ulation and functional capacity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate leptin and adiponectin responses in elderly males after exercise training and detraining.

I. G. Fatouros; S. Tournis; D. Leontsini; A. Z. Jamurtas; M. Sxina; P. Thomakos; M. Manousaki; K. Taxildaris; A. Mitrakou

2010-01-01

61

Adiponectin: A biomarker of obesity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.\\u000a Adiponectin is an adipocytederived hormone that is implicated in several metabolic pathways that may be relevant for the development\\u000a for CVD. Several features make adiponectin an attractive marker for cardiovascular risk, including the ability to manipulate\\u000a adiponectin levels through medication, lifestyle, and diet.

Tobias Pischon

2008-01-01

62

Lactation driven dynamics of adiponectin supply from different fat depots to circulation in cows.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue (AT) depots are heterogeneous in terms of morphology and adipocyte metabolism. Adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipokines, is known for its insulin sensitizing effects and its role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Little is known about the presence of adiponectin protein in visceral (vc) and subcutaneous (sc) AT depots. We assessed serum adiponectin and adiponectin protein concentrations and the molecular weight forms in vc (mesenterial, omental, and retroperitoneal) and sc (sternum, tail-head, and withers) AT of primiparous dairy cows during early lactation. Primiparous German Holstein cows (n = 25) were divided into a control (CON) and a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. From day 1 of lactation until slaughter, CLA cows were fed 100 g of a CLA supplement/d (approximately 6% of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100 g of a fatty acid mixture/d instead of CLA. Blood samples from all animals were collected from 3 wk before calving until slaughter on day 1 (n = 5, CON cows), 42 (n = 5 each of CON and CLA cows), and 105 (n = 5 each of CON and CLA cows) of lactation when samples from different AT depots were obtained. Adiponectin was measured in serum and tissue by ELISA. In all AT depots adiponectin concentrations were lowest on day 1 than on day 42 and day 105, and circulating adiponectin reached a nadir around parturition. Retroperitoneal AT had the lowest adiponectin concentrations; however, when taking total depot mass into consideration, the portion of circulating adiponectin was higher in vc than sc AT. Serum adiponectin was positively correlated with adiponectin protein concentrations but not with the mRNA abundance in all fat depots. The CLA supplementation did not affect adiponectin concentrations in AT depots. Furthermore, inverse associations between circulating adiponectin and measures of body condition (empty body weight, back fat thickness, and vc AT mass) were observed. In all AT depots at each time, adiponectin was present as high (approximately 300 kDa) and medium (approximately 150 kDa) molecular weight complexes similar to that of the blood serum. These data suggest differential contribution of AT depots to circulating adiponectin. PMID:24462180

Singh, S P; Häussler, S; Heinz, J F L; Akter, S H; Saremi, B; Müller, U; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H

2014-04-01

63

Characterisation of adiponectin and its receptors in the bovine mammary gland and in milk.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which circulates in the form of homo-multimers. The individual oligomers have a distinct profile of activity, playing crucial roles in several biological processes, including metabolism and inflammation. Adiponectin exerts many of its effects by interacting with the receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In the present study, mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was evaluated by quantitative PCR in different areas of the mammary gland in healthy lactating cows. The adiponectin isoforms in milk and blood were investigated by Western blotting and 2D-electrophoresis, and the presence of adiponectin protein was determined by immunohistochemistry. Low level expression of adiponectin mRNA was found in all areas of bovine mammary gland tissues examined. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs were also detected in mammary tissues and their expression was particularly prominent in the parenchyma and cistern. Western blotting revealed a heterogeneous electrophoretic pattern, indicating that different adiponectin isoforms exist in milk, compared with blood. In particular, milk shows a low molecular weight isoform of adiponectin, corresponding to the globular domain. Adiponectin in milk is characterised by a more complex 2D electrophoretic pattern, compared with blood, as illustrated by the presence of proteins of different molecular weights and isoelectric points. Adiponectin protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells lining the secretory alveoli, in secretum within the alveolar lumen and in small peripheral nerves. The study findings support a role for adiponectin in regulating metabolism and immunity of the bovine mammary gland and potentially the calf intestine, following ingestion of milk. PMID:25676879

Lecchi, Cristina; Giudice, Chiara; Uggč, Martina; Scarafoni, Alessio; Baldi, Antonella; Sartorelli, Paola

2015-03-01

64

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADIPONECTIN, INSULIN RESISTANCE, AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer; however, weight alone does not account for all cases. The authors hypothesized that insulin resistance also contributes to an increased risk for endometrial cancer. Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipose...

65

Author's personal copy Chemical and isotopic composition of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Chemical and isotopic composition of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in the mixing zone of the Mississippi River and transported in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) or colloidal phase

Guo, Laodong

66

Intra- and interpopulation diversity for HMW glutenin subunits in Spanish spelt wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of HMW glutenin subunits in spelt wheat, Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta, was studied electrophoretically in 333 accessions grouped in 50 populations originally collected from Asturias, North of Spain, in 1939. The inter- and intra-population distribution of HMW glutenin alleles at the Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci were investigated. The results show that the genetic variation in HMW glutenin

L. Caballero; L. M. Martin; J. B. Alvarez

2004-01-01

67

Genomic regions influencing gene expression of the HMW glutenins in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) produces glutenin storage proteins in the endosperm. The HMW glutenins confer distinct viscoelastic properties to bread\\u000a dough. The genetics of HMW glutenin proteins have been extensively studied, and information has accumulated about individual\\u000a subunits, chromosomal locations and DNA sequences, but little is known about the regulators of the HMW glutenins. This investigation\\u000a addressed the question

Eric W. Storlie; Robert J. Ihry; Leslie M. Baehr; Karissa A. Tieszen; Jonathan H. Engbers; Jordan M. Anderson-Daniels; Elizabeth M. Davis; Anne G. Gilbertson; Niels R. Harden; Kristina A. Harris; Amanda J. Johnson; Amy M. Kerkvleit; Matthew M. Moldan; Megan E. Bell; Michael K. Wanous

2009-01-01

68

Plasma adiponectin distribution in a Mediterranean population and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin may play an important role in the regulation of body weight, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of adiponectin in a Mediterranean adult population and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 1023 subjects from a Spanish Mediterranean

Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Marisa Granada; Mņnica Bulló; Augusto Corominas; Patricia Casas; Mąrius Foz

2007-01-01

69

ADIPONECTIN SIGNALING IN THE LIVER  

PubMed Central

High glucose production contributes to fed and fasted hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The breakdown of the adiponectin signaling pathway in T1D and the reduction of circulating adiponectin in T2D contribute to this abnormal increase in glucose production. Sufficient amounts of insulin could compensate for the loss of adiponectin signaling in T1D and T2D and reduce hyperglycemia. However, the combination of low adiponectin signaling and high insulin resembles an insulin resistance state associated with cardiovascular disease and decreased life expectancy. Future development of medications that correct the deficiency of adiponectin signaling in the liver could restore the metabolic balance in T1D and T2D and reduce the need for insulin. This article reviews the adiponectin signaling pathway in the liver through T-cadherin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, AMPK, ceramidase activity, APPL1 and the recently discovered Suppressor Of Glucose from Autophagy (SOGA). PMID:24297186

Combs, Terry P.; Marliss, Errol B.

2014-01-01

70

Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of a y-type inactive HMW glutenin subunit gene from cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum L.).  

PubMed

Cultivated emmer (Triticum dicoccum, 2n = 4x = 28, AABB) is closely related to bread wheat and possesses extensive allelic variations in high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition. These alleles may be an important genetic resource for wheat quality improvement. To isolate and clone HMW-GS genes from cultivated emmer, two pairs of allele-specific (AS) PCR primers were designed to amplify the coding sequence of y-type HMW-GS genes and their upstream sequences, respectively. The results showed that single bands of strong amplification were obtained through AS-PCR of genomic DNA from emmer. After cloning and sequencing the complete sequence of coding and 5'-flanking regions of a y-type subunit gene at Glu-A1 locus was obtained. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences analysis showed that this gene possessed a similar structure as the previously reported Ay gene from common wheat, and is hence designated as Ay1d. The distinct feature of the Ay1d gene is that its coding region contains four stop codons and its upstream region has a 85-bp deletion in the same position of the Ay gene, which are probably responsible for the silencing of y-type subunit genes at Glu-A1 locus. Phylogenetic analysis of HMW glutenin subunit genes from different Triticum species and genomes were also carried out. PMID:15383071

Sun, Minmin; Yan, Yueming; Jiang, Yi; Xiao, Yinghua; Hu, Yingkao; Cai, Minhua; Li, Yaxuan; Hsam, Sai L K; Zeller, Friedrich J

2004-01-01

71

HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat ( Triticum spelta L.) progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelic compositions of high- and low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenins (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) among European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.) and related hexaploid and tetraploid Triticum species were investigated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). A total of seven novel glutenin alleles (designated A1a*, B1d*, B1g*, B1f*, B1j*, D1a* at Glu-1 and A3h at the

Y. Yan; S. L. K. Hsam; J. Z. Yu; Y. Jiang; I. Ohtsuka; F. J. Zeller

2003-01-01

72

Adiponectin: a manifold therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary disease?  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, being a key component in the interrelationship between adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Central obesity accompanied by insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and future macrovascular complications. Moreover, the remarkable correlation between coronary artery disease (CAD) and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the likelihood that atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may share a common biological background. We summarize here the current knowledge about the influence of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, discussing its forthcoming prospects and potential role as a therapeutic target for MS, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is present in the circulation as a dimer, trimer or protein complex of high molecular weight hexamers, >400 kDa. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are its major receptors in vivo mediating the metabolic actions. Adiponectin stimulates phosphorylation and AMP (adenosin mono phosphate) kinase activation, exerting direct effects on vascular endothelium, diminishing the inflammatory response to mechanical injury and enhancing endothelium protection in cases of apolipoprotein E deficiency. Hypoadiponectinemia is consistently associated with obesity, MS, atherosclerosis, CAD, T2DM. Lifestyle correction helps to favorably modify plasma adiponectin levels. Low adiponectinemia in obese patients is raised via continued weight loss programs in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals and is also accompanied by reductions in pro-inflammatory factors. Diet modifications, like intake of fish, omega-3 supplementation, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and coffee consumption also increase adiponectin levels. Antidiabetic and cardiovascular pharmacological agents, like glitazones, glimepiride, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are also able to improve adiponectin concentration. Fibric acid derivatives, like bezafibrate and fenofibrate, have been reported to enhance adiponectin levels as well. T-cadherin, a membrane-associated adiponectin-binding protein lacking intracellular domain seems to be a main mediator of the antiatherogenic adiponectin actions. The finding of novel pharmacologic agents proficient to improve adiponectin plasma levels should be target of exhaustive research. Interesting future approaches could be the development of adiponectin-targeted drugs chemically designed to induce the activaton of its receptors and/or postreceptor signaling pathways, or the development of specific adiponectin agonists. PMID:24957699

2014-01-01

73

Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.  

PubMed

To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. PMID:22306535

Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

2012-12-01

74

About the origin of European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.): allelic differentiation of the HMW Glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 subunit genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the origin of European spelt (Triticum spelta L., genome AABBDD) and its relation to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD), we analysed an approximately 1-kb sequence, including a part of the promoter and the coding region, of the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin B1-1 and A1-2 subunit genes in 58 accessions of hexa- and tetraploid wheat from different geographical regions.

R. H. E. Blatter; S. Jacomet; A. Schlumbaum

2004-01-01

75

Analysis of HMW glutenin subunits encoded by chromosome 1A of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) indicates quantitative effects on grain quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit of glutenin 1Ax1 was isolated from bread wheat cv Hope. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that previously reported for an allelic subunit, 1Ax2*, showed only minor differences, which were consistent with both subunits being associated with good bread-making quality. Quantitative analyses of total protein extracts from 22 cultivars of bread

N. G. Halford; J. M. Field; H. Blair; P. Urwin; K. Moore; L. Robert; R. Thompson; R. B. Flavell; A. S. Tatham; P. R. Shewry

1992-01-01

76

Differential Effects of Leptin and Adiponectin in Endothelial Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed “adipokines” have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor) and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis). Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-?? and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity. PMID:25650072

Adya, Raghu; Tan, Bee K.; Randeva, Harpal S.

2015-01-01

77

Adiponectin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by counteracting angiotensin II.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and vasoprotective properties. Epidemiology studies have, however, shown that high levels of serum adiponectin are associated with kidney disease progression. We, therefore, examined the effect of adiponectin administration on the progression of glomerulosclerosis in the obese diabetic (db/db) mouse, a model of type II diabetes. Recombinant human adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 or 150 ?g per day from weeks 18 to 20. Rosiglitazone administered by gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily served as a therapeutic control. Untreated uninephrectomized db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerular matrix expansion, associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), collagen I (Col I), and fibronectin (FN). Treatment with adiponectin at either dose reduced the increases in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis seen in db/db mice, without affecting BW and blood glucose. Renal expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and urinary TNF-? levels, the markers of renal inflammation, were increased in diabetic mice, whereas adiponectin treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Furthermore, adiponectin obliterated the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), but not the total effect of TGF?1, on the mRNA expression of PAI-1, Col I, and FN by cultured glomerular mesangial cells. These observations suggest that adiponectin treatment reduces glomerulosclerosis resulting from type II diabetes probably through its anti-inflammatory and angiotensin-antagonistic effects. Thus, adiponectin has therapeutic implications in the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24744899

Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Guangyu; Guo, Meizi; Cheung, Alfred K; Huang, Yufeng; Beddhu, Srinivasan

2014-02-01

78

Adiponectin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by counteracting angiotensin II  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine with insulin?sensitizing, anti?inflammatory, and vasoprotective properties. Epidemiology studies have, however, shown that high levels of serum adiponectin are associated with kidney disease progression. We, therefore, examined the effect of adiponectin administration on the progression of glomerulosclerosis in the obese diabetic (db/db) mouse, a model of type II diabetes. Recombinant human adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 or 150 ?g per day from weeks 18 to 20. Rosiglitazone administered by gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily served as a therapeutic control. Untreated uninephrectomized db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerular matrix expansion, associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI?1), collagen I (Col I), and fibronectin (FN). Treatment with adiponectin at either dose reduced the increases in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis seen in db/db mice, without affecting BW and blood glucose. Renal expressions of tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and monocyte?chemoattractant protein?1 (MCP?1) and urinary TNF?? levels, the markers of renal inflammation, were increased in diabetic mice, whereas adiponectin treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Furthermore, adiponectin obliterated the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), but not the total effect of TGF?1, on the mRNA expression of PAI?1, Col I, and FN by cultured glomerular mesangial cells. These observations suggest that adiponectin treatment reduces glomerulosclerosis resulting from type II diabetes probably through its anti?inflammatory and angiotensin–antagonistic effects. Thus, adiponectin has therapeutic implications in the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24744899

Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Guangyu; Guo, Meizi; Cheung, Alfred K; Huang, Yufeng; Beddhu, Srinivasan

2014-01-01

79

Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

80

The expression of p63 and Ck HMW in magnum and infundibulum of Gallus domesticus oviduct.  

PubMed

The potential for proliferation and differentiation has a critical meaning in terms of the long-term in vitro culture of oviductal target cells. Therefore, it is important to characterize the oviduct epithelial cells, using approved markers. There is scarce data describing the epithelial cells lining the avian oviduct, most of it referring only to the magnum section of the oviduct. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of both magnum and infundibulum tissues, as the most preferred sources of epithelial cells for research on production of recombinant proteins in oviducts of birds. The main objective was to evaluate the expression of p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratins (anti- p63 antibody and anti- High Molecular Weight Cytokeratins) in epithelial cells (EC) of 2 oviduct sections: magnum (proximal and middle) and infundibulum (distal). IHC analysis and western blotting were performed using the mouse monoclonal anti- p63 antibody and anti-Ck HMW. Immunoreactivity was quantified based on the Remmele - Stegner scoring system (0-12). The expression of p63 in nuclei of luminal cells was significantly higher in the infundibulum (P < 0.05), compared to the magnum section. Cytokeratins were also highly expressed in the infundibulum, but the difference was non-significant. These findings reveal new characteristics of the oviduct EC and designate the location of the source of cells in the oviduct tissue for in vitro culture. PMID:25403071

Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Koz?owska, Izabela; Walasik, Konrad; Bodnar, Magdalena; Bajek, Anna; Porowi?ska, Dorota; Drewa, Tomasz; Bednarczyk, Marek

2014-01-01

81

Granulocyte elastase cleaves human high molecular weight kininogen and destroys its clot-promoting activity  

PubMed Central

Purified human granulocyte elastase cleaved purified human high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen into multiple low molecular weight fragments, and destroyed the clot-promoting activity of the HMW kininogen. Elastase digestion did not release kinin or destroy the bradykinin portion of the HMW kininogen molecule; kallikrein could release kinin from the elastase-induced low molecular weight digestion products of HMW kininogen. Purified alpha 1-antitrypsin prevented the destruction of the clot-promoting activity of HMW kininogen by elastase; it also delayed the clotting of normal plasma. Elastase may play a significant role in altered hemostasis as well as fibrinolysis, in areas of inflammation to which polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been attracted. PMID:3260266

1988-01-01

82

Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

83

Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experi...

84

Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Kitahara, Kanako [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kusunoki, Natsuko [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan); Kakiuchi, Terutaka [Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suguro, Toru [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, Shinichi [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, 6-11-1 Omori-Nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541 (Japan)], E-mail: skawai@med.toho-u.ac.jp

2009-01-09

85

Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans  

PubMed Central

The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT) and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., P < 0.01 for both). Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (r = 0.76, P < 0.01), vanilly mandelic acid (VMA) (r = 0.95, P < 0.01), and serum adiponectin levels (r = 0.95, P < 0.01). Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased (24.2 ± 2??g/mL versus 18 ± 11??g/mL, P < 0.01) after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1) BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2) expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3) catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA. PMID:24348550

Iacobellis, Gianluca; Di Gioia, Cira; Petramala, Luigi; Chiappetta, Caterina; Serra, Valentina; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Ciardi, Antonio; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

2013-01-01

86

Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing hormone with antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic properties. A decreased serum level of adiponectin in obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular complications, suggesting that pharmacological intervention aimed at elevating adiponectin production might hold promise for the treatment and/or prevention of these diseases. Here we report the identification of two structurally related natural compounds (astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I) from the medicinal herb Radix Astragali that possess such an activity. Astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I selectively increased adiponectin secretion in primary adipocytes without any obvious effects on a panel of other adipokines. Furthermore, an additive effect on induction of adiponectin production was observed between these two compounds and rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione class of insulin-sensitizing drugs. Chronic administration of astragaloside II and isoastragaloside I in both dietary and genetic obese mice significantly elevated serum levels of total adiponectin and selectively increased the composition of its high molecular weight oligomeric complex. These changes were associated with an alleviation of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. By contrast, the beneficial effects of these two compounds on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism were diminished in adiponectin knockout mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that pharmacological elevation of circulating adiponectin alone is sufficient to ameliorate insulin resistance and diabetes and support the use of adiponectin as a biomarker for future drug discovery. The two natural compounds might provide the lead as a novel class of therapeutics for obesity-related diseases. PMID:18927219

Xu, Aimin; Wang, Hongbing; Hoo, Ruby L C; Sweeney, Gary; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wang, Yu; Wu, Donghai; Chu, Wenjing; Qin, Guowei; Lam, Karen S L

2009-02-01

87

Adipocytokines and aging: adiponectin and leptin.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is an active metabolic organ secreting adipocytokines which are involved in the energy homeostasis and regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Aging is associated with fat redistribution, which is characterized by loss of peripheral subcutaneous fat and accumulation of visceral fat. Visceral adipose tissue is more involved in the developement of metabolic diseases than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Aging also alters the function, proliferation, size, and number of adipose cells which leads to alterations in the secretion, synthesis and function of the adipocytokines. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiathoregenic adipokine. Centarians have higher adiponectin levels associated with longevity. However, in older individuals ? age 65 or more ? adiponectin is associated with higher mortality. Dysregulation of adiponectin in older individuals may be due to loss of function of circulating adiponectin or a response to increased inflammatory process. Longitidunal increase in adiponectin levels 5with aging rather than genetically high adiponectin levels may translate to increased mortality in older patients. The adipocytokine leptin is traditionally viewed as a product of adipocytes that can exert endocrine effects. There have been conflicting reports of not only the effects of aging on leptin, but also the effects of leptin on age-related diseases including sarcopenia, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with resistance to leptin and/or to a decrease of receptors for this hormone. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of two major adipocytokines adiponectin and leptin in the aging process and age-related diseases. PMID:23732375

Gulcelik, N E; Halil, M; Ariogul, S; Usman, A

2013-06-01

88

Effects of specific domains of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits’ on dough properties by an in vitro assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal do...

89

Electrospinning and characterization of medium-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/montmorillonite nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicron fibers of medium-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) (MMW-PVA), high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) (HMW-PVA),\\u000a and montmorillonite clay (MMT) in aqueous solutions were prepared by electrospinning technique. The effect of HMW-PVA and\\u000a MMT on the morphology and mechanical properties of the MMW-PVA\\/HMW-PVA\\/MMT nanofibers were investigated for the first time.\\u000a Scanning electron microscopy, viscometer, tensile strength testing machine, thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and transmission\\u000a electron

Hyun Mi Ji; Hyun Woo Lee; Mohammad Rezaul Karim; In Woo Cheong; Eun A. Bae; Tae Hun Kim; Byung Chul Ji; Jeong Hyun Yeum

2009-01-01

90

Adiponectin influences progesterone production from MA-10 Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Obesity in men is associated with lower testosterone levels, related to reduced sperm concentration and the development of various diseases with aging. Hormones produced by the adipose tissue may have influences on both metabolism and reproductive function. Among them, the production and secretion of adiponectin is inversely correlated to total body fat. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) have been found to be expressed in testicular Leydig cells (producing testosterone). Since StAR and Cyp11a1 are essential for testosterone synthesis and adiponectin has been shown to regulate StAR mRNA in swine granulosa cells, we hypothesized that adiponectin might also regulate these genes in Leydig cells. Our objective was to determine whether adiponectin regulates StAR and Cyp11a1 genes in Leydig cells and to better define its mechanisms of action. Methods used in the current study are qPCR for the mRNA levels, transfections for promoter activities, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the progesterone concentration. We have found that adiponectin cooperates with cAMP-dependent stimulation to activate StAR and Cyp11a1 mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner in MA-10 Leydig cells as demonstrated by transfection of a luciferase reporter plasmid. These results led to a significant increase in progesterone production from MA-10 cells. Thus, our data suggest that high doses of adiponectin typical of normal body weight may promote testosterone production from Leydig cells. PMID:25338202

Landry, David; Paré, Aurélie; Jean, Stéphanie; Martin, Luc J

2015-04-01

91

Genomic regions influencing gene expression of the HMW glutenins in wheat.  

PubMed

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) produces glutenin storage proteins in the endosperm. The HMW glutenins confer distinct viscoelastic properties to bread dough. The genetics of HMW glutenin proteins have been extensively studied, and information has accumulated about individual subunits, chromosomal locations and DNA sequences, but little is known about the regulators of the HMW glutenins. This investigation addressed the question of glutenin regulators. Expression of the glutenins was analyzed using QRT-PCR in ditelosomic (dt) Chinese Spring (CS) lines. Primers were designed for each of 4 CS glutenin genes and a control, non-storage protein endosperm-specific gene Agp-L (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase). Each line represents CS wheat, lacking one chromosome arm. The effect of a missing arm could feasibly cause an increase, decrease or no change in expression. For each HMW glutenin, results indicated there were, on average, 8 chromosome arms with an up-regulatory effect and only one instance of a down-regulatory effect. There were significant correlations between orthologous and paralogous HMW glutenins for effects of chromosome groups B and D. Some or all the glutenin alleles shared regulatory loci on chromosome arms 2BS, 7BS, 4DS, 5DS and 6DS, and Agp-L shared regulatory loci with glutenins on arms 7AS, 7BS, 2DS, 3DS, 4DS and 5DS. These results suggest a few chromosome arms contain putative regulatory genes affecting the expression of conserved cis elements of 4 HMW glutenin and Agp-L genes in CS. Regulation by common genes implies the regulators have diverged little from the common wheat ancestor, and furthermore, some regulation may be shared by endosperm-specific-genes. Significant common regulators have practical implications. PMID:18839129

Storlie, Eric W; Ihry, Robert J; Baehr, Leslie M; Tieszen, Karissa A; Engbers, Jonathan H; Anderson-Daniels, Jordan M; Davis, Elizabeth M; Gilbertson, Anne G; Harden, Niels R; Harris, Kristina A; Johnson, Amanda J; Kerkvleit, Amy M; Moldan, Matthew M; Bell, Megan E; Wanous, Michael K

2009-01-01

92

Adiponectin Trajectories Before Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991–1993, 1997–1999, and 2003–2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year0) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. RESULTS Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187–10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535–12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P < 0.0001). Control subjects showed a modest decline in adiponectin throughout follow-up (0.3% per year, P < 0.0001) at higher levels in women than in men (difference at year0: 5,358 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Female case and early-onset case (age at diagnosis <52 years) subjects had a steeper decline than control subjects (slope difference ?1.1% per year, P = 0.001 in females, ?1.6% per year in early-onset case subjects, P = 0.034). In men, adiponectin slopes for case and noncase subjects were parallel. The slope differences by diabetes onset were largely attenuated after adjustment for changes in obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. CONCLUSIONS Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development. PMID:22933430

Tabįk, Adam G.; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

2012-01-01

93

Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR{gamma} antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR{gamma} activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR{gamma} in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 and suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

Kuroyanagi, Kayo; Kang, Min-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Shizuka; Ohyama, Kana; Kusudo, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yano, Masamichi [Department of Citriculture, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0292 (Japan); Sasaki, Takao [ARKRAY Inc., Kyoto 601-8045 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

2008-02-01

94

HMW and LMW glutenin alleles among putative tetraploid and hexaploid European spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) progenitors.  

PubMed

The allelic compositions of high- and low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenins (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) among European spelt ( Triticum spelta L.) and related hexaploid and tetraploid Triticum species were investigated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). A total of seven novel glutenin alleles (designated A1a*, B1d*, B1g*, B1f*, B1j*, D1a* at Glu-1 and A3h at the Glu-3 loci, respectively) in European spelt wheat were detected by SDS-PAGE, which were confirmed further by employing A-PAGE and CE methods. Particularly, two HMW-GS alleles, Glu-B1d* coding the subunits 6.1 and 22.1, and Glu-B1f* coding the subunits 13 and 22*, were found to occur in European spelt with frequencies of 32.34% and 5.11%, respectively. These two alleles were present in cultivated emmer (Triticum dicoccum), but they were not observed in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The allele Glu-B1g* coding for 13* and 19* subunits found in spelt wheat was also detected in club wheat (Triticum compactum L.). Additionally, two alleles coding for LMW-GS, Glu-A3h and Glu-B3d, occurred with high frequencies in spelt, club and cultivated emmer wheat, whereas these were not found or present with very low frequencies in bread wheat. Our results strongly support the secondary origin hypothesis, namely European spelt wheat originated from hybridization between cultivated emmer and club wheat. This is also confirmed experimentally by the artificial synthesis of spelt through crossing between old European emmer wheat, T. dicoccum and club wheat, T. compactum. PMID:13679994

Yan, Y; Hsam, S L K; Yu, J Z; Jiang, Y; Ohtsuka, I; Zeller, F J

2003-11-01

95

Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverb? exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverb??/? mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverb??/? WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgery–induced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

Hand, Laura E.; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Xu, Lance Y.; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S.; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S. I.; Bechtold, David A.; Ray, David W.

2015-01-01

96

Adiponectin induces A20 expression in adipose tissue to confer metabolic benefit.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverb? exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverb?(-/-) mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverb?(-/-) WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

Hand, Laura E; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J S; Xu, Lance Y; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S I; Bechtold, David A; Ray, David W

2015-01-01

97

Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

2014-01-01

98

Myocardial Mitochondrial and Contractile Function Are Preserved in Mice Lacking Adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/-) mice and wildtypes (WT). In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24%) in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1? were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions. PMID:25785965

Braun, Martin; Hettinger, Niko; Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Cimolai, Maria C.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

2015-01-01

99

Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. bessarabicum, Lophopyrum elongatum, Aegilops markgrafii, and their addition lines in wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits (GSs) play an important role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality in cultivated wheat, and they are also excellent protein markers for genotype identification. The HMW-GSs in wheat species (Triticum ssp.) and Aegilops tauschii...

100

Adiponectin promotes functional recovery after podocyte ablation.  

PubMed

Low levels of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin correlate with albuminuria in both mice and humans, but whether adiponectin has a causative role in modulating renal disease is unknown. Here, we first generated a mouse model that allows induction of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis specifically in podocytes upon injection of a construct-specific agent. These POD-ATTAC mice exhibited significant kidney damage, mimicking aspects of human renal disease, such as foot process effacement, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis. After the initial induction, both podocytes and filtration function recovered. Next, we crossed POD-ATTAC mice with mice lacking or overexpressing adiponectin. POD-ATTAC mice lacking adiponectin developed irreversible albuminuria and renal failure; conversely, POD-ATTAC mice overexpressing adiponectin recovered more rapidly and exhibited less interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that adiponectin is a renoprotective protein after podocyte injury. Furthermore, the POD-ATTAC mouse provides a platform for further studies, allowing precise timing of podocyte injury and regeneration. PMID:23334396

Rutkowski, Joseph M; Wang, Zhao V; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Dihua; Hu, Ming Chang; Moe, Orson W; Susztak, Katalin; Scherer, Philipp E

2013-02-01

101

Identification of Intact High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits from the Wheat Proteome Using Combined Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The present paper describes a method for the identification of intact high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), the quality determining proteins from the wheat storage proteome. The method includes isolation of HMW-GS from wheat flour, further separation of HMW-GS by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their subsequent molecular identification with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass analyzer. For HMW-GS isolation, wheat proteins were reduced and extracted from flour with 50% 1-propanol containing 1% dithiothreitol. HMW-GS were then selectively precipitated from the protein mixture by adjusting the 1-propanol concentration to 60%. The composition of the precipitated proteins was first evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Coomassie staining and RP-HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Besides HMW-GS (?65%), the isolated proteins mainly contained ?5-gliadins. Secondly, the isolated protein fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Optimal chromatographic separation of HMW-GS from the other proteins in the isolated fraction was obtained when the mobile phase contained 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing agent. Individual HMW-GS were then identified by determining their molecular masses from the high-resolution mass spectra and comparing these with theoretical masses calculated from amino acid sequences. Using formic acid instead of trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase increased protein peak intensities in the base peak mass chromatogram. This allowed the detection of even traces of other wheat proteins than HMW-GS in the isolated fraction, but the chromatographic separation was inferior with a major overlap between the elution ranges of HMW-GS and ?-gliadins. Overall, the described method allows a rapid assessment of wheat quality through the direct determination of the HMW-GS composition and offers a basis for further top-down proteomics of individual HMW-GS and the entire wheat glutenin fraction. PMID:23520527

Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Rombouts, Ine; Koehler, Peter

2013-01-01

102

Adipocyte Spliced Form of X-Box–Binding Protein 1 Promotes Adiponectin Multimerization and Systemic Glucose Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes, thereby regulating systemic glucose homeostasis. Ectopic expression of XBP1s in adipocytes improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. The beneficial effect of adipocyte XBP1s on glucose homeostasis is associated with elevated serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and, indeed, is adiponectin-dependent. Mechanistically, XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization rather than activating its transcription, likely through a direct regulation of the expression of several ER chaperones involved in adiponectin maturation, including glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6, ER protein 44, and disulfide bond oxidoreductase A–like protein. Thus, we conclude that XBP1s is an important regulator of adiponectin multimerization, which may lead to a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypoadiponectinemia. PMID:24241534

Sha, Haibo; Yang, Liu; Liu, Meilian; Xia, Sheng; Liu, Yong; Liu, Feng; Kersten, Sander; Qi, Ling

2014-01-01

103

Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA is associated with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age.  

PubMed

An elevated ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain (LC-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be a potential risk factor for obesity development. N-3 LC-PUFA are thought to alter adiponectin concentrations, and thus may have a beneficial effect on weight development. We analysed the association between n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations in cord blood and adiponectin concentrations at 10 years. Fatty acid composition was measured in cord blood and at 10 years of age by gas chromatography, and adiponectin concentrations were measured only at 10 years of age in 237 children from the Munich LISAplus birth cohort study. Linear regression models assessed associations between n-3 LC-PUFA, n-6 LC-PUFA and the n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. LC-PUFA were presented as percentages and categorized into tertiles. Regression models were adjusted for LC-PUFA percentages at 10 years of age and other potential confounding factors. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA tertiles were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in an inverse J-shaped relationship [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: Beta=1.84 (SE=0.65), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: 1.02 (0.68), p-value<0.01 (ANOVA)]. Further, cord blood n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: 0.14 (0.67), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: -1.37 (0.68), p-value=0.03 (ANOVA)]. The cord blood n-6 LC-PUFA tertiles were not associated with adiponectin concentrations. Our results suggest that a higher n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood are associated with higher adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. PMID:25773861

Standl, M; Demmelmair, H; Koletzko, B; Heinrich, J

2015-05-01

104

Influence of Exercise Intensity on Abdominal Fat and Adiponectin in Elderly Adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract To examine the influence of moderate-intensity (50% of VO2peak) exercise training (MI) versus high-intensity (75% of VO2peak) exercise training (HI) on regional fat distribution and plasma adiponectin, we randomized 18 overweight (body mass index [BMI]?=?30?±?1 kg/m2) elderly (71?±?1 years) to HI, MI, or a control group (CON). Subjects enrolled in HI or MI completed a 12-week exercise training protocol designed to expend 1000 kcal/week. Body composition testing was completed prior to and following the exercise training using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and a computed tomography scan. Plasma adiponectin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). VO2peak improved in HI and MI, whereas there was no change in VO2peak in CON. No significant change in body weight, BMI, and % fat occurred in MI, HI, or CON. Although there was a significant reduction in visceral fat with HI (?39 cm2), there was no change in the MI or CON groups. In addition, there was a significant increase in thigh muscle attenuation in the HI group. There were no changes in thigh muscle attenuation in the MI and CON groups. Also, there was no change in plasma adiponectin in the MI, HI, or CON groups. In summary, our direct comparison of exercise intensity without weight loss promotes the efficacy of HI in the reduction in visceral fat, even without changes in adiponectin. PMID:19196080

Williams, Rick H.; Kortebein, Patrick M.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Evans, William J.

2009-01-01

105

Study of adiponectin in chronic liver disease and cholestasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Adiponectin is an adipocytokine suggested to have a hepatoprotective effect. To date, little information is available in the\\u000a literature regarding changes in serum adiponectin levels in cirrhosis and cholestasis and the associated metabolic disturbances.\\u000a In order to elucidate the role of adiponectin in chronic liver disease our aim was to determine serum adiponectin in patients\\u000a with different grades of cirrhosis

Tary A. Salman; Naglaa Allam; Gasser I. Azab; Ahmed A. Shaarawy; Mona M. Hassouna; Omkolsoum M. El-haddad

2010-01-01

106

Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

In previous studies we demonstrated that green and roasted coffee contains low molecular weight (LMW) compounds capable of inhibiting the ability of Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of human dental caries, to adhere to hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. This study addressed the ability of the whole high molecular weight coffee fraction (cHMW) and of its melanoidin and non-melanoidin components (GFC1-5), applied at concentrations that occur in coffee beverages, to (i) inhibit S. mutans growth; (ii) affect S. mutans sucrose-dependent adhesion to and detachment from saliva-coated HA beads (sHA); and (iii) inhibit biofilm development on microtiter plates. The results indicated that only cHMW is endowed with antimicrobial activity. The cHMW fraction and each of the five GFC components inhibited S. mutans adhesion, the strongest effect being exerted by cHMW (91%) and GFC1 (88%). S. mutans detachment from sHA was four times greater (?20%) with cHMW and the GFC1 and GFC4 melanoidins than with controls. Finally, biofilm production by S. mutans was completely abolished by cHMW and was reduced by 20% by the melanoidin components GFC2 and GFC4 and by the non-melanoidin component GFC5 compared with controls. Altogether these findings show that coffee beverage contains both LMW compounds and HMW melanoidin and non-melanoidin components with a strong ability to interfere in vitro with the S. mutans traits relevant for cariogenesis. PMID:21038921

Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Schito, Anna Maria; Gazzani, Gabriella; Pruzzo, Carla; Daglia, Maria

2010-11-24

107

The association of plasma adiponectin levels with hypertensive retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associ- ated with essential hypertension. It has also recently been shown that adiponectin plays an essential role in the modulation of angiogenesis. These data led us to hypothesize that adiponectin might con- tribute to end-organ damage in hypertension. Methods: In the present study we have evaluated the relationship between

Mahmut Ilker Yilmaz; Alper Sonmez; Selim Kilic; Turgay Celik; Necati Bingol; Murat Pinar; Tarkan Mumcuoglu; Metin Ozata

2005-01-01

108

Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Overweight and Obese Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Hypoadiponectin has been documented in subjects with obesity, diabetes mellitus, or coronary heart disease, suggesting a potential use of plasma adiponectin in following the clinical progress in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). In this study, we investigated the plasma adiponectin levels in relation to the variables of MS among overweight\\/obese Asian subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: The plasma adiponectin, anthropometric

Wei-Shiung Yang; Wei-Jei Lee; Tohru Funahashi; Sachiyo Tanaka; Yuji Matsuzawa; Chia-Ling Chao; Chi-Ling Chen; Tong-Yuan Tai; Lee-Ming Chuang

2002-01-01

109

Identification of a cDNA for a human high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor.  

PubMed Central

Proliferation is necessary for many of the phenotypic changes that occur during B-cell maturation. Further differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells or memory B cells requires additional rounds of proliferation. In this manuscript, we describe a cDNA for a human B-cell growth factor we call high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF). Purified HMW-BCGF has been shown to induce B-cell proliferation, inhibit immunoglobulin secretion, and selectively expand certain B-cell subpopulations. Studies using antibodies to HMW-BCGF and its receptor have suggested that HMW-BCGF, while produced by T cells and some malignant B cells, acts predominantly on normal and malignant B cells. The HMW-BCGF cDNA was identified by expression cloning using a monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antisera to HMW-BCGF. Protein produced from the cDNA induced B-cell proliferation, inhibited immunoglobulin secretion, and was recognized in immunoblots by anti-HMW-BCGF antibodies. The amino acid sequence of HMW-BCGF deduced from the cDNA predicts a secreted protein of 53 kDa with three potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The identification of this cDNA will allow further studies examining physiologic roles of this cytokine. We propose to call it interleukin 14. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8327514

Ambrus, J L; Pippin, J; Joseph, A; Xu, C; Blumenthal, D; Tamayo, A; Claypool, K; McCourt, D; Srikiatchatochorn, A; Ford, R J

1993-01-01

110

Adiponectin and depression: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin has been indicated to be linked with depression. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between adiponectin levels and depression. Six studies with a total of 4,220 subjects were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The references were retrieved via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase, and the following Chinese databases: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wan Fang Data. The analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.2 software. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was assessed following pooling the collected data for analysis. A significant association was detected between adiponectin levels and depression in European populations. In the European group of patients with depression, improvements were observed in adiponectin levels (SMD, ?5.00 µg/ml, 95% CI, ?7.13 to ?2.88). The current meta-analysis indicates that patients with patients had a lower adiponectin level when compared to healthy patients in European groups. PMID:25469244

HU, YAOZHI; DONG, XIAOMENG; CHEN, JINBO

2015-01-01

111

The Interactive Effects of Transgenically Overexpressed 1Ax1 with Various HMW-GS Combinations on Dough Quality by Introgression of Exogenous Subunits into an Elite Chinese Wheat Variety  

PubMed Central

Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs. PMID:24167625

Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

2013-01-01

112

Isolation and characterization of EMS-induced Dy10 and Ax1 high molecular weight glutenin subunit deficient mutant lines of elite hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Summit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mixing properties of the dough are critical in the production of bread and other food products derived from wheat. The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major determinants of wheat dough processing qualities. The different alleles of the HMW-GS genes in hexaploid wheat vary ...

113

The role of adiponectin signaling in metabolic syndrome and cancer.  

PubMed

The increased prevalence of obesity has mandated extensive research focused on mechanisms responsible for associated clinical complications. Emerging from the focus on adipose tissue biology as a vitally important adipokine is adiponectin which is now believed to mediate anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and cancer modifying actions. Adiponectin mediates these primarily beneficial effects via direct signaling effects and via enhancing insulin sensitivity via crosstalk with insulin signaling pathways. Reduced adiponectin action is detrimental and occurs in obesity via decreased circulating levels of adiponectin action or development of adiponectin resistance. This review will focus on cellular mechanisms of adiponectin action, their crosstalk with insulin signaling and the resultant role of adiponectin in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer and reviews data from in vitro cell based studies through animal models to clinical observations. PMID:24019064

Scheid, Michael P; Sweeney, Gary

2014-06-01

114

The effects of three training methods endurance, resistance and concurrent on adiponectin resting levels in overweighed untrained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of present study was to investigate the impacts of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on adiponectin resting levels of sedentary men. Forty-four sedentary students were randomly assigned to one of four groups: endurance training (ET; 22 ± 0.89 yr, n=12), resistance training (RT, 21 ± 1.57 yr, n=9), concurrent training (CT, 21.38 ± 2.6 yr, n=14) and control group (CG, n=10). After primary measurements, blood samples were drawn with subjects in fasting and resting state for determination of the basic level of adiponectin. The subjects participated in E, R and C training for 8 weeks. The ET group ran 3d/w at 65-85 % of maximum heart rate. The exercise training session for the RT group consisted of 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions of weight training exercise that increase progressively, and repeated 3 sessions per week. The CT group trained exactly the sum of ET and RT groups. Correlated samples t-test and ANOVA were used. The results of the present study showed that after the eight-week training, the adiponectin levels of subjects increased in 3 groups of training but this increase was not significant. The level of adiponectin in CT group increased more than in ET and RT groups. Also, there were no significant differences in content of adiponectin among groups.In general, slight increases in adiponectin levels in training groups especially in CT group may indicate the most potential of CT group in increasing the levels of adiponectin in sedentary men. However more researches are needed to identify the effects of concurrent training (Tab. 4, Ref. 27). PMID:23137206

Asad, M; Ravasi, A A; Faramarzi, M; Pournemati, P

2012-01-01

115

Regulation of high molecular weight bovine brain neutral protease by phospholipids in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the heat stable, glycosylated high molecular weight bovine brain neutral protease (HMW protease) is differentially regulated by phospholipids. While phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidic acid (PA) had only marginal stimulatory effect (40–75%) on the activity of HMW protease, lysophoshatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA) activated the enzyme by more than two-fold. Both lysoPC and lysoPA exhibited

V. Chauhan; A. M. Sheikh; A. Chauhan; W. D. Spivack; M. D. Fenko; M. N. Malik

2005-01-01

116

Thyroid status influence on adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thyroid abnormalities (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid) are accompanied by changes in intermediary metabolism including alterations in body weight, insulin resistance and lipid profile. The aims of this study were to examine plasma ASP, its precursor C3 and adiponectin in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. METHODS: A total of 99 subjects were recruited from endocrinology\\/out-patient clinics: 46 hyperthyroid

Haiying Yu; Yan Yang; Muxun Zhang; Huiling Lu; Jianhua Zhang; Hongwei Wang; Katherine Cianflone

2006-01-01

117

Fat mass, and not diet, has a large effect on postprandial leptin but not on adiponectin concentrations in cats.  

PubMed

Leptin and adiponectin play important roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in different species. Information is limited on the effects of diet, weight gain, and fat mass on their concentrations in cats. This study compared fasting and postprandial blood leptin and total adiponectin concentrations before and after 8 wk of ad libitum feeding to promote weight gain in adult cats (n = 32) fed either a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (23% and 47% ME) or a high-carbohydrate, low-protein (51% and 21% ME) diet. There were significant effects of total, abdominal, and nonabdominal fat mass, but not diet or body weight, on mean 24-h and peak leptin (P < 0.01); observed increases in mean and peak leptin were greatest for abdominal fat mass (50% and 56% increase for every extra 100 g, respectively). After weight gain, postprandial leptin concentration increased markedly relative to when cats were lean, and the duration of the increase was longer after a mean weight gain of 37% with the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet group compared with 17% with the high-carbohydrate, low-protein group (P ? 0.01). Adiponectin was lower than fasting at some time points during the postprandial period in both groups (P ? 0.05). For both fasting and mean 24-h adiponectin, there was no significant diet effect (P ? 0.19) or changes in weight gain relative to when cats were lean (P ? 0.29). In conclusion, fat mass, and not diet, has a large effect on postprandial leptin but not adiponectin concentrations in cats. PMID:23827214

Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Arai, T; Ishioka, K; Rawlings, J M

2013-08-01

118

Maternal adiponectin controls milk composition to prevent neonatal inflammation.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an important adipokine. Increasing evidence suggests that altered adiponectin levels are linked with metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Here we report an important yet previously unrecognized function of adiponectin in lactation by which maternal adiponectin determines the inflammatory status in the nursing neonates. Surprisingly, both maternal adiponectin overexpression in the transgenic mice and maternal adiponectin deletion in the knockout mice lead to systemic inflammation in the pups, manifested as transient hair loss. However, distinct mechanisms are involved. Adiponectin deficiency triggers leukocyte infiltration and production of inflammatory cytokines in the lactating mammary gland. In contrast, adiponectin overabundance increases lipid accumulation in the lactating mammary gland, resulting in excessive long-chain saturated fatty acids in milk. Interestingly, in both cases, the inflammation and alopecia in the pups can be rescued by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/4 deletion because TLR2/4 double-knockout pups are resistant. Mechanistically, long-chain saturated fatty acid activation of inflammatory genes is TLR2/4 dependent and can be potentiated by proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that the inflammatory stimuli in both scenarios functionally converge by activating the TLR2/4 signaling. Therefore, our findings reveal adiponectin as a dosage-dependent regulator of lactation homeostasis and milk quality that critically controls inflammation in the nursing neonates. Furthermore, these results suggest that inflammatory infantile disorders may result from maternal adiponectin dysregulation that can be treated by TLR2/4 inhibition. PMID:25590242

Jin, Zixue; Du, Yang; Schwaid, Adam G; Asterholm, Ingrid W; Scherer, Philipp E; Saghatelian, Alan; Wan, Yihong

2015-04-01

119

Exogenous Recombinant Adiponectin Improves Survival in Experimental Abdominal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Background: Adiponectin, which has anti-inflammatory features, is an important substance in several metabolic mechanisms. Aims: The aim of this study is to evauate the effects of exogenous intraperitoneal administration of adiponectin on the survival, intrabdominal adhesion and inflammatory cytokine levels in an experimental sepsis model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Ninety rats were divided into a control group, adiponectin group and sham group. A cecal puncture abdominal sepsis model was performed in the adiponectin and control groups. Every three hours, exogenous adiponectin was administrated to the adiponectin group. At the 3rd and 24th hours, 10 rats were sacrified in each group in order to measure plasma tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 10, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, IL-6 and macrophage inhibitory factor levels, and the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-kB. The remaining rats were followed for survival. Results: The plasma levels of TNF-?, soluable ICAM-1, IL-6, and macrophage inhibitory factor were significantly higher in the control group than in the adiponectin and sham group (p<0.05). The increase in inflammatory cytokines with time was more prominent in the control group. The activity of NF-kB in the control group was higher than in the adiponectin group (p<0.05). The survival rate of the adiponectin group was higher than in the control group. Conclusion: Administration of exogenous adiponectin to the peritoneum in abdominal sepsis increased survival and decreased intrabdominal adhesions by decreasing the inflammatory response. PMID:25337421

Salman, Bülent; Y?lmaz, Tonguē Utku; Tezcaner, Tugan; Demir, Ebru Ofluo?lu; Pa?ao?lu, Özge Tu?ēe

2014-01-01

120

Effect of Ethnicity, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity on Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations Among Malaysian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The Malaysian Health and morbidity Survey (2006) reported the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the Indian population compared to the Malay and Chinese populations. Many studies have supported the important role of adiponectin in insulin-sensitizing, which is associated with T2DM. These studies have raised a research question whether the variation in prevalence is related to the adiponectin concentrations or the lifestyle factors. Objectives The purpose of this study is to determine whether the adiponectin concentrations differ between the Malay, Chinese and the Indian populations with T2DM. It is to investigate the association of adiponectin concentrations with ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity too. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 210 T2DM patients with mean (SD) age of 56.73 (10.23) years were recruited from Penang, Malaysia. Data on demographic background, medical history, anthropometry (weight, height, visceral fat, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), dietary intake (3 days 24 hours diet recall) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were obtained accordingly. Plasma adiponectin and routine laboratory tests (fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride) were performed according to standard procedure. Results After adjustment for physical activity and dietary intakes, the Indian population had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.003) when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations, The Indian population also had significantly higher value of HbA1c (P = 0.017) and significantly lower HDL (P = 0.013). Plasma adiponectin concentrations was significantly associated with ethnicity (P = 0.011), dietary carbohydrate (P = 0.003) and physical activity total MET score (P = 0.026), after medical history, age, sex, total cholesterol and visceral fat adjusted. However, dietary carbohydrate and physical activity did not show significantly difference among the various ethnic groups. Conclusions In conclusion, lower concentration of adiponectin in the Indian population when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations is not associated with lifestyle factors. The possibility of adiponectin gene polymorphism should be discussed further. PMID:24348588

Chin, Koo Hui; Sathyasurya, Daniel Robert; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

2013-01-01

121

Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice  

SciTech Connect

We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, B5, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamura, Shinji [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kiso, Shinichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kiso@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hayashi, Norio [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, K1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2009-01-02

122

MicroRNA-218 targets adiponectin receptor 2 to regulate adiponectin signaling.  

PubMed

Adiponectin exerts an antidiabetic function through the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). The mechanism regulating the expression of adiponectin receptors remains to be elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that microRNA (miR)?218 targets the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the AdipoR2 mRNA. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-218 regulated the expression of AdipoR2 using immunoblotting, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assays. The protein level and the mRNA level of AdipoR2 were reduced when miR?218 was expressed in HepG2 cells. Additionally, overexpression of miR?218 repressed the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the 3'UTR of AdipoR2. Furthermore, the present study aimed to determine whether miR-218 regulated glucose metabolism through detecting signaling pathways and glucose uptake. The phosphorylation of AMP?activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase was reduced in miR?218?expressing cells. In addition, miR?218 inhibited adiponectin?induced glucose uptake. The present results suggested that miR?218 targets AdipoR2 to inhibit adiponectin signaling. PMID:25634129

Du, Hechun; Fu, Zimu; He, Guohua; Wang, Yuejuan; Xia, Guiyu; Fang, Min; Zhang, Tao

2015-06-01

123

Genetic variants of adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Circulating adiponectin has been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Genome-wide association studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adiponectin levels. However, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with CRC risk. In addition, previous data on SNPs in the adiponectin pathway and their associations with CRC are inconsistent. Therefore, we examined 19 SNPs in genes related to adiponectin or its receptors and their associations with CRC using logistic regression among 7,020 cases and 7,631 controls drawn from ten studies included in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Using data from a subset of two large cohort studies, we also assessed the contribution of individual SNPs and an adiponectin genetic score to plasma adiponectin after accounting for lifestyle factors among 2,217 women and 619 men. We did not find any statistically significant association between the 19 adiponectin-associated SNPs and CRC risk (multivariable-adjusted odds ratios ranged from 0.89 to 1.05, all p?>?0.05). Each SNP explained less than 2.50% of the variance of plasma adiponectin, and the genetic score collectively accounted for 2.95 and 1.42% of the variability of adiponectin in women and men, respectively, after adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and postmenopausal hormone use. In conclusion, our findings do not support an association between known adiponectin-related common SNPs and CRC incidence. However, known common SNPs account for only a limited proportion of the interindividual variance in circulating adiponectin. Further work is warranted to investigate the relationship between adiponectin and CRC while accounting for other components in the pathway. PMID:25431318

Song, Mingyang; Gong, Jian; Giovannucci, Edward L; Berndt, Sonja I; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Curtis, Keith R; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Le Marchand, Loic; Potter, John D; Schoen, Robert E; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L; White, Emily; Wu, Kana; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Hunter, David J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric; Jensen, Majken; Peters, Ulrike; Chan, Andrew T

2015-07-01

124

Associations between Endothelin1 and Adiponectin in Chronic Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces cardiac hypertrophy, whereas adiponectin may elicit protective effects in the vasculature and myocardium. We therefore evaluated the relationship between plasma ET-1 and adiponectin levels in heart failure (HF) patients, and the association between adiponectin expression and ET-1-induced hypertrophy of human cardiomyocytes (HCM) in vitro. Methods: One hundred seventeen patients with chronic HF were enrolled into this

Wei-Hsian Yin; Yung-Hsiang Chen; Jeng Wei; Hsu-Lung Jen; Wen-Ping Huang; Mason Shing Young; Der-Cherng Chen; Po-Len Liu

2011-01-01

125

Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. PMID:25653535

Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

2015-01-01

126

Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes  

PubMed Central

Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi), and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14), by 97?% in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS) for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of the 1Bx14 gene. The established BSMV-VIGS system will be very useful in future research on functional analysis of genes contributing to grain quality and the metabolic networks in developing seeds of wheat. PMID:22882902

2012-01-01

127

Recovery of an HMWP/hmwBP (pUL48/pUL47) Complex from Virions of Human Cytomegalovirus: Subunit Interactions, Oligomer Composition, and Deubiquitylase Activity  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We report that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) high-molecular-weight tegument protein (HMWP, pUL48; 253 kDa) and the HMWP-binding protein (hmwBP, pUL47; 110 kDa) can be recovered as a complex from virions disrupted by treatment with 50 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 0.5 M NaCl, 0.5% NP-40, and 10 mM dithiothreitol [DTT]. The subunit ratio of the complex approximates 1:1, with a shape and structure consistent with an elongated heterodimer. The HMWP/hmwBP complex was corroborated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments using antipeptide antibodies and lysates from both infected cells and disrupted virus particles. An interaction of the amino end of pUL48 (amino acids [aa] 322 to 754) with the carboxyl end of pUL47 (aa 693 to 982) was identified by fragment coimmunoprecipitation experiments, and a head-to-tail self-interaction of hmwBP was also observed. The deubiquitylating activity of pUL48 is retained in the isolated complex, which cleaves K11, K48, and K63 ubiquitin isopeptide linkages. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or human herpesvirus 5 [HHV-5]) is a large DNA-containing virus that belongs to the betaherpesvirus subfamily and is a clinically important pathogen. Defining the constituent elements of its mature form, their organization within the particle, and the assembly process by which it is produced are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of herpesvirus infection and developing drugs and vaccines against them. In this study, we report isolating a complex of two large proteins encoded by HCMV open reading frames (ORFs) UL47 and UL48 and identifying the binding domains responsible for their interaction with each other and of pUL47 with itself. Our calculations indicate that the complex is a rod-shaped heterodimer. Additionally, we determined that the ubiquitin-specific protease activity of the ORF UL48 protein was functional in the complex, cleaving K11-, K48-, and K63-linked ubiquitin dimers. This information builds on and extends our understanding of the HCMV tegument protein network that is required to interface the HCMV envelope and capsid. PMID:24829352

Tullman, Jennifer A.; Harmon, Mary-Elizabeth; Delannoy, Michael

2014-01-01

128

Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors.  

PubMed

Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the opposite topology to G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of human AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 at 2.9 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively, which represent a novel class of receptor structure. The seven-transmembrane helices, conformationally distinct from those of G-protein-coupled receptors, enclose a large cavity where three conserved histidine residues coordinate a zinc ion. The zinc-binding structure may have a role in the adiponectin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and UCP2 upregulation. Adiponectin may broadly interact with the extracellular face, rather than the carboxy-terminal tail, of the receptors. The present information will facilitate the understanding of novel structure-function relationships and the development and optimization of AdipoR agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:25855295

Tanabe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Iwabu, Masato; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Motoyama, Kanna; Ikeda, Mariko; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Terada, Takaho; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hino, Tomoya; Murata, Takeshi; Iwata, So; Hirata, Kunio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2015-04-16

129

Association study of the HTR2C, leptin and adiponectin genes and serum marker analyses in clozapine treated long-term patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Clozapine treatment is associated with weight gain and cardio-metabolic consequences among patients with schizophrenia. Polymorphisms of leptin, serotonin receptor HTR2C and adiponectin genes have been associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic comorbidity. However, the results of the studies so far are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was first to test for a possible role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as a marker of weight gain in association with inflammatory cytokines/adipokines (IL-6, IL-1Ra, hs-CRP and adipsin), and second to study associations between SNPs LEP rs7799039 (-2548 A/G), ADIPOQ rs1501299 and HTR2C rs1414334 and weight gain and levels of leptin and adiponectin, in 190 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment, with retrospectively assessed weight change and cross-sectionally measured cytokine levels. A strong association was found between serum levels of leptin and weight gain and cytokines/adipokines related to metabolic comorbidity, especially among female patients (in women leptin vs. weight gain, IL-6 and IL-1Ra, P<0.001; in men leptin vs. weight gain, P=0.026, leptin vs. IL-1Ra, P<0.001). In male patients low adiponectin level was a more specific marker of clozapine-induced weight gain (P=0.037). The results of the present study do not support a major role of SNPs LEP rs7799039, ADIPOQ rs1501299 and HTR2C rs1414334 in the regulation of weight gain or association of serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and corresponding studied SNPs in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment. PMID:25284335

Klemettilä, J-P; Kampman, O; Seppälä, N; Viikki, M; Hämäläinen, M; Moilanen, E; Mononen, N; Lehtimäki, T; Leinonen, E

2015-02-01

130

Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits  

PubMed Central

The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs) in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs) and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator). In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression. PMID:25429295

Ravel, Catherine; Fiquet, Samuel; Boudet, Julie; Dardevet, Mireille; Vincent, Jonathan; Merlino, Marielle; Michard, Robin; Martre, Pierre

2014-01-01

131

Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adiponectin is produced exclusively by adipose tissue and is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome scan of circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children. The present study included extended families with ...

132

Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in hispanic children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adiponectin, a hormone produced exclusively by adipose tissue, is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children participating in the VVA...

133

The role of adiponectin in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.  

PubMed

It has been two decades since the discovery of adiponectin, and today its role in insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are areas of major interest. Production of adiponectin is reduced in all inflammatory processes and states of insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin regulates carbohydrate metabolism, and may also regulate vascular homeostasis by affecting important signaling pathways in endothelial cells and modulating inflammatory responses in the subendothelial space. Clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between serum adiponectin concentrations and the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing changes in blood pressure. Antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been demonstrated to increase adiponectin levels in 3-6 months. Adiponectin has also been shown to play a role in cardiac injury in modulation of pro-survival reactions, cardiac energy metabolism, and inhibition of hypertrophic remodeling. The effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are believed to be partially mediated by the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways, reducing endothelial cell apoptosis, promoting nitric oxide production, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) activity, and preventing atherosclerotic proliferation and smooth muscle cell migration. Further evaluation of biologically active forms of adiponectin and its receptor should help to clarify how obesity affects the cardiovascular system. PMID:24924994

Rojas, Edward; Rodrķguez-Molina, Daloha; Bolli, Peter; Israili, Zafar H; Farķa, Judith; Fidilio, Enzamarķa; Bermśdez, Valmore; Velasco, Manuel

2014-08-01

134

Adiponectin Gene Is Expressed in Multiple Tissues in the Chicken: Food Deprivation Influences Adiponectin  

E-print Network

on adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue, liver, ante- rior pituitary gland, and diencephalonRNA transcript in adipose tissue, liver, anterior pituitary gland, diencephalon, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney pituitary gland but not in diencephalon. Our results provide novel ev- idence that, unlike mammals

Ramachandran, Ramesh

135

Characterization of y-type high-molecular-weight glutenins in tetraploid species of Leymus.  

PubMed

Three y-type high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin gene open reading frames (ORFs), Chiy1, Chiy2, and Racy, were isolated and characterized from Leymus chinensis PI499516 and Leymus racemosus ssp. racemosus W623305. They shared an extra glutamine in the N-terminal and LAAQLPAMCRL peptides in the C-terminal with x-type HMW glutenins but had different N-terminal lengths. Like other y-type HMW glutenins, Chiy2 and Racy had 104 (or 105) amino acid (aa) residues at the N-terminal and started with EGEASR, whereas Chiy1 had 99 aa in this domain and started with QLQCER because of the deletion of EGEASR. Five other y-type glutenins, including those from Elymus ciliaris, Pseudoroegneria libanotica, and Leymus mollis, were similar to Chiy1. The ORF of Chiy2 was probably not expressed. The ORFs of both Chiy1 and Racy were expressed in bacteria. The maximum likelihood phylogenic tree based on the signal peptide and N-terminal and C-terminal aa residues revealed two clades of y-type HMW glutenins in Triticeae; the first contained Ay, By, Cy, Dy, Eey, Gy, Ky, Ry, Tay, and Uy, while the second clade contained the remaining y types, including those from Leymus. Within the second clade, HMW glutenins lacking the EGEASR peptide formed a subclade. These y-type HMW glutenins in Leymus could not be targeted to the Xm or Ns genome. PMID:24068388

Sun, Yanqi; Pu, Zongjun; Dai, Shoufen; Pu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Bihua; Lan, Xiujin; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Yan, Zehong

2014-02-01

136

Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Agropyron intermedium.  

PubMed

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1 ? 4 and Glu-1Aiy1 ? 3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

2014-01-01

137

Identification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits from Agropyron intermedium  

PubMed Central

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1?4 and Glu-1Aiy1?3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

2014-01-01

138

Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has been increasing worldwide. As in adults, childhood obesity is closely related to hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. Moreover, obese children have been found to be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. Obese children and adolescents tend to develop serious medical and psychosocial complications and also are at greater risk morbidity and mortality in adulthood. The molecular basis of the pathogenesis of obesity-linked disorders has not been fully elucidated. Adipose tissue serves not only as an energy storage organ, but also as an endocrine organ. It releases many factors with autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Adipokines such as leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, adipsin, visfatin, and adiponectin are biologically active molecules produced by adipose tissue. They play a role in energy homeostasis, and in glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin level, unlike that of other adipocytokines, is decreased in obesity and increased after weight reduction. Adiponectin has been associated with both central obesity and increased visceral adipose tissue and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and potent insulin-sensitizing (anti-diabetic) effects. PMID:21147643

2010-01-01

139

The effects of exercise and adipose tissue lipolysis on plasma adiponectin concentration and adiponectin receptor expression in human skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It has been suggested that adiponectin regulates plasma free fatty acid (FFA) clearance by stimulating FFA uptake and\\/or oxidation in muscle. We aimed to determine changes in plasma adi- ponectin concentration and adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle during and after prolonged exercise under normal, fasting conditions (high FFA trial; HFA) and following pharmacological inhibition

Chamindie Punyadeera; Antoine H G Zorenc; Andrew J McAinch; Egbert Smit; Ralph Manders; Hans A Keizer; David Cameron-Smith; Luc J C van Loon

2005-01-01

140

Adiponectin signals through Adiponectin Receptor 1 to reverse imatinib resistance in K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, a member of adipokines, is a functional ligand for Adiponectin Receptor-1 (AdipoR1) and Adiponectin Receptor-2 (AdipoR2), and has been found to be linked to the risk of CML. Imatinib has undoubtedly revolutionised the management and outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), however imatinib resistance has been recognized as a major problem in CML therapy. In this study, we first established imatinib-resistant K562 CML cells, and then evaluated the effect of Adiponectin in reversing imatinib resistance. The data presented here demonstrated that Adiponectin was able to reverse K562 resistance to imatinib in vitro and in vivo. Additional data with molecular approaches suggested that the reversion of Adiponectin in imatinib resistance signals through AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 to downregulate Bcr-Abl expression and effect in imatinib-resistant K562 CML cells. Taken together, our data showed that Adiponectin can reverse imatinib resistance in CML, and to a certain extent elucidate the mechanism of Adiponectin reversing imatinib resistance that may provide a new and promising approach in imatinib resistance management in CML therapy. PMID:25475722

Wu, Shenghao; Zheng, Cuiping; Chen, Songyan; Lin, Bijing; Chen, Yuemiao; Zhou, Wenjin; Li, Zhenyu

2015-01-01

141

Adiponectin Action: A Combination of Endocrine and Autocrine/Paracrine Effects  

PubMed Central

The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and works in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin level and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectin’s beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways, and its principal physiological effects (i.e., metabolic and cardiovascular). The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed. PMID:22649379

Dadson, Keith; Liu, Ying; Sweeney, Gary

2011-01-01

142

Development of isohomoeoallelic lines within the wheat cv. Courtot for high molecular weight glutenin subunits: transfer of the Glu-D1 locus to chromosome 1A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat quality depends on protein composition and grain protein content. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play\\u000a an important role in determining the viscoelastic properties of gluten. In an attempt to improve the bread-making quality\\u000a of hexaploid wheat by elaborating novel HMW-GS combinations, a fragment of wheat chromosome 1D containing the Glu-D1 locus encoding the Dx2+Dy12 subunits was translocated to

J. Dumur; G. Branlard; A.-M. Tanguy; M. Dardevet; O. Coriton; V. Huteau; J. Lemoine; Joseph Jahier

2009-01-01

143

A pilot three-month sitagliptin treatment increases serum adiponectin level in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus- a randomized controlled trial START-J study  

PubMed Central

Background The dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitors, including sitagliptin, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived circulating protein, has anti-atherosclerotic and anti-diabetic properties and is effectively elevated in bloodstream by thiazolidinediones, an insulin sensitizer. However, the effect of sitagliptin treatment on serum adiponectin level in T2DM has not fully elucidated in Japanese T2DM patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sitagliptin treatment on serum adiponectin levels in T2DM subjects. Methods Twenty-six consecutive Japanese T2DM outpatients were recruited between April 2011 and March 2013, and randomized into the control (conventional treatment, n?=?10) group and sitagliptin treatment group (n?=?16). Serum adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Indices of glycemic control, such as hemoglobin A1c, glycated albumin, and 1.5-anhydro-D-glucitol, were significantly improved after the three-month treatment in both the control and sitagliptin groups. Serum adiponectin level was significantly increased in sitagliptin group from 6.7?±?0.8 to 7.4?±?1.0 ?g/mL without change of body mass index (p?=?0.034), while serum adiponectin level was not altered in the control group (p?=?0.601). Conclusion In Japanese T2DM patients, serum adiponectin level was elevated by three-month treatment with sitagliptin without change of body weight. Trial registration UMIN000004721 PMID:24884787

2014-01-01

144

Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on adiponectin levels and lipid profile in the ovariectomized-aged rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and adiponectin and lipid profile in the ovariectomized-aged rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were first divided into two groups; control (C) and ovariectomized (OVX). Bilateral ovariectomy were carried out on rats (n = 30) except control group (n = 10). After 6 weeks from ovariectomy, ovariectomized rats were subdivided into three groups; one group received no treatment (OVX), two groups received low dose (OVX + Cap5; 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (OVX + Cap20; 20 mg/kg/day) captopril (Cap). Body weights were monitored weekly. Adiponectin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Results: In the OVX group, body weights increased (P < 0.001). In the OVX + Cap20 group, body weights significantly decreased compared with the OVX group during weeks 5 and 6 (P < 0.05). While adiponectin levels increased in the OVX + Cap5 group (P = 0.014), triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased in the OVX + Cap20 group (P = 0.016 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to the OVX group. HDL-C and VLDL-C levels decreased only in OVX + Cap20 group (P < 0.005). Conclusions: ACE inhibitors may be decreasing the ovariectomy-induced weight gain by increasing adiponectin levels, and by affecting lipid profiles. The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be playing an important role in the development of adiposity. PMID:24554906

Dost, Turhan; Kafkas, Samet; Gokalp, Filiz; Karul, Aslihan; Birincioglu, Mustafa

2014-01-01

145

Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)  

SciTech Connect

The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio (Tokuyama Soda Co., Ltd., Tokuyama-city (Japan))

1993-11-05

146

Leptin, Adiponectin, and Obesity among Caucasian and Asian Women  

PubMed Central

Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI) among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants (P ? .01) across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin (? = 1.34 versus ? = 0.64) and with adiponectin (? = ?0.95 versus ? = ?0.75) than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin. PMID:21331287

Conroy, Shannon M.; Chai, Weiwen; Lim, Unhee; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

2011-01-01

147

Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity?  

PubMed Central

Almost 20 years have passed since the first laboratory evidence emerged that an abundant message encoding a protein with homology to the C1q superfamily is highly specifically expressed in adipocytes. At this stage, we refer to this protein as adiponectin. Despite more than 10,000 reports in the literature since its initial description, we seem to have written only the first chapter in the textbook on adiponectin physiology. With every new aspect we learn about adiponectin, a host of new questions arise with respect to the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we aim to summarize recent findings in the field and bring the rodent studies that suggest a causal relationship between adiponectin levels in plasma and systemic insulin sensitivity in perspective with the currently available data on the clinical side. PMID:24049728

Ye, Risheng; Scherer, Philipp E.

2013-01-01

148

Regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes upon exposure to HIV-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adipose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of HIV-related lipodystrophy. The precise mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. In HIV-infected patients, we previously demonstrated a strong relationship between lipodystrophy and levels of adiponectin, an adipose...

149

Generation of high frequency of novel alleles of the high molecular weight glutenin in somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass.  

PubMed

Somatic hybridization between bread wheat and tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) has generated fertile introgression progenies with novel combinations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). Most of these novel HMW-GS alleles were stably inherited. Sixteen HMW-GS sequences were PCR amplified from three introgression progeny lines and sequenced. The alignment of these sequences indicated that five, probably derived from point mutations of the parental genes, whereas eight likely represent the product of replication slippage. Three Glu-1Ay sequences appear to have lost the transposon presented in the parental gene. Two subunits carry an additional cysteine residue, which may be favorable to the quality of end-use product. We demonstrate that novel HMW-GS alleles can be rapidly generated via asymmetric somatic hybridization. PMID:19199095

Liu, Heng; Liu, Shuwei; Xia, Guangmin

2009-04-01

150

Lower Serum Adiponectin Levels in African-American Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects, in relation to race or gender in younger subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: The relationship of adiponectin, quantitated by radioimmunoassay, to anthropometric and metabolic factors (fasting insulin, glucose, and leptin) and reproductive hormones was examined in 46 healthy African Americans (25 girls\\/21 boys) and 40 whites (20 girls\\/20 boys)

Mikako Degawa-Yamauchi; Jason R. Dilts; Jason E. Bovenkerk; Chandan Saha; J. Howard Pratt; Robert V. Considine

2003-01-01

151

Decreased plasma adiponectin concentration in patients with essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipocytes secrete several biologically active substances that are presumed to be involved in obesity-related hypertension. There are no reports that deal with the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and blood pressure (BP).To evaluate the role of adiponectin in essential hypertension 33 patients with essential hypertensive (EHP) (12 women, 21 men) and 33 body mass index-matched normotensive healthy subjects (NHS) (13

Marcin Adamczak; Andrzej Wi; Tohru Funahashi; Jerzy Chudek; Franciszek Kokot; Yuji Matsuzawa

2003-01-01

152

Adiponectin and its receptors in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived polypeptide, has been shown to alleviate steatosis and inflammation in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.Aim: In the present study, we wished to define liver expression of adiponectin and its receptors in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or simple steatosis were investigated to test whether dysregulation of this system

S Kaser; A Moschen; A Cayon; A Kaser; J Crespo; F Pons-Romero; C F Ebenbichler; J R Patsch; H Tilg

2005-01-01

153

Gene Targeted Ablation of High Molecular Weight Fibroblast Growth Factor-2  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is produced as high molecular weight isoforms (HMW) and a low molecular weight isoform (LMW) via alternative usage of translation start sites in a single Fgf2mRNA. Although the physiological function of FGF2 and FGF2 LMW has been investigated in myocardial capillarogenesis during normal cardiac growth, the role of FGF2 HMW has not been determined. Here we report the generation of FGF2 HMW-deficient mice in which FGF2 HMW isoforms are ablated by the Tag-and-Exchange gene targeting technique. These mice are normal and fertile with normal fecundity, and have a normal life span. Histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric analyses indicate normal myocardial architecture, blood vessel and cardiac capillary density in young adult FGF2 HMW-deficient mice. These mice along with the FGF2- and FGF2 LMW-deficient mice that we have generated previously will be very useful for elucidating the differential functions of FGF2 isoforms in patho-physiology of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19105223

Azhar, Mohamad; Yin, Moying; Zhou, Ming; Li, Hongqi; Mustafa, Marwan; Nusyr, Eyad; Keenan, Jack B.; Chen, Hwudaurw; Pawlosky, Sharon; Gard, Connie; Grisham, Christina; Sanford, L. Philip; Doetschman, Tom

2009-01-01

154

Allelic variation of the HMW glutenin subunits in Spanish accessions of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. em. Thell.) is a hulled wheat of Germanic origin that survives at marginal areas in Asturias (Spain). The HMW glutenin\\u000a subunit composition of 403 accessions of spelt wheat from Spain has been analysed by SDS-PAGE. Three allelic variants were\\u000a detected for Glu-A1. For the Glu-B1 locus, two of seven alleles detected have not

L. Caballero; L. M. Martin; J. B. Alvarez

2001-01-01

155

Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25685286

Ghoshal, Kakali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

2015-02-15

156

IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription  

SciTech Connect

The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States) [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2009-05-15

157

Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25685286

Ghoshal, Kakali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

2015-01-01

158

Adipokines influencing metabolic and cardiovascular disease are differentially regulated in maintenance hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and interleukin (IL)-6 significantly influence energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular health. In the current study, we investigated serum levels of these adipokines in diabetic and nondiabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MD) as compared with controls with a glomerular filtration rate greater than 50 mL\\/min. Serum leptin, adiponectin, high–molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and

Michaela Ziegelmeier; Anette Bachmann; Jeannette Seeger; Ulrike Lossner; Jürgen Kratzsch; Matthias Blüher; Michael Stumvoll; Mathias Fasshauer

2008-01-01

159

Characterization of novel HMW-GS in two diploid species of Eremopyrum.  

PubMed

Three HMW-GS and the respective ORFs from diploid species Eremopyrum distans and Eremopyrum triticeum were characterized. Compared to homologous proteins, they showed novel modifications in all domains. In the N-terminals, the y subunit from Er. triticeum (Xey) had 98 aa residues. A short G/IIFWGTS peptide deletion was responsible for the reduced number of aa residues. The end peptide in the y subunit from Er. distans (Fy) was IPTLLR. This unique structure was involved in a replacement between x types with IPA/TLLK/R and y types with R/TSSQTVQ. Both y subunits share the same short peptide LAAQLPAMCRL as x types in the C-terminals. Phylogenic relationships among orthologous genes from Triticeae species revealed that Fy and Xey were neither purely x type nor purely y type based on the N and C terminal residues. Divergence times indicated that Glu-Xe1 and Glu-F1 were separated from each other and that Glu-Xe1 separated from orthologous loci of wild wheat relatives earlier than Glu-F1. Based on the divergence times among Glu-F1, Glu-Xe1, Glu-O1, Glu-St1, and Glu-Ta1, it is possible that genome F separation from O, St, and Ta in species of Henrardia persica, Pseudoroegneria stipifolia, and Taeniatherum crinitum was more recent than the separation of F and Xe. PMID:23403230

Dai, Shoufen; Pu, Zongjun; Liu, Dengcai; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Hu, Xinkun; Yan, Zehong

2013-04-25

160

Metabolically Protective Cytokines Adiponectin and Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Are Increased by Acute Overfeeding in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Context Circulating levels of metabolically protective and adverse cytokines are altered in obese humans and rodent models. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines are altered rapidly in response to over-nutrition, or as a later consequence of the obese state. Methods Forty sedentary healthy individuals were examined prior to and at 3 and 28 days of high fat overfeeding (+1250 kCal/day, 45% fat). Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp), adiposity, serum levels of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), lipocalin-2 and plasminogen activator factor-1 (PAI1) were assessed. Statistics were performed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results Overfeeding increased weight, body fat and liver fat, fasting glucose, insulin and reduced insulin sensitivity by clamp (all P <0.05). Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF21 were increased at day 3 of overfeeding (P ?0.001) and adiponectin was also elevated at day 28 (P=0.001). FABP4, lipocalin-2 and PAI-1 were not changed by overfeeding at either time point. Conclusion Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF-21, were increased by over nutrition and weight gain in healthy humans, despite increases in insulin resistance. We speculate that this was in attempt to maintain glucose homeostasis in a state of nutritional excess. PAI-I, FABP4 and lipocalin 2 were not altered by overfeeding suggesting that changes in these cytokines may be a later consequence of the obese state. Clinical trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00562393) PMID:24205333

Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Campbell, Lesley V.; Xu, Aimin; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

2013-01-01

161

Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism  

E-print Network

The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. ...

Liu, Qingqing

162

Adiponectin mediates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses in human MCF7 breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer and that blood levels of adiponectin, a hormone mainly secreted by white adipocytes, are inversely correlated with the body fat mass. As adiponectin elicits anti-proliferative effects in some cell types, we tested the hypothesis that adiponectin could influence human breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth. Here we show that MCF-7 cells express adiponectin receptors and respond to human recombinant adiponectin by reducing their growth, AMPkinase activation, and p42/p44 MAPkinase inactivation. Further, we demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effect of adiponectin involves activation of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle. These findings suggest that adiponectin could act in vivo as a paracrine/endocrine growth inhibitor towards mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, adipose adiponectin production being strongly reduced in obesity, this study may help to explain why obesity is a risk factor of developing breast cancers.

Dieudonne, Marie-Noelle [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Bussiere, Marianne [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Dos Santos, Esther [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Leneveu, Marie-Christine [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France); Giudicelli, Yves [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)]. E-mail: biochip@wanadoo.fr; Pecquery, Rene [Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, UPRES-EA 2493, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Ile de France Ouest, Universite Versailles-St Quentin, Centre Hospitalier de Poissy, 78303 Poissy Cedex (France)

2006-06-23

163

Elevated Serum Leptin, Adiponectin and Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio Is Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Asian Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity) involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007–2011). CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 from serum creatinine. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using commercially available ELISA. Odds ratio of CKD associated with elevated adiponectin and leptin levels were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol. Results CKD cases had higher levels of leptin (mean [SD] 9.7 [11.5] vs.16.9 [20.2] ng/mL, p<0.0001) and adiponectin (10.4 [7.4] vs. 9.2 [4.2], p = 0.001) compared to controls. In multi-variable models, compared to those in the lowest quartile, the OR (95% confidence interval) of CKD among those in the highest quartile were: 6.46 (3.84, 10.88), 1.94 (1.32–2.85) and 2.88 (1.78–4.64) for leptin, adiponectin and LAR. Similar associations were also observed when adiponectin and leptin were analyzed as continuous variables. This positive association of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR with CKD was consistently present in subgroups of gender, ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension and overweight status (all P-interaction >0.1). Conclusions Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population. PMID:25793395

Lim, Cynthia Ciwei; Teo, Boon Wee; Tai, E. Shyong; Lim, Su Chi; Chan, Choong Meng; Sethi, Sunil; Wong, Tien Y.; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

2015-01-01

164

The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines.  

PubMed

The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

2015-01-01

165

The Adjuvant Effects of High-Molecule-Weight Polysaccharides Purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on Dendritic Cell Function and DNA Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS) in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC) activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa) exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs) promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants. PMID:25723174

Lin, Chi-Chen; Pan, I-Hong; Li, Yi-Rong; Pan, Yi-Gen; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang

2015-01-01

166

The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin decreases insulin resistance by decreasing triglyceride content in muscle and

T. Yamauchi; J. Kamon; H. Waki; Y. Terauchi; N. Kubota; K. Hara; Y. Mori; T. Ide; K. Murakami; N. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka; O. Ezaki; Y. Akanuma; O. Gavrilova; C. Vinson; M. L. Reitman; H. Kagechika; K. Shudo; M. Yoda; Y. Nakano; K. Tobe; R. Nagai; S. Kimura; M. Tomita; P. Froguel; T. Kadowaki

2001-01-01

167

Paradoxical Decrease of an Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated the human adipose-specific and most abundant gene transcript, apM1 (Maeda, K., et al.,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.221, 286–289, 1996). The apM1 gene product was a kind of soluble matrix protein, which we named adiponectin. To quantitate the plasma adiponectin concentration, we have produced monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for human adiponectin and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. Adiponectin

Yukio Arita; Shinji Kihara; Noriyuki Ouchi; Masahiko Takahashi; Kazuhisa Maeda; Jun-ichiro Miyagawa; Kikuko Hotta; Iichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Nakamura; Koji Miyaoka; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Makoto Nishida; Shizuya Yamashita; Kosaku Okubo; Kenji Matsubara; Masahiro Muraguchi; Yasuichi Ohmoto; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

1999-01-01

168

High-power DPSS Laser hosted on a HMW-THS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hollow Metallic Winglets / HMW-THS, a turbo engine optimised for cooling electronics, handles large flows of energy, gas and air. Its heat exchanging shell, of huge area, tops the pressurised Can; the bottom fits a window. The hosted machine is built around a large inner gas distributor which integrates the main athermal structures. Considering the power levels, the ducting ease of both outer air-flows is as important and cuts noise. Two banks of hybrid mounted Laser Diodes / LDs, side or end feed each lasing Z-slab, thin and exposed to the cooling gas, which flows fast on both sides. The least path to reach the cooling gas minimises dT; to further reduce the thermal lensing effects, the local cooling can be tailored / spoiled to copy the heating density. The simplest optical etc layout is preferable but the current schemes and materials seem suitable; if required, the slab ends etc can be Brewster cut etc. The pumping section can sport a MOPA configuration to eases this function exploiting coherence. The inner pressure can be relevat but affects mildly only the outer window. Compactness and more degrees of symmetry lead to a natural athermal behaviour; the inner structure includes gas ducts dedicated to equalize its temperature. The neuter, clean He sports a top C P and flows easily; speed and pressure increase the heat removal rate and reduce dT; the fast cycle can be important. H II would spoil the HT / HR coatings and the electronics and generates water. Note that He was used to cool the largest AC generators. To improve the heat removal from hot spots or weak elements, a Thermo Electric cooler can yield local, sub-ambient temperature flows. A cycle including dedicated turbo stages, intercoolers and gas expansion suits larger critical sections.

Checchetti, Maurizio

2007-02-01

169

Clinical review: Adiponectin biology and its role in inflammation and critical illness  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipokine first described just over a decade ago. Produced almost exclusively by adipocytes, adiponectin circulates in high concentrations in human plasma. Research into this hormone has revealed it to have insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles. This review discusses the history, biology and physiological role of adiponectin and explores its role in disease, with specific focus on adiponectin in inflammation and sepsis. It appears that an inverse relationship exists between adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines. Low levels of adiponectin have been found in critically ill patients, although data are limited in human subjects at this stage. The role of adiponectin in systemic inflammation and critical illness is not well defined. Early data suggest that plasma levels of adiponectin are decreased in critical illness. Whether this is a result of the disease process itself or whether patients with lower levels of this hormone are more susceptible to developing a critical illness is not known. This observation of lower adiponectin levels then raises the possibility of therapeutic options to increase circulating adiponectin levels. The various options for modulation of serum adiponectin (recombinant adiponectin, thiazolidinediones) are discussed. PMID:21586104

2011-01-01

170

Decreased adiponectin and increased inflammation expression in epicardial adipose tissue in coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Disorders of endocrine substances in epicardial adipose tissue are known causes of coronary artery disease (CAD). Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, expression of adiponectin in epicardial adipose tissue and its function in CAD pathogenesis is unclear. This study investigates adiponectin expression in epicardial adipose tissue in CAD patients. METHODS: Vessels or adipose tissue samples collected from CAD

Yuan Zhou; Yutao Wei; Lei Wang; Xianguo Wang; Xinling Du; Zongquan Sun; Nianguo Dong; Xinzhong Chen

2011-01-01

171

Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in lean and obese subjects: correlations with insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adipose tissue regulates insulin sensitivity via the circulating adipocytokines, leptin, resistin and adiponectin. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in lean and obese subjects and determine the relationship between circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods: We examined plasma levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in 17 lean subjects with a

Josef V Silha; Michal Krsek; Jan V Skrha; Petr Sucharda; B L G Nyomba; Liam J Murphy

2003-01-01

172

Adiponectin signals in prostate cancer cells through Akt to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin has received much attention due to its beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, and epidemiologic studies have further shown an inverse association between adiponectin levels and risk for multiple tumors, which is independent of the IGF system or other risk factors. Previous studies have shown that adiponectin can activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in myocytes, hepatocytes, and adipocytes, suggesting that

D Barb; A Neuwirth; C S Mantzoros; S P Balk

2007-01-01

173

Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in canine hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Serum concentrations of adiponectin were compared between sex-matched hypothyroid (n?=?18) and euthyroid (n?=?18) client-owned dogs with comparable ages and body condition scores (BCS). Concentrations of adiponectin (mean; 95% confidence interval) were significantly (P?adiponectin were significantly negatively associated with concentrations of total thyroxine (P?<0.05) and positively correlated with concentrations of cholesterol (r?=?0.6, P?<0.01) in hypothyroid dogs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in dogs with hypothyroidism. Suggestive of the presence of resistance to adiponectin that could have contributed to development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in these dogs or alternatively, could be a consequence of these metabolic alterations. PMID:25555336

Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Kol, Amir; Farkas, Amnon; Schenck, Patricia A

2015-02-01

174

Capillary electrophoresis separation of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and related species with phosphate-based buffers.  

PubMed

This study focused on optimizing phosphate-based buffers and other capillary electrophoresis (CE) parameters for separating and characterizing high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42), emmer (Triticum dicoccum, AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). The fast and high-resolution separation of HMW-GS was achieved using 0.1 M phosphate-glycine buffer (pH 2.5, containing 20% acetonitrile and 0.05% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) at 12.5 kV and 40 degrees C with 25 microm inside diameter (ID)x27 cm uncoated fused-silica capillary. In general, one sample separation can be analyzed in 15 min. The good run-to-run repeatable separation of HMW-GS could be obtained with a relative standard deviation of less than 1% when capillaries were rinsed with 1 M phosphoric acid for 2 min, followed by separation buffer for 2 min after each separation. The HMW-GS from some bread wheat cultivars as well as tetraploid and diploid accessions was separated by the CE method described above, and all subunits detected were well characterized and readily identified. Some HMW-GS showed reversed mobilities and elution order compared to the methods of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and SDS-CE. Particularly, most of the HMW-GS analyzed with the CE buffer used were separated into multiple peaks, generally a high peak plus a minor peak. CE appears to be capable of separating and characterizing HMW-GS with fast and high-resolution features, therefore it is expected to be useful for specific germplasm screening and desirable HMW-GS identification in wheat quality improvement. PMID:12731030

Yan, Yueming; Yu, Jianzhong; Jiang, Yi; Hu, Yingkao; Cai, Minhua; Hsam, Sai L K; Zeller, Friedrich J

2003-05-01

175

Adiponectin: anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that plays an essential role in regulating several metabolic functions through the secretion of biological mediators called "adipokines". Dysregulation of adipokines plays a crucial role in obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin (APN) is the most abundant adipokine accounting for the 0.01% of total serum protein, and is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology. APN plasma levels are reduced in individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, all traits with low-grade chronic inflammation. It is has been suggested that the absence of APN anti-inflammatory effects may be a contributing factor to this inflammation. APN inhibits the expression of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced endothelial adhesion molecules, macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, tumor necrosis factor-? expression in macrophages and adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. It also has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects, which play a role in its cardioprotective action. This review will focus on APN as an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective plasma protein. PMID:22796520

Villarreal-Molina, M T; Antuna-Puente, B

2012-10-01

176

The effect of anti-Rho(D) and non-specific immunoglobulins on monocyte Fc receptor function: the role of high molecular weight IgG polymers and IgG subclasses.  

PubMed

Anti-Rho(D) immunoglobulin (anti-D) contained more high molecular weight (HMW) IgG polymers than intravenous non-specific immunoglobulin (i.v. Ig). The low-dose anti-D and high-dose i.v. Ig regimens used to treat idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) therefore contained similar total amounts of HMW IgG. In vitro, the HMW IgG polymers were more effective competitive inhibitors of monocyte phagocyte Fc receptors than monomeric IgG. The IgG subclass composition of anti-D and i.v. Ig were both similar to normal human plasma. We conclude that the HMW IgG content but not the IgG subclass composition of anti-D may explain its low-dose therapeutic efficacy in ITP. PMID:2160875

Boughton, B J; Chakraverty, R K; Simpson, A; Smith, N

1990-01-01

177

Variant high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits arising from biolistic transformation of wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic transformation via the biolistic method has been used to introduce genes encoding natural and novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into wheat. The appearance of new seed proteins of sizes not predicted by the transgene coding sequences has been noted in some of these exper...

178

ASSOCIATION OF THE 276GT POLYMORPHISM OF THE ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN NONDIABETIC KOREANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adiponectin gene is known to modulate adiponectin levels and development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We wanted to determine whether two SNPs (45T>G/276G>T) at the adiponectin (ACDC) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and CVD risk factors in response to a we...

179

Regulation of beta-cell viability and gene expression by distinct agonist fragments of adiponectin.  

PubMed

Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Activation of the adiponectin receptors has a clear role in improving insulin resistance although conflicting evidence exists for its effects on pancreatic beta-cells. Previous reports have identified both adiponectin receptors (ADR-1 and ADR-2) in the beta-cell. Recent evidence has suggested that two distinct regions of the adiponectin molecule, the globular domain and a small N-terminal region, have agonist properties. This study investigates the effects of two agonist regions of adiponectin on insulin secretion, gene expression, cell viability and cell signalling in the rat beta-cell line BRIN-BD11, as well as investigating the expression levels of adiponectin receptors (ADRs) in these cells. Cells were treated with globular adiponectin and adiponectin (15-36) +/-leptin to investigate cell viability, expression of key beta-cell genes and ERK1/2 activation. Both globular adiponectin and adiponectin (15-36) caused significant ERK1/2 dependent increases in cell viability. Leptin co-incubation attenuated adiponectin (15-36) but not globular adiponectin induced cell viability. Globular adiponectin, but not adiponectin (15-36), caused a significant 450% increase in PDX-1 expression and a 45% decrease in LPL expression. ADR-1 was expressed at a higher level than ADR-2, and ADR mRNA levels were differentially regulated by non-esterified fatty acids and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor agonists. These data provide evidence of roles for two distinct adiponectin agonist domains in the beta-cell and confirm the potentially important role of adiponectin receptor agonism in maintaining beta-cell mass. PMID:20156502

Brown, James E P; Conner, Alex C; Digby, Janet E; Ward, Kenya L; Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Randeva, Harpal S; Dunmore, Simon J

2010-05-01

180

Longitudinal Effects of Weight Loss and Regain on Cytokine Concentration in Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe patterns of weight loss and regain and their effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-?, and anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and IL-10 during a 24-month weight loss trial. Materials/Methods Participants were obese adults (N = 66) who lost and regained ?10 lbs during a 24-month clinical trial of behavioral weight loss treatment. Measurements of cytokines and weight were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Linear mixed modeling was used to determine percent change in weight and cytokines from baseline. Results The sample was predominantly female (80.3%) and White (86.4%), with a mean age of 48.4 ± 7.3 years and mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.4 kg/m2. At baseline, men had higher waist circumference, body weight, and energy intake, and lower percent body fat and adiponectin. The largest decrease in weight was observed at 6 months with a mean 11% decrease (p < .0001). A significant gender-by-weight change interaction on percent change in adiponectin was observed [b(se) = 0.9 (0.2), p = .0003], with men having a larger increase in adiponectin with weight loss compared to women. There was a significant effect of weight gain over time with increases in IL-6 [b(se) = 0.9 (0.3), p = .001]. Conclusions Overall, weight loss was significantly associated with improvements in adiponectin and IL-6. Those improvements remained at 24 months, following weight regain. The association between weight change and adiponectin was different between genders. Implementing strategies that support sustained weight loss can help prevent a state of chronic systemic inflammation and its associated adverse effects. PMID:23725640

Ambeba, Erica J.; Styn, Mindi A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Evans, Rhobert W.; Burke, Lora E.

2014-01-01

181

Feline adiponectin: molecular structures and plasma concentrations in obese cats.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine that is specifically expressed in adipose tissues, directly sensitizes the body to insulin via specific receptors and its decreased plasma concentration is responsible for insulin resistance in obese humans. Diabetes is an important problem also in veterinary medicine, and feline diabetes is very similar to human type 2 diabetes, in which obesity is an important risk factor. In the present study, We obtained cDNA clones corresponding to feline adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 1 (AD-R1), whose nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were highly identical to those of other species, especially, the extra-cellular domain of feline AD-R1 was almost identical to that of human AD-R1. Adiponectin mRNA was exclusively detected in the adipose tissue, but AD-R1 was in all tissues tested in this study. Next, plasma samples were collected from 22 cats visiting veterinary practices. They were divided to 2 groups based on a five-point scale body condition score (BCS), such as normal group (BCS ranged from 2.5 through 3.5) and obese group (BCS ranged from 4.0 through 5.0). Plasma adiponectin in obese cats (7.2 +/- 1.5 microg/ml) was significantly lower than that of normal cats (18.0 +/- 3.2 microg/ml). These results suggest that adiponectin may be responsible for insulin function also in the cat, and it can be a target molecule for treatment of obesity and diabetes in cats. PMID:19262030

Ishioka, Katsumi; Omachi, Asako; Sasaki, Noriyasu; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masayuki

2009-02-01

182

Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

2014-10-01

183

Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses  

PubMed Central

The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM—low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10–1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions. PMID:25368867

Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim D.; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John D.; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

2014-01-01

184

Expression of brain adiponectin in a murine model of transient cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Adiponectin is a hormone that is mainly secreted by fat cells. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, and a protective effect against ischemic brain injury, but the level of expression of adiponectin in brain tissue is unknown. In the current study, a mouse model of transient cerebral ischemia was used to determine the level of expression of adiponectin in ischemic brain tissue. Methods: Sixty CD-1 mice underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The level of expression of adiponectin in mouse brain tissues 1 hour, 4 hours, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days, after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were determined using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results: The level of expression of adiponectin in mouse ischemic brain tissues increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and was higher in the central area of ischemia than in the peripheral area. The level of expression of adiponectin occurred only in vascular endothelial cells. There was no significant change in the level of expression of adiponectin mRNA in brain tissue pre- and post-ischemia/reperfusion injury. Conclusion: After cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, adiponectin accumulated in the vascular endothelial cells of ischemic brain tissues, and non-endogenous adiponectin was generated. Circulating adiponectin accumulated in ischemic brain tissues through its role in adhering to damaged vascular endothelial cells. PMID:25550990

Shen, Lin-Hui; Miao, Jie; Zhao, Ya-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Liang, Wei

2014-01-01

185

ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 Polymorphisms in Relation to Serum Adiponectin Levels and BMI in Black and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein with influence on several physiologic pathways including those related to insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Adiponectin levels are highly heritable and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined in relation to circulating adiponectin levels and obesity phenotypes, but despite differences in adiponectin levels and obesity prevalence by race, few

Sarah S. Cohen; Marilie D. Gammon; Kari E. North; Robert C. Millikan; Ethan M. Lange; Scott M. Williams; Wei Zheng; Qiuyin Cai; Jirong Long; Jeffrey R. Smith; Lisa B. Signorello; William J. Blot; Charles E. Matthews

2011-01-01

186

Augmented Plasma Adiponectin after Prolonged Fasting During Ramadan in Men  

PubMed Central

Background: Intermittent fasting during Ramadan entails major changes in metabolism and energy expenditure. This study sought to determine effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) as two inter-related peptides involved in cells sensitivity to insulin and glucose metabolism. Methods: Total of seventy healthy men, with age range equal or greater than 30, with at least three type2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk factors were selected. Serum lipid profile, anthropometric indices and plasma glucose levels were determined using conventional methods. Also, serum adiponectin and TNF- ? concentra­tions were assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Ramadan fasting resulted in a significant increase of serum adiponectin (P< 0.000), fasting glucose (P< 0.000) and triglycride (P< 0.001). Body mass index was lowered during the fasting (P< 0.000). Finally, no remarkable decrease was found in serum TNF-? levels (P= 0.100). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting resulted in augmented adipo­nectin levels which may help in improving metabolic stress induced by insulin resistance in men with predisposing factors of type2 DM. PMID:25097840

Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Rasuli, Javad; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

2014-01-01

187

Resistin, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Leptin, and Proinflammatory Cytokines: Relationships in Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate interactions among leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs), interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in nonmorbid and morbid obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: We measured these hormones by immunoenzyme or radiometric assays in 117 nonmorbid and 57 morbidly obese patients, and in a subgroup of 34 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after gastric bypass

Joan Vendrell; Montserrat Broch; Nuria Vilarrasa; Ana Molina; Jose Manuel Gómez; Cristina Gutiérrez; Immaculada Simón; Joan Soler; Cristóbal Richart

2004-01-01

188

Occupational Exposure to High Molecular Weight Allergens and Lymphoma Risk Among Italian Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens that provoke immune reactivity through an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated pathway has been associated with a decreased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The present analysis was conducted to assess the associations between occupational exposure to specific HMW allergens and the risk of B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods We analyzed data from 2290 incident lymphoma cases and 1771 population-based controls enrolled in a multi-center study of hematolymphopoietic malignancies conducted in Italy between 1991 and 1993. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed. Controls were frequency-matched to cases based on age, sex, and study center. An industrial hygienist evaluated HMW occupational exposure classifications after an asthma-specific job exposure matrix was applied to participants' job histories. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between occupational exposures that occurred ?10 years before the date of lymphoma diagnosis and B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Results Ten percent of cases and 11 percent of controls were occupationally exposed to HMW allergens. Exposed individuals had a decreased risk for all lymphomas combined (odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.97), particularly for B-cell lymphomas (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.94). The decreased risks for all lymphomas were also observed when HMW allergen exposure was limited to animal and latex allergens. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to immunologically active HMW allergens is inversely associated with the risk for lymphoma. The effect of exposure to specific allergens warrants further assessment. PMID:19755650

Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zock, Jan-Paul; D'Errico, Angelo; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Miligi, Lucia; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Vineis, Paolo

2009-01-01

189

Adiponectin Regulation of Stellate Cell Activation via PPAR?-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which adiponectin modulates hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice receiving thioacetamide were resistant to fibrosis, compared with controls. In contrast, adiponectin-null animals developed severe fibrosis. Expression of collagen ?1(I) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) mRNAs were significantly lower in adiponectin-overexpressing mice, compared with controls. In wild-type stellate cells exposed to a lentivirus encoding adiponectin, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), SREBP1c, and CEBP? mRNAs was significantly increased (3.2-, 4.1-, and 2.2-fold, respectively; n = 3; P < 0.05, adiponectin virus versus control), consistent with possible activation of an adipogenic transcriptional program. Troglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, strongly suppressed up-regulation of collagen ?1(I) and ?-SMA mRNA in stellate cells isolated from wild-type mice; however, stellate cells from adiponectin-null animals failed to respond to troglitazone. Furthermore, in isolated stellate cells in which PPAR? was depleted using an adenovirus-Cre-recombinase system and in which adiponectin was also overexpressed, collagen ?1(I) and ?-SMA were significantly inhibited. We conclude that the PPAR? effect on stellate cell activation and the fibrogenic cascade appears to be adiponectin-dependent; however, the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on stellate cell activation was not dependent on PPAR?, suggesting the presence of PPAR?-dependent as well as independent pathways in stellate cells. PMID:21641391

Shafiei, Mahnoush S.; Shetty, Shoba; Scherer, Philipp E.; Rockey, Don C.

2011-01-01

190

Adiponectin modulates focal adhesion disassembly in activated hepatic stellate cells: implication for reversing hepatic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Previous evidence indicates that adiponectin possesses antifibrogenic activity in inhibiting liver fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies, however, are limited by adiponectin quaternary structure and effective concentrations in circulation. Here we postulate a novel molecular mechanism, whereby adiponectin targets focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity and disrupts key features of the fibrogenic response. Adiponectin-null (Ad(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were exposed to either saline or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6 wk. CCl4-gavaged mice were also injected with attenuated adenoviral adiponectin (Ad-Adn) or Ad-LacZ for 2 wk. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were treated with or without adiponectin to elucidate signal transduction mechanisms. In vivo delivery of Ad-Adn markedly attenuates CCl4-induced expression of key integrin proteins and markers of HSC activation: ?v, ?3, ?1, ?2(I) collagen, and ?-smooth muscle actin. Confocal experiments of liver tissues demonstrated that adiponectin delivery also suppressed vinculin and p-FAK activity in activated HSCs. In vitro, adiponectin induced dephosphorylation of FAK, mediated by a physical association with activated tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2. Conversely, Shp2 knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuated adiponectin-induced FAK deactivation, and expression of TIMP1 and ?2(I) collagen was abolished in the presence of adiponectin and si-FAK. Finally, we documented that either adiponectin or the synthetic peptide with adiponectin properties, ADP355, suppressed p-FAK in synthetic matrices with stiffness measurements of 9 and 15 kPa, assessed by immunofluorescent imaging and quantitation. The in vivo and in vitro data presented indicate that disassembly of focal adhesion complexes in HSCs is pivotal for hepatic fibrosis therapy, now that small adiponectin-like peptides are available. PMID:25154876

Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Mells, Jamie E; Thorn, Natalie E; Saxena, Neeraj K; Anania, Frank A

2014-12-01

191

Adiponectin Reduces Hepatic Stellate Cell Migration by Promoting Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Secretion.  

PubMed

Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are central players in liver fibrosis that when activated, proliferate, migrate to sites of liver injury, and secrete extracellular matrix. Obesity, a known risk factor for liver fibrosis is associated with reduced levels of adiponectin, a protein that inhibits liver fibrosis in vivo and limits HSC proliferation and migration in vitro. Adiponectin-mediated activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits HSC proliferation, but the mechanism by which it limits HSC migration to sites of injury is unknown. Here we sought to elucidate how adiponectin regulates HSC motility. Primary rat HSCs were isolated and treated with adiponectin in migration assays. The in vivo actions of adiponectin were examined by treating mice with carbon tetrachloride for 12 weeks and then injecting them with adiponectin. Cell and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression, signaling, and histology. Serum from patients with liver fibrosis was examined for adiponectin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein. Adiponectin administration into mice increased TIMP-1 gene and protein expression. In cultured HSCs, adiponectin promoted TIMP-1 expression and through binding of TIMP-1 to the CD63/?1-integrin complex reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase to limit HSC migration. In mice with liver fibrosis, adiponectin had similar effects and limited focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Finally, in patients with advanced fibrosis, there was a positive correlation between serum adiponectin and TIMP-1 levels. In sum, these data show that adiponectin stimulates TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs to retard their migration and contributes to the anti-fibrotic effects of adiponectin. PMID:25575598

Ramezani-Moghadam, Mehdi; Wang, Jianhua; Ho, Vikki; Iseli, Tristan J; Alzahrani, Badr; Xu, Aimin; Van der Poorten, David; Qiao, Liang; George, Jacob; Hebbard, Lionel

2015-02-27

192

Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers’ eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was 23.6 ± 9.2 pg/ml, higher than that of current smokers (20.4 ± 6.1) and individuals who had never smoked (22.4 ± 5.8) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660, ? value = ?0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827, ? value = ?0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622, ? value = 0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895, ? value = 0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are risk factors for MetS and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071918

Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Roh, Ji won

2014-01-01

193

Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Steamed bread is a popular staple in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties an...

194

DIFFERENTIATION OF ALLELIC VARIATIONS OF THE HMW GLUTENIN SUBUNITS OF WHEAT FLOURS BY USE OF MIXING PARAMETERS AND POLYMERIC PROTEIN CONTENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk and OK102, each with four different lines of differing HMW-GS composition were analyzed. The mixing parameters from a 10-g mixograph were utilized to discriminate among different cultivars as well as differen...

195

Differentiation of allelic variations of the HMW glutenin subunits of wheat flours by use of mixing parameters and polymeric protein content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mixing parameters and polymeric proteins (PP) of two different wheat cultivars, Centurk (CK) and OK102, each with four lines differing in HMW-GS composition were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis of mixograph parameters. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify signific...

196

Ultrastructural Localization of Adiponectin protein in Vasculature of Normal and Atherosclerotic mice  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, adipose-specific secretory protein, abundantly circulates in bloodstream and its concentration is around 1000-fold higher than that of other cytokines and hormones. Hypoadiponectinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is little or no information on ultrastructural localization of adiponectin in the vasculature. Herein we investigated the localization of vascular adiponectin in the aorta using the immunoelectron microscopic technique. In wild-type (WT) mice, adiponectin was mainly detected on the luminal surface membrane of endothelial cells (ECs) and also found intracellularly in the endocytic vesicles of ECs. In the atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice, adiponectin was detected in ECs, on the cell surface membrane of synthetic smooth muscle cells, and on the surface of monocytes adherent to ECs. Changes in adiponectin localization within the wall of the aorta may provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24809933

Mori, Takuya; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Norikazu; Nakamura, Yukiko; Fujishima, Yuya; Matsuda, Keisuke; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimada, Shoichi; Shimomura, Iichiro

2014-01-01

197

What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of insulin resistance or obesity. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine. There is evidence that adiponectin decreases hepatic and systematic insulin resistance, and attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Adiponectin generally predicts steatosis grade and the severity of NAFLD; however, to what extent this is a direct effect or related to the presence of more severe insulin resistance or obesity remains to be addressed. Although there is no proven pharmacotherapy for the treatment of NAFLD, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the indirect upregulation of adiponectin through the administration of various therapeutic agents and/or lifestyle modifications. In this adiponectin-focused review, the pathogenetic role and the potential therapeutic benefits of adiponectin in NAFLD are analyzed systematically. PMID:23430039

Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

2013-01-01

198

What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries. Insulin resistance is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of insulin resistance or obesity. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine. There is evidence that adiponectin decreases hepatic and systematic insulin resistance, and attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Adiponectin generally predicts steatosis grade and the severity of NAFLD; however, to what extent this is a direct effect or related to the presence of more severe insulin resistance or obesity remains to be addressed. Although there is no proven pharmacotherapy for the treatment of NAFLD, recent therapeutic strategies have focused on the indirect upregulation of adiponectin through the administration of various therapeutic agents and/or lifestyle modifications. In this adiponectin-focused review, the pathogenetic role and the potential therapeutic benefits of adiponectin in NAFLD are analyzed systematically. PMID:23430039

Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

2013-02-14

199

Evidence favoring the existence of two high molecular weight precursor forms of dog kidney renin.  

PubMed

Extraction of canine renal cortical tissue at pH 7.4 in the presence of the protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate (0.2 mM), Na2EDTA (7.8 mM), sodium tetrathionate (7.8 mM). N-ethyl maleimide (7.8 mM) yielded renin activity in two high molecular weight (HMW) forms, 65,000 (65K) and 55,000 (55K). Serial gel filtration chromatography of such extracts stored at 4 C showed that over the course of 2 days, activity at both 65,000 and 55,000 decreased almost entirely, while low molecular weight (LMW) activity at 41,000 (41K), not present immediately after extraction, had appeared in the extracts, The renin activity of the extract doubled over the first 24 h of storage and remained stable over the next 24 h. The activity of all three renin forms was comparably inhibited by antirenin antibodies. Our results support the concept that HMW renin(s) is a biological precursor of 41K renin. The new finding of a renin form intermediate in apparent molecular weight between 65K and 41K renin suggests that proteolytic processing of HMW to LMW renin may involve more than one step. The fact that in vitro conversion of HMW to LMW renin will occur under these conditions but takes place slowly may provide a technique for the future study of the precise manner in which HMW is converted to LMW renin. PMID:456314

Potter, D M; Dunn, P M; McDonald, W J

1979-08-01

200

Regulation of beta-cell viability and gene expression by distinct agonist fragments of adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Activation of the adiponectin receptors has a clear role in improving insulin resistance although conflicting evidence exists for its effects on pancreatic beta-cells. Previous reports have identified both adiponectin receptors (ADR-1 and ADR-2) in the beta-cell. Recent evidence has suggested that two distinct regions of the adiponectin molecule, the globular

James E. P. Brown; Alex C. Conner; Janet E. Digby; Manjunath Ramanjaneya; Harpal S. Randeva; Simon J. Dunmore

2010-01-01

201

Corticosteroid-binding globulin affects the relationship between circulating adiponectin and cortisol in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory pathways are increasingly recognized to be tightly associated with insulin resistance in humans. The promoter region of the adiponectin gene—Apm1—encompasses consensus sequences for glucocorticosteroid receptor responsive element. Dexamethasone induced downregulation of adiponectin secretion in vitro, whereas prednisolone administration increased circulating adiponectin concentrations. As previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), body mass index, and insulin

José-Manuel Fernandez-Real; Michel Pugeat; Abel López-Bermejo; Hubert Bornet; Wifredo Ricart

2005-01-01

202

The Multi-Level Action of Fatty Acids on Adiponectin Production by Fat Cells  

PubMed Central

Current epidemics of diabetes mellitus is largely caused by wide spread obesity. The best-established connection between obesity and insulin resistance is the elevated and/or dysregulated levels of circulating free fatty acids that cause and aggravate insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other hazardous metabolic conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPAR? and C/EBP?. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBP?-null mice, we have determined that the latter transcription factor may not solely mediate the inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription leaving PPAR? as a likely target of palmitate. In agreement with this model, palmitate increases phosphorylation of PPAR? on Ser273, and substitution of PPAR? for the unphosphorylated mutant Ser273Ala blocks the effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription. The inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin gene expression requires its intracellular metabolism via the acyl-CoA synthetase 1-mediated pathway. In addition, we found that palmitate stimulates degradation of intracellular adiponectin by lysosomes, and the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, suppressed the effect of palmitate on adiponectin release from adipocytes. We present evidence suggesting that the intracellular sorting receptor, sortilin, plays an important role in targeting of adiponectin to lysosomes. Thus, palmitate not only decreases adiponectin expression at the level of transcription but may also stimulate lysosomal degradation of newly synthesized adiponectin. PMID:22140527

Karki, Shakun; Chakrabarti, Partha; Huang, Guanrong; Wang, Hong; Farmer, Stephen R.; Kandror, Konstantin V.

2011-01-01

203

Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

2010-01-01

204

Adiponectin: a biomarker of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is one of the most thoroughly studied adipocytokines. Low plasma levels of adiponectin are found to associate\\u000a with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and many other human diseases. From animal experiments and human studies, adiponectin\\u000a has been shown to be a key regulator of insulin sensitivity. In this article, we review the evidence and propose that hypo-adiponectinemia\\u000a is not a

Jin-Ying Lu; Kuo-Chin Huang; Lin-Chau Chang; Ying-Shing Huang; Yu-Chiao Chi; Ta-Chan Su; Chi-Ling Chen; Wei-Shiung Yang

2008-01-01

205

Plasma Concentrations of a Novel, Adipose-Specific Protein, Adiponectin, in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.660.4

Kikuko Hotta; Tohru Funahashi; Yukio Arita; Masahiko Takahashi; Morihiro Matsuda; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Hiromi Iwahashi; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Noriyuki Ouchi; Kazuhisa Maeda; Makoto Nishida; Shinji Kihara; Naohiko Sakai; Tadahisa Nakajima; Kyoichi Hasegawa; Masahiro Muraguchi; Yasukazu Ohmoto; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Toshiaki Hanafusa; Yuji Matsuzawa

2010-01-01

206

Identification of Adiponectin Receptor Agonist Utilizing a Fluorescence Polarization Based High Throughput Assay  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

2013-01-01

207

Effects of DGAT1 deficiency on energy and glucose metabolism are independent of adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Mice lacking acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in triacylglycerol synthesis, have enhanced insulin sensitivity and are protected from obesity, a result of increased energy expenditure. In these mice, factors derived from white adipose tissue (WAT) contribute to the systemic changes in metabolism. One such factor, adiponectin, increases fatty acid oxidation and enhances insulin sensitivity. To test the hypothesis that adiponectin is required for the altered energy and glucose metabolism in DGAT1-deficient mice, we generated adiponectin-deficient mice and introduced adiponectin deficiency into DGAT1-deficient mice by genetic crosses. Although adiponectin-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were heavier, exhibited worse glucose tolerance, and had more hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation than wild-type controls, mice lacking both DGAT1 and adiponectin, like DGAT1-deficient mice, were protected from diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. These findings indicate that adiponectin is required for normal energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism but that the metabolic changes induced by DGAT1-deficient WAT are independent of adiponectin and are likely due to other WAT-derived factors. Our findings also suggest that the pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 may be useful for treating human obesity and insulin resistance associated with low circulating adiponectin levels. PMID:16595853

Streeper, Ryan S.; Koliwad, Suneil K.; Villanueva, Claudio J.; Farese, Robert V.

2006-01-01

208

The good fat hormone: Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

New treatments for heart disease continue to be of paramount importance. The newest pandemic facing us is the rise of obesity\\u000a and diabetes. One new area of research in the field of metabolism is the hormone adiponectin, which is secreted by fat cells.\\u000a For the most part, this compound seems more likely to be a part of basic science—oriented research;

Dat Do; Jorge Alvarez; Elaine Chiquette; Robert Chilton

2006-01-01

209

High serum adiponectin concentration in children with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin (ADPN) counteracts the inflammatory response of the endothelium, which plays an important role in the development\\u000a of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data in children with CKD are scarce. We examined serum\\u000a ADPN concentration in 90 children with various renal disorders: 28 with CKD on conservative treatment (CKD), 21 on regular\\u000a dialysis treatment (D), and 41

Kristina F. Möller; Christina Dieterman; Lena Herich; Ilka A. Klaassen; Markus J. Kemper; Dirk E. Müller-Wiefel

210

Taurine supplementation prevents ethanol-induced decrease in serum adiponectin and reduces hepatic steatosis in rats  

PubMed Central

Chronic ethanol feeding decreases expression of adiponectin by adipocytes and circulating adiponectin. Adiponectin treatment during chronic ethanol feeding prevents liver injury in mice. Chronic ethanol feeding also increases oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in adipose tissue. Here we tested the hypothesis that supplemental taurine, an amino acid that functions as a chemical chaperone/osmolyte and enhances cellular anti-oxidant activity, would prevent ethanol-induced decreases in adiponectin expression and attenuate liver injury. Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased as early as 4–7 days after feeding rats a 36% ethanol diet. This rapid decrease was associated with increased oxidative, but not ER, stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Taurine prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress and increased inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue. Ethanol feeding also rapidly decreased expression of transcription factors regulating adiponectin expression (C/EBP?, PPAR? and PPAR?) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Taurine prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in C/EBP? and PPAR? normalizing adiponectin mRNA and serum adiponectin concentrations. In the liver, taurine prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress and attenuated TNF-? expression and steatosis, at least in part, by increasing expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion In subcutaneous adipose tissue, taurine decreased ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cytokine expression, as well as normalized expression of adiponectin mRNA. Taurine prevented ethanol-induced decreases in serum adiponectin; normalized adiponectin was associated with a reduction in hepatic oxidative stress, TNF-? expression and steatosis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that taurine has important protective effects against ethanol-induced tissue injury in both adipose and liver. PMID:19296466

Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M.; Tang, Hui; McMullen, Megan M.; Axhemi, Armend; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Nagy, Laura E.

2009-01-01

211

Anthocyanin increases adiponectin secretion and protects against diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-secreted adipokine with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study, we evaluated a potential role for adiponectin in the protective effects of anthocyanin on diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction. We treated db/db mice on a normal diet with anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside (C3G; 2 g/kg diet) for 8 wk. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations of the aorta were then evaluated. Adiponectin expression and secretion were also measured. C3G treatment restores endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in db/db mice, whereas diabetic mice treated with an anti-adiponectin antibody do not respond. C3G treatment induces adiponectin expression and secretion in cultured 3T3 adipocytes through transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1). Silencing Foxo1 expression prevented C3G-stimulated induction of adiponectin expression. In contrast, overexpression of Foxo1-ADA promoted adiponectin expression in adipocytes. C3G activates Foxo1 by increasing its deacetylation via silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1). Furthermore, purified anthocyanin supplementation significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Changes in adiponectin concentrations positively correlated with FMD in the anthocyanin group. Mechanistically, adiponectin activates cAMP-PKA-eNOS signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells, increasing endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. These results demonstrate that adipocyte-derived adiponectin is required for anthocyanin C3G-mediated improvement of endothelial function in diabetes. PMID:24595303

Liu, Yan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yuhua; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

2014-04-15

212

Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. RESULTS: Adiponectin

Ippei Kanazawa; Toru Yamaguchi; Shozo Yano; Mika Yamauchi; Masahiro Yamamoto; Toshitsugu Sugimoto

2007-01-01

213

Advances in the field of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in?depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR?1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four? and five?ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation. PMID:21255317

Kanaly, Robert A.; Harayama, Shigeaki

2010-01-01

214

High molecular weight glutenin subunit variation in Triticum turgidum var. dicoccum.  

PubMed

Variation in high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit composition among 167 accessions of dicoccum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccum Schrank) of diverse origins was investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A total of 20 alleles were identified, and 9 of them were found to be different from those previously detected by Payne and Lawrence (1983 b) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The newly discovered alleles enhance the genetic variability available to improve the industrial quality of wheats and some of them may facilitate basic research on the relationship of industrial quality with HMW glutenin subunit number. The novel variants include a GLU-A1 encoded subunit which has higher molecular mass than any other so far described in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats, and a 'null' GLU-B1 allele. Dicoccums containing neither GLU-A1- nor GLU-B1-encoded subunits were also identified. A comparison of the mean number of HMW glutenin subunits contained in various primitive and modern domesticated wheats of different ploidy levels and the identification of wheats containing no HMW glutenin subunits suggest that the occurrence of 'null' GLU-1 alleles in these species depends on chance rather on an inherent tendency on the part of modern polyploid wheats to suppress the activity of redundant GLU-1 genes. PMID:24240328

Vallega, V; Waines, J G

1987-10-01

215

Tracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the hypothesis whether high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) in a high latitude marginal sea is dominated by terrestrial derived matter, 10 stations were sampled along the salinity gradient of the central and northern Baltic Sea and were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved organic carbon as well as ?13C values of HMW-DOM. Different end-member-mixing models were applied to quantify the influence of terrestrial DOM and to test for conservative versus non-conservative behavior of the terrestrial DOM in the different Baltic Sea basins. The share of terrestrial DOM to the total HMW-DOM was calculated for each station, ranging from 43 to 83%. This shows the high influence of terrestrial DOM inputs for the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The data also suggest that terrestrial DOM reaching the open Baltic Sea is not subject to substantial removal anymore. However compared to riverine DOM concentrations, our results indicate that substantial amounts of HMW-DOM (> 50%) seem to be removed near the coastline during estuarine mixing. A budget approach yielded residence times for terrestrial DOM of 2.8, 3.0, and 4.5 yr for the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper.

Deutsch, B.; Alling, V.; Humborg, C.; Korth, F.; Mörth, C. M.

2012-11-01

216

Macrophage polarization phenotype regulates adiponectin receptor expression and adiponectin anti-inflammatory response.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (APN), a pleiotropic adipokine that exerts anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antiatherogenic effects through its receptors (AdipoRs), AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, is an important therapeutic target. Factors regulating AdipoR expression in monocyte/macrophages are poorly understood, and the significance of polarized macrophage activation in controlling AdipoR expression and the APN-mediated inflammatory response has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the macrophage polarization phenotype controls the AdipoR expression and APN-mediated inflammatory response. With the use of mouse bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages, we demonstrate that classical activation (M1) of macrophages suppressed (40-60% of control) AdipoR expression, whereas alternative activation (M2) preserved it. Remarkably, the macrophage polarization phenotypes produced contrasting inflammatory responses to APN (EC50 5 µg/ml). In M1 macrophages, APN induced proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-12 (>10-fold of control) and AdipoR levels. In contrast, in M2 macrophages, APN induced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering AdipoR expression. Furthermore, M1 macrophages adapt to a cytokine environment by reversing AdipoR expression. APN induced AdipoR mRNA and protein expression by up-regulating liver X receptor-? (LXR?) in macrophages. These results provide the first evidence that macrophage polarization is a key determinant regulating AdipoR expression and differential APN-mediated macrophage inflammatory responses, which can profoundly influence their pathogenic role in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. PMID:25392268

van Stijn, Caroline M W; Kim, Jason; Lusis, Aldons J; Barish, Grant D; Tangirala, Rajendra K

2015-02-01

217

Globular adiponectin but not full-length adiponectin induces increased procoagulability in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (APN), a recently discovered adipocytokine, is present in human serum in a full length (fAPN) and a globular form (gAPN). gAPN is a proteolytic cleavage product of fAPN and seems to show independent biological activities compared to the properties of fAPN. The influence of gAPN and fAPN on procoagulability of cells is still unknown. This study examined the effect of gAPN and fAPN on the expression of tissue factor (TF), the initiator of the extrinsic coagulation system, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TF activity was measured by a chromogenic assay, TF mRNA by real-time PCR and TF protein by western blot. We found TF activity to be increased after activation by gAPN (3 microg/mL) compared to a non-stimulated control (169.0+/-19.23 U versus 501.9+/-38.95 U, p<0.001). Furthermore, TF mRNA and TF protein was increased dose-dependently after gAPN stimulation. The gAPN-induced rise of TF activity and TF mRNA was significantly reduced by inhibition of the MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Contrary to gAPN, stimulation with fAPN did not lead to these procoagulant effects. In conclusion, gAPN increased TF transcription, expression and activity in HUVECs. Therefore, our data support the theory that gAPN but not fAPN supports the cellular procoagulability via TF upregulation. PMID:18054040

Bobbert, Peter; Antoniak, Silvio; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Rauch, Ursula

2008-02-01

218

High-resolution identification of human adiponectin oligomers and regulation by pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients  

E-print Network

High-resolution identification of human adiponectin oligomers and regulation by pioglitazone, adiponectin trimers in human and rodent plasma were found to migrate as two distinct populations adiponectin concentration has been proposed as a bio- marker for metabolic disorders and glycemic control

Wysocki, Vicki H.

219

MOLAR FRACTIONS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT GLUTENINS SUBUNITS ARE STABLE WHEN WHEAT IS GROWN UNDER VARIOUS MINERAL NUTRITION AND TEMPERATURE REGIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Molar ratios of the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were determined for flour from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Butte86) produced under 13 different combinations of temperature, water and mineral nutrition. Despite great differences in duration of grain fill, total protein ...

220

TRANSGENIC WHEATS WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF DX5 AND/OR DY10 HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS YIELD DOUGHS WITH INCREASED MIXING STRENGTH AND TOLERANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to test the effects of independently increasing the in vivo levels of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) Dx5 and Dy10 on wheat flour properties, we increased the copy numbers of their corresponding genes by genetic transformation. Thirteen transformants with increases in one o...

221

An asparagines residue at the N-terminus affects the maturation process of low molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat endosperm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum spp.) glutenin polymers are of two main types, high- (HMW-GS) and low- (LMW-GS) molecular weight subunits. The most common are the latter, based on the first amino acid of the mature sequence, are known as LMW-m and LMW-s types. They differ as a result of three extra amino acids (MET...

222

DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique wit...

223

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FASTING SERUM ADIPONECTIN IN HISPANIC CHILDREN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of its anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties, adiponectin may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic and environmental factors influencing fasting serum adiponectin were investigated in 805 Hispanic non-overweight and ...

224

L-4F treatment reduces adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice  

E-print Network

and the associated insu- lin resistance and changes in serum levels of adiponectin, suggesting that increases in ROS.001). L-4F treatment increased serum adiponectin levels (P , 0.037) and de- creased adipogenesis in mouse oxidation, liver insulin action, and glucose uptake and positively affect serum triglyceride levels (12

Abraham, Nader G.

225

Serum Adiponectin and Resistin Levels in de Novo and Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Children Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Adipose tissue secretes a large number of adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Many of these hormones and cytokines are altered in obese individuals and may lead to disruption of the normal balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of our work was to investigate the disturbance of secretion of adiponectin and resistin in de novo and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Egyptian children and determine whether adiponectin and resistin are implicated in increased risk relapse compared to healthy individuals. Methods: Measurements of adiponectin and resistin were performed at diagnosis, in 32 patients with de novo ALL aged 3 to 18 years (mean 9.8 y) and 19 children with relapsed ALL aged 5 to 17 (mean 9.9 yr). 10 apparently healthy children with matched age and sex were used as controls. Results: Mean adiponectin levels were low (P < 0.05), whereas mean resistin levels were high (P<0.05) at diagnosis and relapsed ALL (compared to healthy controls). A significant decrease of adiponectin levels was observed in relapsed ALL compared to de novo ALL. In contrast resistin was significantly increased in relapsed ALL compared to de novo patients. Adiponectin in ALL subjects inversely correlated with resistin level (r = ?0.51, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Low adiponectin and high resistin level at diagnosis suggest their implication in ALL pathogenesis and may serve as potential clinically significant diagnostic markers to detect leukemic relapse. PMID:23802108

EL-BAZ, Hatim A; MOSA, Tamer E; ELABD, Elham M; RAMADAN, Amal; ELHAROUN, Ahmed S; ELMORSY, Elsayed A; FOUDA, Manal I

2013-01-01

226

Up- and down-regulation of adiponectin expression and multimerization: Mechanisms and therapeutic implication  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin has been receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential therapeutic use for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Adiponectin expression levels and multimerization are down-regulated in obesity and up-regulated by insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), metformin, sulfonylurea and resveratrol (RSV). The precise mechanisms underlying adiponectin up- and down-regulation remain largely unknown, but recent studies indicate that the cellular and plasma levels of adiponectin could be regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. At the post-translational level, TZDs and resveratrol promote adiponectin levels and multimerization via up-regulation of disulfidebond-A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L). Adiponectin levels are also stimulated by FOXO1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and are suppressed by PKA or silencing mediator of retinoid andthyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). Since multimerization is important not only for adiponectin function but also for stability, increasing adiponectin multimerization has become a promising drug target for the treatment of metabolic diseases and other related disorders. PMID:22342903

Liu, Meilian; Liu, Feng

2012-01-01

227

Regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis by adiponectin: effects on hepatocytes, pancreatic ? cells and adipocytes.  

PubMed

Adiponectin has received considerable attention for its potential anti-diabetic actions. The adipokine exerts control of glucose and lipid homeostasis via critical effects within the liver, adipose, and pancreas. By stimulating adipogenesis, opposing inflammation, and influencing rates of lipid oxidation and lipolysis, adiponectin critically governs lipid spillover into non-adipose tissues. Ceramide, a cytotoxic and insulin desensitizing lipid metabolite formed when peripheral tissues are exposed to excessive lipid deposition, is potently opposed by adiponectin. Via adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, adiponectin stimulates the deacylation of ceramide- yielding sphingosine for conversion to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase. The resulting conversion from ceramide to S1P promotes survival of functional beta cell mass, allowing for insulin production to meet insulin demands. Alleviation of ceramide burden on the liver allows for improvements in hepatic insulin action. Here, we summarize how adiponectin-induced changes in these tissues lead to improvements in glucose metabolism, highlighting the sphingolipid signaling mechanisms linking adiponectin to each action. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: We review the anti-diabetic actions of adiponectin. PMID:24417945

Tao, Caroline; Sifuentes, Angelica; Holland, William L

2014-01-01

228

The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end stage renal disease  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin has anti-diabetic properties and patients with obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance have low plasma adiponectin levels. However, although kidney disease is associated with insulin resistance, adiponectin is elevated in end stage renal disease. Here we determine if adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in renal disease in a case-control study of 36 patients with end stage renal disease and 23 kidney donors. Blood and tissue samples were obtained at kidney transplantation and donation. The mean plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased to 15.6 mg/ml in cases compared to 8.4 mg/ml in controls. Plasma levels of the inflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat was significantly higher in cases than controls while adiponectin receptor 1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood cells, muscle and adipose tissue in cases compared to controls. Thus, our study suggests that adipose tissue production of adiponectin contributes to the high plasma levels seen in end stage renal disease. PMID:23283133

Cantarin, Maria P Martinez; Waldman, Scott; Doria, Cataldo; Frank, Adam M.; Maley, Warren R.; Ramirez, Carlo B.; Keith, Scott W.; Falkner, Bonita

2012-01-01

229

Enhanced carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice lacking adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Obesity is one of the risk factors for liver fibrosis, in which plasma adiponectin, an adipocytokine, levels are decreased. Hepatic stellate cells play central roles in liver fibrosis. When they are activated, they undergo transformation to myofibroblast-like cells. Adiponectin suppresses the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, whose characteristics are similar to those of hepatic

Yoshihiro Kamada; Shinji Tamura; Shinichi Kiso; Hitoshi Matsumoto; Yukiko Saji; Yuichi Yoshida; Koji Fukui; Norikazu Maeda; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Hiroyuki Nagaretani; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Shinji Kihara; Jun-ichiro Miyagawa; Yasuhisa Shinomura; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

2003-01-01

230

Bisphenol A at Environmentally Relevant Doses Inhibits Adiponectin Release from Human Adipose Tissue Explants and Adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of obesity has risen dramatically over the last few decades. This epidemic may be affected by exposure to xenobiotic chemicals. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detectable at nanomolar levels in human serum worldwide. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific hormone that increases insulin sensitivity and reduces tissue inflammation. Thus, any factor that suppresses adiponectin release could lead

Eric R. Hugo; Terry D. Brandebourg; Jessica G. Woo; Jean Loftus; J. Wesley Alexander; Nira Ben-Jonathan

2008-01-01

231

Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes ?-cell regeneration  

PubMed Central

As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute ?-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential role of adiponectin under insulinopenic conditions to maintain minimal lipid homeostasis. When insulin levels are marginal, adiponectin is critical for insulin signaling, endocytosis, and lipid uptake in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. In the absence of both insulin and adiponectin, severe lipoatrophy and hyperlipidemia lead to lethality. In contrast, elevated adiponectin levels improve systemic lipid metabolism in the near absence of insulin. Moreover, adiponectin is sufficient to mitigate local lipotoxicity in pancreatic islets, and it promotes reconstitution of ?-cell mass, eventually reinstating glycemic control. We uncovered an essential new role for adiponectin, with major implications for type 1 diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03851.001 PMID:25339419

Ye, Risheng; Holland, William L; Gordillo, Ruth; Wang, Miao; Wang, Qiong A; Shao, Mengle; Morley, Thomas S; Gupta, Rana K; Stahl, Andreas; Scherer, Philipp E

2014-01-01

232

LINKAGE AND RH MAPPING OF THE PORCINE ADIPONECTIN GENE ON CHROMOSOME 13  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, is an adipocytokine that regulates energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism. A portion of porcine ADIPOQ (adipocyte, C1Q and collagen domain containing) gene encoding for adiponectin was amplified and sequenced. Sequence of 3326 bp enco...

233

Fasting Serum Adiponectin Level Inversely Correlates with Metabolic Syndrome in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and predicts hospitalization in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. An inverse association between circulating adiponectin and metabolic syndrome has been observed in humans. However, no data are available on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and serum adiponectin levels in PD patients. Method: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 47 PD patients

Chih-Hsien Wang; Ji-Hung Wang; Chung-Jen Lee; Te-Chao Fang; Hung-Hsiang Liou; Bang-Gee Hsu

2010-01-01

234

Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

235

Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cabral, J.A. (Inst. de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Amazonas (Brazil))

1999-07-15

236

Mitotic Illegitimate Recombination Is a Mechanism for Novel Changes in High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits in Wheat-Rye Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Wide hybrids can have novel traits or changed expression of a quantitative trait that their parents do not have. These phenomena have long been noticed, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are seed storage proteins encoded by Glu-1 genes that only express in endosperm in wheat and its related species. Novel HMW-GS compositions have been observed in their hybrids. This research elucidated the molecular mechanisms by investigating the causative factors of novel HMW-GS changes in wheat-rye hybrids. HMW-GS compositions in the endosperm and their coding sequences in the leaves of F1 and F2 hybrids between wheat landrace Shinchunaga and rye landrace Qinling were investigated. Missing and/or additional novel HMW-GSs were observed in the endosperm of 0.5% of the 2078 F1 and 22% of 36 F2 hybrid seeds. The wildtype Glu-1Ax null allele was found to have 42 types of short repeat sequences of 3-60 bp long that appeared 2 to 100 times. It also has an in-frame stop codon in the central repetitive region. Analyzing cloned allele sequences of HMW-GS coding gene Glu-1 revealed that deletions involving the in-frame stop codon had happened, resulting in novel ?1.8-kb Glu-1Ax alleles in some F1 and F2 plants. The cloned mutant Glu-1Ax alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the HMW-GSs produced matched the novel HMW-GSs found in the hybrids. The differential changes between the endosperm and the plant of the same hybrids and the data of E. coli expression of the cloned deletion alleles both suggested that mitotic illegitimate recombination between two copies of a short repeat sequence had resulted in the deletions and thus the changed HMW-GS compositions. Our experiments have provided the first direct evidence to show that mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism that produces novel phenotypes in wide hybrids. PMID:21887262

Yuan, Zhongwei; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Wenjie; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang; Zhang, Huaigang; Yen, Yang

2011-01-01

237

Comparison of salivary and plasma adiponectin and leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of saliva with plasma protein levels makes saliva an attractive diagnostic tool. Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy individuals or diabetes mellitus patients have been previously reported. Nevertheless, salivary levels of these adipocytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) have never been investigated. This study was aimed to determine adiponectin and leptin levels in saliva and plasma from patients with metabolic syndrome, and evaluate any correlation of these levels with MS. Methods Forty-six healthy and 82 MS patients were enrolled. Demographic data and blood biochemistries were recorded. Saliva and plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Adiponectin and leptin were higher in plasma than in saliva (p?adiponectin was decreased and plasma leptin increased in patients with MS (p?adiponectin and salivary leptin were not different between healthy subjects and MS patients (p?=?.619 and p?=?.523). Correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin showed significant association (r?=?.211, p?=?.018) while salivary and plasma leptin had no correlation (r?=?-.161, p?=?.069). Significant correlation was observed between the salivary adiponectin/salivary leptin ratio and plasma adiponectin (r?=?.371, p?adiponectin (OR?=?1.009; 95% CI 1.002–1.015 and OR?=?1.125; 95% CI 1.029–1.230). For leptin, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with a high level of plasma leptin (OR?=?1.621; 95% CI 1.212–2.168 and OR?=?.966; 95% CI .938–.996). The OR for MS as predicted by plasma adiponectin was .928 (95% CI .881-.977). Conclusions This study showed that salivary adiponectin and leptin do not correlate with MS. Although correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin was observed, no association with MS was observed. Only plasma adiponectin may be useful for the prediction of MS. PMID:24528653

2014-01-01

238

Effect of repeated US stimulation on adiponectin secretion by adipocytes of obese human subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the effect of the repeated sonication on the adiponectin secretion by adipocytes obtained from obese subjects. Using 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound at an intensity of 0.50 or 2.1 W/cm2, we sonicated culture flasks of subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from obese human subjects, in a series of 3 sessions of US stimulation applied for a daily total of 15 min. For the measurement of adiponectin secretion, 50 ?l of the culture medium was collected from each flask every 24 h after the 1st stimulation. Quantification of adiponectin protein levels in cell culture supernatants was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit recommended by the manufacturer. The adiponectin concentrations in the culture medium of the US stimulation groups rose significantly (p<0.05). Repeated US stimulation may accelerate adiponectin secretion in obese human adipocytes.

Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Irie, Takasuke; Itoh, Kouichi

2006-05-01

239

Gene expression pattern of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in dominant and atretic follicles and oocytes screened based on brilliant cresyl blue staining.  

PubMed

Adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to control male and female fertility. The aim of this study was to determine whether adiponectin and its receptors gene expression levels differ between dominant follicle (DF) and atretic follicle (AF) and also between oocytes which were stained positively and negatively with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB(+) and BCB(-)). Based on estradiol/progesterone ratio, follicles from ovaries were classified as AFs and DFs. The stages of estrous cycle (follicular or luteal phases) were defined by macroscopic observation of the ovaries and the uterus. Oocytes were stained with BCB for 90 min. The relative expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA in theca and cumulus cells and oocytes of different follicles were determined by quantitative real time PCR. Adiponectin and its receptors genes were clearly expressed higher (P<0.05) in theca and cumulus cells and oocytes of DFs than those of AFs during the follicular and luteal phases. BCB(+) oocytes showed a higher (P<0.05) expression of adiponectin and its receptors compared with their BCB(-) counterparts. Positive correlation (r>0.725, P<0.001) was observed between adiponectin mRNA level in ovarian cells of DFs and follicular fluid E2 concentration in follicular phase. Adiponectin mRNA abundance in ovarian cells of AFs showed a significant negative correlation with follicular fluid progesterone concentration in follicular and luteal phases (r<-0.731, P<0.001). This work has revealed the novel association of adiponectin and its receptors genes with follicular dominance and oocyte competence, thereby opening several new avenues of research into the mechanisms of dominance and competence in animal and human. PMID:22391295

Tabandeh, M R; Golestani, N; Kafi, M; Hosseini, A; Saeb, M; Sarkoohi, P

2012-03-01

240

Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese  

PubMed Central

Background: Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Prospective studies have consistently shown a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among those with higher circulating adiponectin levels. Objective: We examined prospectively the association between serum adiponectin levels and type 2 diabetes risk among Japanese workers, taking visceral fat mass into account. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 4591 Japanese employees who attended a comprehensive health screening in 2008; had biochemical data including serum adiponectin; were free of diabetes at baseline; and received health screening in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between adiponectin and incidence of diabetes among overall subjects, as well as subgroups. Stratified analyses were carried out according to variables including visceral fat area (VFA). Results: During 3 years of follow-up, 217 diabetic cases were newly identified. Of these, 87% had a prediabetes at baseline. Serum adiponectin level was significantly, inversely associated with incidence of diabetes, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, sex, family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) for the lowest through highest quartile of adiponectin of 1 (reference), 0.79 (0.55–1.12), 0.60 (0.41–0.88) and 0.40 (0.25–0.64), respectively (P-value for trend <0.01). This association was materially unchanged with adjustment for VFA instead of BMI. After further adjustment for both homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c, however, the association became statistically nonsignificant (P-value for trend=0.18). Risk reduction associated with higher adiponectin levels was observed in both participants with and without obesity or insulin resistance at baseline. Conclusions: Results suggest that higher levels of circulating adiponectin are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, independently of overall and intra-abdominal fat deposition, and that adiponectin may confer a benefit in both persons with and without insulin resistance. PMID:25133442

Yamamoto, S; Matsushita, Y; Nakagawa, T; Hayashi, T; Noda, M; Mizoue, T

2014-01-01

241

Adiponectin inhibits leptin signaling via multiple mechanisms to exert protective effects against hepatic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Adiponectin is protective against hepatic fibrosis, while leptin promotes fibrosis. In hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), leptin signals via a Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (Jak2/Stat3) pathway, producing effects that enhance extracellular matrix deposition. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) are both negative regulators of Jak/Stat signaling, and recent studies demonstrated a role for adiponectin in regulating SOCS-3 expression. In this study we investigated mechanisms whereby adiponectin dampens leptin signaling and prevents excess ECM production. We treated culture-activated rat HSCs with recombinant adiponectin, leptin, both or neither, and also treated adiponectin knockout (Ad?/?) and wild-type mice with leptin and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or saline. We analyzed Jak2 and Ob-Rb phosphorylation, and PTP1B expression and activity. We also explored potential mechanisms through which adiponectin regulates SOCS-3/Ob-Rb association. Adiponectin inhibited leptin-stimulated Jak2 activation and Ob-Rb phosphorylation in HSCs, while both were increased in Ad?/? mice. Adiponectin stimulated PTP1B expression and activity, in vitro, while PTP1B expression was lower in Ad?/?mice than in wild-type mice. Adiponectin also promoted SOCS-3/Ob-R association, and blocked leptin-stimulated formation of extracellular TIMP-1/MMP-1 complexes, in vitro. These data suggest two novel mechanisms whereby adiponectin inhibits hepatic fibrosis: by promoting binding of SOCS-3 to Ob-Rb, and stimulating PTP1B expression and activity, thus inhibiting Jak2-Stat3 signaling at multiple points. PMID:21846328

HANDY, Jeffrey A.; FU, Ping P.; KUMAR, Pradeep; MELLS, Jamie E.; SHARMA, Shvetank; SAXENA, Neeraj K.; ANANIA, Frank A.

2011-01-01

242

GnRH decreases adiponectin expression in pituitary gonadotropes via the calcium and PKA pathways.  

PubMed

As endocrinologically active cells, adipocytes are capable of secreting various adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin to impact metabolic function. Although adipocytes remain to be the primary site of synthesis and secretion, there is now growing evidence that supports the presence of adiponectin and its receptors within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, providing a possible link between obesity and abnormal reproductive physiology. It has been demonstrated that adiponectin may reduce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus as well as modulate gonadal steroid hormone production. Furthermore, prior data indicate that adiponectin may play a role in decreasing luteinizing hormone secretion from pituitary gonadotropes. We aimed to identify the hormonal regulators of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in pituitary gonadotropes using immortalized gonadotropic L?T2 cells and primary rat pituitary cells. Our study shows significant alterations in adiponectin expression across the estrous cycle. In addition, we present a novel finding that GnRH suppresses pituitary adiponectin expression via the calcium and protein kinase A intracellular pathways in both cultured rat primary pituitary cells and the L?T2 gonadotrope cell line. The GnRH did not alter expression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in cultured gonadotropes. Expression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, was not altered by GnRH in cell culture but in vivo or in vitro. Our data suggest that gonadotrope function may be modulated by GnRH-mediated changes in adiponectin expression. PMID:23239819

Kim, Jonathan; Zheng, Weiming; Grafer, Constance; Mann, Merry Lynn; Halvorson, Lisa M

2013-08-01

243

Cholesterol-induced mammary tumorigenesis is enhanced by adiponectin deficiency: role of LDL receptor upregulation  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipokine that can suppress the proliferation of various human carcinoma cells. Although its anti-tumor activities have been suggested by many clinical investigations and animal studies, the underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized. In MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT) transgenic mice models, reduced- or complete loss-of-adiponectin expression promotes mammary tumor development. The present study demonstrated that while tumor development in control MMTV-PyVT mice is associated with a progressively decreased circulating cholesterol concentration, adiponectin deficient MMTV-PyVT mice showed significantly elevated total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol contents in tumors derived from adiponectin deficient mice were dramatically augmented. High fat high cholesterol diet further accelerated the tumor development in adiponectin deficient PyVT mice. The protein levels of LDL receptor (LDLR) were found to be upregulated in adiponectin-deficient tumor cells. In human breast carcinoma cells, treatment with LDL-cholesterol or overexpressing LDLR elevates nuclear beta-catenin activity and facilitates tumor cell proliferation. On the other hand, adiponectin decreased LDLR protein expression in breast cancer cells and inhibited LDL-cholesterol-induced tumor cell proliferation. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence demonstrated a stimulatory effect of adiponectin on autophagy process, which mediated the down-regulation of LDLR. Adiponectin-induced reduction of LDLR was blocked by treatment with a specific inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that adiponectin elicits tumor suppressive effects by modulating cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR expression in breast cancer cells, which is at least in part attributed to its role in promoting autophagic flux. PMID:24113220

Liu, Jing; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen Siu-Ling; Wong, Nai-Sum; Chen, Jie; Shepherd, Peter R; Wang, Yu

2013-01-01

244

Effect of gliadins and HMW and LMW subunits of glutenin on dough properties in the F 6 recombinant inbred lines from a bread wheat cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage proteins of 64 F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the bread wheat cross ‘Prinqual’\\/‘Marengo’ were analyzed. Parents differed at four loci: Gli-B1 (coding for gliadins), Glu-B1 (coding for HMW glutenin subunits), Glu-A3\\/Gli-A1 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits\\/gliadins) and Glu-D3 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits). The effect of allelic variation at these loci on tenacity, extensibility and dough

M. T. Nieto-Taladriz; M. R. Perretant; M. Rousset

1994-01-01

245

The cumulative effect of allelic variation in LMW and HMW glutenin subunits on dough properties in the progeny of two bread wheats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of allelic variation at Gli-A1, GluA3 and Glu-A1 loci coding for gliadins, LMW glutenin subunits and HMW glutenin subunits on dough resistance and extensibility was analysed in 56 F2-derived F6 families from a cross between bread wheats MKR(111\\/8) and ‘Kite’. Extensograph data from two sites giving widely different flour protein levels (approximately 7% and 14%) revealed that the

R. B. Gupta; N. K. Singh; K. W. Shepherd

1989-01-01

246

Adiponectin resistance and proinflammatory changes in the visceral adipose tissue induced by fructose consumption via ketohexokinase-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

An epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is linked with the increase in consumption of fructose-containing sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup. In mammalian cells, fructose is metabolized predominantly via phosphorylation to fructose-1 phosphate by ketohexokinase (KHK) or by alternative pathways. Here we demonstrate that a KHK-dependent pathway mediates insulin resistance and inflammatory changes in the visceral fat in response to high fructose. We used mice (males, C57BL/6 background) including littermate wild-type control and mice lacking both isoforms of KHK (KHK-null). Fructose diet induced metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, proinflammatory changes in the visceral fat (production of proinflammatory adipokines and macrophage infiltration), the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, and decrease of the high-molecular weight adiponectin followed by decrease in the downstream signaling. KHK-KO mice consuming the same high-fructose diet remained lean, with normal insulin sensitivity and healthy visceral adipose tissue with normal adiponectin function not distinguishable from the control by any of the tested parameters. This study demonstrates that blocking KHK and redirecting fructose metabolism to alternative pathways is an effective way to prevent visceral obesity and insulin resistance induced by high fructose, a widespread component of Western diets. PMID:25187370

Marek, George; Pannu, Varinderpal; Shanmugham, Prashanth; Pancione, Brianna; Mascia, Dominic; Crosson, Sean; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y

2015-02-01

247

Adiponectin and peptide YY in the fasting blue fox (Alopex lagopus).  

PubMed

Adiponectin (Acrp30) and peptide YY (PYY) are weight-regulatory hormones participating in the control of energy homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term wintertime fasting on plasma Acrp30 and PYY levels in the carnivorous blue fox, a farm-bred variant of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). Plasma Acrp30 and PYY concentrations were determined with radioimmunoassays during a 22-day period of fasting, which led to a 20.3% reduction in body mass of the animals (n=32). Sixteen fed blue foxes served as the control group. Acrp30 and PYY were present in blue fox plasma at similar or lower levels as reported previously for other mammals. Fasting had no acute effects on Acrp30 or PYY concentrations of the blue foxes. However, the Acrp30 levels of the fasted blue foxes were 24%-48% higher than in the fed animals between days 8-22 of fasting. Fasted blue foxes also had 6.2-fold higher plasma PYY concentrations after 15 days of fasting. Acrp30 and PYY seem to play roles in the body weight-regulation of the blue fox during long-term fasting, but their specific functions and physiological significance remain to be determined. PMID:15748866

Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Nieminen, Petteri

2005-02-01

248

Sertoli cell processes have axoplasmic features: an ordered microtubule distribution and an abundant high molecular weight microtubule- associated protein (cytoplasmic dynein)  

PubMed Central

Microtubules in the cytoplasm of rat Sertoli cell stage VI-VIII testicular seminiferous epithelium were studied morphometrically by electron microscopy. The Sertoli cell microtubules demonstrated axonal features, being largely parallel in orientation and predominantly spaced one to two microtubule diameters apart, suggesting the presence of microtubule-bound spacer molecules. Testis microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) were isolated by a taxol, salt elution procedure. Testis MAPs promoted microtubule assembly, but to a lesser degree than brain MAPs. High molecular weight MAPs, similar in electrophoretic mobilities to brain MAP-1 and MAP-2, were prominent components of total testis MAPs, though no shared immunoreactivity was detected between testis and brain high molecular weight MAPs using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Unlike brain high molecular weight MAPs, testis high molecular weight MAPs were not heat stable. Testis MAP composition, studied on postnatal days 5, 10, 15, and 24 and in the adult, changed dramatically during ontogeny. However, the expression of the major testis high molecular weight MAP, called HMW-2, was constitutive and independent of the development of mature germ cells. The Sertoli cell origin of HMW-2 was confirmed by identifying this protein as the major MAP found in an enriched Sertoli cell preparation and in two rat models of testicular injury characterized by germ cell depletion. HMW-2 was selectively released from testis microtubules by ATP and co-purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation with MAP- 1C, a neuronal cytoplasmic dynein. The inhibition of the microtubule- activated ATPase activity of HMW-2 by vanadate and erythro-(2-hydroxy-3- nonyl)adenine and its proteolytic breakdown by vanadate-dependent UV photocleavage confirmed the dynein-like nature of HMW-2. As demonstrated by this study, the neuronal and Sertoli cell cytoskeletons share morphological, structural and functional properties. PMID:2972729

1988-01-01

249

Induction of human adiponectin gene transcription by telmisartan, angiotensin receptor blocker, independently on PPAR-{gamma} activation  

SciTech Connect

Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, has been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and inhibit the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, several reports have stated that angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), increase adiponectin plasma level, and ameliorate insulin resistance. Telmisartan, a subclass of ARBs, has been shown to be a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}, and to increase the plasma adiponectin level. However, the transcriptional regulation of the human adiponectin gene by telmisartan has not been determined yet. To elucidate the effect of telmisartan on adiponectin, the stimulatory regulation of human adiponectin gene by telmisartan was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, utilizing adenovirus-mediated luciferase reporter gene-transferring technique. This study indicates that telmisartan may stimulate adiponectin transcription independent of PPAR-{gamma}.

Moriuchi, Akie [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan); Yamasaki, Hironori [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Health Center, Nagasaki University (Japan)]. E-mail: f1195@cc.nagasaki-u-ac.jp; Shimamura, Mika [Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Kita, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Hironaga; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Tsuyoshi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Fujishima, Keiichiro; Fukushima, Keiko [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan)]|[Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan); Fukushima, Tetsuya; Abiru, Norio; Eguchi, Katsumi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Unit of Translational Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University (Japan); Hayakawa, Takao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki [Project III, National Institute of Health Sciences, Osaka Branch, Fundamental Research Laboratories for Development of Medicine (Japan); Nagayama, Yuji [Department of Medical Gene Technology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Nagasaki University (Japan); Kawasaki, Eiji [Department of Metabolism/Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Nagasaki University, Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki (Japan)

2007-05-18

250

A new link between skeleton, obesity and insulin resistance: relationships between osteocalcin, leptin and insulin resistance in obese children before and after weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The skeleton is regarded recently as an endocrine organ that affects energy metabolism. However, there are very limited data available concerning the relationships between the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin, weight status, adiponectin and leptin in obese humans, especially in children.Methods:We analyzed osteocalcin, adiponectin, leptin and insulin resistance (IR) index homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in 60 obese and 19 age- and gender-matched

T Reinehr; C L Roth

2010-01-01

251

Adiponectin gene ADIPOQ SNP associations with serum adiponectin in two female populations and effects of SNPs on promoter activity.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an insulin sensitiser in muscle and liver, and low serum levels characterise obesity and insulin resistance. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene and promoter were selected, and association with serum adiponectin was tested, in two independent samples of Caucasian women: the Chingford Study (n = 808, mean age 62.8 +/- 5.9 years) and Twins UK (n = 2,718, mean age 47.4 +/- 12.6 years). In the Chingford cohort, -11391 G/A, -10066 G/A (rs182052), -7734 C/A (rs16861209), +276 G/T (rs1501299) and +3228 C/T (rs1063537) were significantly associated with fasting serum adiponectin (Ps = 1.00 x 10(-4) to 1.40 x 10(-2)). Associations with all except +3228 C/T were replicated in the Twins UK cohort (Ps = 3.19 x 10(-9) to 6.00 x 10(-3)). In Chingford subjects, the 12 most common 8-SNP haplotypes (frequency 1.90%) explained 2.85% (p = 5.00 x 10(-2)) and in Twins UK subjects, the four most common 5-SNP haplotypes (frequency > 5.00%) explained 1.66% of the variance (p = 5.83 x 10(-7)). To investigate effects of -11391 G/A (rs17300539) and -11377 C/G (rs266729) on promoter activity, 1.2 kb of the ADIPOQ promoter region was cloned in a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the four haplotypes were transfected in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. No significant allelic effects on promoter activity were found. PMID:18523726

Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Spencer-Jones, Nicola J; Malcolm, Claire; Wang, Xiaoling; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Burling, Keith A; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

2008-01-01

252

Structural and genetical studies on the high-molecular-weight subunits of wheat glutenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin from about 185 varieties were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulphate\\u000a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). About 20 different, major subunits were distinguished by this technique although\\u000a each variety contained, with only a few exceptions, between 3 and 5 subunits. Further inter-varietal substitution lines to\\u000a those already described (Payne et al. 1980) were analysed and the

P. I. Payne; L. M. Holt; C. N. Law

1981-01-01

253

Effects of fenofibrate on adiponectin expression in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression. PMID:25525608

Hsu, Ying-Jung; Wang, Lu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao

2014-01-01

254

Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression. PMID:25525608

Hsu, Ying-Jung; Wang, Lu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao

2014-01-01

255

Nicotinic acid increases adiponectin secretion from differentiated bovine preadipocytes through G-protein coupled receptor signaling.  

PubMed

The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

2014-01-01

256

The relationship between serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines in obese Korean juveniles  

PubMed Central

Purpose Obesity is related to systemic inflammatory processes causing cardiovascular complications. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), CD40 ligand (CD40L), P-selectin are newly described mediators of inflammation and have a significant effect in atherosclerosis. Adiponectin has shown anti-inflammatory effects in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and inflammatory mediators in children and adolescents. Methods Fifty children or adolescents, twenty two with a body mass index (BMI) over 95th percentile, and twenty eight with a BMI below 75th percentile were included in the study. Serum soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), P-selectin, CD40L, lipid profiles, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin were measured to evaluate associations with adiponectin. Comparison of these variables was performed between the obese and the nonobese group. Results We found a adiponectin to be significant lower and sICAM-1 significant higher in the obese group compared to the nonobese group, but there were no significant differences in P-selectin and soluble CD40L. Adiponectin was negatively associated with ICAM-1 and P-selectin in the obese group. Conclusion Negative associations of adiponectin with ICAM-1 and P-selectin in obese children and adolescents suggest that serum adiponectin level may represent the inflammatory status. PMID:25653687

Byun, Sung Hwan; Kwon, Eun Byul

2014-01-01

257

Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-?2 (PPAR?2) in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPAR? increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PPAR? agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPAR?, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI-) induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1) normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPAR? expression in male rats and (2) increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR. PMID:23533720

Bagley, Heidi N.; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S.; Yu, Xing; Lane, Robert H.; Joss-Moore, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

258

Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling  

PubMed Central

The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ? 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ? 0.05) and chemerin (p ? 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ? 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

2014-01-01

259

Adiponectin Receptor Signaling on Dendritic Cells Blunts Antitumor Immunity  

PubMed Central

Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) that interact with T cells represent a crucial site for the development of tolerance to tumor antigens, but there remains incomplete knowledge about how DC-tolerizing signals evolve during tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are sufficient to blunt antitumor immunity. Mechanistic investigations of ligand–receptor interactions on DCs revealed novel signaling pathways for each receptor. AdipoR1 stimulated IL10 production by activating the AMPK and MAPKp38 pathways, whereas AdipoR2 modified inflammatory processes by activating the COX-2 and PPAR? pathways. Stimulation of these pathways was sufficient to block activation of NF-?B in DC, thereby attenuating their ability to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into how DC-tolerizing signals evolve in cancer to promote immune escape. Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly applicable strategies for immunometabolic therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:25261236

Tan, Peng H.; Tyrrell, Helen E.J.; Gao, Liquan; Xu, Danmei; Quan, Jianchao; Gill, Dipender; Rai, Lena; Ding, Yunchuan; Plant, Gareth; Chen, Yuan; Xue, John Z.; Handa, Ashok I.; Greenall, Michael J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Xue, Shao-An

2015-01-01

260

Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (? = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; ? = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

2014-01-01

261

Quality trait variations in [??Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.  

PubMed

With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

2014-01-01

262

Recombinant DNA technology for melanoma immunotherapy: anti-Id DNA vaccines targeting high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen.  

PubMed

Anti-idiotypic MK2-23 monoclonal antibody (anti-Id MK2-23 mAb), which mimics the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), has been used to implement active immunotherapy against melanoma. However, due to safety and standardization issues, this approach never entered extensive clinical trials. In the present study, we investigated the usage of DNA vaccines as an alternative to MK2-23 mAb immunization. MK2-23 DNA plasmids coding for single chain (scFv) MK2-23 antibody were constructed via the insertion of variable heavy (V H) and light (V L) chains of MK2-23 into the pVAC-1mcs plasmids. Two alternative MK2-23 plasmids format V H/V L, and V L/V H were assembled. We demonstrate that both polypeptides expressed by scFv plasmids in vitro retained the ability to mimic HMW-MAA antigen, and to elicit specific anti-HMW-MAA humoral and cellular immunoresponses in immunized mice. Notably, MK2-23 scFv DNA vaccines impaired the onset and growth of transplantable B16 melanoma cells not engineered to express HMW-MAA. This pilot study suggests that optimized MK2-23 scFv DNA vaccines could potentially provide a safer and cost-effective alternative to anti-Id antibody immunization, for melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:25027754

Barucca, A; Capitani, M; Cesca, M; Tomassoni, D; Kazmi, U; Concetti, F; Vincenzetti, L; Concetti, A; Venanzi, F M

2014-11-01

263

High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations  

PubMed Central

Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose tissue and reduced adipoR2 mRNA expression 2-fold in liver. Conclusion Hyperglycemia as a result of a high-fat diet is associated with an increase in the expression of the adiponectin receptors in muscle. An excess of glucocorticoids, rather than their absence, increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. PMID:21244702

2011-01-01

264

Leptin prevents the metabolic effects of adiponectin in L6 myotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Adiponectin and leptin are negatively and positively correlated with human obesity respectively, and have both been shown\\u000a to regulate energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. However, little is known about their signalling and functional crosstalk.\\u000a Here we investigated the effects of leptin on metabolic actions of (1) globular adiponectin (gAd) and (2) full-length adiponectin\\u000a (fAd) in L6 cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Glucose uptake was

X. Fang; J. Fetros; K. E. Dadson; A. Xu; G. Sweeney

2009-01-01

265

Short communication: circulating and milk adiponectin change differently during energy deficiency at different stages of lactation in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipokines in circulation, is known for its role in regulation of body metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages of lactation (lactational NEB at the onset of lactation and an induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d of lactation) on circulating adiponectin concentrations. We also investigated the effect of feed restriction on adiponectin concentrations in milk and the relationships of blood and milk adiponectin with selected plasma or milk variables and with measures of body condition. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows throughout 3 experimental periods [i.e., period 1=3 wk antepartum up to 12 wk postpartum, period 2=3 wk of feed restriction starting at around 100 d in milk with a control (n=25) and feed-restricted group (50% of energy requirements; n=25), and period 3=subsequent realimentation period for 8 wk]. Milk adiponectin was investigated among 21 multiparous cows at wk 2 and wk 12 of period 1 and wk 2 of period 2. Adiponectin concentrations in plasma and skim milk were measured using an in-house ELISA specific for bovine adiponectin. Major changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations were observed during the periparturient period, whereas energy deficiency during established lactation at around 100 d in milk and subsequent refeeding did not affect plasma adiponectin. Together with lower adiponectin concentrations in milk (µg/mL), the reduction in milk yield led to decreased adiponectin secretion via milk (mg/d) at the second week of feed restriction. Irrespective of time and treatment, milk adiponectin represented about 0.002% of total milk protein. Mean adiponectin concentrations in milk (0.61 ± 0.03 µg/mL) were about 92% lower than the mean plasma adiponectin concentrations (32.1 ± 1.0 µg/mL). The proportion of the steady-state plasma adiponectin pool secreted daily via milk was 2.7%. In view of the similar extent of NEB in both periods of energy deficiency, decreasing adiponectin concentrations seems important for accomplishing the adaptation to the rapidly increasing metabolic rates in early lactation, whereas the lipolytic reaction toward feed restriction-induced NEB during established lactation seems to occur largely independent of changes in circulating adiponectin. PMID:24472130

Singh, S P; Häussler, S; Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Bruckmaier, R M; Sauerwein, H

2014-03-01

266

Adiponectin Stimulates Angiogenesis by Promoting Cross-talk between AMP-activated Protein Kinase and Akt Signaling in Endothelial Cells*  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine with anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties. Here, we investigated whether adiponectin regulates angiogenic processes in vitro and in vivo. Adiponectin stimulated the differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs) into capillary-like structures in vitro and functioned as a chemoattractant in migration assays. Adiponectin promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B, and endothelial nitric oxide synthesis (eNOS) in HUVECs. Transduction with either dominant-negative AMPK or dominant-negative Akt abolished adiponectin-induced eNOS phosphorylation as well as adiponectin-stimulated HUVEC migration and differentiation. Dominant-negative AMPK also inhibited adiponectin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that AMPK is upstream of Akt. Dominant-negative Akt or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 blocked adiponectin-stimulated Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, migration, and differentiation without altering AMPK phosphorylation. Finally, adiponectin stimulated blood vessel growth in vivo in mouse Matrigel plug implantation and rabbit corneal models of angiogenesis. These data indicate that adiponectin can function to stimulate the new blood vessel growth by promoting cross-talk between AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt signaling within endothelial cells. PMID:14557259

Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kihara, Shinji; Kumada, Masahiro; Sato, Kaori; Inoue, Tatsuya; Funahashi, Tohru; Walsh, Kenneth

2015-01-01

267

Serum adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein, retinol-binding protein 4, and adiponectin concentrations in relation to the development of the metabolic syndrome in Korean boys: a 3-y prospective cohort study12345  

PubMed Central

Background: Adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein (A-FABP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and adiponectin have been associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in adults. Objective: We evaluated the association of A-FABP, RBP4, and adiponectin with the metabolic syndrome in Korean boys. Design: In this prospective cohort study, 159 boys participated in a school-based health examination and were followed up after 3 y. The metabolic syndrome in children was defined by using the pediatric adaptation of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Results: Compared with normal-weight participants, overweight children had significantly higher A-FABP (23.6 ± 8.2 compared with 12.8 ± 5.1 ?g/L, P < 0.001) and RBP4 (69.3 ± 17.1 compared with 59.7 ± 15.3 ?g/mL, P = 0.001) concentrations and significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (11.5 ± 5.4 compared with 18.1 ± 8.4 ?g/mL, P < 0.001). Baseline A-FABP concentrations were significantly higher in children who developed the metabolic syndrome than in those who did not, whereas adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower. Baseline RBP4 concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only A-FABP was an independent predictor of the development of the metabolic syndrome after adjustment for Tanner stage, insulin resistance, body mass index, sleep duration, and physical activity (odds ratio: 17.3; 95% CI: 1.25, 239.76; highest compared with lowest tertile), whereas the significant association between adiponectin and the metabolic syndrome observed by using bivariate analysis reflects, in part, an underlying association with obesity. Conclusion: A-FABP predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome independently of pubertal status, adiposity, and insulin resistance in Korean boys. PMID:21106915

Choi, Kyung M; Yannakoulia, Mary; Park, Min S; Cho, Geum J; Kim, Jung H; Lee, Seung H; Hwang, Taik G; Yang, Sei J; Kim, Tai N; Yoo, Hye J; Baik, Sai H

2011-01-01

268

Effects of genetic variants in the promoter region of the bovine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene on marbling of Hanwoo beef cattle.  

PubMed

This study aimed to verify genetic effects of the bovine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene on carcass traits of Hanwoo cattle. The measured carcass traits were marbling score (MAR), backfat thickness (BFT), loineye area (LEA), and carcass weight (CAW). Selection of primers was based on the bovine ADIPOQ sequence, and the analysis amplified approximately 267 and 333bp genomic segments, including 67bp of insertions in the promoter region. Sequencing analysis confirmed genetic variants (g.81966235C>T, g.81966377T>C, and g.81966364D>I) that showed significant effects on MAR. The present results suggest that the identified SNPs are useful genetic markers for the improvement of carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle. PMID:25817801

Choi, Yoonjeong; Davis, Michael E; Chung, Hoyoung

2015-07-01

269

Adiponectin inhibits insulin function in primary trophoblasts by PPAR?-mediated ceramide synthesis.  

PubMed

Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPAR?. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPAR?, because activation of PPAR? with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPAR?-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPAR? and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability. PMID:24606127

Aye, Irving L M H; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

2014-04-01

270

Evidence that an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment triggers the release of a cell-associated high-molecular-weight amylase in Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980.  

PubMed

During growth on starch medium, the S-layer-carrying Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and an S-layer-deficient variant each secreted three amylases, with identical molecular weights of 58,000, 122,000, and 184,000, into the culture fluid. Only the high-molecular-weight amylase (hmwA) was also identified as cell associated. Extraction and reassociation experiments showed that the hmwA had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and to the S-layer surface, but the interactions with the peptidoglycan-containing layer were stronger than those with the S-layer surface. For the S-layer-deficient variant, no changes in the amount of cell-associated and free hmwA could be observed during growth on starch medium, while for the S-layer-carrying strain, cell association of the hmwA strongly depended on the growth phase of the cells. The maximum amount of cell-associated hmwA was observed 3 h after inoculation, which corresponded to early exponential growth. The steady decrease in cell-associated hmwA during continued growth correlated with the appearance and the increasing intensity of a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. This protein had a high-level affinity to the peptidoglycan-containing layer and was identified as an N-terminal S-layer protein fragment which did not result from proteolytic cleavage of the whole S-layer protein but seems to be a truncated copy of the S-layer protein which is coexpressed with the hmwA under certain culture conditions. During growth on starch medium, the N-terminal S-layer protein fragment was integrated into the S-layer lattice, which led to the loss of its regular structure over a wide range and to the loss of amylase binding sites. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that the N-terminal part of the S-layer protein is responsible for the anchoring of the subunits to the peptidoglycan-containing layer, while the surface-located C-terminal half could function as a binding site for the hmwA. PMID:8824603

Egelseer, E M; Schocher, I; Sleytr, U B; Sįra, M

1996-10-01

271

Adiponectin as an independent predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy in nondiabetic patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

We evaluated novel and traditional biomarkers as well as hemodynamic parameters associated with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. Nondiabetic patients with hypertension (n = 86) were evaluated for lipids, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, aldosterone, renin, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and endothelin. Arterial elasticity was evaluated using pulse wave contour. The LVH parameters were assessed echographically. Adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with left ventricular mass (LVM; P = .032). The aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) was significantly, positively associated with LVM (P = .031). Fasting insulin as well as HOMA-IR was significantly, positively associated with LVM (P = .036 and P = .025, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, adiponectin and ARR remained a significant predictor of LVM. The present study found that adiponectin and ARR are important independent determinants of LVH in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. PMID:24576986

Peer, Maya; Mashavi, Margarita; Matas, Zipora; Harpaz, David; Shargorodsky, Marina

2015-03-01

272

Serum adiponectin and leptin levels in psoriatic patients according to topical treatment.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: Psoriasis has been considered as a systemic disease associated with obesity, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines have influence on many metabolic processes. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional topical treatment on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Forty-nine patients with relapse of plaque-type psoriasis and 16 healthy controls were examined. Blood samples were collected before therapy and after 14 days of application. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for correlations with effectiveness of topical treatment. Results: Adiponectin and leptin serum levels were significantly decreased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls. As a result of the topical treatment, serum adiponectin level did not significantly change. Serum leptin level increased significantly, still remaining lower than in the controls. Conclusions: Leptin might be a useful marker in assessing the efficacy of the treatment for psoriasis. PMID:24754531

Baran, A; Flisiak, I; Jaroszewicz, J; Swiderska, M

2014-05-15

273

The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (?45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations in a normal estrous cycle of dairy cows, and furthermore, it was found that high-producing dairy cows with higher postpartum serum adiponectin concentrations had NLA and earlier C-LA. PMID:25680575

Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

2015-05-01

274

Novel Modulator for Endothelial Adhesion Molecules Adipocyte-Derived Plasma Protein Adiponectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated whether adiponectin could modulate endothelial function and relate to coronary disease.

Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yukio Arit; Kazuhisa Maeda; Hiroshi Kuriyama; Yoshihisa Okamoto; Kikuko Hott; Makoto Nishida; Masahiko Takahashi; Tadashi Nakamura; Shizuya Yamashita; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa

275

Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin\\/ACRP30  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we investigated the biological functions of adiponectin\\/ACRP30, a fat-derived hormone, by disrupting the gene that encodes it in mice. Adiponectin\\/ACRP30-knockout (KO) mice showed delayed clearance of free fatty acid in plasma, low levels of fatty-acid transport protein 1 (FATP-1) mRNA in muscle, high levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA in adipose tissue and high plasma TNF-? concentrations. The

Norikazu Maeda; Ken Kishida; Hitoshi Nishizawa; Morihiro Matsuda; Hiroyuki Nagaretani; Naoki Furuyama; Hidehiko Kondo; Masahiko Takahashi; Yukio Arita; Ryutaro Komuro; Noriyuki Ouchi; Shinji Kihara; Yoshihiro Tochino; Keiichi Okutomi; Masato Horie; Satoshi Takeda; Toshifumi Aoyama; Tohru Funahashi; Yuji Matsuzawa; Iichiro Shimomura

2002-01-01

276

Lifestyle plus Exercise Intervention Improves Metabolic Syndrome Markers without Change in Adiponectin in Obese Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Little is known about whether lifestyle plus exercise intervention improves obesity, metabolic syndrome markers, and circulating adiponectin concentrations in obese girls. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week lifestyle plus exercise intervention on adiponectin and metabolic syndrome markers in Korean obese adolescents. Methods: A total of 44 obese adolescent girls (13–15 years old),

Tae-Gon Park; Hae-Ryen Hong; Jiyoung Lee; Hyun-Sik Kang

2007-01-01

277

Insulin-independent role of adiponectin receptor signaling in Drosophila germline stem cell maintenance.  

PubMed

Adipocytes have key endocrine roles, mediated in large part by secreted protein hormones termed adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin is well known for its role in sensitizing peripheral tissues to insulin, and several lines of evidence suggest that adiponectin might also modulate stem cells/precursors. It remains unclear, however, how adiponectin signaling controls stem cells and whether this role is secondary to its insulin-sensitizing effects or distinct. Drosophila adipocytes also function as an endocrine organ and, although no obvious adiponectin homolog has been identified, Drosophila AdipoR encodes a well-conserved homolog of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Here, we generate a null AdipoR allele and use clonal analysis to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement for AdipoR in germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. AdipoR null GSCs are not fully responsive to bone morphogenetic protein ligands from the niche and have a slight reduction in E-cadherin levels at the GSC-niche junction. Conversely, germline-specific overexpression of AdipoR inhibits natural GSC loss, suggesting that reduction in adiponectin signaling might contribute to the normal decline in GSC numbers observed over time in wild-type females. Surprisingly, AdipoR is not required for insulin sensitization of the germline, leading us to speculate that insulin sensitization is a more recently acquired function than stem cell regulation in the evolutionary history of adiponectin signaling. Our findings establish Drosophila female GSCs as a new system for future studies addressing the molecular mechanisms whereby adiponectin receptor signaling modulates stem cell fate. PMID:25576925

Laws, Kaitlin M; Sampson, Leesa L; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

2015-03-15

278

Inhibition of leptin-induced vascular extracellular matrix remodelling by adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which is the result of disruption in the balance of ECM synthesis and degradation, induces vessel fibrosis and thereby leads to hypertension. Leptin is known to promote tissue fibrosis, while adiponectin has recently been demonstrated to be anti-fibrogenic in tissue fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin and to further elucidate the mechanisms through which adiponectin dampens leptin signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells, thus preventing excess ECM production, in our already established 3D co-culture vessel models. Our 3D co-culture vessel model, which mimics true blood vessels, is composed of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen type I. We validated the profibrogenic effects of leptin and analysed matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and collagen types II/IV secretion in 3D vessel models. The protective/inhibitory effects of adiponectin were re-analysed by inhibiting adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR) and AdipoR2 expression in endothelial cells using RNAi technology. In the 3D vessel models, adiponectin blocked the leptin-stimulated secretion of collagen types II/IV and TIMP1 while significantly increasing MMP2/9 activity. In endothelial cells, adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMPK, thereby suppressing leptin-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of SOCS3 in smooth muscle cells. Our findings indicate that adiponectin disrupted the leptin-induced vascular ECM remodelling via AdipoR1 and enhanced AMPK signalling in endothelial cells, which, in turn, promoted SOCS3 up-regulation in smooth muscle cells to repress leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3. PMID:24982243

Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Fang; Wang, Bing-jian; Chu, Guang; Cao, Qunan; Sun, Bao-Gui; Dai, Qiu-Yan

2014-01-01

279

ASSOCIATION AMONG LIFESTYLE STATUS, PLASMA ADIPONECTIN LEVEL AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN OBESE MIDDLE AGED MEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOHEBBI, H.; MOGHADASI, M.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; HASSAN-NIA, S.; NOROOZI, H. Association among Lifestyle Status, Plasma Adiponectin Level and Metabolic Syndrome in obese middle aged men. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 3, p. 243-252, 2009. Low plasma levels of the adiponectin characterize obesity and high levels of metabolic syndrome components. The aim of this study was to determine whether

Hamid Mohebbi; Mehrzad Moghadasi; Farhad Rahmani-Nia; Sadegh Hassan-Nia; Hamid Noroozi

280

Adiponectin and Ghrelin Levels and Body Size in Normoglycemic Filipino, African-American, and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Prior studies have reported ethnic differences in adiponectin and ghrelin, but few have assessed the role of body size in normoglycemic women. We compared fasting adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations in normoglycemic 40- to 80-year-old Filipino, African-American, and white women.Methods: Participants included women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (n = 143), the University of California-San Diego Filipino Women’s Health Study

Maria Rosario G. Araneta; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

2007-01-01

281

Adiponectin and vascular properties in obese patients: is it a novel biomarker of early atherosclerosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived collagen-like protein, highly specific to adipose tissue and may represent an important link between obesity and atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate a possible association between serum adiponectin levels and early vascular changes in obese patients as determined by intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse-wave contour analysis.Design:Obese subjects (n=47) were evaluated for arterial

M Shargorodsky; M Boaz; Y Goldberg; Z Matas; D Gavish; A Fux; N Wolfson

2009-01-01

282

Control by homoeologous group 1 chromosomes of the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin, a major protein of wheat endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrophoretic mobilities of the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin from 7 varieties were compared by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In total, 12 subunits were clearly resolved and they had nominal molecular weights of between 95,000 and 140,000. The chromosomes which control their synthesis were determined using monosomic lines and inter-varietal substitution lines. All

P. I. Payne; C. N. Law; E. E. Mudd

1980-01-01

283

Role of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (APN), a novel hormone/cytokine derived from adipocyte tissue, is involved in various physiological functions. Genetics, nutrition, and adiposity are factors contributing to circulating plasma concentrations of APN. Clinical correlation studies have shown that lower levels of serum APN are associated with increased malignancy of various cancers, such as breast and colon cancers, suggesting that APN has a role in tumorigenesis. APN affects insulin resistance, thus further influencing cancer development. Tumor cells may express receptors for APN. Cellular signaling is the mechanism by which APN exerts its host-protective responses. These factors suggest that serum APN levels and downstream signaling targets of APN may serve as potential diagnostic markers for malignancies. Further research is necessary to clarify the exact role of APN in cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23691481

Obeid, Stephanie; Hebbard, Lionel

2012-01-01

284

Regulatory Role of Autophagy in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, exhibits diverse biological responses, including metabolism of glucose and lipid, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Recently, adiponectin has been shown to modulate autophagy as well. While emerging evidence has demonstrated that autophagy plays a role in the modulation of proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, the role of autophagy in apoptosis of cancer cell caused by adiponectin has not been explored. In the present study, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induces both apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), as evidenced by increase in caspase-3 activity, Bax, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3 II) protein levels, and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, gene silencing of LC3B, an autophagy marker, significantly enhanced gAcrp-induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, whereas induction of autophagy by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, significantly prevented gAcrp-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells HepG2. Furthermore, modulation of autophagy produced similar effects on gAcrp-induced Bax expression in HepG2 cells. These results implicate that induction of autophagy plays a regulatory role in adiponectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and thus inhibition of autophagy would be a novel promising target to enhance the efficiency of cancer cell apoptosis by adiponectin. PMID:25414767

Nepal, Saroj; Park, Pil-Hoon

2014-01-01

285

Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.  

PubMed

Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed. PMID:21587097

Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

2011-09-01

286

Maternal Serum Adiponectin at 11–13 Weeks of Gestation in Pregnancies Delivering Small for Gestation Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether maternal serum levels of adiponectin in the first trimester are altered in pregnancies that subsequently deliver small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods: Maternal serum adiponectin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 11–13 weeks’ gestation in 50 singleton normotensive pregnancies that delivered SGA neonates and 300 non-SGA controls. The median adiponectin and PAPP-A

Surabhi Nanda; Ranjit Akolekar; Danielle Sodre; Eirini Vaikousi; Kypros H. Nicolaides

2011-01-01

287

Adiponectin Is Functionally Active in Human Islets but Does Not Affect Insulin Secretory Function or  Cell Lipoapoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The adipokine adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti- atherogenic, and antiinflammatory properties. Mouse and human adiponectin receptor-1 and -2 have been cloned, both of which are expressed in various tissues and mediate effects of globular and full- lengthadiponectin.Whetheradiponectinaffectsinsulinsecretionand -cell apoptosis and whether plasma adiponectin is associated with -cell function in humans is under investigation. Design and Methods: In human islets from

K. Staiger; N. Stefan; H. Staiger; M. D. Brendel; D. Brandhorst; R. G. Bretzel; F. Machicao; M. Kellerer; M. Stumvoll; A. Fritsche; H.-U. Haring

2005-01-01

288

Effects of adiponectin in TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 cytokine production from coronary artery disease macrophages.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, an adipose tissue secreted protein, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. We examined the effects of the globular and full-length adiponectin on cytokine production in macrophages derived from Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients and control individuals. Adiponectin's effects in human macrophages upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were also examined. Full length adiponectin acted differently on TNF-? and IL-6 production by upregulating TNF-? and IL-6 protein production, but not their mRNA expression. Additionally, full length adiponectin was unable to abrogate LPS proinflammatory effect in TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA expression in CAD and NON-CAD macrophages. In contrast, globular adiponectin appeared to have proinflammatory properties by potently upregulating TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA and protein secretion in human macrophages while subsequently rendered cells resistant to further proinflammatory stimuli. Moreover, both forms of adiponectin powerfully suppressed scavenger MSR-AI mRNA expression and augmented IL-10 protein release, both occurring independently of the presence of LPS or CAD. These data indicate that adiponectin could potentially protect human macrophages via the elevated IL-10 secretion and the suppression of MSR-AI expression. It can also be protective in CAD patients since the reduced adiponectin-induced IL-6 release in CAD macrophages compared to controls, could be beneficial in the development of inflammation related atherosclerosis. PMID:21626471

Kyriazi, E; Tsiotra, P C; Boutati, E; Ikonomidis, I; Fountoulaki, K; Maratou, E; Lekakis, J; Dimitriadis, G; Kremastinos, D T; Raptis, S A

2011-07-01

289

Adiponectin Prevents Reduction of Lipid-Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis via AMPK/ACC2 Pathway in Chicken Adipocyte.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (APN) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and reduces lipid content in human and animal adipocytes. However, the mechanism of adiponectin in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in chicken adipocytes has never been reported. The objective of this study is to examine the mechanism that adiponectin plays in lipid-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in chicken adipocytes. We found that the overexpression of adiponectin reduced the membrane DAG content and elevated the membrane translocation of PKC?. In contrast to control groups, the overexpression of adiponectin increased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial DNA contents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?coactivator 1? (PGC1-?) expression. Mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C (Cyt?C) content were detected by JC-1 fluorescent staining and immunofluorescence which indicated that overexpression of adiponectin enhanced mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Moreover, AMPK/ACC2 signaling pathway was activated along with the elevation of PGC1-? and TFAM by the overexpression of adiponectin, meanwhile the lipid transcription marker genes were down-regulated. This effect was alleviated by reducing adiponectin and a specific inhibitor of AMPK pathway. We concluded that adiponectin could prevent reduction of lipid-induced mitochondrial biogenesis via AMPK/ACC2 pathway in chicken adipocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1090-1100, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25536013

Gan, Lu; Yan, Jun; Liu, Zhenjiang; Feng, Min; Sun, Chao

2015-06-01

290

Adiponectin attenuates Ang?-induced TGF?1 production in human mesangial cells via an AMPK-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Glomerulosclerosis is a key element in end-stage renal failure. Angiotensin?(Ang?) plays an important role in modulating cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and degradation. Adiponectin, a protein derived from adipocytes, is primarily involved in regulating glucose levels and fatty acid break down. It has recently been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. However the role of adiponectin as a reno-protective agent has not been fully explored. We herein examine the effect of adiponectin on Ang ?-induced TGF?1 and ECM production in Human Renal Mesangial Cells (HRMCs) and explore the signaling pathway involved. In this study, we found that both adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) are expressed in HRMCs. Adiponectin (10?g/ml) attenuated the stimulatory effect of Ang? on TGF-?1 and fibronectin. Furthermore, adiponectin activated the AMP-activated protein kinase?AMPK? and, the AMPK specific inhibitor (Compound C) blocked AMPK activation. We also determined that Compound C blocked the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on Ang?-stimulated TGF?1 and fibronectin production. In summary, these results demonstrate that adiponectin suppresses Ang?-induced synthesis of ECM in mesangial cells via activation of the AMPK pathway. Based on our data, we suggest that this mechanism could delay the progression of kidney disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25471552

Tan, Min; Tang, Gongyao; Rui, Hongliang

2014-12-01

291

Effects of sulfonylurea drugs on adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 adipocytes: implication of different mechanism from pioglitazone.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is a fat-derived cytokine with anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. In this study, effects of sulfonylureas (SUs) on adiponectin production and the action mechanism were evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The cells were incubated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, gliclazide, pioglitazone, metformin and the medium only as the control. In the control, the adiponectin level evaluated as the production rate per 24 h was not changed, while pioglitazone significantly increased the adiponectin level. SUs also increased the adiponectin level, but metformin failed to show any increase in adiponectin production. SUs induced adiponectin gene expression as well as pioglitazone. Pioglitazone significantly increased adipogenesis, but glimepiride did not. The aP2 gene expression was increased by pioglitazone, but not by glimepiride. Forskolin, a protein kinase A stimulator, reduced the adiponectin production stimulated by glimepiride but not by pioglitazone. These observations strongly suggest that SUs stimulate the adiponectin production through a different mechanism from pioglitazone, namely an interaction with protein kinase A activity. The significance of the extrapancreatic action of SUs observed in this study should be further evaluated in the clinical field. PMID:18455831

Kanda, Yukiko; Matsuda, Masafumi; Tawaramoto, Kazuhito; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Hashiramoto, Mitsuru; Matsuki, Michihiro; Kaku, Kohei

2008-07-01

292

Adiponectin does not cross the blood-brain barrier but modifies cytokine expression of brain endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Adiponectin has recently been reported to generate a negative energy balance by increasing energy expenditure. However, it is unclear whether such effects require the presence and direct action of the adiponectin protein in the central nervous system. In this study, neither radiolabeled nonglycosylated nor glycosylated globular adiponectin crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice. In addition, adiponectin was not detectable in human cerebrospinal fluid using various established methods. Using murine cerebral microvessels, we demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptors, which are upregulated during fasting, in brain endothelium. Interestingly, treatment with adiponectin reduced secretion of the centrally active interleukin-6 from brain endothelial cells, a phenomenon that was paralleled by a similar trend of other proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, our data suggest that direct effects of endogenous adiponectin on central nervous system pathways are unlikely to exist. However, the identification of adiponectin receptors on brain endothelial cells and the finding of a modified secretion pattern of centrally active substances from BBB cells provides an alternate explanation as to how adiponectin may evoke effects on energy metabolism. PMID:16380487

Spranger, Joachim; Verma, Sulekha; Göhring, Isabel; Bobbert, Thomas; Seifert, Joseph; Sindler, Amy L; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Hileman, Stanley M; Tschöp, Matthias; Banks, William A

2006-01-01

293

Oral administration of ?-aminobutyric acid and ?-oryzanol prevents stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and is found to associate partly with chronic stress at work in human. Adiponectin circulates in mammal blood mainly as a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) multimers. Low circulating levels of adiponectin are related to metabolic syndrome. We have then investigated the influence of immobilization stress on plasma adiponectin concentrations in mice. Relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels were markedly reduced by immobilization stress (0.66±0.07 and 0.59±0.06 after 102 h, respectively), significantly different from the control values (p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ?-oryzanol abundantly contained in germinated brown rice have some physiological functions. We further investigated the effect of GABA, ?-oryzanol, GABA plus ?-oryzanol on adiponectin levels in mice subjected to immobilization stress. GABA and ?-oryzanol significantly increased the relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels under immobilization stress (1.10±0.11 and 0.99±0.19 after 102 h, respectively, for GABA; 1.08±0.17 and 1.15±0.17 after 102 h, respectively, for ?-oryzanol). Additionally, the co-administration of GABA and ?-oryzanol also increased both relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels (1.02±0.07 and 0.99±0.10 after 102 h, respectively) and was effective in an earlier phase from 30 to 54 h. The results indicate that the co-administration of GABA and ?-oryzanol might be effective in preventing stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia in mice and be also a promising tool for improving metabolic syndrome aggravated by chronic stress. PMID:21316207

Ohara, Kazuyuki; Kiyotani, Yuka; Uchida, Asako; Nagasaka, Reiko; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kanemoto, Shigeharu; Hori, Masatoshi; Ushio, Hideki

2011-06-15

294

Expression of adiponectin and its receptors in the porcine hypothalamus during the oestrous cycle.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is a hormonal link between obesity and reproduction, and its actions are mediated by two types of receptors: adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). This study compares the expression levels of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins in selected areas of the porcine hypothalamus responsible for GnRH production and secretion: the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), pre-optic area (POA) and stalk median eminence (SME). The tissue samples were harvested on days 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. Adiponectin mRNA expression in MBH was significantly lower on days 14-16, whereas in SME, the most pronounced gene expression was found on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein in MBH was most abundant on days 17-19 and in POA on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). Adiponectin protein expression in SME was at similar level throughout the most of the cycle with a statistically significant drop (p < 0.05) on days 14-16. AdipoR1 gene expression in POA was potentiated on days 2-3 and 10-12 of the oestrous cycle (p < 0.05). In SME, the highest AdipoR1 mRNA expression was noted on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The concentrations of the AdipoR1 protein in POA were similar throughout the luteal phase (days 2-14 of the cycle), and they decreased on days 17-19 (p < 0.05). In SME, AdipoR1 protein expression peak occurred on days 2-3 (p < 0.05). The expression patterns of the AdipoR2 gene in MBH, POA and SME revealed the highest mRNA levels on days 2-3 of the cycle (p < 0.05). The highest content of AdipoR2 protein in MBH was reported on days 2-3 (p < 0.05), while in POA on days 17-19 and in SME on days 10-12 and 14-16 (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that adiponectin and adiponectin receptor mRNAs and proteins are present in the porcine hypothalamus and that their expression levels are determined by the pig's endocrine status related to the oestrous cycle. PMID:24592982

Kaminski, T; Smolinska, N; Maleszka, A; Kiezun, M; Dobrzyn, K; Czerwinska, J; Szeszko, K; Nitkiewicz, A

2014-06-01

295

Metabolic profiling of transgenic wheat over-expressing the high-molecular-weight Dx5 glutenin subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this work was to evaluate potential changes in the metabolic network of transgenic wheat grain over-expressing\\u000a the high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin Dx5-subunit gene. GC–MS and multivariate analyses were used to compare the metabolite\\u000a profiles of developing caryopses of two independently transformed lines over-expressing Dx5 and another two independently transformed lines expressing only the selectable-marker gene (controls). Developing

Boryana S. Stamova; Ute Roessner; Suganthi Suren; Debbie Laudencia-Chingcuanco; Antony Bacic; Diane M. Beckles

2009-01-01

296

Psoriasis is associated with decreased plasma adiponectin levels independently of cardiometabolic risk factors  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease that may be associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile including modulated plasma adiponectin and leptin levels. Whether these levels are independent of cardiometabolic risk factors, which are also prevalent in psoriasis, is not known. Methods A consecutive sample of 122 participants with varying degrees of psoriasis severity, and a random sample of 134 participants without psoriasis were recruited for this case–control study. Cardiometabolic risk factors including traditional cardiovascular risk factors, waist circumference, insulin resistance, and total plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured. Total plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses by psoriasis status. Results Participants with psoriasis had mostly mild disease and were mainly on topical therapies, but still had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with those without psoriasis. Furthermore, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in participants with psoriasis than those without {7.13 µg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 4.9–11.3) vs. 14.5 µg/mL (IQR 8.4–24.1); P < 0.001]}. Plasma leptin (ng/mL) levels were higher in the psoriasis group but this did not reach statistical significance [11.3 (IQR 6.4–21.8) vs. 9.8 (IQR 4.9–20.5); P = 0.07]. In multivariable modelling, plasma adiponectin levels were still negatively associated with psoriasis status after adjusting for waist size (% difference = ?41.2%, P < 0.001), insulin resistance (% difference = ?39.5%, P < 0.001) and both waist size and insulin resistance (% difference = ?38.5%, P < 0.001) Conclusion Plasma levels of adiponectin were lower in psoriasis, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for cardiometabolic risk factors known to decrease adiponectin levels. These findings suggest that inflammation present in psoriasis may be associated with adipose tissue dysfunction; however, direct studies of adipose tissue are needed to confirm this. PMID:24341476

Li, R. C.; Krishnamoorthy, P.; DerOhannessian, S.; Doveikis, J.; Wilcox, M.; Thomas, P.; Rader, D. J.; Reilly, M. P.; Voorhees, A. Van; Gelfand, J. M.; Mehta, N. N.

2013-01-01

297

Catecholamines, Adiponectin, and Insulin Resistance as Measured by HOMA in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Its contribution to insulin resistance is complicated by obesity and puberty. We hypothesized that OSA is associated with worse insulin resistance and lower adiponectin after adjustment for obesity and puberty and that catecholamines might mediate these changes. Methods: Normal controls and children with suspected OSA were recruited and categorized as pubertal or prepubertal. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed. Subjects were categorized as OSA for total apnea hypopnea index (Total-AHI) ? 1.5 events/h. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and 24-hour urinary catecholamines were obtained. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) was calculated. The independent effects of OSA upon HOMA, adiponectin, and urinary catecholamines following adjustment for body mass index (BMI) were determined. Results (median; min, max): Subjects (n = 98, 42F; 11 ± 4 years, 37 prepubertal) were generally overweight (BMI-Z = 2.1; ?3, 4.1) and had wide-ranging insulin sensitivities (HOMA = 2.7; 0.5, 27) and PSG parameters (Total-AHI = 1.6; 0, 185). The risks of elevated insulin (P = 0.04) and HOMA (P = 0.05) were higher in OSA vs non OSA obese pubertal children. Polysomnographic markers of OSA, including Total-AHI (P = 0.001, R2 = 0.32), were negatively associated with adiponectin in pubertal children. Total-AHI and oxygen desaturation were associated with higher urinary normetanephrine and norepinephrine. Conclusions: In obese pubertal children, OSA was associated with worse insulin resistance. Worsening OSA was associated with lower adiponectin and increasing urinary catecholamines. Whether OSA directly lowers adiponectin and aggravates a predisposition to insulin resistance is unknown, but these preliminary findings highlight the importance of further studying pediatric OSA. Citation: Kelly A; Dougherty S; Cucchiara A; Marcus CL; Brooks LJ. Catecholamines, adiponectin, and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1185-1191. PMID:20857865

Kelly, Andrea; Dougherty, Shayne; Cucchiara, Andrew; Marcus, Carole L.; Brooks, Lee J.

2010-01-01

298

Relatively high levels of serum adiponectin in obese women, a potential indicator of anti-inflammatory dysfunction: Relation to sex hormone- binding globulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear whether serum adiponectin concentrations diminish linearly with increasing adiposity and, if not, which factors codetermine this association. These issues were investigated cross-sectionally in 1188 men and women, representative of middle-aged and elderly Turkish adults. Serum total adiponectin was assayed by ELISA. Serum adiponectin values in men, though declining significantly in transition from the bottom to the mid

Altan Onat; Gülay Hergenē; Zekeriya Küēükdurmaz; Serkan Bulur

2008-01-01

299

Adiponectin Is Related to Carotid Artery Plaque and a Predictor of Cardiovascular Outcome in a Cohort of Non-Diabetic Peritoneal Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated associations between circulating adiponectin, inflammation and cardiovascular disease in peritoneal dialysis patients. Methods: A prospective study was performed in 59 non-diabetic patients. The concentrations of serum adiponectin, biochemical data and ultrasound of carotid artery were measured at enrollment. The patients were followed up to 39 months mainly for

Zan-zhe Yu; Zhao-hui Ni; Le-yi Gu; Ai-wu Lin; Wei Fang; Qiang Yao; Bengt Lindholm; Jia-qi Qian

2008-01-01

300

Regulation of adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue by thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Available experimental data suggest that adiponectin and thyroid hormones have biological interaction in vivo. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on adipose adiponectin gene expression in thyroid dysfunction are unclear. We induced hyper- (HYPER) and hypothyroidism (HYPO) by daily administration of a 12 mg/l of levothyroxine and 250 mg/l of methimazole in drinking water of rats, respectively, for 42 days. The white adipose tissues and serum sample were taken on days 15, 28, 42 and also 2 weeks after treatment cessation. Analysis of adiponectin gene expression was performed by real-time PCR and 2(-??ct) method. The levels of adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA in the HYPO rats were decreased during the 6-week treatment when compared to control rats (<0.05) and were increased significantly 2 weeks after HYPO cessation (P?adiponectin gene expression occurred in parallel with a decrease in T3, T4, fT3 and fT4 concentrations (P?adiponectin gene expression was increased in HYPER rats during the 6-week treatment in parallel with an increase the thyroid hormones concentrations (P?Adiponectin gene expression levels showed significant negative correlations with concentrations of LDL (HYPO; r?=?-0.806, P?=?0.001 and HYPER; r?=?-0.749, P?=?0.002), triglyceride (HYPO; r?=?-0.825, P?=?0.001 and HYPER; r?=?-0.824, P?=?0.001) and significant positive correlations with concentrations of glucose (HYPO; r?=?0.674, P?=?0.004 and HYPER; r?=?0.866, P?=?0.001) and HDL (HYPO; r?=?0.755, P?=?0.001 and HYPER; r?=?0.839, P?=?0.001). The current study provides evidence that adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue is regulated by thyroid hormones at the translation level and that lipid and carbohydrate disturbances in a patient with thyroid dysfunction may be, in part, due to adiponectin gene expression changes. PMID:22127636

Seifi, Samira; Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Nazifi, Saed; Saeb, Mehdi; Shirian, Sadegh; Sarkoohi, Parisa

2012-06-01

301

Association of ADIPOQ gene with obesity and adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ADIPOQ gene have been linked with obesity and with adiponectin levels in various populations. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and rs3774261 SNPs with obesity and with adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays. Obesity parameters and adiponectin levels were measured in 574 subjects. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Sequenom MassARRAY. A significant genotypic association was observed between ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity. The frequencies of AG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in the obese group (11%) than in the non-obese group (5%) (P=0.024). The odds of A alleles occurring among the obese group were twice those among the non-obese group (odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval 1.13-4.09). However, no significant association was found between allelic frequencies of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity after Bonferroni correction (P>0.025) or between ADIPOQ rs3774261 and obesity both at allelic and genotypic levels. ADIPOQ SNPs were not significantly associated with log-adiponectin levels. GA, GG, and AG haplotypes of the ADIPOQ gene were not associated with obesity. We confirmed the previously reported association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 with the risk of obesity. ADIPOQ SNPs are not important modulators of adiponectin levels in this population. PMID:24449366

Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Rampal, Sanjay; Salim, Agus; Moy, Foong Ming; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-05-01

302

Intestinal epithelial cells promote secretion of leptin and adiponectin in adipocytes.  

PubMed

Although leptin and adiponectin are the predominant adipokines, how their circulating levels are regulated is incompletely understood. The present study tested whether intestinal epithelial cells influence the expression and secretion of these adipokines by adipocytes. Leptin gene expression and secretion by cultured human primary adipocytes and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome adipocytes increased upon coculture with human enterocytic Caco-2 cells or incubation in conditioned medium of Caco-2 cells. Although adiponectin secretion increased, its mRNA levels decreased. Tissue homogenate of the ileum (but not the jejunum, colon, or liver) of nonobese C57BL/6J mice also stimulated leptin and adiponectin secretion by cultured murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, ileal homogenate of obese KK-Ay mice had no effect on leptin and adiponectin secretion. We propose that as yet unidentified humoral factors released from intestinal epithelial cells are involved in regulating circulating leptin and adiponectin levels. Decreased production of such factors may contribute to hyperphagia in KK-Ay mice. PMID:25656573

Ishihara, Rino; Mizuno, Yuki; Miwa, Akiho; Hamada, Akihiro; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Wabitsch, Martin; Sonoyama, Kei

2015-03-01

303

The regulation of adiponectin receptors in human prostate cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and plasma levels of the adipokine, adiponectin, are low in the former but high in the latter. Adiponectin has been shown to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis, suggesting that adiponectin and its receptors (Adipo-R1, Adipo-R2) may provide a molecular association between obesity and prostate carcinogenesis. We show for First time, the protein distribution of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 in LNCaP and PC3 cells, and in human prostate tissue. Using real-time RT-PCR we provide novel data demonstrating the differential regulation of Adipo-R1 and Adipo-R2 mRNA expression by testosterone, 5-{alpha} dihydrotestosterone, {beta}-estradiol, tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that adiponectin and its receptors may contribute to the molecular association between obesity and prostate cancer through a complex interaction with other hormones and cytokines that also play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and prostate cancer.

Mistry, T. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Urology, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX (United Kingdom); Digby, J.E. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chen, J. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Desai, K.M. [Department of Urology, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX (United Kingdom); Randeva, H.S. [Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: H.Randeva@warwick.ac.uk

2006-09-29

304

Perivascular adipose tissue-derived adiponectin activates BKCa channels to induce anticontractile responses  

PubMed Central

This study aims to identify the potential mechanisms by which perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) reduces tone in small arteries. Small mesenteric arteries from wild-type and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel knockout mice were mounted on a wire myograph in the presence and absence of PVAT, and contractile responses to norepinephrine were assessed. Electrophysiology studies were performed in isolated vessels to measure changes in membrane potential produced by adiponectin. Contractile responses from wild-type mouse small arteries were significantly reduced in the presence of PVAT. This was not observed in the presence of a BKCa channel inhibitor or with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition or in BKCa or adiponectin knockout mice. Solution transfer experiments demonstrated the presence of an anticontractile factor released from PVAT. Adiponectin-induced vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization in wild-type arteries were not evident in the absence of or after inhibition of BKCa channels. PVAT from BKCa or adiponectin knockout mice failed to elicit an anticontractile response in wild-type arteries. PVAT releases adiponectin, which is an anticontractile factor. Its effect on vascular tone is mediated by activation of BKCa channels on vascular smooth muscle cells and adipocytes and by endothelial mechanisms. PMID:23292715

Withers, Sarah B.; Yao, Zhihong; Werner, Matthias E.; Edwards, Gill; Weston, Arthur H.; Heagerty, Anthony M.

2013-01-01

305

Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection and therapeutic profile  

PubMed Central

Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closely associated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis is more common in genotype 3 infection owing to a direct cytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype 3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely to be the result of the alterations in host metabolism; metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype 1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormones involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has been demonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as the decreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrix protein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, are associated with liver steatosis. Various studies have shown that steatosis is strongly correlated negatively with adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection. The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus induced steatosis is still not completely understood, but the relationship between adiponectin low levels and liver steatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectin to protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulation by increasing ?-oxidation of free fatty acid and thus decreasing de novo free fatty acid production. PMID:25624996

Peta, Valentina; Torti, Carlo; Milic, Natasa; Focą, Alfredo; Abenavoli, Ludovico

2015-01-01

306

The effects of acute exercise on serum adiponectin and resistin levels and their relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a submaximal aerobic exercise bout on adiponectin and resistin levels as well as insulin sensitivity, until 48 h post-exercise in healthy overweight males. Nine subjects performed an exercise bout at an intensity corresponding to approximately 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption for 45 min. Adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and insulin

A. Z. Jamurtas; V. Theocharis; G. Koukoulis; N. Stakias; I. G. Fatouros; D. Kouretas; Y. Koutedakis

2006-01-01

307

Gene–environment interaction between adiponectin gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on the risk of diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction To evaluate whether the adiponectin gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk and interaction with environmental factors modifies the DR risk, and to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and DR. Materials and Methods Four adiponectin polymorphisms were evaluated in 372 DR cases and 145 controls. Differences in environmental factors between cases and controls were evaluated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. The model-free multifactor dimensionality reduction method and traditional multiple regression models were applied to explore interactions between the polymorphisms and environmental factors. Results Using the Bonferroni method, we found no significant associations between four adiponectin polymorphisms and DR susceptibility. Multivariate logistic regression found that physical activity played a protective role in the progress of DR, whereas family history of diabetes (odds ratio 1.75) and insulin therapy (odds ratio 1.78) were associated with an increased risk for DR. The interaction between the C-11377 G (rs266729) polymorphism and insulin therapy might be associated with DR risk. Family history of diabetes combined with insulin therapy also increased the risk of DR. No adiponectin gene polymorphisms influenced the serum adiponectin levels. Serum adiponectin levels did not differ between the DR group and non-DR group. Conclusions No significant association was identified between four adiponectin polymorphisms and DR susceptibility after stringent Bonferroni correction. The interaction between C-11377G (rs266729) polymorphism and insulin therapy, as well as the interaction between family history of diabetes and insulin therapy, might be associated with DR susceptibility. PMID:25621134

Li, Yuan; Wu, Qun Hong; Jiao, Ming Li; Fan, Xiao Hong; Hu, Quan; Hao, Yan Hua; Liu, Ruo Hong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yu; Han, Li Yuan

2015-01-01

308

Circulating serum adiponectin concentrations do not differ between obese and non-obese caucasians and are unrelated to insulin sensitivity.  

PubMed

Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in obesity and insulin resistance seem paradoxical, since adipose tissue is the only source of adiponectin, and reports on that subject are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of adiponectin in non-obese and obese normoglycemic humans, and to determine the correlation between adiponectin and HOMA index of insulin sensitivity. Based on the WHO definition of obesity, 145 obese subjects and 49 non-obese controls (aged 20-55 years) were studied. The serum adiponectin concentrations did not differ between subjects and controls (p=0.6398) and were not correlated with HOMA index (r=-0.0211; p=0.8048, and r=-0.0523; p=0.4757, for subjects and controls, respectively). Adiponectin was not correlated with HOMA index in females (r=-0.0521; p=0.6546, and r=-0.0825; p=0.3981, for female subjects and controls, respectively) as well as in males (r=0.0033; p=0.9791, and r=0.0123; p=0.9131, for male subjects and controls, respectively). These results lead to the conclusion that neither the concentrations of adiponectin differ between obese and non-obese humans, nor does any relationship between adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity exist. PMID:17226110

Owecki, M; Miczke, A; Pupek-Musialik, D; Bryl, W; Cymerys, M; Nikisch, E; Sowi?ski, J

2007-01-01

309

Preliminary evidence of genetic determinants of adiponectin response to fenofibrate in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein that has been linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inflammatory patterns. Although fenofibrate therapy can raise adiponectin levels, treatment response is heterogeneous and heritable, suggesting a role f...

310

Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. Approach: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobio- chemistry and

Ursula Meier; Axel M. Gressner

2004-01-01

311

Changes in plasma levels of fat-derived hormones adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition characterised by polyarthritis and severe change in body mass and neuroendocrine environment.Objectives: To investigate plasma levels of adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to compare them with levels in healthy controls.Methods: Adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and leptin concentrations were measured in 31 patients with rheumatoid arthritis

M Otero; R Lago; R Gomez; F Lago; C Dieguez; J J Go?mez-Reino; O Gualillo

2006-01-01

312

Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. Approach: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin, and emphasizes their roles in pathobio- chemistry and

Ursula Meier; Axel M. Gressner

313

Adiponectin in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.  

PubMed

Circulating levels of adiponectin (APN) are reduced in obesity and associated comorbidities, with inflammation playing an important role in downregulating APN production. In contrast to obesity and metabolic disease, elevated systemic and local levels of APN are present in patients with inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune and pulmonary conditions, heart and kidney failure, viral hepatitis, organ transplantation and perhaps critical illness. A positive association between inflammation and APN is usually reported in inflammatory/immune pathologies, in contrast with the negative correlation typical of metabolic disease. This review discusses the role of APN in modulation of inflammation and immunity and the potential mechanisms leading to increased levels of APN in inflammatory/immune diseases, including modification of adipose tissue physiology; relative contribution of different tissues and adipose depots; hormonal, pharmacological, nutritional and life style factors; the potential contribution of the microbiota as well as the role of altered APN clearance and release from T-cadherin-associated tissue reservoirs. Potential reasons for some of the apparently contradictory findings on the role of APN as a modulator of immunity and inflammation are also discussed, including a comparison of types of recombinant APN used for in vitro studies and strain-dependent differences in the phenotype of APN KO mice. PMID:23850004

Fantuzzi, Giamila

2013-10-01

314

Adiponectin attenuates osteolysis in aseptic loosening of total hip replacements.  

PubMed

Joint replacements have a longer durability in patients with high serum levels of adiponectin (APN) than in patients with low levels. We aimed to characterize the unknown pathophysiological effects of APN on wear particle-induced inflammation, apoptosis and osteolysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect APN, its receptors and apoptosis in patients with and without aseptic loosening. Additionally, APN knockout mouse studies and pharmacological intervention of APN were performed in an established calvarial mouse model. Osteolysis and inflammation were quantified by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography, apoptosis by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. In a cell culture model, human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with or without metal wear debris particles and partially treated with APN. Expression of APN, AdipoR1 and calreticulin in specimens from patients with aseptic loosening were significantly higher than in patients without aseptic loosening. Administration of APN in mice significantly reduced wear particle-induced inflammation, osteolysis and the number of caspase-3-positive macrophages. The cell culture model showed that APN leads to significantly lower values of TNF-?. These findings support a prominent role of APN in the development of particle-induced osteolysis and APN may be therapeutically useful in patients with aseptic loosening. PMID:23994269

Landgraeber, Stefan; Putz, S; Schlattjan, M; Bechmann, Lars P; Totsch, Martin; Grabellus, Florian; Hilken, Gero; Jäger, M; Canbay, A

2014-01-01

315

Mucus and adiponectin deficiency: role in chronic inflammation-induced colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to define the role of adiponectin (APN) in preventing goblet cell apoptosis and in differentiation of epithelial cells to goblet cell lineage resulting in greater mucus production and hence greater protection from chronic inflammation-induced colon cancer (CICC). Methods Six- to eight-week-old male APNKO and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were randomly distributed to three treatment groups: DSS, DMH, DSS+DMH and control. Chronic inflammation was induced in DSS and DSS+ DMH group by administrating 2 % DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by 5 days of normal drinking water and this constitutes one DSS cycle. Three cycles of DSS were administered to induce chronic inflammation. Cancer was induced in both APNKO and WT mice in DMH and DSS+ DMH groups by intraperitoneal injections of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once for DSS+DMH group and once per week for 12 weeks for DMH group. On day 129, the colon tissue was dissected for mucus thickness measurements and for genomic studies. HT29-Cl.16E and Ls174T cells were used for several genomic and siRNA studies. Results APNKO mice have more tumors and tumor area in DSS+DMH group than WT mice. APN deficiency down-regulated goblet to epithelial cell ratio and enhanced the colonic mucosal erosion with reduced mucus thickness. APN increases Muc2 production with no affect on Muc1 production. APN abated goblet cell apoptosis, while APN deficiency reduced epithelial to goblet cell differentiation. Conclusion APN may be involved in reducing the severity of CICC by preventing goblet cell apoptosis and increasing epithelial to goblet cell differentiation. PMID:23474825

Saxena, Arpit; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Ponemone, Venkatesh; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Larsen, Bianca; Fletcher, Emma; Greene, Jennifer

2014-01-01

316

Combined delivery of the adiponectin gene and rosiglitazone using cationic lipid emulsions.  

PubMed

For the combined delivery of an insulin-sensitizing adipokine; i.e., the ADN gene, and the potent PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, cationic lipid emulsions were formulated using the cationic lipid DOTAP, helper lipid DOPE, castor oil, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The effect of drug loading on the physicochemical characteristics of the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes was investigated. Complex formation between the cationic emulsion and negatively charged plasmid DNA was confirmed and protection from DNase was observed. The in vitro transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were evaluated in HepG2 cells. The particle sizes of the cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 230-540nm and those of the rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 220-340nm. Gel retardation of the complexes was observed when the complexation weight ratios of the cationic lipid to plasmid DNA exceeded 4:1 for both the drug-free and rosiglitazone-loaded complexes. Both complexes stabilized plasmid DNA against DNase. The ADN expression level increased dose-dependently when cells were transfected with the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes. The rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complexes showed higher cellular uptake in HepG2 cells depending on the rosiglitazone loading, but not depending on the type of plasmid DNA type such as pVAX/ADN, pCAG/ADN, or pVAX. The drug-loaded cationic emulsion/plasmid DNA complexes were less cytotoxic than free rosiglitazone. Therefore, a cationic emulsion could potentially serve as a co-delivery system for rosiglitazone and the adiponectin gene. PMID:25681724

Davaa, Enkhzaya; Kang, Bong-Seok; Han, Joo-Hui; Lee, Sang-Eun; Ng, Choon Lian; Myung, Chang-Seon; Park, Jeong-Sook

2015-04-10

317

Higher levels of adiponectin in vascular endothelial cells are associated with greater brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in older adults.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects on the vascular endothelium. Recently adiponectin protein has been reported in murine vascular endothelial cells, however, whether adiponectin is present in human vascular endothelial cells remains unexplored. We sought to examine 1) adiponectin protein in vascular endothelial cells collected from older adults free of overt cardiovascular disease; 2) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin and in vivo vascular endothelial function; and 3) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin, circulating (plasma) adiponectin and related factors. We measured vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation using ultrasonography), vascular endothelial cell adiponectin (biopsy coupled with quantitative immunofluorescence) and circulating adiponectin (Mercodia, ELISA) in older, sedentary, non-smoking, men and women (55-79years). We found that higher endothelial cell adiponectin was related with greater flow-mediated dilation (r=0.43, P<0.05) and greater flow-mediated dilation normalized for shear stress (r=0.56, P<0.01), but was not related with vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide (r=0.04, P=0.9). Vascular endothelial cell adiponectin was not related with circulating adiponectin (r=-0.14, P=0.6). Endothelial cell and circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with adiposity, metabolic and other factors, but both were inversely associated with renal function (r=0.44 to 0.62, P?0.04). In conclusion, higher endothelial cell adiponectin levels are associated with higher vascular endothelial function, independent of circulating adiponectin levels in older adults. PMID:25572013

Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Luttrell, Meredith J; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S; Christou, Demetra D

2015-03-01

318

Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic progenitor cells overexpressing high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent neurotrophic factor promoting survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. FGF-2 is expressed in different isoforms representing distinct translation products from a single mRNA. For this study, we focused on the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, which, after non-viral plasmid-based overexpression in embryonic day 12 (E12) rat ventral mesencephalon (VM)-derived cells, revealed increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in a 'colayer' cell culture model. To determine the therapeutic potential of VM cells producing FGF-2-HMW as their 'own' neurotrophic factor, we transplanted cell suspensions obtained from such in vitro modified and differentiated cell cultures into the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemiparkinsonian rat model. Animals, having received either non-transfected cells, empty-control transfected, or FGF-2-HMW-plasmid transfected cells, were analyzed in two different transplantation paradigms each using 172,000 or 520,000 cells, respectively. The behavioral performances in the amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotational test as well as in the cylinder test were evaluated for up to thirteen weeks post transplantation (postTX). Finally, the integration of the grafted cells into the host striatum was analyzed by immunohistochemical measurements. Those analyses revealed improvements of behavioral deficits in all five groups receiving DA neuron grafts, except for amphetamine-induced rotation of the FGF-2-HMW small graft group. Altogether, genetic modification with the FGF-2-HMW-plasmid did not further improve functional recovery compared to the control groups and had no influence on either the number of surviving DA neurons or on the density of outgrowing TH(+) fibers. PMID:25499314

Rumpel, R; Hohmann, M; Klein, A; Wesemann, M; Baumgärtner, W; Ratzka, A; Grothe, C

2015-02-12

319

Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.  

PubMed

Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored. PMID:23222083

Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

2013-08-01

320

Adiponectin Receptors Form Homomers and Heteromers Exhibiting Distinct Ligand Binding and Intracellular Signaling Properties*  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes. PMID:23255609

Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R.; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M.

2013-01-01

321

Structural and Functional Similarities between Osmotin from Nicotiana Tabacum Seeds and Human Adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Osmotin, a plant protein, specifically binds a seven transmembrane domain receptor-like protein to exert its biological activity via a RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. The receptor protein is encoded in the gene ORE20/PHO36 and the mammalian homolog of PHO36 is a receptor for the human hormone adiponectin (ADIPOR1). Moreover it is known that the osmotin domain I can be overlapped to the ?-barrel domain of adiponectin. Therefore, these observations and some already existing structural and biological data open a window on a possible use of the osmotin or of its derivative as adiponectin agonist. We have modelled the three-dimensional structure of the adiponectin trimer (ADIPOQ), and two ADIPOR1 and PHO36 receptors. Moreover, we have also modelled the following complexes: ADIPOQ/ADIPOR1, osmotin/PHO36 and osmotin/ADIPOR1. We have then shown the structural determinants of these interactions and their physico-chemical features and analyzed the related interaction residues involved in the formation of the complexes. The stability of the modelled structures and their complexes was always evaluated and controlled by molecular dynamics. On the basis of these results a 9 residues osmotin peptide was selected and its interaction with ADIPOR1 and PHO36 was modelled and analysed in term of energetic stability by molecular dynamics. To confirm in vivo the molecular modelling data, osmotin has been purified from nicotiana tabacum seeds and its nine residues peptide synthesized. We have used cultured human synovial fibroblasts that respond to adiponectin by increasing the expression of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta via ADIPOR1. The biological effect on fibroblasts of osmotin and its peptide derivative has been found similar to that of adiponectin confirming the results found in silico. PMID:21311758

Colonna, Giovanni

2011-01-01

322

Opposite effects of 17-? estradiol and testosterone on mitochondrial biogenesis and adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism has been found in both mitochondrial functionality and adiponectin expression in white adipose tissue, with female rats presenting more functional mitochondria than males and greater adiponectin expression. However, little is known about the role of sex hormones in this dimorphism. The aim was to elucidate the role of sex hormones in mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and in adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes, and also to provide new evidence of the link between these processes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated and treated either with 17-? estradiol (E?; 10? nM), progesterone (Pg), testosterone (1? ?M both), or a combination of Pg or testosterone with flutamide (FLT; 10? ?M) or E? (1? ?M). The markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and adiponectin expression were analyzed. E? induced mitochondrial proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1, although testosterone showed opposite effects. Pg treatment stimulated proliferation but impaired differentiation. In concerns mitochondrial dynamics, these hormones promoted fusion over fission. FLT treatment indicated that Pg elicits its effects on mitochondrial dynamics through the androgen receptor. E? coadministration with testosterone or Pg reversed its effects. In conclusion, our results show that E? induces stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipocytes in vitro, especially in situations that imply an impairment of mitochondrial function, whereas testosterone would have opposite effects. Moreover, testosterone and Pg alter mitochondrial dynamics by promoting fusion over fission, while E? stimulates both processes. All these alterations run in parallel with changes in adiponectin expression, thus suggesting the existence of a link between mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes. PMID:24604890

Capllonch-Amer, Gabriela; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M; Garcķa-Palmer, Francisco J; Gianotti, Magdalena

2014-04-01

323

Nucleotide sequence of a gene from chromosome 1D of wheat encoding a HMW-glutenin subunit.  

PubMed

A high molecular weight glutenin gene in hexaploid wheat has been isolated by cloning in bacteriophage lambda and characterized. The gene corresponds to polypeptide 12 encoded by chromosome 1D in the variety "Chinese Spring". The coding sequence predicted contains seven cysteine residues six of which flank a central repetitive region comprising more than 70% of the polypeptide. These findings are related to the role of high molecular weight subunits in the viscoelastic theory of gluten structure. PMID:3840588

Thompson, R D; Bartels, D; Harberd, N P

1985-10-11

324

Adiponectin may play a part in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To measure plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes and to investigate any association with the severity of diabetic retinopathy, because adiponectin seems to be an important modulator for metabolic and vascular diseases. Methods: Seventy-four patients (mean age 46.8^5.1 years; body mass index (BMI), 26.8^2.10kg\\/m2) and 54 healthy volunteers (mean age 46.8^5.4 years; BMI 26.47^2.33kg\\/m2) were included.

Mahmut Ilker Yilmaz; Alper Sonmez; Cengizhan Acikel; Turgay Celik; Necati Bingol; Murat Pinar; Zeki Bayraktar; Metin Ozata

2004-01-01

325

Adiponectin levels do not predict clinical onset of type 1 diabetes in antibody-positive relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/Hypothesis  Insulin resistance has been proposed as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether adiponectin, an insulin\\u000a sensitiser, can serve as an additional predictive marker for type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of known patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adiponectin was followed in 211 persistently islet antibody-positive (Ab+) first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients\\u000a and in 211 age- and sex-matched persistently

I. Truyen; J. De Grijse; C. Van Schravendijk; D. De Smet; K. Decochez; E. Vandemeulebroucke; M. Giri; B. Keymeulen; C. Mathieu; L. Van Gaal; P. De Pauw; I. Weets; D. G. Pipeleers; F. K. Gorus

2007-01-01

326

Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

2010-05-12

327

The Adipokine Profile of Metabolically Benign Obese and At-Risk Normal Weight Postmenopausal Women: The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Nearly a third of obese individuals, termed metabolically benign obese, have a low burden of adiposity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities, while a substantial proportion of normal weight individuals possess risk factors. In cross-sectional analyses of 699 normal weight and 1294 overweight/obese postmenopausal women enrolled in a nested case-control stroke study ancillary to the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, we compared levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin among metabolically benign normal weight, at-risk normal weight, metabolically benign obese, and at-risk obese women using components of the ATP III definition of the metabolic syndrome (metabolically benign: ?1 of the 4 components; at-risk phenotype: ?2 components or diabetes). Overall, 382/699 normal weight women (54.6%) and 328/1194 overweight/obese women (27.5%) were metabolically benign. Among normal weight women, at-risk women had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to metabolically benign women; multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were significant for having leptin (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.28–5.01) and resistin (1.46; 1.03–2.07) in the top tertile and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.64; 1.81–3.84). Compared to metabolically benign overweight/obese women, at-risk obese women had higher odds of having leptin in the top tertile (1.62; 1.24–2.12) and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.78; 2.04–3.77). Overall, metabolically benign overweight/obese women had an intermediate adipokine profile (between at-risk obese and metabolically benign normal weight women), while at-risk normal weight women had a less favorable profile compared to metabolically benign normal weight women. As adiponectin was the only adipokine independent of BMI, it may be most likely to have a role in the etiological pathway of these phenotypes. PMID:24357553

Khan, Unab I.; Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Xu, Linzhi; Wang, Dan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Allison, Matthew A.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wildman, Rachel P.

2012-01-01

328

Gene expression levels of Casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms are correlated to adiponectin levels in adipose tissue of morbid obese patients and site-specific phosphorylation mediated by CK1 influences multimerization of adiponectin.  

PubMed

White adipose tissue has now been recognized as an important endocrine organ secreting bioactive molecules termed adipocytokines. In obesity, anti-inflammatory adipocytokines like adiponectin are decreased while pro-inflammatory factors are over-produced. These changes contribute to the development of insulin resistance and obesity-associated diseases. Since members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family are involved in the regulation of various signaling pathways we ask here whether they are able to modulate the functions of adiponectin. We show that CK1? and ? are expressed in adipose tissue and that the expression of CK1 isoforms correlates with that of adiponectin. Furthermore, adiponectin co-immunoprecipitates with CK1? and CK1? and is phosphorylated by CK1? at serine 174 and threonine 235, thereby influencing the formation of adiponectin oligomeric complexes. Furthermore, inhibition of CK1? in human adipocytes by IC261 leads to an increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, our data indicate that site-specific phosphorylation of adiponectin, especially at sites targeted by CK1? in vitro, provides an additional regulatory mechanism for modulating adiponectin complex formation and function. PMID:25724478

Xu, Pengfei; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Bischof, Joachim; Radermacher, Peter; Wabitsch, Martin; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Wolf, Anna-Maria; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Knippschild, Uwe

2015-05-01

329

Orally active osteoanabolic agent GTDF binds to adiponectin receptors, with a preference for AdipoR1, induces adiponectin-associated signaling, and improves metabolic health in a rodent model of diabetes.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that signals through plasma membrane-bound adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and -2). Plasma adiponectin depletion is associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin therapy, however, is yet unavailable owing to its large size, complex multimerization, and functional differences of the multimers. We report discovery and characterization of 6-C-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3S)-(+)-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol (GTDF) as an orally active adiponectin mimetic. GTDF interacted with both AdipoRs, with a preference for AdipoR1. It induced adiponectin-associated signaling and enhanced glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro, which were augmented or abolished by AdipoR1 overexpression or silencing, respectively. GTDF improved metabolic health, characterized by elevated glucose clearance, ?-cell survival, reduced steatohepatitis, browning of white adipose tissue, and improved lipid profile in an AdipoR1-expressing but not an AdipoR1-depleted strain of diabetic mice. The discovery of GTDF as an adiponectin mimetic provides a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:24848063

Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Joharapurkar, Amit Arvind; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Mishra, Jay Sharan; Singh, Nidhi; Yadav, Manisha; Hossain, Zakir; Khan, Kainat; Kumar, Sudhir; Dhanesha, Nirav Anilkumar; Mishra, Devendra Pratap; Maurya, Rakesh; Sharma, Sharad; Jain, Mukul Rameshchandra; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Gayen, Jiaur Rahaman; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sanyal, Sabyasachi

2014-10-01

330

Adiponectin upregulates ABCA1 expression through liver X receptor alpha signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and anti-atherosclerosis. Liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) can stimulate cholesterol efflux through ABCA1. It has been well known that adiponectin has cardiovascular protection. In this study, we attempted to clarify the effect of adiponectin on expression of ABCA1, and explored the role of LXR? in the regulation of ABCA1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results showed that adiponectin increased ABCA1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Consequently, adiponectin promoted cholesterol efflux and decreased cholesterol content in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, adiponectin up-regulated the expression of LXR? in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LXR? small interfering RNA completely abolished the promotion effects of adiponectin. In summary, adiponectin up-regulates ABCA1 expression via the LXR? pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This novel insight could prove useful for developing new treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25755733

Liang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhiming; Bai, Rui; Liu, Ming; Xiao, Chuanshi; Bian, Yunfei

2015-01-01

331

Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about factors that regulate its secretion. To examine the effect of fish oil on adiponectin secretion, mice were fed either a control diet or isocaloric diets containing 27% safflower oil or 27, 13.5, and 8% menhaden fish oil. Within 15 days, fish oil feeding raised plasma adiponectin concentrations two- to threefold in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations remained approximately twofold higher for 7 days when the fish oil diet was replaced by the safflower oil diet. Within 24 h, fish oil markedly induced transcription of the adiponectin gene in epididymal adipose tissue but not in subcutaneous fat. The increase of plasma adiponectin by fish oil was completely blocked by administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma inhibitor bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether. In contrast, there was no effect of fish oil feeding on adiponectin secretion in PPARalpha-null mice. These data suggest that fish oil is a naturally occurring potent regulator of adiponectin secretion in vivo and that it does so through a PPARgamma-dependent and PPARalpha-independent manner in epididymal fat. PMID:16567512

Neschen, Susanne; Morino, Katsutaro; Rossbacher, Jörg C; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Cline, Gary W; Sono, Saki; Gillum, Matthew; Shulman, Gerald I

2006-04-01

332

High adiponectin levels fail to protect against the risk of hypertension and, in women, against coronary disease: involvement in autoimmunity?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether serum adiponectin protects against cardiometabolic risk in a population sample with prevailing metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Middle-aged adults representative of a general population with baseline circulating adiponectin measurements (n = 1224) were analyzed prospectively at a mean of 3.8 years’ follow-up, using continuous values or sex-specific tertiles. Total adiponectin was assayed by an ELISA kit. Type-2 diabetes was identified by criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ? 140 mmHg and/or ? 90 mmHg and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Outcomes were predicted using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis in models that were controlled for potential confounders. RESULTS: In models of multiple linear regression, sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting insulin (inverse) and, in men, age were significant independent covariates of serum adiponectin which further tended in women to be positively associated with serum creatinine. Cox regression analyses for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusted for sex, age, non-HDL cholesterol, waist circumference and C-reactive protein, revealed significant inverse association with adiponectin tertiles in men but not women (HR = 0.66; 95%CI: 0.32-1.38 for highest tertile). Cox regression for type-2 diabetes in a similar model (wherein glucose replaced non-HDL cholesterol), adiponectin tertiles appeared to protect in each gender. HR for incident hypertension roughly displayed unity in each of the adiponectin tertiles (P-trend = 0.67). CONCLUSION: High adiponectin levels failed to protect against the development of hypertension and, in women, against CHD, presumably paralleling impairment in renal function as well. Involvement of adiponectin in autoimmune complex with loss of antioxidative-antiatherogenic properties may be underlying. PMID:24147206

Onat, Altan; Ayd?n, Mesut; Can, Günay; Köro?lu, Bayram; Karagöz, Ahmet; Altay, Servet

2013-01-01

333

TYPES AND RATES OF SEQUENCE EVOLUTION AT HMW-GLUTENIN LOCUS IN HEXAPLOID WHEAT AND ITS ANCESTRAL GENOMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Glu-1 locus, encoding the High Molecular Weight-glutenin protein subunits, controls bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and represents a recently evolved region unique to Triticeae genomes. To understand the molecular evolution of this locus region, three orthologous Glu...

334

Adiponectin stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha in renal glomeruli.  

PubMed

Adiponectin receptor ADIPOR1 activates the intracellular second messenger AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that participates in the control of the oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study reveals the presence of a functional ADIPOR1 receptor in all the cells of the renal glomeruli. Isolated glomeruli were incubated in vitro with adiponectin and proteins analysed by western blot. Electron microscopy using immunogold labeling was carried out on kidney sections. ADIPOR1 and catalytic AMPK sub-units alpha1 and alpha2 were revealed in normal rat glomeruli and incubation of freshly isolated rat glomeruli with either adiponectin or AICAR led to the activation by phosphorylation of catalytic AMPK. Electron microscopy localized with high resolution these proteins at the plasma membrane of the three glomerular cells, namely the endothelial, the mesangial and the podocyte cells, as well as on Bowman's capsule epithelial cells. It is concluded that glomerular cells express a functional adiponectin receptor ADIPOR1 which, through activation of AMPK, may play important roles in the control of oxidative stress and cell survival within the glomerulus. PMID:18941912

Cammisotto, Philippe G; Bendayan, Moļse

2008-12-01

335

New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined “adipocytokines,” protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs (“adiponectin system”), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:25110685

Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Palmieri, Alessia; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Costagliola, Ciro; Bianco, Andrea; Daniele, Aurora

2014-01-01

336

Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodrķguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

2014-01-01

337

The Balance between Leptin and Adiponectin in the Control of Carcinogenesis- Focus on Mammary Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

A number of studies indicate that a growing list of cancers may be influenced by obesity. In obese individuals these cancers can be more frequent and more aggressive resulting in reduced survival. One of the most prominent and well characterized cancers in this regard is breast cancer. Obesity plays a complex role in breast cancer and is associated with increased inflammation, angiogenesis and alterations in serum levels of potential growth factors such as adiponectin, leptin and estrogen in the serum. Reduced levels of serum adiponectin have been reported in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls, particularly in postmenopausal women. The role of serum leptin levels in breast cancer appears to be more complex. Some studies have shown leptin to be increased in women with breast cancer but other studies have found leptin to be decreased or unchanged. This may be due to a number of confounding issues. We and others propose that it may be the levels of adiponectin and leptin as well as the balance of adiponectin and leptin that are the critical factors in breast and other obesity related cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:22728769

Grossmann, Michael E.

2013-01-01

338

Osmotin: a plant sentinel and a possible agonist of mammalian adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Osmotin is a stress responsive antifungal protein belonging to the pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 family that confers tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Protective efforts of osmotin in plants range from high temperature to cold and salt to drought. It lyses the plasma membrane of the pathogens. It is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. It is a differentially expressed and developmentally regulated protein that protects the cells from osmotic stress and invading pathogens as well, by structural or metabolic alterations. During stress conditions, osmotin helps in the accumulation of the osmolyte proline, which quenches reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Osmotin expression results in the accumulation of storage reserves and increases the shelf-life of fruits. It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. Adiponectin, produced in adipose tissues of mammals, is an insulin-sensitizing hormone. Strangely, osmotin acts like the mammalian hormone adiponectin in various in vitro and in vivo models. Adiponectin and osmotin, the two receptor binding proteins do not share sequence similarity at the amino acid level, but interestingly they have a similar structural and functional properties. In experimental mice, adiponectin inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration, primary tumor growth, and reduces atherosclerosis. This retrospective work examines the vital role of osmotin in plant defense and as a potential targeted therapeutic drug for humans. PMID:25852715

Anil Kumar, S.; Hima Kumari, P.; Shravan Kumar, G.; Mohanalatha, C.; Kavi Kishor, P. B.

2015-01-01

339

Relation of Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Level to Serum C-Reactive Protein: The INTERLIPID Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. Despite considerable study, the relevance of leptin and adiponectin for atherosclerosis development is still unsettled. We investigated relations of serum leptin and adiponectin to serum C-reactive protein (CRP), using the INTERLIPID dataset on Japanese emigrants living in Hawaii and Japanese in Japan. Design and Methods. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and CRP were measured by standardized methods in men and women of ages 40 to 59 years from two population samples, one Japanese-American in Hawaii (83 men, 89 women) and the other Japanese in central Japan (111 men, 104 women). Participants with CRP >10?mg/L were excluded. Results. Sex-specific multiple linear regression analyses, with log-transformed leptin and adiponectin (log-leptin, log-adipo), site (Hawaii = 1, Japan = 0), SBP, HbA1c, smoking (cigarettes/day), and physical activity index score of the Framingham Offspring Study as covariates, showed that log-leptin directly related and log-adipo inversely related to log-CRP for both sexes (Ps < 0.05 to <0.01). Addition to the model of BMI and interaction terms (BMI × log-leptin, BMI × log-adipo, SITE × log-leptin, SITE × log-adipo) resulted in disappearance of statistical significance except for direct relation of log-leptin to log-CRP in men (P = 0.006). Conclusions. Leptin directly related to CRP independent of BMI and other confounding factors in men but not in women. PMID:24371525

Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kita, Yoshikuni; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Choudhury, Sohel R.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Masaki, Kamal H.; Stamler, Jeremiah

2013-01-01

340

Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: The Look AHEAD Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. ...

341

Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity  

E-print Network

Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity Bulent in the circula- tion, with important effects on metabolism. We studied five lean and five obese young men [ages: 24.2 1.0 (lean) and 21.8 1.6 (obese) years (difference not significant); body mass indexes: 35.0 1

Suchard, Marc A.

342

Adiponectin is a candidate marker of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the use of several biomarkers to identify obese children and adolescents with increased metabolic risk. One hundred sixty-two Caucasian obese children and adolescents (41% males, 9–18 years old) referred to the Istituto Auxologico Italiano between 2003 and 2004 underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Circulating levels of adiponectin (AD), plasminogen activator inhibitor

Luisa Gilardini; Philip G. McTernan; Andrea Girola; Nancy F. da Silva; Luisella Alberti; Sudhesh Kumar; Cecilia Invitti

2006-01-01

343

The Role of Adiponectin in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Published results suggests that high adiponectin level may decrease the risk of breast cancer. However, available evidence on breast cancer is conflicting. Therefore a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between blood adiponectin and breast cancer risk. PubMed database, Web of Science, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and bibliographies of retrieved articles were searched for epidemiological studies published up to March 2013. Meta-analysis was performed on the combined effect values (OR) as well as standardized mean difference (SMD) including 17 studies. Fixed or random effect pooled measure was selected on the basis of homogeneity test among studies. The publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s regression asymmetry test and Begg’s rank correlation test with Begg’s funnel plot. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. A total of 13 studies involving 3578 breast cancer cases and 4363 controls contributed to the OR analysis. The high adiponectin level did not significantly affect breast cancer risk (OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.773–1.053). After excluding articles that were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity, the OR of high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR=0.838, 95% CI=0.744–0.943). There was a significantly association between high adiponectin level and postmenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.752, 95%CI=0.604-0.936); and it was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer women (OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.638-1.256). The result of pooled measure on SMD was that the high adiponectin level was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (SMD= -0.348, 95% CI= -0.533--0.614) after excluding articles which were the key contributors to between-study heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that high adiponectin level might decrease the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. More randomized clinical trials and observational studies are needed to confirm this association with underlying biological mechanisms in the future. PMID:23991180

Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Meng; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, De-Zong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhi-Gang

2013-01-01

344

Adiponectin modulates oxidative stress-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Diastolic heart failure (HF) i.e., "HF with preserved ejection fraction" (HF-preserved EF) accounts for up to 50% of all HF presentations; however there have been no therapeutic advances. This stems in part from an incomplete understanding about HF-preserved EF. Hypertension is the major cause of HF-preserved EF whilst HF-preserved EF is also highly associated with obesity. Similarly, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., oxidative stress occurs in hypertension and obesity, sensitizing the heart to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inducing autophagic type-II programmed cell death and accelerating the propensity to adverse cardiac remodeling, diastolic dysfunction and HF. Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine, mediates cardioprotective actions but it is unknown if APN modulates cardiomyocyte autophagy. We tested the hypothesis that APN ameliorates oxidative stress-induced autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were pretreated with recombinant APN (30 µg/mL) followed by 1mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. Wild type (WT) and APN-deficient (APN-KO) mice were infused with angiotensin (Ang)-II (3.2 mg/kg/d) for 14 days to induced oxidative stress. Autophagy-related proteins, mTOR, AMPK and ERK expression were measured. H2O2 induced LC3I to LC3II conversion by a factor of 3.4±1.0 which was abrogated by pre-treatment with APN by 44.5±10%. However, neither H2O2 nor APN affected ATG5, ATG7, or Beclin-1 expression. H2O2 increased phospho-AMPK by 49±6.0%, whilst pretreatment with APN decreased phospho-AMPK by 26±4%. H2O2 decreased phospho-mTOR by 36±13%, which was restored by APN. ERK inhibition demonstrated that the ERK-mTOR pathway is involved in H2O2-induced autophagy. Chronic Ang-II infusion significantly increased myocardial LC3II/I protein expression ratio in APN-KO vs. WT mice. These data suggest that excessive ROS caused cardiomyocyte autophagy which was ameliorated by APN by inhibiting an H2O2-induced AMPK/mTOR/ERK-dependent mechanism. These findings demonstrate the anti-oxidant potential of APN in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension-induced HF-preserved EF. PMID:23894332

Essick, Eric E; Wilson, Richard M; Pimentel, David R; Shimano, Masayuki; Baid, Simoni; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Sam, Flora

2013-01-01

345

PPAR?-Independent Increase in Glucose Uptake and Adiponectin Abundance in Fat Cells  

PubMed Central

Although thiazolidinediones (TZD) effectively improve hyperglycemia and increase adiponectin, a proinsulin-sensitizing adipokine, they also increase adipogenesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? induction, which may be undesirable. Recent safety concerns about some TZD have prompted the search for next generation agents that can enhance glycemic control and adiponectin independent of PPAR? or adipogenesis. Reminiscent of TZD action, a human adenovirus, adenovirus 36 (Ad36), up-regulates PPAR?, induces adipogenesis, and improves systemic glycemic control in vivo. We determined whether this effect of Ad36 requires PPAR? and/or adipogenesis. Glucose uptake and relevant cell signaling were determined in mock-infected or human adenoviruses Ad36 or Ad2-infected cell types under the following conditions: 1) undifferentiated human-adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (hASC), 2) hASC differentiated as adipocytes, 3) hASC in presence or absence of a PPAR? inhibitor, 4) NIH/3T3 that have impaired PPAR? expression, and 5) PPAR?-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with intact PPAR? served as a positive control. Additionally, to determine natural Ad36 infection, human sera were screened for Ad36 antibodies. In undifferentiated or differentiated hASC, or despite the inhibition, down-regulation, or the absence of PPAR?, Ad36 significantly enhanced glucose uptake and PPAR?, adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and glucose transporter 1 protein abundance, compared with mock or Ad2-infected cells. This indicated that Ad36 up-regulates glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion independent of adipogenesis or without recruiting PPAR?. In humans, natural Ad36 infection predicted greater adiponectin levels, suggesting a human relevance of these effects. In conclusion, Ad36 provides a novel template to metabolically remodel human adipose tissue to enhance glycemic control without the concomitant increase in adiposity or PPAR? induction associated with TZD actions. PMID:21791563

Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Kirk-Ballard, Heather; Gupta, Alok K.; Hegde, Vijay; Floyd, Elizabeth; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

346

Epistatic interaction between adiponectin and survivin gene polymorphisms in endometrial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adiponectin appears to play an important role in the development and progression of several obesity-related malignancies. Also, overexpression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is associated with increased risk of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We also investigated whether epistasis between surviving and adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with EC risk in an Iranian population. The samples comprised formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections obtained from the archive of the pathology department, Imam-Khomeini Hospital and Firouzgar hospital. After DNA extraction the genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin (rs1063539, rs2241766) and survivin (rs9904341) gene were evaluated in the study. The increased frequency of ADIPOQ rs1063539C allele (CC+CG genotype) was associated with decreased EC risk [OR: 0.39(0.17-0.90)]. Survivin rs9904341C allele (CC+CG genotype) was associated with increased EC risk [crude OR: 2.75(1.27-5.95), adjusted OR: 2.93(1.27-6.76)]. We observed an epistatic interaction between survivin rs9904341 CC+CG genotype and ADIPOQ rs1063539 GG genotype increasing the risk of EC compared to those with other genotypes [OR: 4.86(1.88-12.54), P=0.001]. Our findings indicate that adiponectin might have a modulatory effect on survivin role and function in EC, which requires further investigation. PMID:25613698

Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Shahrabi-Farahani, Maryam; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammadreza; Amiri, Parvin; Fereidooni, Forozande; Larijani, Bagher; Shafiee, Gita; Amoli, Mahsa M

2015-04-01

347

Association of Adiponectin rs1501299 and rs266729 Gene Polymorphisms With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Adiponectin is a white and brown adipose tissue hormone, and have been found to play essential roles in the regulation of energy homoeostasis. Recent reports have identified a possible role of adiponectin in NAFLD via PPAR? pathway. Objectives The present study was designed to find out the impact of adiponectin rs1501299 (276G/T) and rs266729 (-11377C/G) gene polymorphisms in NAFLD. Patients and Methods Eighty-three patients with diagnosis of NAFLD, and 93 healthy subjects were included in the study. Tetra ARMS-PCR was designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results A significant difference was found between NAFLD and control group regarding the rs266729 polymorphism (?2 = 7.35, P = 0.025). The rs266729 polymorphism increased the risk of NAFLD in codominant (CC vs. CG: OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.16 - 4.12, P = 0.016) and dominant (CC vs. CG/GG: OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.27; P = 0.008) inheritance tested models. The G allele increased the risk of NAFLD (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.57, P = 0.037) in comparison with C allele. No significant difference was found between the groups concerning adiponectin rs1501299 gene polymorphism (?2 = 0.70, P = 0.697). Conclusions adiponectin rs266729 polymorphism might be a candidate gene, which determines the susceptibility to NAFLD. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings in various populations. PMID:23922565

Hashemi, Mohammad; Hanafi Bojd, Hamideh; Eskandari Nasab, Ebrahim; Bahari, Ali; Hashemzehi, Noor Allah; Shafieipour, Sara; Narouie, Behzad; Taheri, Mohsen; Ghavami, Saeid

2013-01-01

348

Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

349

Angiopoietin-like protein 2 sensitively responds to weight reduction induced by lifestyle intervention on overweight Japanese men  

PubMed Central

Objective: Overexpression of Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) in obese adipose tissues promotes adipose tissue inflammation and its-related metabolic abnormalities. In a comparative study with adiponectin, we investigated whether alterations in serum Angptl2 concentrations reflect the effect of lifestyle intervention on weight loss and improved metabolic parameters in overweight subjects. Methods: A total of 154 Japanese men (age, 40.9±5.1 years; body mass index, 26.9±3.6?kg?m?2; abdominal circumference, 94.1±8.9?cm) underwent a 3-month lifestyle intervention and underwent follow-up for 3 months thereafter. Results: Decreased serum Angptl2 levels, but not increased serum adiponectin levels, were immediately apparent at the end of 3-month lifestyle intervention. Angptl2 levels continued to decrease for 3 months in parallel with body weight loss and improvement in metabolic indicators. In subjects showing ?6% weight reduction, markedly reduced Angptl2 levels were detected at the end of 3-month intervention, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected 3 months after the end of intervention. Multivariate analysis revealed changes in serum Angptl2 levels associated with changes in triglycerides (TGs), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, changes in serum adiponectin levels were associated with altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting plasma glucose levels. Conclusion: A 3-month lifestyle intervention promoted weight reduction and improved glucose and lipid metabolism, an effect maintained 3 months later. Notably, our findings indicate that decreased Angptl2 levels are a good indicator of reduced visceral fat and metabolic improvement at early stages of lifestyle intervention. Thus, Angptl2 reflects adiposity and might be a key protein to regulate inflammation and TG metabolism, whereas adiponectin levels could reflect improved glucose and HDL-C metabolism. PMID:23154406

Muramoto, A; Tsushita, K; Kato, A; Ozaki, N; Tabata, M; Endo, M; Oike, Y; Oiso, Y

2011-01-01

350

Weight set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None; )

2005-12-11

351

Wire Weight  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

352

Adiponectin stimulates autophagy and reduces oxidative stress to enhance insulin sensitivity during high-fat diet feeding in mice.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have characterized the antidiabetic effects of adiponectin, yet the precise cellular mechanisms in skeletal muscle, in particular, changes in autophagy, require further clarification. In the current study, we used a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type (WT) or adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) mice with and without adiponectin replenishment. Temporal analysis of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle insulin receptor substrate and Akt phosphorylation demonstrated exaggerated and more rapid HFD-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of Ad-KO mice. Superoxide dismutase activity, the reduced glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide ratio, and lipid peroxidation indicated that HFD-induced oxidative stress was corrected by adiponectin. Gene array analysis implicated several antioxidant enzymes, including Gpxs, Prdx, Sod, and Nox4, in mediating this effect. Adiponectin also attenuated palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species production in cultured myotubes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary muscle cells. Increased LC3-II and decreased p62 expression suggested that HFD induced autophagy in muscle of WT mice; however, these changes were not observed in Ad-KO mice. Replenishing adiponectin in Ad-KO mice increased LC3-II and Beclin1 and decreased p62 protein levels, induced fibroblast growth factor-21 expression, and corrected HFD-induced decreases in LC3, Beclin1, and ULK1 gene expression. In vitro studies examining changes in phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), LC3-II, and lysosomal enzyme activity confirmed that adiponectin directly induced autophagic flux in cultured muscle cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. We overexpressed an inactive mutant of Atg5 to create an autophagy-deficient cell model, and together with pharmacological inhibition of autophagy, demonstrated reduced insulin sensitivity under these conditions. In summary, adiponectin stimulated skeletal muscle autophagy and antioxidant potential to reduce insulin resistance caused by HFD. PMID:25071026

Liu, Ying; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Rai, Esther; Park, Min; Gabor, Tim V; Scheid, Michael P; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

2015-01-01

353

Globular adiponectin inhibits ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through heme oxygenase-1 induction.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular apoptosis is an essential pathological feature of alcoholic liver disease. Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, has been shown to play beneficial roles in alcoholic liver disease against various inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules. However, the effects of adiponectin on ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) in the prevention of ethanol-induced apoptosis and further tried to decipher the potential mechanisms involved. In the present study, we demonstrated that gAcrp significantly inhibits both ethanol-induced increase in Fas ligand expression and activation of caspase-3 in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells), suggesting that gAcrp plays a protective role against ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells. This protective effect of gAcrp was mediated through adiponectin receptor R1 (adipoR1). Further, globular adiponectin treatment caused induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through, at least in part, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, (Nrf2) signaling. Treatment with SnPP, a pharmacological inhibitor of HO-1, and knockdown of HO-1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) restored caspase-3 activity suppressed by gAcrp, indicating a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role of gAcrp in ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells. In addition, carbon monoxide, a byproduct obtained from the catabolism of free heme was found to contribute to the anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that globular adiponectin prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via HO-1 induction and revealed a novel biological response of globular adiponectin in the protection of liver injury from alcohol consumption. PMID:22842631

Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Subedi, Amit; Lee, Eung-Seok; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kang, WonKu; Kwak, Mi-Kyung; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Park, Pil-Hoon

2012-10-01

354

Troglitazone and ?2Troglitazone Enhance Adiponectin Expression in Monocytes/Macrophages through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (?2troglitazone, (?2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-dependent pathway whereas ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPAR?-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and ?2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and ?2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-?-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and ?2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and ?2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis. PMID:25328285

Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chen, Ching-Yu

2014-01-01

355

Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.  

PubMed

Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported. PMID:24240086

Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maļmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

2014-01-01

356

ERp46 binds to AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, and modulates adiponectin signalling  

SciTech Connect

The pleiotropic effects of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin are mediated, at least in part, by two seven-transmembrane domain receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Recent reports indicate a role for AdipoR-binding proteins, namely APPL1, RACK1 and CK2{beta}, in proximal signal transduction events. Here we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum protein 46 (ERp46) interacts specifically with AdipoR1 and provide evidence that ERp46 modulates adiponectin signalling. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry identified ERp46 as an AdipoR1-, but not AdipoR2-, interacting protein. Analysis of truncated constructs and GST-fusion proteins revealed the interaction was mediated by the cytoplasmic, N-terminal residues (1-70) of AdipoR1. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that ERp46 was present in the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Transient knockdown of ERp46 increased the levels of AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, at the PM and this correlated with increased adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK. In contrast, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced following ERp46 knockdown. Collectively these results establish ERp46 as the first AdipoR1-specific interacting protein and suggest a role for ERp46 in adiponectin receptor biology and adiponectin signalling.

Charlton, Hayley K.; Webster, Julie; Kruger, Sarah; Simpson, Fiona; Richards, Ayanthi A. [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)] [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia); Whitehead, Jonathan P., E-mail: j.whitehead1@uq.edu.au [Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4102 (Australia)

2010-02-05

357

Stellar Rotation and Variability in IC 348 and Indication of a 4.75 Year Period for the Unique, Apparently Eclipsing Pre-Main Sequence Star HMW 15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two years of a seven-year photometric variability study of the young stellar cluster IC 348, numerous periodically variable T Tauri stars were discovered, bringing the total number of identified periodic variables in IC 348 to 69, or about 45 % of all cluster stars observed by us. This includes data from Herbst, Maley & Williams (2000, AJ 120, 394), Cohen, Herbst & Williams (2004, AJ 127, 1602) and Littlefair et al. (2005 MNRAS 358, 341). In addition to these photometric data, spectra of 30 cluster members were obtained with the WIYN 3.5m telescope and used to calculate radial velocities and v sin i rotation measurements, offering a generally complementary view of stellar rotation in IC 348. A mean heliocentric radial velocity for the cluster has been determined, and two radial velocity outliers discovered, which are possible spectroscopic binaries. The distribution of rotation periods, their relationship to v sin i measurements and the implications of these results for the rotation and radii of pre-main sequence stars in IC 348 will be presented. In addition, we discuss the recent behavior of the peculiar variable HMW 15 (Cohen, Herbst & Williams 2003 ApJ 596, L243), which now appears to be undergoing a periodic eclipse on a time scale of 4.75 years. We discuss possible origins for this extraordinarily long periodicity. S. Nordhagen was an undergraduate summer student at Wesleyan University, sponsored by the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. Their REU program is supported by NSF grant AST-0353997.

Nordhagen, S. C. J.; Rhode, K. L.; Herbst, W.; Williams, E. C.

2005-12-01

358

Genetic Variation in the Gene Encoding Adiponectin Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Japanese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adipocyte-derived peptide, adiponectin (also known as GBP28), is decreased in subjects with type 2 diabe- tes. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a diabetes susceptibility locus to chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene (APM1) is located. Herein, we present evidence of an association between frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 45 and 276 in the adiponectin gene and type 2

Kazuo Hara; Philippe Boutin; Yasumichi Mori; Kazuyuki Tobe; Christian Dina; Kazuki Yasuda; Toshimasa Yamauchi; Shuichi Otabe; Terumasa Okada; Kazuhiro Eto; Hiroko Kadowaki; Ryoko Hagura; Yasuo Akanuma; Yoshio Yazaki; Ryozo Nagai; Matsuo Taniyama; Koichi Matsubara; Madoka Yoda; Yasuko Nakano; Satoshi Kimura; Motowo Tomita; Chikako Ito; Philippe Froguel; Takashi Kadowaki

2002-01-01

359

Polymerization of Kraft lignin via ultrasonication for high-molecular-weight applications.  

PubMed

Kraft lignin is an inexpensive and abundant byproduct of pulp mills that can be used in the synthesis of adhesives and carbon fibers along with energy production. Some of these material applications favor the utilization of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin. This study investigates the use of ultrasonics as a means to increase the degree of polymerization (DP) of highly purified Kraft lignin. Treated samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After 15 min of sustained cavitation, ultrasonicated lignin generated a high molecular-weight fraction (~35%) that had a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) over 450-fold greater than the initial Kraft lignin sample. (13)C-NMR and (31)P-NMR analysis indicated that the highly-polymerized fraction was enriched with C5 condensed phenolic structures. PMID:23714331

Wells, Tyrone; Kosa, Matyas; Ragauskas, Arthur J

2013-11-01

360

Suppression of mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by adiponectin in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Renal growth, particularly hypertrophy, is a feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is an important regulator of cell proliferation. Recent studies have suggested that adiponectin has a protective effect in the kidney. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanisms of adiponectin in early DN. Mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were cultured in media containing different concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) with or without adiponectin. MMC proliferation and expression of type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin were investigated. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were injected intravenously with recombinant lentivirus encoding the mouse adiponectin gene (Lenti-Acdc-IRES-EGFP). Urinary microalbumin, serum adiponectin level, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin were determined. Adiponectin inhibited the increases in MMC proliferation and expression of type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin induced by PDGF-BB. Adiponectin also effectively reduced renal cell proliferation and expression of type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin when it was introduced in vivo by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer. These findings suggest that adiponectin exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting renal cell proliferation and reducing synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, thus suppressing the development and progression of DN. PMID:24816832

Huang, X; Su, Y-X; Deng, H-C; Zhang, M-X; Long, J; Peng, Z-G

2014-09-01

361

Six new chalcones from Angelica keiskei inducing adiponectin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba in Japanese), a traditional herb in Japan, contains abundant prenylated chalcones. It has been reported that the chalcones from A. keiskei showed such bioactivities as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects. Xanthoangelol, 4-hydroxyderricin and six new chalcones were isolated in this study from an ethanol extract of A. keiskei by octadecyl silyl (ODS) and silica gel chromatography, and identified by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. The chalcones from A. keiskei markedly increased the expression of the adiponectin gene and the production of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the chalcones from A. keiskei might be useful for preventing the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22738967

Ohnogi, Hiromu; Kudo, Yoko; Tahara, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Enoki, Tatsuji; Hayami, Shoko; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Tanimura, Yuko; Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Kato, Ikunoshin; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2012-01-01

362

Additional Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 on the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: Role of Serum Adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is implicated in diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate whether serum adiponectin levels in patients with both coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) are lower than in patients with CAD alone and control subjects. Objectives: In this present study, we measured serum adiponectin levels in consecutive CAD patients with and without T2DM and investigated whether decreased adiponectin is associated with risk factors of CAD. Materials and Methods: The study included 198 subjects, 138 patients with CAD (72 of whom had both CAD and T2DM), and 60 control subjects. We measured serum adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin by ELISA. In addition, Lipid profile, glucose and anthropometrical measurements were performed in all subjects. Results: The results revealed significant difference in serum adiponectin levels between patients with CAD+T2DM and patients with CAD alone (3.80 ± 1.52 vs. 5.25 ± 2.35, P = 0.007), between patients with CAD and control (5.25 ± 2.35 vs. 7.04 ± 3.32, P = 0.001), and between patients with CAD + T2DM and control (3.80 ± 1.52 vs. 7.04 ± 3.32, P < 0.001). Serum adiponectin level was significantly higher in women in contrast to men (5.97 ± 3.15 vs. 4.62 ± 2.81 µg/ml, P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin levels were correlated significantly with insulin (r = -0.178, P = 0.013), total cholesterol (r = -0.313, P < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (r = -0.154, P = 0.016), body mass index (r = -0.171, P = 0.016), glucose (r = -0.202, P = 0.006), HOMA-IR (r= -0.251, P = 0.001), and IL-6 levels (r = -0.321, P = 0.001). Adiponectin was correlated positively only with high density lipoprotein (r = 0.389, P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is speculated that increased insulin resistance and increase in other adipokines such as IL-6 may contribute to the decreased serum levels of adiponectin in patients with both CAD and T2DM. PMID:24719717

Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali

2014-01-01

363

Common genetic variation in adiponectin, leptin, and leptin receptor and association with breast cancer subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipocytokines are produced by visceral fat, and levels may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether\\u000a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adipocytokine genes adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were associated with basal-like or luminal A breast cancer subtypes. 104 candidate and tag SNPs were genotyped in 1776 of\\u000a 2022 controls and 1972 (200 basal-like,

Sarah J. Nyante; Marilie D. Gammon; Jay S. Kaufman; Jeannette T. Bensen; Dan Yu Lin; Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan; Yijuan Hu; Qianchuan He; Jingchun Luo; Robert C. Millikan

2011-01-01

364

Increased serum adiponectin levels in type 1 diabetic patients with microvascular complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Low serum adiponectin (ADPN) has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetic patients, the relationship between ADPN and the presence of vascular complications is largely unknown.Methods  We investigated the relationship between serum ADPN and the presence of retinopathy, nephropathy and CVD in patients with type 1

J. Frystyk; L. Tarnow; T. Krarup Hansen; H.-H. Parving; A. Flyvbjerg

2005-01-01

365

Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin.  

PubMed

Although obesity is a major background of life style-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the extent of whole body fat accumulation does not necessarily the determinant for the occurrence of these diseases. We developed the method for body fat analysis using CT scan and established the concept of visceral fat obesity, in other word metabolic syndrome in which intra-abdominal visceral fat accumulation has an important role in the development of diabetes, lipid disorder, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In order to clarify the mechanism that visceral fat accumulation causes metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, we have analyzed gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. From the analysis, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue expressed abundantly the genes encoding bioactive substances such as cytokines, growth factors and complements. In addition to known bioactive substances, we found a novel collagen-like protein which we named adiponectin. Adiponectin is present in plasma at a very high concentration and is inversely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherogenic properties and recent studies revealed that this protein has an anti-inflammatory and anti-oncogenic function. Therefore hypoadiponectinemia induced by visceral fat accumulation should become a strong risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and also some kinds of cancers.In this review article, I would like to discuss the mechanism of life style-related diseases by focusing on the dysregulation of adiponectin related to obesity, especially visceral obesity. PMID:20154470

Matsuzawa, Yuji

2010-01-01

366

Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full-length Ad in

T. Yamauchi; J. Kamon; Y. Minokoshi; Y. Ito; H. Waki; S. Uchida; S. Yamashita; M. Noda; S. Kita; K. Ueki; K. Eto; Y. Akanuma; P. Froguel; F. Foufelle; P. Ferre; D. Carling; S. Kimura; R. Nagai; B. B. Kahn; T. Kadowaki

2002-01-01

367

Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Hypoadiponectinemia is an important risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little is known about its role in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma adiponectin levels and MetS in middle-aged and elderly Chinese from both urban and rural areas of northern and southern China.Methods and Procedures:This population-based cross-sectional study included 3,193

Jing Wang; Huaixing Li; Oscar H Franco; Zhijie Yu; Yong Liu; Xu Lin

2008-01-01

368

Adiponectin is associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine insulin resistance, markers of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease (CVD)\\u000a risk, and serum adiponectin concentrations in pre-menopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. This cross-sectional\\u000a study examined 119 pre-menopausal women (76 Hispanic, 45 NHW) for markers of the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), level\\u000a of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), CVD risk factors, and

George A. KingSarah; Sarah E. Deemer; Dixie L. Thompson

369

Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant\\u000a inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms are still\\u000a not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study to clarify the relationship between coffee consumption\\u000a and adiponectin levels in Japanese males. We also

T. Imatoh; S. Tanihara; M. Miyazaki; Y. Momose; Y. Uryu; H. Une

2011-01-01

370

The role of the novel adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin in human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiponectin, also called GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30, is a novel adipose tissue-specific protein that has structural homology to collagen VIII and X and complement factor C1q, and that circulates in human plasma at high levels. It is one of the physiologically active polypeptides secreted by adipose tissue, whose multiple functions have started to be understood in the last few

Juan J Diez; Pedro Iglesias

2003-01-01

371

High serum C1q-binding adiponectin levels in male patients with acute coronary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The complement system is part of the immune system in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in blood, and serum C1q binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We investigated the comparative evaluation of serum C1q-APN levels in males with ACS, stable angina pectoris (SAP) versus controls. Methods The study subjects were 138 Japanese patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. Blood total adiponectin (Total-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into three groups according to the clinical condition: ACS (n?=?78), SAP (n?=?41) or normal coronary (NC, n?=?19) groups. Results Serum C1q levels were significantly higher in the ACS group (54.9±1.2 ?g/mL) than in the NC group (48.0±2.5 ?g/mL). Although serum Total-APN levels were significantly lower in the SAP and ACS groups, compared with the NC group (7.0±0.5, 7.2±0.3, 10.6±2.0 ?g/mL, respectively), serum C1q-APN levels were significantly higher in the ACS group than in the NC and SAP groups (112.1±4.1, 66.3±4.4, 65.7±2.9 units/mL, respectively). Conclusions Patients with ACS had higher serum C1q-APN levels. Trial Registration UMIN000002997 PMID:24400991

2014-01-01

372

Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

2014-11-01

373

Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood–brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

2014-01-01

374

Relationship of Caffeine with Adiponectin and Blood Sugar Levels in Subjects with and without Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Coffee though not usually thought of as healthy food but can be treated as one of the beneficial drink. Many researchers have found strong evidence that coffee reduces the risk of several serious ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, etc. The long term beneficial effect of coffee on diabetes is now understood to be more influential and obliging. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 220 healthy subjects of which 143 consumed coffee and 77 did not. These were matched with 90 diabetic subjects. Among the 90 diabetics, 48 consumed coffee and 42 did not consume coffee. Results: The mean adiponectin value was significantly higher in coffee consumed normal and diabetic subjects than the subjects who did not consume coffee. The decrease in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c values were also observed in normal and diabetic subjects who consumed coffee than the other groups who did not consume coffee. Significant difference (p<0.05) in mean FBG, PPBS, HbA1c and adiponectin were observed between coffee consumed and no coffee consumed groups. Conclusion: The long term use of caffeine is more efficient on blood sugar and adiponectin levels, which needed in the prevention of complications in diabetic subjects. PMID:25737971

Bhaktha, Geetha; Mayya, Shreemathi; Shantaram, Manjula

2015-01-01

375

Adiponectin modulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 through AMPK signaling cascade in rat cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived polypeptide hormone, plays an important role in regulating fatty acid oxidation. beta-oxidation of fatty acids supplies most of the cardiac energy and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 serves as a key regulator during this process. To characterize the potential effects of adiponectin on CPT-1, we incubated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with globular adiponectin (gAd). Results showed that gAd promoted the activity and mRNA expression of CPT-1. The underlying signal pathway involved in this modulatory effect was further investigated. Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with adenine 9-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (AraA) completely abrogated gAd-mediated AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and suppressed the promotion of CPT-1 activity. gAd also induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, which was inhibited by AraA. SB202190, a p38MAPK inhibitor, blocked gAd-stimulated PPAR-alpha phosphorylation. When AMPK and/or p38MAPK was inhibited, gAd-enhanced mRNA expression of CPT-1 was partially reduced. In conclusion, our study suggests that the activation of AMPK signaling cascade participates in the promotion effect of gAd on CPT-1. PMID:17109977

Li, Li; Wu, Liling; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Limei; Zhao, Yali

2007-03-01

376

Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

377

Development, validation, and pilot application of a semiquantitative Western blot analysis and an ELISA for bovine adiponectin.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived glycoprotein circulating as highly abundant multimers. It regulates glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In ruminants, valid data about serum concentrations and tissue-specific protein expression are lacking, and we, therefore, aimed to generate a polyclonal antibody against bovine adiponectin to apply it in immunodetection. The specificity of the purified anti-adiponectin antibody was established by Western blot analysis with the use of reducing and denaturing conditions applied to both the purified protein and the bovine serum samples. Besides bovine serum, the applicability of the antibody for immunodetection of adiponectin was confirmed for the supernatant fluid of in vitro-differentiated bovine adipocytes, for protein extracts from bovine adipose tissue, and also in a multispecies comparison: bands comparable in size with monomeric bovine adiponectin were obtained under denaturing conditions in serum of camel, horse, human, mouse, pig, roe deer, and sheep. In addition, when used in immunohistochemistry on bovine adipose tissue sections, a characteristic adipocyte-specific staining pattern was obtained with this antibody. The antibody was used for establishing a semiquantitative Western blot procedure and the development of an ELISA. Both methods were extensively validated and were first applied to characterize the serum adiponectin concentrations in multiparous dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, that is, 3 wk before until 5 wk after calving. With both assays a time effect (P = 0.017, P = 0.026, respectively) with lowest values at the day of parturition was observed. We thus established 2 useful tools to validly assess bovine adiponectin at the protein level. PMID:23291015

Mielenz, M; Mielenz, B; Singh, S P; Kopp, C; Heinz, J; Häussler, S; Sauerwein, H

2013-04-01

378

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CENTRALLY ADMINISTERED ADIPONECTIN ON APPETITE, METABOLISM AND BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

PubMed Central

Acute studies suggest that adiponectin may reduce sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP) via actions on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the chronic effects of adiponectin on energy expenditure and cardiovascular function are still poorly understood. We tested if chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of adiponectin (1 or 7 µg/day) in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and at the high dose (7 µg/day) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a hypertensive model associated with sympathetic overactivity, evoked chronic reductions in BP and heart rate (HR). We also determined if chronic ICV adiponectin infusion alters appetite, whole body oxygen consumption (VO2), and insulin and leptin levels. Neither dose of adiponectin infused for 7 days significantly altered BP or HR in the HFD group (115±2 to 112±2 mmHg and 384±6 to 379±6 bpm at 1 µg/day; 109±3 to 111±3 mmHg and 366±5 and 367±5 bpm at 7µg/day). The higher dose slightly reduced food intake (14±1 to 11±1 g/day), whereas VO2, insulin and leptin levels were not affected by the treatment. In SHRs, ICV adiponectin infusion reduced appetite (22±2 to 12±2 g/day) and insulin levels (~55%), but did not alter BP (162±4 to 164±3 mmHg) or HR (312±5 to 322±8 bpm). These results suggest that adiponectin, acting via its direct actions on the CNS, has a small effect to reduce appetite and insulin levels, but it has no long-term action to reduce BP or HR, or to alter whole body metabolic rate. PMID:22749987

Bassi, Mirian; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Hall, John E.; da Silva, Alexandre A.

2012-01-01

379

Is there any interaction of resistin and adiponectin levels with protein-energy wasting among patients with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adipocytokines including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on appearance of protein-energy wasting (PEW). One hundred fifty patients with mean age of 45.4?±?15.9 years, without active infections or chronic inflammatory conditions were recruited into the study. Study groups were control group (consisting of 30 healthy volunteers with normal kidney functions), hemodialysis group, predialysis group, peritoneal dialysis group and kidney transplant group. Fasting morning serum leptin, ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin, resistin levels of all of the groups were measured. Anthropometric and nutritional assessments of all patients were obtained. Diagnosis of PEW was made according to definition recommended by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Presence of PEW in hemodialysis (23.3%) and peritoneal dialysis (26.7%) groups were significantly higher than those of predialysis (3.3%), and transplantation (0%) groups. Adiponectin and resistin levels in predialysis, peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients were significantly higher than control group (p: 0.0001). This study had given significant positive correlations between presence of PEW and serum resistin (r: 0.267, p: 0.001), and serum adiponectin levels (r: 0.349, p: 0.0001). There were no relationship between presence of PEW and ghrelin, acylated-ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, and leptin levels of the groups. CKD patients except transplant patients had higher adiponectin and resistin levels than control group. PEW was found to be linearly correlated with resistin and adiponectin. High serum resistin and adiponectin levels might have a role in development of PEW among dialysis patients. PMID:23919731

Kaynar, Kubra; Kural, Birgul V; Ulusoy, Sukru; Cansiz, Muammer; Akcan, Buket; Misir, Nuray; Yaman, Selcuk; Kaya, Nuh

2014-01-01

380

Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Results T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = ?0.12 and r = ?0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = ?0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. Conclusions These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. PMID:23592672

Wildman, Rachel P.; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

2014-01-01

381

Chlorogenic Acid Improves Late Diabetes through Adiponectin Receptor Signaling Pathways in db/db Mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on glucose and lipid metabolism in late diabetic db/db mice, as well as on adiponectin receptors and their signaling molecules, to provide evidence for CGA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We randomly divided 16 female db/db mice into db/db-CGA and db/db-control (CON) groups equally; db/m mice were used as control mice. The mice in both the db/db-CGA and db/m-CGA groups were administered 80 mg/kg/d CGA by lavage for 12 weeks, whereas the mice in both CON groups were given equal volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by lavage. At the end of the intervention, we assessed body fat and the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in the plasma, liver and skeletal muscle tissues as well as the levels of aldose reductase (AR) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in the kidneys and measured adiponectin receptors and the protein expression of their signaling molecules in liver and muscle tissues. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared with the db/db-CON group, the percentage of body fat, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the db/db-CGA group were all significantly decreased; TGF-?1 protein expression and AR activity in the kidney were both decreased; and the adiponectin level in visceral adipose was increased. The protein expression of adiponectin receptors (ADPNRs), the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver and muscle, and the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-?) in the liver were all significantly greater. CGA could lower the levels of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during late diabetes and improve kidney fibrosis to some extent through the modulation of adiponectin receptor signaling pathways in db/db mice. PMID:25849026

Jin, Shasha; Chang, Cuiqing; Zhang, Lantao; Liu, Yang; Huang, Xianren; Chen, Zhimin

2015-01-01

382

Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective High fat, low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets have become popular tools for weight management. We sought to determine the effects of a HFLC diet compared to a low fat high carbohydrate (LFHC) diet on the change in weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in subjects with obesity. Methods Obese subjects (29.0–44.6 kg/m2) recruited from Boston Medical Center were randomized to a hypocaloric LFHC (n=26) or HFLC (n=29) diet for 12 weeks. Results The age range of subjects was 21–62 years. As a percentage of daily calories, the HFLC group consumed 33.5% protein, 56.0% fat and 9.6% carbohydrate and the LFHC group consumed 22.0% protein, 25.0% fat and 55.7% carbohydrate. The change in percent body weight, lean and fat mass, blood pressure, flow mediated dilation, hip:waist ratio, hemoglobin A1C, fasting insulin and glucose, and glucose and insulin response to a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test did not differ (P>0.05) between diets after 12 weeks. The HFLC group had greater mean decreases in serum triglyceride (P=0.07), and hs-CRP (P=0.03), and greater mean increases in HDL cholesterol (P=0.004), and total adiponectin (P=0.045) relative to the LFHC. Secreted adipose tissue adiponectin or TNF-? did not differ after weight loss for either diet. Conclusions Relative to the LFHC group, the HFLC group had greater improvements in blood lipids and systemic inflammation with similar changes in body weight and composition. This small-scale study suggests that HFLC diets may be more beneficial to cardiovascular health and inflammation in free-living obese adults compared to LFHC diets. PMID:24075505

Ruth, Megan R.; Port, Ava M.; Shah, Mitali; Bourland, Ashley C.; Istfan, Nawfal W.; Nelson, Kerrie P.; Gokce, Noyan; Apovian, Caroline M.

2013-01-01

383

Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was ai