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1

Maximum Weighted Sum Rate of Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, researchers showed that dirty paper cod- ing (DPC) is the optimal transmission strategy for multiple-input multiple-output broadcast channels (MIMO-BC). In this paper, we study how to determine the maximum weighted sum of DPC rates through solving the maximum weighted sum rate problem of the dual MIMO multiple access channel (MIMO-MAC) with a sum power constraint. We first simplify the

Jia Liu; Y. Thomas Hou

2007-01-01

2

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fraction is the sum of the digits representing the years...life, i.e., 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1, or 15...unrecovered balance is $4,500, and the remaining...would then be $900 ($4,500Ã0.2000, the...equivalents of sum of the years-digits fractions...

2013-04-01

3

Four-Digit Numbers Which Are Squared Sums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a very natural way to divide a four-digit number into 2 two-digit numbers. Applying an algorithm to this pair of numbers, determine how often the original four-digit number reappears. (Contains 3 tables.)

Coughlin, Heather; Jue, Brian

2009-01-01

4

A functional MOS transistor featuring gate-level weighted sum and threshold operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional MOS transistor is proposed which works more intelligently than a mere switching device. The functional transistor calculates the weighted sum of all input signals at the gate level, and controls the `on' and `off' of the transistor based on the result of such a weighted sum operation. Since the function is quite analogous to that of biological neurons,

Tadashi Shibata; Tadahiro Ohmi

1992-01-01

5

Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.

Dicenzo, A.

1979-01-01

6

Spectral properties of mesons in hot and dense matter from energy weighted sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Energy weighted sum rules for the spectral function of mesons are derived, both in cold nuclear matter and at finite temperature, by matching the Dyson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We illustrate our results by calculating the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy in a nuclear medium. We find satisfactory results from the lower energy weight sum rules, which reflect the contributions from the different quasi-particle and collective modes of the meson spectral function, and show examples of the sensitivity of the sum rules to model approximations. Finally, we discuss applications in asymmetric nuclear matter and in the study of the spectral properties of vector mesons.

Cabrera, D. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Polls, A.; Ramos, A. [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tolos, L. [Theory Group, KVI, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-12-28

7

Spectral properties of mesons in hot and dense matter from energy weighted sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy weighted sum rules for the spectral function of mesons are derived, both in cold nuclear matter and at finite temperature, by matching the Dyson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We illustrate our results by calculating the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy in a nuclear medium. We find satisfactory results from the lower energy weight sum rules, which reflect the contributions from the different quasi-particle and collective modes of the meson spectral function, and show examples of the sensitivity of the sum rules to model approximations. Finally, we discuss applications in asymmetric nuclear matter and in the study of the spectral properties of vector mesons.

Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolós, L.

2010-12-01

8

Analog-To-Digital Converter For Sum-Of-Squares Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit designed as part of larger circuit intended to measure root-mean-square current on 20-kHz powerline. Provides digital output of 11 bits of data plus 1-bit overflow signal at sampling rate of 4 MHz. Output processed by multiplying-and-accumulating circuitry to obtain sum of squares and digitized current samples accumulated during preset number of consecutive sampling periods. Used to digitize current samples from ADC directly as alternative or auxiliary output. Notable features include low power and fast conversion.

Osborn, Stephen H.; Davies, Bryan L.; Sullender, Craig C.

1993-01-01

9

Energy-weighted sum rules for mesons in hot and dense matter  

SciTech Connect

We study energy-weighted sum rules of the pion and kaon propagator in nuclear matter at finite temperature. The sum rules are obtained from matching the Dyson form of the meson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We calculate the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy. The in-medium spectral densities of the K and K mesons are obtained from a chiral unitary approach in coupled channels that incorporates the S and P waves of the kaon-nucleon interaction. The pion self-energy is determined from the P-wave coupling to particle-hole and {delta}-hole excitations, modified by short-range correlations. The sum rules for the lower-energy weights are fulfilled satisfactorily and reflect the contributions from the different quasiparticle and collective modes of the meson spectral function. We discuss the sensitivity of the sum rules to the distribution of spectral strength and their usefulness as quality tests of model calculations.

Cabrera, D. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Polls, A.; Ramos, A. [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tolos, L. [Theory Group, KVI, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-10-15

10

Energy-weighted sum rules for mesons in hot and dense matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study energy-weighted sum rules of the pion and kaon propagator in nuclear matter at finite temperature. The sum rules are obtained from matching the Dyson form of the meson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We calculate the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy. The in-medium spectral densities of the K and K¯ mesons are obtained from a chiral unitary approach in coupled channels that incorporates the S and P waves of the kaon-nucleon interaction. The pion self-energy is determined from the P-wave coupling to particle-hole and ?-hole excitations, modified by short-range correlations. The sum rules for the lower-energy weights are fulfilled satisfactorily and reflect the contributions from the different quasiparticle and collective modes of the meson spectral function. We discuss the sensitivity of the sum rules to the distribution of spectral strength and their usefulness as quality tests of model calculations.

Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolós, L.

2009-10-01

11

Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure  

SciTech Connect

Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.

Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.

1993-12-31

12

Pinched weights and duality violation in QCD sum rules: A critical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the so-called pinched weights, that are generally thought to reduce the violation of quark-hadron duality in finite-energy sum rules. After showing how this is not true in general, we explain how to address this question for the left-right correlator and any particular pinched weight, taking advantage of our previous work , where the possible high-energy behavior of the left-right spectral function was studied. In particular, we show that the use of pinched weights allows to determine with high accuracy the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator-product expansion, O6=(-4.3-0.7+0.9)×10-3GeV6 and O8=(-7.2-5.3+4.2)×10-3GeV8.

González-Alonso, Martín; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim

2010-07-01

13

Deblocking of block-transform compressed images using weighted sums of symmetrically aligned pixels.  

PubMed

A new class of related algorithms for deblocking block-transform compressed images and video sequences is proposed in this paper. The algorithms apply weighted sums on pixel quartets, which are symmetrically aligned with respect to block boundaries. The basic weights, which are aimed at very low bit-rate images, are obtained from a two-dimensional function which obeys predefined constraints. Using these weights on images compressed at higher bit rates produces a deblocked image which contains blurred "false" edges near real edges. We refer to this phenomenon as the ghosting effect. In order to prevent its occurrences, the weights of pixels, which belong to nonmonotone areas, are modified by dividing each pixel's weight by a predefined factor called a grade. This scheme is referred to as weight adaptation by grading (WABG). Better deblocking of monotone areas is achieved by applying three iterations of the WABG scheme on such areas followed by a fourth iteration which is applied on the rest of the image. We refer to this scheme as deblocking frames of variable size (DFOVS). DFOVS automatically adapts itself to the activity of each block. This new class of algorithms produces very good subjective results and PSNR results which are competitive relative to available state-of-the-art methods. PMID:15700525

Averbuch, Amir Z; Schclar, Alon; Donoho, David L

2005-02-01

14

A weighted cumulative sum (WCUSUM) to monitor medical outcomes with dependent censoring.  

PubMed

We develop a weighted cumulative sum (WCUSUM) to evaluate and monitor pre-transplant waitlist mortality of facilities in the context where transplantation is considered to be dependent censoring. Waitlist patients are evaluated multiple times in order to update their current medical condition as reflected in a time-dependent variable called the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Higher MELD scores are indicative of higher pre-transplant death risk. Moreover, under the current liver allocation system, patients with higher MELD scores receive higher priority for liver transplantation. To evaluate the waitlist mortality of transplant centers, it is important to take this dependent censoring into consideration. We assume a 'standard' transplant practice through a transplant model and utilize inverse probability censoring weights to construct a WCUSUM. We evaluate the properties of a weighted zero-mean process as the basis of the proposed WCUSUM. We then discuss a resampling technique to obtain control limits. The proposed WCUSUM is illustrated through the analysis of national transplant registry data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24623573

Sun, Rena Jie; Kalbfleisch, John D; Schaubel, Douglas E

2014-08-15

15

A fast digital image correlation algorithm based on Hartley transform and global sum-table scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image correlation method (DICM) as a flexible tool for deformation measurements has found widespread use in a variety of fields. One major challenge in practical applications, however, lies in that this technique founded on zeronormalized cross-correlation (ZNCC) criterion is extremely time-consuming in correlation calculation. This paper introduces the Hartley transform and a so-called global sum-table strategy to evaluate the cross-correlation term and all double sums in the ZNCC expression, which can dramatically reduce computational complexity of correlation searching and therefore lead to significant computational savings. Both simulation tests and an actual example of displacement acquisition are employed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the fast algorithm, which indicates that it can improve the efficiency of the DICM calculation by ~4-14 times in comparison with the conventional algorithm. This is crucial for realizing a high-efficiency DICM to satisfy speed requirements for time-critical applications and large-scale data processing.

Huang, Jianwei; Dong, Zhixue

2010-08-01

16

Weighted sum threshold logic operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) using resonant-tunneling transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) has been studied using multiple-input logic gates. MOBILE uses two resonant-tunneling transistors (RTT's), connected in series and driven by oscillating bias voltage to produce a mono-to-bistable transition of the circuit. A fabricated MOBILE having three-input gates with a 1:2:4 width ratio can distinguish all 8 (2(exp 3)) input patterns corresponding to each weighted sum, depending on the threshold value selected by the control gate. The results signify the realization of the weighted sum threshold logic operation of input signals.

Akeyoshi, Tomoyuki; Maezawa, Koichi; Mizutani, Takashi

1993-10-01

17

A comparison between weighted sum of gray gases and statistical narrow-band radiation models for combustion applications  

SciTech Connect

The weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) and the statistical narrow-band (SNB) models are implemented for radiative transfer calculations in realistic combustion gas mixtures and their results are compared. The WSGG model parameters are generated from SNB emissivity calculations in the [300, 2500 K] temperature range for a partial pressure ratio p[sub w]/p[sub c] = 2. In addition, the same methods are used for the resolution of the transfer equation associated with both models. Comparisons are made for the cases of planar geometry and an axisymmetrical methane--oxygen furnace. When the gas mixture is practically isothermal and surrounded by cold walls, small errors are introduced by the use of the WSGG model. On the other hand, in the case of significant temperature gradients, the inaccurate representation of gas absorptivities by the WSGG model leads to important errors.

Soufiani, A. (Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. d'Energetique Moleculaire et Macroscopique); Djavdan, E. (Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas (France))

1994-05-01

18

Modeling of 3-D non-gray gases radiation by coupling the finite volume method with weighted sum of gray gases model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model and code for radiative heat transfer based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation by finite volume method in 3-D Cartesian coordinates coupled with weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) is developed. The Smith’s WSGG model with 4 and 5 gray gases is used, but any other gas radiative properties model can be incorporated.

D. N. Trivic

2004-01-01

19

Assessments of Spectral Narrow Band and Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases Models for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Pool Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical narrow band (SNB), correlated-k (CK), and weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) models have been incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Their accuracy and computing times are evaluated for three pool fires scenarios. CFD_CK and CFD_SNB yield similar predictions, and the former is three times more CPU demanding than the latter. CFD_CK is unrealistic for practical fire applications. Temperature and

S. Dembele; J. Zhang; J. X. Wen

2005-01-01

20

LEO range-sum data simulation method and multi-LEO combined orbit determination modeling with its weighting algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For multi-LEO orbit determination based on Bi-satellite Positioning System (BPS), trajectory error of positioning satellites becomes bottle-neck which improves orbit determination precision of LEOs, so we can take combined orbit determination strategy of BPS and user satellites (LEOs) to ameliorate precision. This paper constructs a basic method of range sum observation data simulation for single Low Earth Orbit (LEO) precise

Deyong Zhao; Hongmei Yu

2010-01-01

21

Sum Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners practice addition facts (with sums of 5, 6, 7, and 8) in a concentration-game format using dominoes. Then, learners generate sums of given numbers using a calculator, record the sums on a hundreds chart and look for patterns. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Burton, Grace M.

2008-01-01

22

Review of innovations in digital health technology to promote weight control.  

PubMed

Advances in technology have contributed to the obesity epidemic and worsened health by reducing opportunities for physical activity and by the proliferation of inexpensive calorie-dense foods. However, much of the same technology can be used to counter these troublesome trends by fostering the development and maintenance of healthy eating and physical activity habits. In contrast to intensive face-to-face treatments, technology-based interventions also have the potential to reach large numbers of individuals at low cost. The purpose of this review is to discuss studies in which digital technology has been used for behavioral weight control, report on advances in consumer technology that are widely adopted but insufficiently tested, and explore potential future directions for both. Web-based, mobile (eg, smartphone), virtual reality, and gaming technologies are the focus of discussion. The best evidence exists to support the use of digital technology for self-monitoring of weight-related behaviors and outcomes. However, studies are underway that will provide additional, important information regarding how best to apply digital technology for behavioral weight control. PMID:24664797

Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S

2014-05-01

23

Sum Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, "students practice addition facts (with sums of 5, 6, 7, and 8) in a concentration-game format using dominoes. Then they generate sums to given numbers using a calculator and record them on a hundreds chart" or use an electronic tool. Next they look for patterns. (from NCTM's Illuminations)

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2008-12-17

24

Gaussian quadrature for sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaussian quadrature is a well-known technique for numerical integration. Recently Gaussian quadrature with respect to discrete measures corresponding to finite sums has found some new interest. In this paper we apply these ideas to infinite sums in general and give an explicit construction for the weights and abscissae of Gaussian formulas. The abscissae of the Gaussian summation have a very interesting asymptotic distribution function with a kink singularity. We apply the Gaussian summation technique to two problems which have been discussed in the literature. We find that the Gaussian summation has a very rapid convergence rate for the Hardy-Littlewood sum for a large range of parameters.

Monien, H.

2010-04-01

25

Digital redesign of observer-based weighting switch controller for cascaded analog systems with state saturation and external loads.  

PubMed

This paper presents an observer-based weighting switch controller for dealing with the problem of cascaded systems with state saturation and external loads. This method improves the generally poor transition response and output deviation caused by state saturation and external loads. In order to maintain the state-saturation limits, we adopt the evolutionary programming optimal search technique to find the optimal switching parameters for the weighted switch controller. Also, a digital redesign method is utilized to replace a designed high-gain analog controller with a low-gain digital controller. It is shown that the digitally redesigned outputs closely track the analogously controlled outputs. The digital redesign technique is then extended to find the digital version of the continuous-time observer. An illustrative example is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed procedure. PMID:15682620

Tsai, J S H; Cheng, H; Moussighi, M M; Shieh, L S

2005-01-01

26

Relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model and the full spectrum k-distribution model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model and the full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) model in isothermal and homogeneous media is investigated in this paper. The SLW transfer equation can be derived from the FSK transfer equation expressed in the k-distribution function without approximation. It confirms that the SLW model is equivalent to the FSK model in the k-distribution function form. The numerical implementation of the SLW relies on a somewhat arbitrary discretization of the absorption cross section whereas the FSK model finds the spectrally integrated intensity by integration over the smoothly varying cumulative-k distribution function using a Gaussian quadrature scheme. The latter is therefore in general more efficient as a fewer number of gray gases is required to achieve a prescribed accuracy. Sample numerical calculations were conducted to demonstrate the different efficiency of these two methods. The FSK model is found more accurate than the SLW model in radiation transfer in H2O; however, the SLW model is more accurate in media containing CO2 as the only radiating gas due to its explicit treatment of ‘clear gas.’

Chu, Huaqiang; Liu, Fengshan; Consalvi, Jean-Louis

2014-08-01

27

Weighted two-valued digit-set encodings: unifying efficient hardware representation schemes for redundant number systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of two-valued digit (twit) as a binary variable that can assume one of two different integer values. Posibits, or simply bits, in {0,1} and negabits in {-1,0}, commonly used in two's-complement representations and (n,p) encoding of binary signed digits, are special cases of twits. A weighted bit-set (WBS) encoding, which generalizes the two's-complement encoding by allowing

Ghassem Jaberipur; Behrooz Parhami; Mohammad Ghodsi

2005-01-01

28

Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Adaptation of Multi-Digit Forces to Object Weight for Whole-Hand Manipulation  

PubMed Central

The delicate tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by a number of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. One such condition is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that causes sensory and motor deficits in a subset of digits in the hand. Whereas the effects of CTS on median nerve physiology are well understood, the extent to which it affects whole-hand manipulation remains to be addressed. CTS affects only the lateral three and a half digits, which raises the question of how the central nervous system integrates sensory feedback from affected and unaffected digits to plan and execute whole-hand object manipulation. We addressed this question by asking CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold a grip device (445, 545, or 745 g) for several consecutive trials. We found that CTS patients were able to successfully adapt grip force to object weight. However, multi-digit force coordination in patients was characterized by lower discrimination of force modulation to lighter object weights, higher across-trial digit force variability, the consistent use of excessively large digit forces across consecutive trials, and a lower ability to minimize net moments on the object. Importantly, the mechanical requirement of attaining equilibrium of forces and torques caused CTS patients to exert excessive forces at both CTS-affected digits and digits with intact sensorimotor capabilities. These findings suggest that CTS-induced deficits in tactile sensitivity interfere with the formation of accurate sensorimotor memories of previous manipulations. Consequently, CTS patients use compensatory strategies to maximize grasp stability at the expense of exerting consistently larger multi-digit forces than controls. These behavioral deficits might be particularly detrimental for tasks that require fine regulation of fingertip forces for manipulating light or fragile objects.

Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A.; Ross, Mark A.; Smith, Anthony A.; Coakley, Brandon J.; Gleason, Elizabeth A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Santello, Marco

2011-01-01

29

LSP weighting functions based on spectral sensitivity and mel-frequency warping for speech recognition in digital communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In digital communication networks, a speech recognition system extracts feature parameters after reconstructing speech signals. In this paper, we consider a useful approach of incorporating speech coding parameters into a speech recognizer. Most speech coders employ line spectrum pairs (LSPs) to represent spectral parameters. We introduce weighted distance measures to improve the recognition performance of an LSP-based speech recognizer. Experiments

Seung Ho ChoCt; Hong Kook Kim; Hwang Soo Lee

1999-01-01

30

Integrated-Circuit Active Digital Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pipeline architecture with parallel multipliers and adders speeds calculation of weighted sums. Picture-element values and partial sums flow through delay-adder modules. After each cycle or time unit of calculation, each value in filter moves one position right. Digital integrated-circuit chips with pipeline architecture rapidly move 35 X 35 two-dimensional convolutions. Need for such circuits in image enhancement, data filtering, correlation, pattern extraction, and synthetic-aperture-radar image processing: all require repeated calculations of weighted sums of values from images or two-dimensional arrays of data.

Nathan, R.

1986-01-01

31

Spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) for registration of digitally reconstructed ex vivo whole mount histology and in vivo prostate MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a scheme for the registration of digitally reconstructed whole mount histology (WMH) to pre-operative in vivo multiprotocol prostate MR imagery (T2w and DCE) using spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI). Spatial alignment of ex vivo histological sections to pre-operative in vivo MRI for prostate cancer (CaP) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy is a necessary first step in

Pratik Patel; Jonathan Chappelow; John Tomaszewski; Michael D. Feldman; Mark Rosen; Natalie Shih; Anant Madabhushi

2011-01-01

32

Algorithms for finding the weight-constrained k longest paths in a tree and the length-constrained k maximum-sum segments of a sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we obtain the following new results: - Given a tree T = (V;E) with a length function ' : E ! R and a weight function w : E !R, a positive integer k, and an interval (L;U), the Weight-Constrained k Longest Paths problem is to find the k longest paths among all paths in T with

Hsiao-fei Liu; Kun-mao Chao

2008-01-01

33

Multiple (inverse) binomial sums of arbitrary weight and depth and the all-order epsilon-expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions with one half-integer value of parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue the study of the construction of analytical coefficients of the\\u000aepsilon-expansion of hypergeometric functions and their connection with Feynman\\u000adiagrams. In this paper, we show the following results:\\u000a Theorem A: The multiple (inverse) binomial sums of arbitrary weight and depth\\u000a(see Eq. (1.1)) are expressible in terms of Remiddi-Vermaseren functions.\\u000a Theorem B: The epsilon expansion of a hypergeometric

Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bennie F. L. Ward; Scott A. Yost

2007-01-01

34

Recursion formulas for growing memory digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing memory digital filter is defined by considering the input(y_{nu-u})-output(Z_m)relationship in the formZ_m = sum_{u=0}^m W_{um} y_{m-u}, m = 0, 1, 2, cdotswhereW_{um}is the weighting sequence of a linear time varying digital filter. Contained herein are a derivation of an optimum growing memory smoothing and prediction filter in the least squares sense for polynomial input functions, (of degree =K)

M. Blum

1958-01-01

35

Projection-based energy weighting on photon-counting X-ray images in digital subtraction mammography: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.

Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung

2014-03-01

36

Selective ion filtering by digital thresholding: a method to unwind complex ESI-mass spectra and eliminate signals from low molecular weight chemical noise.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a simple method by which to preferentially detect either high molecular weight or low molecular weight ions generated by electrospray ionization. This approach, termed selective ion filtering by digital thresholding (SIFdT) is demonstrated on a commercial ESI-TOF instrument that employs a fast digitizer coupled to a microchannel plate detector. The digital representation of each individual scan is digitally filtered prior to spectral coaddition. As larger, more highly charged ions induce a more intense response than low molecular weight singly charged species, a digital threshold can be set that precludes the detection of singly charged species yet permits the efficient detection of larger, more highly charged species. In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of this approach to eliminate low molecular weight chemical noise in ESI-TOF spectra of oligonucleotide and protein ions, demonstrate improved dynamic range for analyte solutions containing high levels of low MW constituents, and show that spectra acquired at different digital thresholds can be subtracted to yield spectra of low molecular weight constituents with improved mass measurement accuracies. A notional scheme is presented in which an alternative digitization approach is employed using multiple differentially thresholded data streams to allow improved internal mass calibration and higher resolution ion partitioning. PMID:16408916

Hofstadler, Steven A; Drader, Jared J; Schink, Amy

2006-01-15

37

Farey Sums and Understanding Ratios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical problems when solved with different approaches deepen the understanding of topics learned. It is reported that weighted average is commonly used in applications and the relationship between all the ratios involved in the problem emphasized could be learned from Farey sum of two fractions.

Mihail, Ioana

2004-01-01

38

A digital combining-weight estimation algorithm for broadband sources with the array feed compensation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.

Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.

1994-01-01

39

Cluster merging based on weighted mahalanobis distance with application in digital mammograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new clustering algorithm that uses a weighted Mahdlanobis distance as a distance metric to perform partitional clustering is proposed. The covariance matrices of the generated clusters are used to determine cluster similarity and closeness so that clusters which are similar in shape and close in Mahalanobis distance can be merged together serving the ultimate goal of automatically determining the

K. Younis; M. Karim; R. Hardie; J. Loomis; S. Rogers; M. DeSimio

1998-01-01

40

A new state reconstructor for digital controls systems using weighted-average measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state reconstructor is presented for a linear continuous-time plant driven by a zero-order-hold. It takes a continuous-time output vector from the plant and convolutes it with a weighting-function matrix whose elements are time dependent. This result is integrated over T second intervals to generate weighted-averaged measurements, every T seconds, that are used in the state reconstruction process. If the plant is noise-free and can be modeled precisely, the output of this state reconstructor exactly equals the true state of the plant and accomplishes this without knowledge of the plant's initial state. If noise or modeling errors are a problem, it can be catenated with a state observer or a Kalman filter for a synergistic effect.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

41

Sum-Difference Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

Shi, Yixun

2010-01-01

42

Spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) for registration of digitally reconstructed ex vivo whole mount histology and in vivo prostate MRI.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a scheme for the registration of digitally reconstructed whole mount histology (WMH) to pre-operative in vivo multiprotocol prostate MR imagery (T2w and DCE) using spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI). Spatial alignment of ex vivo histological sections to pre-operative in vivo MRI for prostate cancer (CaP) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy is a necessary first step in the discovery of quantitative multiprotocol MRI signatures for CaP. This may be done by spatially mapping delineated extent of disease on ex vivo histopathology onto pre-operative in vivo MRI via image registration. Apart from the challenges in spatially registering multi-modal data (histology and MRI) on account of (a) modality specific differences, (b) deformation due to the endorectal coil and tissue loss on histology, another complication is that the ex vivo histological sections, in the lab, are usually obtained as quadrants. This means they need to be reconstituted as a pseudo-whole mount histologic section (WMHS) prior to registration with MRI. An additional challenge is that most registration techniques rely on availability of the pre-segmented prostate capsule on T2w MRI. The novel contribution of this paper is that it leverages a spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) scheme to automatically register and map CaP extent from WMHS onto pre-operative, multiprotocol MRI. The SWMI scheme obviates the need for pre-segmentation of the prostate capsule on MRI. Additionally, we leverage a program developed by our group, Histostitcher©, for interactive stitching of individual histology quadrants to digitally reconstruct the pseudo WMHS. Our registration methodology comprises the following main steps, (1) affine registration of T2w and DCE MRI, (2) affine registration of stitched WMHS to multiprotocol T2w and DCE MRI, and (3) multimodal image registration of WMHS to multiprotocol T2w and DCE MRI using SWMI. We quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated all aspects of our methodology in the multimodal registration of a total of 7 corresponding histology and MRI sections from 2 different patients. For the 7 studies, we obtained an average Hausdorff distance of 1.85 mm, mean absolute distance of 0.99 mm, RMS of 1.65 mm, and DICE of 0.83, when comparing the capsular alignment on MRI to histology. PMID:22255771

Patel, Pratik; Chappelow, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John; Feldman, Michael D; Rosen, Mark; Shih, Natalie; Madabhushi, Anant

2011-01-01

43

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

44

Summing Consecutive Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem offers a simple context to begin an exploration of the properties of numbers and to make conjectures about those properties. Learners explore the sums of consecutive numbers and whether all positive numbers from 1-30 can be written as the sum of two or more consecutive numbers. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2008-09-01

45

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1993-08-17

46

Summing pressure compensation control  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a summing pressure compensator control for hydraulic loads with at least one of the hydraulic loads being a variable displacement motor having servo means for controlling the displacement thereof, first hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to the variable displacement motor to provide a first pressure signal, second hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to a second hydraulic load to provide a second pressure signal, summing means for receiving the first and second pressure signals and providing a control signal proportional to the sum of the first and second pressure signals, the control signal being applied to the servo means to increase the displacement of the variable displacement motor.

Myers, H.A.

1988-04-26

47

Mystery Sums, Part Three  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This third Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad, as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately) allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of ten letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players encompass letters within a circle to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

48

Mystery Sums, Part Two  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This second Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value from -10 to 10 of the letters, A, B, -B and C. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

49

Keeping sums under control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a normalization tool for the - calculus with sum types, based on the technique of normal- ization by evaluation, and more precisely techniques devel- oped by Olivier Danvy for partial evaluation, using con- trol operators. The main characteristic of this work is that it produces a result in a canonical form. That is to say: two -equivalent

Vincent Balat

2004-01-01

50

Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

2011-01-01

51

SumAll  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interested in learning about your social media reach? You may want to check out SumAll which is a rather nice way to do just that. After signing up for the free version, visitors will receive a daily digest of their social media influence on over a dozen platforms, including LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+ and others. It's a powerful tool that is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-13

52

Number Cube Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this calculator activity students complete an experiment on the frequency of sums by rolling two dice fifty times and recording their data. Students record their data in a table using tallies, fractions, decimals, and percent form. Individual data is then compiled into a class chart to identify patterns in data when more trials are conducted. This activity is designed to be completed using the TI-15 Explorer calculator. A PDF of the lesson plan and student sheet is included.

2008-06-09

53

Entanglement Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the entanglement entropy of a wide class of models that may be characterized as describing matter coupled to gauge fields. Our principle result is an entanglement sum rule that states that the entropy of the full system is the sum of the entropies of the two components. In the context of the models we consider, this result applies to the full entropy, but more generally it is a statement about the additivity of universal terms in the entropy. Our proof simultaneously extends and simplifies previous arguments, with extensions including new models at zero temperature as well as the ability to treat finite temperature crossovers. We emphasize that while the additivity is an exact statement, each term in the sum may still be difficult to compute. Our results apply to a wide variety of phases including Fermi liquids, spin liquids, and some non-Fermi liquid metals. For example, we prove that our model of an interacting Fermi liquid has exactly the log violation of the area law for entanglement entropy predicted by the Widom formula in agreement with earlier arguments.

Swingle, Brian

2013-09-01

54

Sums of Infinite Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spiral is a curve traced by moving either outward or inward about a fixed point called the pole. A Baravelle Spiral is generated by connecting the midpoints of the successive sides of a regular polygon. Triangles will be formed. The process of identifying and repeatedly connecting the midpoints is called iteration. Mathematically, the Baravelle Spiral is a geometric illustration of a concept basic to the Calculus: The sum of an infinite geometric series - an unbounded set of numbers where each term is related by a common ratio, or multiplier, of "r" - converges to a finite number called a limit when 0 < r < 1. Much time in the Calculus curriculum, and its applications in the sciences, focuses on whether a particular mathematical expression has a limit and thus be highly useful. Historically, one of our oldest mathematical documents, the Rhind Papyrus (ca. 1650 BC), offers a set of data thought to represent a geometric series and possibly an understanding of the formula for finding its sum. In this case, the common ratio of r = 7 is obviously NOT less than 1 and leads to 71+72 +73 + 74 + 75 = 19,607. While not a converging series, as in the case of Baravelle Spirals, we appreciate the early Egyptian fascination with sums of series.

Lai, Robert

2006-01-01

55

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

56

Error Analysis of an Algorithm for Summing Certain Finite Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An algorithm for summing certain finite series is discussed in detail and a fairly complete error analysis is given. The algorithm under consideration is very convenient for use on a digital computer, since it is easy to program, and may in fact be looked...

D. Elliott

1967-01-01

57

How Incremental Is Language Production? Evidence from the Production of Utterances Requiring the Computation of Arithmetic Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incremental approach to language production assumes that the production system interleaves planning and articulation processes. Two experiments examined this assumption. In the first, participants stated the sums of two two-digit numbers in one of three different kinds of utterances, the sum by itself, the sum followed by the sequence “is the answer,” or the frame “The answer is” followed

Fernanda Ferreira; Benjamin Swets

2002-01-01

58

Zero-sum Square Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let A be a matrix over the integers, and let p be a positive integer. A submatrix B of A is zero-summodp if the sum of each row of B and the sum of each column of B is a multiple of p. Let M(p, k) denote the least integer m for which every square matrix of order at least

Paul Balister; Yair Caro; Cecil C. Rousseau; Raphael Yuster

2002-01-01

59

Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms  

SciTech Connect

In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria)] [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria); Blümlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

2013-08-15

60

Digital batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power\\/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and

Alfred W. Hübler

2009-01-01

61

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

62

Summing Certain p-Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an exercise suitable for beginning calculus students that may give insight into series representations and allow students to see some elementary application of these representations. The Fourier series is used to approximate by taking sums of trigonometric functions of the form sin(ns) and cos(nx) for n is greater than or = zero. (PVD)

Fay, Temple H.

1997-01-01

63

Introduction to QCD Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

Dominguez, C. A.

2013-08-01

64

Generalized Harmonic, Cyclotomic, and Binomial Sums, their Polylogarithms and Special Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey is given on mathematical structures which emerge in multi-loop Feynman diagrams. These are multiply nested sums, and, associated to them by an inverse Mellin transform, specific iterated integrals. Both classes lead to sets of special numbers. Starting with harmonic sums and polylogarithms we discuss recent extensions of these quantities as cyclotomic, generalized (cyclotomic), and binomially weighted sums, associated iterated integrals and special constants and their relations.

Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; Schneider, C.

2014-06-01

65

Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings  

SciTech Connect

In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

Bardakci, Korkut

2006-02-16

66

Repeated Reasoning: Products and Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #8âLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning shows a classroom of fourth grade students exploring the relationships between sums and products of numbers when numbers are added to themselves and when they are multiplied by each other. The sum and product of each number is displayed sequentially in an array on grid paper to detect patterns more readily. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # 7-Look for and make use of structures is evident.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

67

The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

2013-03-01

68

Compound Sums and Their Applications in Finance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compound sums arise frequently in insurance (total claim size in a portfolio) and in accountancy (total error amount in audit populations). As the normal approximation for compound sums usually performs very badly, one may look for better methods for appr...

B. Tarigan R. Helmers

2003-01-01

69

Digital Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

70

Digitized synchronous demodulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digitized synchronous demodulator is constructed entirely of digital components including timing logic, an accumulator, and means to digitally filter the digital output signal. Indirectly, it accepts, at its input, periodic analog signals which are converted to digital signals by traditional analog-to-digital conversion techniques. Broadly, the input digital signals are summed to one of two registers within an accumulator, based on the phase of the input signal and medicated by timing logic. At the end of a predetermined number of cycles of the inputted periodic signals, the contents of the register that accumulated samples from the negative half cycle is subtracted from the accumulated samples from the positive half cycle. The resulting difference is an accurate measurement of the narrow band amplitude of the periodic input signal during the measurement period. This measurement will not include error sources encountered in prior art synchronous demodulators using analog techniques such as offsets, charge injection errors, temperature drift, switching transients, settling time, analog to digital converter missing code, and linearity errors.

Woodhouse, Christopher E. (inventor)

1990-01-01

71

Differentiation of Cognitive and Motor Aspects in a Digit Symbol Substitution Test in Anorexia nervosa Patients, before and after Weight Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a previous study, using computerized analysis of fine motor behaviour, seriously underweight anorexia nervosa patients in the early phase of treatment were found to have shorter reaction times, but not movement times, in experimental drawing and copying tasks. These differences persisted with weight restoration. Sampling and Methods: Using computerized analysis of writing and drawing behaviour during the performance

Guido Pieters; Yvonne Maas; Wouter Hulstijn; Walter Vandereycken; Michel Probst; Joseph Peuskens; Bernard Sabbe

2004-01-01

72

Signed magnification sums for general spherical lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the sum of signed magnifications is invariant for mass lens systems. In this paper, we discuss the signed magnification sums of general spherical lens models, including the singular isothermal sphere, the Schwarzschild lens, and the Ellis wormhole, the last of which is an example of the traversable wormholes of the Morris-Thorne class. We show that the signed magnification sums are a very useful tool to distinguish exotic lens objects. For example, we show that one can distinguish the Ellis wormholes from the Schwarzschild lens with the signed magnification sums.

Tsukamoto, Naoki; Harada, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

73

Two novel methods in QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel methods in extracting the spectral information of hadrons in the QCD sum rule technique. The first one is to combine two sum rules so that the pole dominance is achieved and the resonance information is effectively obtained. This method is applied to the pentaquark ?+ and its quantum numbers are predicted. The second method is to use the Bayesian inference theory to obtain the most probable form of the spectral function from the sum rule. We have checked the method to work in the case of the rho meson sum rule.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

2010-12-01

74

Two novel methods in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Two novel methods in extracting the spectral information of hadrons in the QCD sum rule technique. The first one is to combine two sum rules so that the pole dominance is achieved and the resonance information is effectively obtained. This method is applied to the pentaquark {Theta}{sup +} and its quantum numbers are predicted. The second method is to use the Bayesian inference theory to obtain the most probable form of the spectral function from the sum rule. We have checked the method to work in the case of the rho meson sum rule.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto [Dept. of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2010-12-28

75

The Generalised GDH Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule was originally derived for real photon absorption (corresponding to Q{sup 2}=0) and has been generalized to finite Q{sup 2}. The goals of Jefferson Lab experiment E97-110 are to perform a precise measurement of the generalized GDH integral and the moments of the neutron spin structure functions in order to study their Q{sup 2} dependence between 0.02 and 0.3 (GeV/c){sup 2}. This Q{sup 2} range will allow us to extrapolate to the real photon point for {sup 3}He and the neutron. Furthermore the low Q{sup 2} predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory and its limits of applicability can be tested. The measurements will provide new constraints on understanding the {sup 3}He and neutron spin structure and contribute to the understanding of the nucleon resonances. The acquisition of data was completed in August of 2003 using the Jefferson Lab high polarization continuous-wave electron beam, the Hall A polarized {sup 3}He target, and the new Hall A septum magnet, which allows measurements at forward angles of 6 and 9 degrees. The status and prospects of the data analysis will be discussed.

Sulkosky, Vincent

2004-08-30

76

Broadband performance of superdirective delay-and-sum beamformers steered to end-fire.  

PubMed

Linear arrays steered to end-fire provide superdirective robust performance if a constraint is imposed on the white-noise gain. Filter-and-sum beamformers achieve the maximum constrained directivity by tuning their complex weights over the frequency. Delay-and-sum beamformers have simpler structures, but their weights are fixed and optimized at a given frequency. This letter investigates the constrained directivity provided over a broad band by different delay-and-sum techniques. Complex weights and analytic signals attain near-optimal broadband performance over four octaves. Oversteered arrays using real weights and signals were found to attain superdirective performance over approximately two octaves. Hearing aids and directional hydrophones are potential applications for the considered arrays. PMID:24907842

Trucco, A; Traverso, F; Crocco, M

2014-06-01

77

Digital Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...

Heather

2008-09-29

78

Locating the Extrema of Fungible Regression Weights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors, every set of alternate weights belongs to an infinite class of "fungible weights" (Waller, Psychometrica, "in press") that yields identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. When the R[superscript 2] using the alternate weights is a fixed value, fungible…

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2009-01-01

79

Spectral sum rules and Selberg's integral formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Selberg's integral formula we derive all Leutwyler-Smilga type sum rules for one and two flavors, and for each of the three chiral random matrix ensembles. In agreement with arguments from effective field theory, all sum rules for Nf=1 coincide for the three ensembles. The connection between spectral correlations and the low-energy effective partition function is discussed.

Jacobus Verbaarschot

1994-01-01

80

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

81

Least Squares Approximations to Lognormal Sum Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the least squares (LS) approximation approach is applied to solve the approximation problem of a sum of lognormal random variables (RVs). The LS linear approximation is based on the widely accepted assumption that the sum of lognormal RVs can be approximated by a lognormal RV. We further derive the solution for the LS quadratic (LSQ) approximation, and

Lian Zhao; Jiu Ding

2007-01-01

82

Tweets, Apps, and Pods: Results of the 6-Month Mobile Pounds Off Digitally (Mobile POD) Randomized Weight-Loss Intervention Among Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcasts to deliver a behavioral weight-loss intervention. Objective The objective of our study was to examine whether a combination of podcasting, mobile support communication, and mobile diet monitoring can assist people in weight loss. Methods In this 6-month, minimal contact intervention, overweight (n = 96, body mass index 32.6 kg/m2) adults were recruited through television advertisements and email listservs and randomly assigned to Podcast-only or Podcast+Mobile groups. Both groups received 2 podcasts per week for 3 months and 2 minipodcasts per week for months 3–6. In addition to the podcasts, the Podcast+Mobile group was also instructed to use a diet and physical activity monitoring application (app) on their mobile device and to interact with study counselors and other participants on Twitter. Results Weight loss did not differ by group at 6 months: mean –2.7% (SD 5.6%) Podcast+Mobile, n = 47; mean –2.7% (SD 5.1%) Podcast, n = 49; P = .98. Days/week of reported diet monitoring did not differ between Podcast+Mobile (mean 2.3, SD 1.9 days/week) and Podcast groups (mean 1.9, SD 1.7 days/week; P = .28) but method of monitoring did differ. Podcast+Mobile participants were 3.5 times more likely than the Podcast group to use an app to monitor diet (P = .01), whereas the majority of Podcast participants reported using the Web (14/41, 34%) or paper (12/41, 29%). There were more downloads per episode in the Podcast+Mobile group (1.4/person) than in the Podcast group (1.1/person; P < .001). The number of podcasts participants reported downloading over the 6-month period was significantly moderately correlated with weight loss in both the Podcast+Mobile (r = –.46, P = .001) and the Podcast (r = –.53, P < .001) groups. Podcast+Mobile participants felt more user control at 3 months (P = .02), but not at 6 months, and there was a trend (P = .06) toward greater elaboration among Podcast+Mobile participants. There were significant differences in reported source of social support between groups. More Podcast participants relied on friends (11/40, 28% vs 4/40, 10%; P = .045) whereas Podcast+Mobile participants relied on online sources (10/40, 25% vs 0/40; P = .001). Conclusions Results confirm and extend previous findings showing a minimally intensive weight-loss intervention can be delivered via podcast, but prompting and mobile communication via Twitter and monitoring app without feedback did not enhance weight loss. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01139255; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01139255 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/625OjhiDy)

Tate, Deborah

2011-01-01

83

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings  

SciTech Connect

We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N?1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2013-11-15

84

Spin-orbit sum rule for electric multipole transitions in nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering.  

PubMed

The sum rule for the branching ratio of dipole-excited core-valence transitions in isotropic x-ray absorption spectroscopy is extended to electric multipole transitions. The derived sum rule not only shows that the branching ratio is linearly related to the expectation value of the angular part of the spin-orbit operator in the valence states, but also shows a strong dependence on the rank of the multipole. The spin-orbit dependence vanishes in the weighted sum over the branching ratios. The effect can be an important diagnostic tool for high-energy spectroscopies. PMID:22401253

van der Laan, G

2012-02-17

85

A New Sum Analogous to Gauss Sums and Its Fourth Power Mean  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of this paper is to use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind of new sum analogous to Gauss sums and give an interesting fourth power mean and a sharp upper bound estimate for it.

Ru, Shaofeng

2014-01-01

86

The Gerasimov Drell Hearn sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

? Sum rules measurements involving the spin structure of the nucleon like those due to Bjorken, Ellis and Jaffe and the one due to Gerasimov, Drell and Hearn allow us to study the structure of strong interactions. At long distance scales in the confinement regime the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule (Eq. (1)) connects static properties of the nucleon-like the anomalous magnetic moment and the nucleon mass-with the difference of spin dependent doubly polarized total absorption cross sections of real photons. Hence, the full spin-dependent excitation spectrum of the nucleon is being related to its static properties. The sum rule has not been investigated experimentally until recently. Now, for the first time this fundamental sum rule is verified by the GDH-Collaboration with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons at the two accelerators ELSA and MAMI. The investigation of the response of the proton as well as of the neutron allows us to perform an isospin decomposition. Further investigations with real photons are scheduled at SLAC, JLAB, SPRING-8, LEGS and GRAAL. The integral (sum) of the GDH sum rule can be generalized to the case of virtual photons. This allows us to establish a Q2 dependency and to study the transition to the perturbative regime of QCD. Ultimately, the GDH sum rule can be related to the Bjorken and the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. This transition is the subject of several experiments e.g. at JLAB for the resonance region and of the HERMES experiment at DESY for higher Q2. This contribution covers the status of theory concerning the GDH sum rule as well as the experimental approaches and their results for the absorption of real and virtual photons. We point out that the so-called No-Subtraction hypothesis, often considered the weakest part of the derivation of the GDH sum rule, in fact follows from unitarity and does not impair the fundamental character of the GDH sum rule. The experimental data verify the GDH sum rule for the proton at the level of 8% including the systematic uncertainties from extrapolations to unmeasured energy regions. For the GDH sum rule on the neutron and the isovector case we find unexpected contributions at photon energies above 1 GeV.

Helbing, Klaus

2006-10-01

87

Precision digital pulse phase generator  

SciTech Connect

A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

88

Precision digital pulse phase generator  

DOEpatents

A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-10-08

89

Digital wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages:

Alfred Hübler

2009-01-01

90

Digital spacecraft ionosondes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is provided of the Satellite Digisonde 128S, taking into account the multiplication of the trigonometric functions with the sine\\/cosine data samples, the look-up table for the trigonometric weights in the Discrete Fourier Transform, the fast spectrum analysis, the processing controller, aspects of digital data flow, and the Maximum Amplitude Mode used for creation of multiparameter digital ionograms. The

K. Bibl

1981-01-01

91

Digital Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

2002-01-01

92

The generalized GDH sum for He-3  

SciTech Connect

The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q^2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a He-3 target at low Q^2.

Karl Slifer

2004-06-02

93

Effective continuum threshold in dispersive sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We study the accuracy of the bound-state parameters obtained with the method of dispersive sum rules, one of the most popular theoretical approaches in nonperturbative QCD and hadron physics. We make use of a quantum-mechanical potential model since it provides the only possibility to probe the reliability and the accuracy of this method: one obtains the bound-state parameters from sum rules and compares these results with the exact values calculated from the Schroedinger equation. We investigate various possibilities to fix the crucial ingredient of the method of sum rules - the effective continuum threshold - and propose modifications which lead to a remarkable improvement of the accuracy of the extracted ground-state parameters compared to the standard procedures adopted in the method. Although the rigorous control of systematic uncertainties in the method of sum rules remains unfeasible, the application of the proposed procedures in QCD promises a considerable increase of the actual accuracy of the extracted hadron parameters.

Lucha, Wolfgang [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050, Vienna (Austria); Melikhov, Dmitri [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050, Vienna (Austria); Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090, Vienna (Austria); D. V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Simula, Silvano [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy)

2009-05-01

94

A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed {rho}-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2011-05-23

95

The Generalized Gdh Sum for 3HE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a 3He target at low Q2.

Slifer, Karl

2005-02-01

96

Sum and difference histograms for texture classification.  

PubMed

The sum and difference of two random variables with same variances are decorrelated and define the principal axes of their associated joint probability function. Therefore, sum and difference histograms are introduced as an alternative to the usual co-occurrence matrices used for texture analysis. Two maximum likelihood texture classifiers are presented depending on the type of object used for texture characterization (sum and difference histograms or some associated global measures). Experimental results indicate that sum and difference histograms used conjointly are nearly as powerful as cooccurrence matrices for texture discrimination. The advantage of the proposed texture analysis method over the conventional spatial gray level dependence method is the decrease in computation time and memory storage. PMID:21869331

Unser, M

1986-01-01

97

QCD sum rule analysis of the pentaquark  

SciTech Connect

We perform a QCD sum rule calculation to determine the mass and the parity of the lowest lying pentaquark state. We include operators up to dimension d=13 in the operator product expansion and the direct instanton contributions. We find evidence for a positive parity state. The contribution from operators of dimension d>5 is instrumental in determining the parity of the state and achieving the convergence of the sum rule.

Lee, Hee-Jung [Departament de Fisica Teorica and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kochelev, N. I. [School of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Vento, V. [Departament de Fisica Teorica and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

2006-01-01

98

Continuity and Stability of Partial Entropic Sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensions of Fannes’ inequality with partial sums of the Tsallis entropy are obtained for both the classical and quantum cases. The definition of kth partial sum under the prescribed order of terms is given. Basic properties of introduced entropic measures and some applications are discussed. The derived estimates provide a complete characterization of the continuity and stability properties in the refined scale. The results are also reformulated in terms of Uhlmann’s partial fidelities.

Rastegin, Alexey E.

2010-12-01

99

A sum-rule of luminescence spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work will discuss the sum rule of the luminescence spectrum, h nu(sub 1) + h nu(sub 2) = E(sub g), observed for semiconductors doped with transition metal impurities. h nu(sub 1) and h nu(sub 2), respectively, denote the photon energy of the zero phonon line (ZPL) in the infrared band and in the blue band. The sum of these

Pinchas Dahan

1991-01-01

100

The weighted region problem: finding shortest paths through a weighted planar subdivision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining shortest paths through a weighted planar polygonal subdivision with n vertices is considered. Distances are measured according to a weighted Euclidean metric: The length of a path is defined to be the weighted sum of (Euclidean) lengths of the subpaths within each region. An algorithm that constructs a (restricted) “shortest path map” with respect to a

Joseph S. B. Mitchell; Christos H. Papadimitriou

1991-01-01

101

Generalized constructive tree weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

102

Digital generator for adjustment and testing of electrical prospecting equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block diagram is described of a circuit that generates a digital signal representing a sum of exponents with initial values and attenuation constants against the background of sinusoidal noise of a given frequency and amplitude.

P. P. Dravich

1993-01-01

103

Digital generator for adjustment and testing of electrical prospecting equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block diagram is described of a circuit that generates a digital signal representing a sum of exponents with initial values and attenuation constants against the background of sinusoidal noise of a given frequency and amplitude.

Dravich

1994-01-01

104

Microcomputer Selection of a Predictor Weighting Algorithm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An empirical method called Predicted Error Sum of Squares (PRESS) is advanced and studied. This method is used to examine the cross-validated prediction accuracies of some popular algorithms for weighted predictor variables. The weighting methods that were considered were ordinary least squares, ridge regression, regression on principal…

Morris, John D.

105

A New Approach for Weighted Constraint Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problem which is an important problem in Artificial Intelligence. Given a set ofvariables, their domains and a set ofconstraints between variables, our goal is to obtain an assignment ofthe variables to domain values such that the weighted sum ofsatisfied con- straints is maximized. In this paper, we present a new approach based on randomized

Hoong Chuin Lau

2002-01-01

106

Coincidence summing corrections applied to volume sources.  

PubMed

The numerical calculation of coincidence summing corrections requires both the total and full-energy peak efficiencies to be included in the corrective factors. Moreover, in the case of volume sources, the coincidence probability depends on the position of the photon emission inside the radioactive sample, thus it is necessary to calculate the coincidence summing corrective factors by integrating the elemental contributions for the entire volume. The software ETNA calculates coincidence summing corrective factors according to a deterministic method, for volume sources, two approaches are included in the software: the "simplified" calculation uses directly the efficiency of the volume source like in the case of point source, and the "complete" calculation performs the volume integration. To assess the difference between these, different geometrical cases are tested for several radionuclides using both methods. PMID:22410298

Lépy, Marie-Christine; Ferreux, Laurent; Pierre, Sylvie

2012-09-01

107

Wavelet-based relative prefix sum methods for range sum queries in data cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining and related applications often rely on extensive range sum queries and thus, it is important for these queries to scale well. Range sum queries in data cubes can be achieved in time ) query and update methods twice as fast as Haarbased methods. Moreover, since these new methods are pyramidal, they provide incrementally improving estimates.

Daniel Lemire

2002-01-01

108

QCD sum rules for the anticharmed pentaquark  

SciTech Connect

We present a QCD sum rule analysis for the anticharmed pentaquark state with and without strangeness. While the sum rules for most of the currents are either nonconvergent or dominated by the DN continuum, the one for the nonstrange pentaquark current composed of two diquarks and an antiquark is convergent and has a structure consistent with a positive-parity pentaquark state after subtracting out the DN continuum contribution. Arguments are presented on the similarity between the result of the present analysis and that based on the constituent quark models, which predict a more stable pentaquark state when the antiquark is heavy.

Sarac, Yasemin [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kim, Hungchong [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Houng [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-01-01

109

Sum rules for exchange and correlation potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent papers [S. Liu, P. W. Ayers, and R. G. Parr, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6927 (1999); A. Görling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5459 (1999)] have stated that ??2?xc(r)dr=4?, where ?xc(r) is the exchange-correlation potential of density functional theory. Here, we derive this sum rule and related rules such as ??2?x(r)dr=4? and ??2?c(r)dr=0, where ?x(r) and ?c(r) are the exchange and correlation components of ?xc(r). Using similar methods, we derive the sum rule for the ``screening'' portion of the exchange-correlation potential and also ``generalized'' sum rules for ?c(r) and the ``response'' portion of the exchange-correlation potential, vxcresponse(r). From the sum rule for vxcresponse(r), we deduce the asymptotic decay of the density response of the hole-correlation function. We conclude by discussing the probable utility of these results for the development of new exchange-correlation functionals.

Ayers, Paul W.; Levy, Mel

2001-09-01

110

Conductor of the Jacobi Sum Hecke Character.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, Coleman-McCallum (paper dated 1988) determined completely the precise conductor of the Jacobi sum Hecke character, using the stable reduction of Fermat curves. In the present paper, the authors will give a purely number theoretic proof to their ...

H. Miki

1992-01-01

111

On the sum of generalized Fibonacci sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the generalized Fibonacci sequence {Un defined by U0 = 0, U1 = 1, and Un+2 = pUn+1+qUn for all n?Z0+ and p, q?Z+. In this paper, we derived various sums of the generalized Fibonacci sequence from their recursive relations.

Chong, Chin-Yoon; Ho, C. K.

2014-06-01

112

Riemann Sums: A Symbolic and Graphical Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo uses a computer algebra system to investigate various approximations to the definite integral. Right hand endpoint, left hand endpoint and midpoint Riemann sums as well as trapezoidal and Simpson's rules are expressed in closed form as functions of the change in x.

Roberts, Lila F.

113

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

114

Decay constants of heavy-light vector mesons from QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit QCD sum rules for the decay constants of heavy-light mesons. In the sum rules for the vector mesons B(s)* and D(s)* we improve the accuracy of OPE, taking into account the O(?s2) terms in the perturbative part and calculating the O(?s) corrections to the quark-condensate contribution. With this accuracy, we obtain the ratios of decay constants: fB*/fB=1.02-0.03+0.07, fD*/fD=1.20-0.07+0.10. The sum rule predictions for the decay constants of pseudoscalar mesons are updated with the results fB=(207-9+17)MeV, fBs=(242-12+17)MeV, fD=(201-13+12)MeV, fDs=(238-23+13)MeV. In order to assess the sensitivity of our calculation to the form of the sum rule, we consider alternative versions such as the power moments and Borel sum rules with different weights of the spectral density. We also investigated the heavy-quark limit of the sum rules for vector and pseudoscalar mesons, estimating the violations of the heavy-quark spin and flavor symmetry.

Gelhausen, P.; Khodjamirian, A.; Pivovarov, A. A.; Rosenthal, D.

2013-07-01

115

Popular weight reduction diets.  

PubMed

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

116

A method to compute periodic sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a number of problems in computational physics, a finite sum of kernel functions centered at N particle locations located in a box in three dimensions must be extended by imposing periodic boundary conditions on box boundaries. Even though the finite sum can be efficiently computed via fast summation algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), the periodized extension is usually treated via a different algorithm, Ewald summation, accelerated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). A different approach to compute this periodized sum just using a blackbox finite fast summation algorithm is presented in this paper. The method splits the periodized sum into two parts. The first, comprising the contribution of all points outside a large sphere enclosing the box, and some of its neighbors, is approximated inside the box by a collection of kernel functions (“sources”) placed on the surface of the sphere or using an expansion in terms of spectrally convergent local basis functions. The second part, comprising the part inside the sphere, and including the box and its immediate neighborhood, is treated via available summation algorithms. The coefficients of the sources are determined by least squares collocation of the periodicity condition of the total potential, imposed on a circumspherical surface for the box. While the method is presented in general, details are worked out for the case of evaluating electrostatic potentials and forces. Results show that when used with the FMM, the periodized sum can be computed to any specified accuracy, at an additional cost of the order of the free-space FMM. Several technical details and efficient algorithms for auxiliary computations are provided, as are numerical comparisons.

Gumerov, Nail A.; Duraiswami, Ramani

2014-09-01

117

Digital orthophotos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital orthophoto is a digital image of an aerial photograph with displacements caused by the camera angle and the terrain removed. It, thus, combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map.

U.S. Geological Survey

1993-01-01

118

Digital Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines a digital photograph as a numerical record of light electronically measured and recorded by a computer's scanner. States that most personal computers cannot do digital photography successfully and that digital pictures can be hard to manage and present a storage problem. Finds that, once the school has the hardware/software, picture…

Howell, Les

1996-01-01

119

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss Expectations and Goals share Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss No matter what your weight loss ... Read full story >> share 3 Steps for Setting Physical Activity Goals Think about the "big picture" of your ...

120

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 91...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2013-07-01

122

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2012-07-01

123

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 91...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2011-07-01

124

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2010-07-01

125

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2011-07-01

126

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 91...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2012-07-01

127

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 91...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2010-07-01

128

Demonstration of a Quantum Nondemolition Sum Gate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum gate is the canonical two-mode gate for universal quantum computation based on continuous quantum variables. It represents the natural analogue to a qubit C-NOT gate. In addition, the continuous-variable gate describes a quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction between the quadrature components of two light modes. We experimentally demonstrate a QND sum gate, employing the scheme by R. Filip, P. Marek, and U. L. Andersen [Phys. Rev. A 71, 042308 (2005)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.71.042308], solely based on off-line squeezed states, homodyne measurements, and feedforward. The results are verified by simultaneously satisfying the criteria for QND measurements in both conjugate quadratures.

Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Miwa, Yoshichika; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L.; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

2008-12-01

129

Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.  

PubMed

We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA. PMID:24329272

Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

2013-11-01

130

The Coulomb sum rule of 40Ca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the Coulomb sum rule of40Ca for the momentum transfer q=2.0 fm-1 in the framework of traditional nuclear many-body theory, namely, by using the G-matrix and the extended RPA theory. We have evaluated the one-body part (total chargeZ and the two-body part (two-body correlation function) of the Coulomb sum rule separately. A considerable part of the missing charge in the existing experimental data is found to be explained maily by the ground state correlations induced by the tensor force. It was also found that the one-body part (charge Z) is not in the existing experimental data.

Takayanagi, Kazuo

1989-10-01

131

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

132

The wave digital piano hammer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For sound synthesis purposes, the vibration of a piano string may be simply modeled using bidirectional delay lines or digital waveguides which transport traveling wavelike signals in both directions. Such a digital wave-type formulation, in addition to yielding a particularly computationally efficient simulation routine, also possesses other important advantages. In particular, it is possible to couple the delay lines to a nonlinear exciting mechanism (the hammer) without compromising stability; in fact, if the hammer and string are lossless, their digital counterparts will be exactly lossless as well. The key to this good property (which can be carried over to other nonlinear elements in musical systems) is that all operations are framed in terms of the passive scattering of discrete signals in the network, the sum of the squares of which serves as a discrete-time Lyapunov function for the system as a whole. Simulations are presented.

Bilbao, Stefan D.; Smith, Julius O., III; Bensa, Julien; Kronland-Martinet, Richard

2002-11-01

133

Digital Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Imaging is the computer processed numerical representation of physical images. Enhancement of images results in easier interpretation. Quantitative digital image analysis by Perceptive Scientific Instruments, locates objects within an image and measures them to extract quantitative information. Applications are CAT scanners, radiography, microscopy in medicine as well as various industrial and manufacturing uses. The PSICOM 327 performs all digital image analysis functions. It is based on Jet Propulsion Laboratory technology, is accurate and cost efficient.

1986-01-01

134

Measuring food intake with digital photography.  

PubMed

The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

2014-01-01

135

Digital printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

Sobotka, Werner K.

1997-02-01

136

Orlov, Tarasov, and the Robinson Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

A paper proving a result now commonly known as 'Robinson sum rule' was published by Orlov and Tarasov [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 34 651 (1958) Sov. Phys. JETP 34 339 (1958)] at about the same time that Robinson himself published the result [Phys. Rev. 111 373 (1958)]. We assigned ourselves the task of reviewing this work, as narrowly as possible, in hopes of understanding how it should be considered in view of the existing attribution. The chronology of the work is reviewed and the degree to which the two works were independent and have qualitatively different content is considered.

Talman, Richard; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

2011-12-01

137

(Not) summing over Kaluza-Klein states  

SciTech Connect

Models in extra dimensions have unique features. Many of their surprising properties simply result from the underlying 5D structure. This structure shows up as 'sum rules' involving the whole tower of Kaluza-Klein factors. In this paper, we present a holographic shortcut and derive these results without solving the eigenvalue problem: we express 4D physical quantities directly in terms of the 5D metric. In warped space, one can go further and isolate the effect of the new physics sector. This method can be used for any 5D model, and we apply it here to the case of holographic QCD and holographic technicolor.

Hirn, Johannes [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sanz, Veronica [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2007-08-15

138

Nonlocal condensate model for QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the Källén-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to Q?10 GeV. It is observed that the nonlocal quark condensate contribution descends like 1/Q, different from the exponential decrease in Q obtained in the literature, and contrary to the linear rise in the local-condensate approximation.

Hsieh, Ron-Chou; Li, Hsiang-nan

2011-04-01

139

Multidimensional Gaussian sums arising from the distribution of Birkhoff sums in zero entropy dynamical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A duality formula, of the Hardy and Littlewood type for multidimensional Gaussian sums, is proved in order to estimate the asymptotic long-time behaviour of the distribution of the Birkhoff sums Sn of a sequence generated by a skew product dynamical system on the {\\bb T}^2 torus, with zero Lyapounov exponents. The sequence, taking the values ±1, is a pairwise independent (but not independent otherwise) ergodic sequence with infinite range dependence. The model corresponds to the motion of a particle on an infinite cylinder, hopping backward and forward along its axis, with a transversal acceleration parameter ?. We show that when the parameter ?/? is rational then all the moments of the normalized sums E((S_n/\\sqrt{n})^k) , but the second, are unbounded with respect to n, while for irrational ?/?, with bounded continuous fraction representation, all these moments are finite and bounded with respect to n.

Bernardo, M.; Courbage, M.; Truong, T. T.

2004-12-01

140

On the PDF of the sum of random vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various cases in physics and engineering sciences (especially communications) where one requires the envelope probability density function (PDF) of the sum of several random sinusoidal signals. According to the correspondence between a random sinusoidal signal and a random vector, the sum of random vectors can be considered as an abstract mathematical model for the above sum. Now it

Ali Abdi; Homayoun Hashemi; Said Nader-Esfahani

2000-01-01

141

Interpreting the Four Types of Sums of Squares in SPSS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes three possible research designs using each of the four types of sums of squares in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). When the design is balanced (i.e., each cell has the same number of observations), all of the SPSS types of sums of squares yield equivalent results (testable hypotheses and sums of squares)…

Tanguma, Jesus; Speed, F. M.

142

Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2009-12-15

143

A sum-rule of luminescence spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work will discuss the sum rule of the luminescence spectrum, h nu(sub 1) + h nu(sub 2) = E(sub g), observed for semiconductors doped with transition metal impurities. h nu(sub 1) and h nu(sub 2), respectively, denote the photon energy of the zero phonon line (ZPL) in the infrared band and in the blue band. The sum of these two photon energy lines gives the band gap energy, E(sub g). The origin of the ZPL photon energy in the infrared band h nu(sub 1) is known and well explained by the intra-center transition between the two levels which results from the splitting by the ligand field potential. The origin of the ZPL photon energy in the blue band is explained in this work. The ZPL photon energy in the blue band is due to a second order process, which involves transition interference between the radiative term, P and the nonadiabatic term, L. The intensity of this process is essentially enhanced owing to a peculiar resonance of a Fermi type between the photon, phonons and the impurity transition. The essential conditions allowing this ZPL to be measured are that there is strong displacement in the Jahn-Teller effect and that the energy levels of the impurity are deep levels.

Dahan, Pinchas

1991-09-01

144

Why Digitize?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a response to discussions of digitization at meetings of the National Humanities Alliance (NHA). NHA asked the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) to evaluate the experiences of cultural institutions with digitization projects to date and to summarize what has been learned about the advantages and disadvantages of…

Smith, Abby

145

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

Salathe, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

146

Digital Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exactly is digital archaeology? It's the documentation of the "formative years of digital culture" and it all happens right here on this site. Digital Archaeology was unveiled in London as part of Internet Week Europe 2010, bringing together a selection of sites to promote the concept of digital preservation. The main focus here is "Error 404," an exhibition that celebrates the golden age of the website, complete with profiles of classic sites on the "hardware and software of their day." The homepage features such articles as "Digital Revolution at the Barbican" and "The Secret History of WiFi.' Visitors can also check out the latest tweets and of course the "Error 404" exhibition itself. The Archives and Tags sections provide another fun way to explore the site.

147

Summing NaI(Tl) detector (SuN) for radioactive beam experiments relevant for the p-process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P-process refers to (?,p), (?,?) and (?,n) reactions producing nuclei on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability that cannot be reached by s- and r-processes. This process can be investigated via inversed reactions, i.e. proton or alpha capture with gamma emission. Gamma spectra resulting from capture reactions, may be complicated in structure and as such difficult to analyze. However, this difficulty may be omitted by implementing a summing technique, for which all gamma rays emitted during the decay cascade are summed into one peak, so called ``sum peak.'' Thus, in ideal case, the resulting spectrum will comprise of one peak of the energy E=Ecm+Q. This technique has already been successfully tested during stable beam experiments. In order to apply this technique to radioactive beam experiments a new Summing NaI(Tl) (SuN) detector was designed at NSCL. It is a 16x16 inch cylindrical barrel divided into eight optically separated segments, each of them read by three photomultipliers. Each of the PMTs is read independently by a digital data acquisition system (DDAS) and the final sum spectrum is obtained by software summing of the individual spectra. Here, first results obtained with the SuN detector as well as its possible future applications will be presented.

Simon, Anna; Beskin, Ilya; Liddick, Sean; Padmanabhan, Karthik; Peace, Jessica; Quinn, Stephen; Spyrou, Artemis; Stefanek, Benjamin

2011-10-01

148

On Multiple Sums of Products of Lucas Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies some sums of products of the Lucas numbers. They are a generalization of the sums of the Lucas numbers, which were studied another authors. These sums are related to the denominator of the generating function of the kth powers of the Fibonacci numbers. We considered a special case for an even positive integer k in the previous paper and now we generalize this result to an arbitrary positive integer k. These sums are expressed as the sum of the binomial and Fibonomial coefficients. The proofs of the main theorems are based on special inverse formulas.

Seibert, Jaroslav; Trojovský, Pavel

2007-04-01

149

Subset Weight Maximization with Two Competing Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a game of two agents competing to add items into a solution set. Each agent owns a set of weighted items and seeks\\u000a to maximize the sum of their weights in the solution set. In each round each agent submits one item for inclusion in the solution.\\u000a We study two natural rules to decide the winner of each

Gaia Nicosia; Andrea Pacifici; Ulrich Pferschy

2009-01-01

150

Weight Discrimination  

MedlinePLUS

... Journal of Health Psychology follows an analysis of "stigma diaries" that were kept by 50 overweight and ... The researchers say these findings suggest that weight stigma may be much more common than previously thought. ...

151

Weight simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

152

Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.

Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.

1997-01-01

153

Analog simulation of flux-summing servo-model, phases 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analog simulation was developed for a closed-loop system having an electrohydraulic flux-summing servo valve and actuator with associated inertial load. One-fourth of the system's total forward gain is carried by each of four channels. The present study successfully applied failure mode management techniques to the problem of channel failure. Digital logic circuitry was developed to maintain the overall forward gain of the system at a constant value, in the presence of channel failure. Finally, the stability of the system was verified, and performance characteristics were determined through the use of frequency response methods.

Hriber, E. J.

1984-01-01

154

Digital epidemiology.  

PubMed

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J; Brewer, Devon D; Brownstein, John S; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

155

Digital Pulse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When high technology crashes into popular culture you've got Digital Pulse, the heartbeat of the infotainment infobahn with exclusive news and tips from the experts at CMP's Windows Magazine, NetGuide, Home PC and more. This week read about Adam Curry's deal with BMI which will let him sell (and us buy) digital recordings over the 'Net. Free registration is required on Pathfinder, Time Warner's home on the internet.

156

Learning capacitive weights in analog CMOS neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementations of artificial neural networks as analog VLSI circuits differ in their method of synaptic weight storage (digital weights, analog EEPROMs, or capacitive weights) and in whether learning is performed locally at the synapses or off-chip. In this paper, we explain the principles of analog networks with in situ or local synaptic learning of capacitive weights, with test results of

Howard C. Card; Christian R. Schneider; Roland S. Schneider

1994-01-01

157

Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kazak

1988-01-01

158

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... for your specific condition. ©1995-2010, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com hp180102 Last reviewed: 09/01/2010 4 You can use the graph on the previous page to find your BMI. Find your weight on the bottom of the ...

159

Birth Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because the parents are big, or the mother has diabetes during pregnancy. These babies may be at a higher risk of birth injuries and problems with blood ...

160

Baby Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use a rule of thumb about the weight of babies to practice doubling and halving numbers. They complete an organized table and compare data using vertical and horizontal double bar graphs. The lesson includes a student activity sheet and extension ideas.

Cook, Marcy

2008-01-01

161

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control and Sum of Squares Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the use of sum of squares techniques in nonlinear model predictive control. To be more precise, sum of\\u000a squares techniques are used to solve at each sampling instant a finite horizon optimal control problem which arises in nonlinear\\u000a model predictive control for discrete time polynomial systems. The combination of nonlinear model predictive control and sum\\u000a of squares

T. Raff; C. Ebenbauer; R. Findeisen; F. Allgöwer

162

78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The FMCSA proposes to revise the definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the GCWR specified by the manufacturer of the power unit, if displayed on the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) certification label required by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), or the sum of the gross vehicle weight ratings......

2013-05-07

163

Algorithm 676: ODRPACK: software for weighted orthogonal distance regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe ODRPACK, a software package for the weighted orthogonal distance regression problem. This software is an implementation of the algorithm described in [2] for finding the parameters that minimize the sum of the squared weighted orthogonal distances from a set of observations to a curve or surface determined by the parameters. It can also be used

Paul T. Boggs; Janet R. Donaldson; Richaard h. Byrd; Robert B. Schnabel

1989-01-01

164

Unitarity of Highest Weight Modules for Quantum Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We determine the highest weights that give rise to unitarity when q isreal. We further show that when q is on the unit circle and q 6= \\\\Sigma1, then unitaryhighest weight representations must be finite dimensional and q must be a root ofunity. We analyze the special case of the "ladder" representations for su(m; n).Finally we show how the

Hans Plesner Jakobsen

1997-01-01

165

Design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an infant weight scale is reported that fits into an isolette without disturbing its controlled atmosphere. The scale platform uses strain gages to measure electronically deflections of cantilever beams positioned at its four corners. The weight of the infant is proportional to the sum of the output voltages produced by the gauges on each beam of the scale.

Peterka, R. J.; Griffin, W.

1974-01-01

166

Statistics of weighted treelike networks.  

PubMed

We study the statistics of growing networks with a tree topology in which each link carries a weight (k(i) k(j))(theta) , where k(i) and k(j) are the node degrees at the end points of link ij . Network growth is governed by preferential attachment in which a newly added node attaches to a node of degree k with rate A(k) =k+lambda . For general values of theta and lambda , we compute the total weight of a network as a function of the number of nodes N and the distribution of link weights. Generically, the total weight grows as N for lambda>theta-1 and superlinearly otherwise. The link weight distribution is predicted to have a power-law form that is modified by a logarithmic correction for the case lambda=0 . We also determine the node strength, defined as the sum of the weights of the links that attach to the node, as function of k . Using known results for degree correlations, we deduce the scaling of the node strength on k and N . PMID:15903510

Almaas, E; Krapivsky, P L; Redner, S

2005-03-01

167

Digital Light Projector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Quicktime animation of a Digital Light Projector. A digital light projector provides the capability to display a video or computer monitor signal on a projection screen. Such a projector stands out by its small size, low weight and rather unique use of MEMS. The internal light path starts with a bright halogen source, which is guided through the color wheel, reflects off the MEMS chip and is projected through the projector lens. A close-up of the color wheel and MEMS chip reveals the internal lens and beamsplitter. The micromirror chip is mounted in a package with a transparent window onto the printed circuit board. An even closer view shows the active element: a large array of little mirrors. Millions of these mirrors, each smaller than 20 micron, are packed onto the micromirror chip.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2012-09-05

168

Digital filter for voiceband noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device operates over 300 to 3000 hertz range and contains 10 bit, 10 kilohertz converters and equally fast registers. Combination and weights of digital samples of analog signal are utilized by device to reconstruct signal with noise above 3000 hertz eliminated.

Edwards, T. R.; Zeanah, H. W.

1977-01-01

169

Cepstrum digital image watermarking algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel digital image watermarking technique in the cepstrum domain is proposed. The watermark is weighted in the cepstrum domain according to the distribution of cepstral coefficients and the characteristics of human visual system. The watermark is imperceptibly inserted in a spread-spectrum-like fashion into the cepstral components of the original image and the embedded watermark can be uniquely detected without

Zhang Min-rui; Lu Chen-hong; Yi Ke-chu

2004-01-01

170

Weighted PCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified form of pulse-code modulation, called weighted pcm, is described in which the relative amplitudes of the pulses within the pulse-code groups are adjusted so as to minimize the noise power in the reconstructed signal due to errors in transmission. A performance analysis shows the knee of the output signal-to-noise ratio curve to be moved 1.4 db to the

E. Bedrosian

1958-01-01

171

Truncated sequential CFAR detectors using weighted sign and weighted conditional sign tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose truncated sequential constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors which are approximations of the optimum sequential sign and sequential conditional sign detectors. The particular approximations used here allow exact evaluation of the performances. These detectors form a test statistic by taking the weighted sum of the outputs of a hard-limiter in one case and a dead-zone

Sawasd Tantaratana

1995-01-01

172

Digital Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Digital Bridges Web site consists of a collection of thirty representative 19th century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections." The archive provides an interesting retrospective into the beginnings of major bridge projects; the material is complete with high-resolution photographs and text scanned from original books. In addition to historical literature, Digital Bridges also features brief accounts of notable people and companies that influenced bridge construction across the country. A glossary of terms commonly used in the documents is also provided.

2002-01-01

173

Digital Theatre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Theater is a truly unique concept, working with Britain's leading theatre companies "to capture live performance authentically onscreen." From their homepage, visitors can Browse Productions, find out How to Watch, and read about Theatre Partners. A nice way to get started is by clicking on one (or more) of the Digital Theatre Originals, which include Much Ado About Nothing and Into the Woods. Additionally, visitors can make their way through offerings from the Royal Opera House or Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. Listings of Classic Plays, such as Far from the Maddening Crowd, can also be viewed here and purchased for a small fee.

174

Assessment of delay-and-sum algorithms for damage detection in aluminium and composite plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric sensors are increasingly being used in active structural health monitoring, due to their durability, light weight and low power consumption. In the present work damage detection and characterization methodologies based on Lamb waves have been evaluated for aircraft panels. The applicability of various proposed delay-and-sum algorithms on isotropic and composite stiffened panels have been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model for ultrasonic wave propagation in composite laminates is proposed and compared to signals recorded from experiments. A modified delay-and-sum algorithm is then proposed for detecting impact damage in composite plates with and without a stiffener which is shown to capture and localize damage with only four transducers.

Sharif-Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

2014-07-01

175

Programmable Digital Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

Wassick, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

176

Sum-discrepancy test on pseudorandom number generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a non-empirical test on pseudorandom number generators (prng), named sum-discrepancy test. We compute the distribution of the sum of consecu- tive m outputs of a prng to be tested, under the assumption that the initial state is uniformly randomly chosen. We measure its discrepancy from the ideal distribution, and then estimate the sample size which is necessary to

Makoto Matsumoto; Takuji Nishimura

2003-01-01

177

L1-convergence of modified complex trigonometric sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we shall study the L1-convergence of complex form of modified cosine and sine sums as a02+k = 1nj = kn?(ajcosjx) and k = 1nj = kn?(ajsinjx). Also, using the complex form of above modified trigonometric sums, we shall obtain a new necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of Fourier series.

Kaur, Jatinderdeep

2012-09-01

178

Chain Hexagonal Cacti with the Extremal Eccentric Distance Sum  

PubMed Central

Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti.

Qu, Hui

2014-01-01

179

College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…

Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.

2012-01-01

180

STAP for clutter suppression with sum and difference beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique approach for airborne radar clutter rejection is developed and evaluated. This spatial and temporal adaptive approach employs the sum and difference beams of an antenna, which has significant practical advantages because it can be implemented with no\\/little change to the front-end electronics of airborne systems where sum and difference beams already exist for other reasons. The low sidelobe

RUSSELL D. BROWN; R. A. Schneible; M. C. Wicks; Hong Wang; Yuhong Zhang

2000-01-01

181

Chiral restoration and the extended photoabsorption sum rule in nuclei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bethe-Levinger sum rule is extended beyond the potential model. The pion degrees of freedom are taken into account and the modifications of the potential theory are analyzed within two different approaches: dipole sum rule and dispersion relation on t...

M. Ericson M. Rosa-Clot S. A. Kulagin

1996-01-01

182

Range Sum Queries in Dynamic OLAP Data Cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range sum queries play an important role in analyzing data in data cubes. Many application domains require that data cubes should be updated quite often to provide real time information. Previous techniques for range sum queries, however, can incur an update cost of O(nd) in the worst case, where d is the number of dimensions of the data cube and

Hua-gang Li; Tok Wang Ling; Sin Yeung Lee; Zheng Xuan Loh

2001-01-01

183

A Strict Approach to Approximating Lognormal Sum Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the least squares (LS) approximation approach is applied to solve the approximation problem of a sum of lognormal random variables (RV). The least squares curve fitting technique is first used to obtain the approximated closed-form pdf of the sum RV. The second time use of the least squares curve fitting technique brings the explicit closed-form expressions of

Lian Zhao; Jiu Ding

2006-01-01

184

Relation between the monthly sums of sunshine and global radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The statistical treatment of the dependence of monthly sums of global radiation on the monthly sums of sunshine at the stations of Hradec Králové, Bratislava — Koliba and Hurbanovo is presented. The parameters of linear and quadratic regression are derived for the said stations and for the individual months of the year. Drawing on the statistical analysis of the

Jan Bednár; Jaroslava Kalvová; K. Vanícek

1980-01-01

185

Sums of variables at the onset of chaos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explain how specific dynamical properties give rise to the limit distribution of sums of deterministic variables at the transition to chaos via the period-doubling route. We study the sums of successive positions generated by an ensemble of initial conditions uniformly distributed in the entire phase space of a unimodal map as represented by the logistic map. We find that these sums acquire their salient, multiscale, features from the repellor preimage structure that dominates the dynamics toward the attractors along the period-doubling cascade. And we explain how these properties transmit from the sums to their distribution. Specifically, we show how the stationary distribution of sums of positions at the Feigebaum point is built up from those associated with the supercycle attractors forming a hierarchical structure with multifractal and discrete scale invariance properties.

Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Robledo, Alberto

2014-02-01

186

Digital PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of predefined mutations expected to be present in a minor fraction of a cell population is important for a variety of basic research and clinical applications. Here, we describe an approach for transforming the exponential, analog nature of the PCR into a linear, digital signal suitable for this purpose. Single molecules are isolated by dilution and individually amplified

Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W. Kinzler

1999-01-01

187

Digital Mammography  

Cancer.gov

Conventional mammography uses X-rays to look for tumors or suspicious areas in the breasts. Digital mammography also uses X-rays, but the data is collected on computer instead of on a piece of film. This means that the image can be computer-enhanced,

188

Digital Globe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to the Digital Globe have a front seat view of Lisbon, Portugal and the Phillipine Trench. The site offers two MPEG videos which animate topographic seafloor images. The video clips were created by David Sandwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Also available are nine images of seafloor topography from around the globe. Note that the videos are very large files.

189

Digital Badges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, they…

Frederiksen, Linda

2013-01-01

190

On a Class of C-Sample Weighted Rank-Sum Tests for Location and Scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A class of c-sample (c > or = 2) non-parametric tests for the homogeneity of location or scale parameters is proposed and their various properties studied. These tests are based on a family of congruent interquantile numbers, and may be regarded as the c-...

P. K. Sen Z. Govindarajulu

1965-01-01

191

Geophysical weight loss diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

Schatten, Kenneth

1984-04-01

192

Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents' Obesogenic Environment  

PubMed Central

Obesogenic built environments may contribute to excessive eating and obesity. Twenty-three 12- to 17-year-old low-income African American adolescents created digital diaries by photographing their lunchtime food environment in a summer academic program. Digitally depicted foods were classified as appearing on the platescape (student’s or others’ plate) or the tablescape (food buffet). Height, weight, BMI percentile, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated at baseline and week 4. Adolescents digitally depicted high caloric, high fat foods on the platescape and tablescape, particularly adolescents with a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Weight gain during the 4-week program was significantly predicted by the number of calories and the amount of fat content depicted on the student’s plates. Digital diaries, then, can document adolescents’ perspectives of their food environments that promote their overconsumption of high caloric and high fat foods that contribute to weight gain and put them at risk for obesity.

Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

193

Passive autofocusing for digital endoscopic imaging systems.  

PubMed

An autofocus is a desirable feature of an endoscope, because it relieves the user from performing a task which can be automated and thereby prevents unnecessary interruptions in the work to be performed. Autofocusing is in general best achieved by an active system, i.e., on the basis of a distance measurement. Yet, in handheld medical endoscopes such a method is unsuited because of the added weight associated with the necessary electromechanical components. Autofocusing should rather be performed passively, furthermore, in applications which are particularly critical with respect to safety, e.g., in the eye, a stable and reliable operation in real time and without interruption is necessary. Passive autofocus strategies applied to date and known to the authors lead however to algorithms which are either too slow for a real time implementation and/or are influenced by the structure of the object which is to be brought into focus. Accordingly, a new autofocus procedure has been developed which exhibits a stable and reliable operation in real time under all circumstances of interest. It is based on the squared differences of the intensity of adjacent points in both dimensions of a plane image (Square Plane Sum Modulus Difference, SPSMD) and as such particularly suitable for digital camera systems and real-time needs (typically, 30 evaluations per second on an image of 1024 x 1024 pixels). The SPSMD criterion is more sensitive, has a larger SNR than other focus criteria known to the authors and exhibits in particular no secondary extrema which could adversely affect proper focusing. As it includes intensity differences in both (perpendicular) directions in the image plane, it is essentially independent of image structures. PMID:11258137

Blessing, P; Häfliger, J; von Orelli, A; Niederer, P

2001-01-01

194

Distributed digital commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic commerce covers trading activities that are supported by information and communication technologies. Digital commerce defines a particular subset of electronic commerce. There are only digital products or digital services involved and every auxiliary used for trading is digital, either. Distributed digital commerce in particular is an approach to relocate digital commerce from client-server structures towards decentralized architectures. This paper

Markus Schmees

2003-01-01

195

Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources  

PubMed Central

Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.

Meegan, Daniel V.

2010-01-01

196

Algorithms to evaluate multiple sums for loop computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present algorithms to evaluate two types of multiple sums, which appear in higher-order loop computations. We consider expansions of a generalized hyper-geometric-type sums, ?n1,...,nN?(a1.n+c1)?(a2.n+c2)...?(aP.n+cP)?(b1.n+d1)?(b2.n+d2)...?(bQ.n+dQ)x1n1...xNnN with ai.n=?j=1Naijnj, etc., in a small parameter ? around rational values of ci,di's. Type I sum corresponds to the case where, in the limit ? --> 0, the summand reduces to a rational function of nj's times x1n1...xNnN ci,di's can depend on an external integer index. Type II sum is a double sum (N = 2), where ci, di's are half-integers or integers as ? --> 0 and xi = 1; we consider some specific cases where at most six ? functions remain in the limit ? --> 0. The algorithms enable evaluations of arbitrary expansion coefficients in ? in terms of Z-sums and multiple polylogarithms (generalized multiple zeta values). We also present applications of these algorithms. In particular, Type I sums can be used to generate a new class of relations among generalized multiple zeta values. We provide a Mathematica package, in which these algorithms are implemented.

Anzai, C.; Sumino, Y.

2013-03-01

197

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing digital and online technologies to teach different disciplines continues to be quite popular, and the Digital History website will be a most welcome find for teachers (and students) of American history. Developed in collaboration with the University of Houston, the Chicago Historical Society, the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston and several other entities the site includes an online American history textbook, an interactive timeline, a multimedia section, and a very rich selection of primary source materials. The multimedia section is a real find, as it contains several well-thought out lectures with titles like "The History of Domestic Violence", "The Cultural Civil War of the 1960s", and "America Today and America Past". Students will also appreciate the writing guide area, as it contains several short essays on how to write in a history class and how to compose a critical book review.

198

Digital psychiatry.  

PubMed

The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

Tang, S; Helmeste, D

2000-02-01

199

Digital Pigeon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking to send large files, why not give Digital Pigeon a try? With this free version of the program, users can send up to four 500MB files a month to three recipients. It's a great way to consolidate the transfer of large pieces of information, and the site includes a demonstration and an FAQ section. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2013-01-25

200

Digital Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wiki page provides a link to the recording of a webinar by Jessica Fries-Gaither. Jessica discusses digital storytelling and how can it be adapted for the middle school science classroom? Join her for an overview of this exciting multimedia art form and leave with basic how-to knowledge, ideas for science-specific projects, and resources to guide your implementation. Other links to the resources discussed in this webinar are also provided.

2009-08-12

201

Digital Darkroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It doesn't take a Photoshop expert to create attractive graphics for the Web. To prove this, the folks at MicroFrontier have released three graphic creation/editing packages for the Macintosh, each aimed at a different user level. All three applications support Photoshop 3.0 compatible plug-ins and basic features such as scanner support, image and resolution scaling, and basic image enhancement. Digital Darkroom (also available for Windows), aimed at graphic novices, has a number of features specifically geared for Web graphics. These include one-step extrusions, soft-edge drop shadows, and automatic image adjustment/enhancement. While file support is limited to JPEG, TIFF, BMP, and PICT, Digital Darkroom supports a built-in browser technology that allows users to view entire directories of graphics as a series of thumbnails. A save-disabled demo version of each application is available at the MicroFrontier Website. The price for Digital Darkroom is $39.95.

1998-01-01

202

Testing atmospheric mixing sum rules at precision neutrino facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the prospects for testing classes of atmospheric mixing sum rules at precision neutrino facilities. Such sum rules, which correlate the atmospheric mixing angle ?23 with the recently measured reactor angle ?13 and the cosine of the oscillation phase ?, are predicted by a variety of semidirect models based on discrete family symmetry classified in terms of finite von Dyck groups. We perform a detailed simulation of the performance of the next generation of oscillation experiments, including the wideband superbeam and low-energy neutrino factory proposals, and compare their discriminating power for testing atmospheric mixing sum rules.

Ballett, Peter; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A.

2014-01-01

203

Efficient Global Weighted Least-Squares Translation Registration in the Frequency Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The weighted sum of squared di erences cost function is of-ten minimized to align two images with overlapping fields of view. If one image is shifted with respect to the other, the cost function can be written as a sum involving convolutions. This paper demonstrates that performing these convolutions in the frequency domain saves a signifi-cant amount of processing

Jeff Orchard

2005-01-01

204

Wideband digital filter using FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

2000-07-01

205

Abortion weights.  

PubMed

Professor Walker (June 13, p. 1319) is right in saying that it is best to use both the weight of the fetus and its presumed gestational age as the criteria for the registration of a stillbirth, and that any fetus delivered before the end of the 22nd week, and weighing less than 500 g, can be assumed to have had no chance of survival and should therefore be regarded as an abortion and not as a stillbirth. The difficulty when using the dates alone, "fairly and honestly and properly assessed," in order to determine the legality of a procured abortion is that it is seldom easy to be be sure that they have been accurately reported, depending as they often do upon the word of the mother. Most of the distressing stories of aborted fetuses crying, or showing other signs of life, before 24 weeks probably mean that they were considerably older than was originally supposed. A medical practitioner responsible for procuring an abortion under the 1967 Act, who honestly believed that the child was incapable of surviving, and therefore not protected under the Infant Life (Preservation) Act 1929, would not be guilty of an offense if this belief turned out to have been mistaken, provided it had been formed in good faith after proper inquiries, and provided that everything possible had been done to save the child as soon as it was realized that it might have had a chance of survival. If the child had been viable, and had died as a in the belief that it was not, then it cannot be regarded as an abortion and thus be excluded from the perinatal mortality statistics. To make sure that this will not happen, the regulations would have to be amended to require that the notification sent to the (CMO) Chief Medical Officer should record not only the date of the last menstrual period (as to the present) but also the weight of the fetus at delivery. If this is under 500 g, it can be counted as an abortion, but if it is above the figure there ought to be an independent postmortem examination, with a report to the CMO as to whether, and, if so, why (e.g., because the lungs were not inflatable) the fetus was considered not to have been viable. Failing such positive evidence of inviability, any child over, say 500 g, which dies before or after a procured "abortion" ought to be recorded as a perinatal death. PMID:6113390

Goodhart, C B

1981-06-27

206

Quark model of nuclear matter and the Coulomb sum rule  

SciTech Connect

Subnucleonic degrees of freedom of nucleons, e.g., delta resonances, quark confinement, and dibaryons, are described in terms of the quark model of hadrons. Also, Coulomb sum rules from electron scattering from nuclei are discussed. (AIP)

Horowitz, C.J.; Panoff, R.

1984-11-15

207

Standardization of 65Zn by sum-peak method.  

PubMed

A commercial solution of (65)Zn was standardized by the sum peak-method using a planar HPGe detector. The activity results were compared with measurements made with a well type 4?? ionization chamber, which is traceable to BIPM.RI (II)-K2.Zn-65 key-comparison performed in 2002. The sum-peak value was 42.79 kBq/g and the ionization chamber value was 42.74 kBq/g both at the reference date. The uncertainty obtained in the sum peak standardization was 0.25% (k=1), and in the ionization chamber was 0.85% (k=1). The results showed that sum-peak method can be used in (65)Zn standardization and this method is easier, simpler and more practical than others methods. PMID:22425414

Oliveira, E M; Iwahara, A; Poledna, R; Delgado, J U; da Silva, C J; da Silva, R L; Lopes, R T

2012-09-01

208

Using Generic Detector Characterization Templates for Cascade Summing Correction  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in gamma-ray spectroscopy to correct for the effects of cascade summing has employed a methods based on characterizing the high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector response using mathematical techniques. An accurate correction, however, requires that the HPGe detector used in the measurement be characterized for its response. The present article describes the effort to determine the feasibility of employing a discrete number of generic detector response characterizations for carrying out cascade summing corrections on gamma-ray spectra obtained with noncharacterized HPGe detectors. The data obtained confirmed a strong dependency of the true coincidence summing effects on the active detector diameter; the true coincidence summing is much less dependent on the actual length (or thickness) of the Ge detector element for low to medium energies.

Venkataraman, Ram; Moeslinger, Martin

2001-06-17

209

Area Between Two Curves as Limits of Riemann Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo incorporates combines the visualization of approximating rectangles together with a graph of the approximate areas as a function of the number of rectangles. Thus, the limiting behavior of the approximating sums can be observed on the graph.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2000-05-13

210

Propagator and Slater sum in one-body potential theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a one-body potential V(r) generating eigenfunctions i(r) and corresponding eigenvalues i, the Feynman propagator K(r, r, t) is simply related to the canonical density matrix C(r, r}, beta) by beta it. The diagonal element S(r, r},beta) of C is the so-called Slater sum of statistical mechanics. Differential equations for the Slater sum are first briefly reviewed, a quite general

N. H. March; I. A. Howard

2003-01-01

211

Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

Bracco, M. E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rod. Presidente Dutra Km 298, Polo Industrial, 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

212

Optimisation of the Ewald Sum for Large Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are described for optimising the Ewald sum in the simulation of systems containing large numbers of charged particles. Expressions are given for the best choice of parameters to maximise performance for a specified accuracy. The algorithm for the real-space sum uses a “small-cell” version of the link-cell method. Various other computational details are discussed. In the simulation of real

David Fincham

1994-01-01

213

A sum rule for B(M1) strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sum rule for B(M1) strength is derived within the interacting boson model. This sum rule is used to extract the average number of quadrupole bosons in the ground states of collective nuclei. He would also like to thank Professor P. von Brentano, Dr. R. Casten, Professor T. Otsuka, and Professor A. Richter for stimulating discussions about B(M1) strengths.

Ginocchio, Joseph N.

1991-08-01

214

Digital arthrodesis.  

PubMed

For lesser toe deformities, fusion of the proximal interphalangeal joint offers good long-term correction and predictability. Digital arthrodesis has been described for longer than 100 years in the literature, and current techniques closely resemble those described in early accounts. However, many implants currently being used take advantage of the latest metallurgic and polymeric innovations, with implants being composed of nitinol, polylactic or polyglycolic acids, and polydioxanone. Newer implants offer easy insertion and good stability, with no percutaneous wires. Pin-tract infection rates from exposed Kirschner wires may be as high as 18%, and newer implants help to mitigate this problem. PMID:23827486

Zelen, Charles M; Young, Nathan J

2013-07-01

215

Digital Himalaya  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who feel that there may be a paucity of material on the Himalayan region, they will need to take a close look at this fine site provided through a collaboration between the Department of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University and the Anthropology Department at Cornell University. Since its inception in December 2000, the partners have managed to digitize a number of photographic collections, several journals, and a number of short films. Scholars with an interest in Himalayan studies will want to browse through the digitized volumes of such publications as Contributions to Nepalese Studies and the Journal of Bhutan Studies. One particularly intriguing collection made available here is the Frederick Williamson Collection. Williamson was a British political officer stationed in Sikkim, Bhutan, and Tibet during the 1930s. During his tenure there he and his wife took some 1,700 photographs documenting their experiences and also made a number of short films, which are also available for viewing on the site. Visitors to the site may also want to register with the project so that they are informed of project updates. [KMG

216

Banach Ideals of Operators Defined by Classes of Cone Absolutely Summing and Strongly Majorizing Mappings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ideals of absolutely delta summing and dual absolutely delta summing mappings are characterized as 'quotients' by continuous linear mappings of certain classes of cone absolutely summing and strongly majorizing mappings respectively. The ideals of del...

J. Swart J. J. Conradie

1979-01-01

217

An 8x8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners  

PubMed Central

This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM.

Shih, Y. C.; Sun, F. W.; MacDonald, L. R.; Otis, B. P.; Miyaoka, R. S.; McDougald, W.; Lewellen, T. K.

2010-01-01

218

Parametric representation of anatomical structures of the human body by means of trigonometric interpolating sums  

SciTech Connect

An approach for the parametric representation of anatomical structures of the human body by means of trigonometric interpolating sums (TIS) is introduced. This representation is constructed on the basis of the geometric information provided by medical digital images and an arbitrarily chosen system of curvilinear coordinates. The parameterization defined by these coordinates is approximated through TIS by using a multidimensional extension of the Lancozos`s method for accelerating the convergence of trigonometric approximations for smooth, nonperiodic functions. This allows us to obtain accurate representations for a wide class of anatomical structures, including nonclosed ones. An upper bound of the approximation error is derived in the sense of the supremum norm. The reconstruction of a human face and the surface of a brain cortex are shown as illustrative examples of the parameterization by means of TIS. 23 refs., 2 figs.

Jimenez, J.C.; Biscay, R.; Aubert, E. [Centro de Neurociencias de Cuba, La Habana (Cuba)] [Centro de Neurociencias de Cuba, La Habana (Cuba)

1996-07-01

219

The developmental evolution of avian digit homology: an update.  

PubMed

The identity of avian digits has been unresolved since the beginning of evolutionary morphology in the mid-19th century, i.e. as soon as questions of phylogenetic homology have been raised. The main source of concern is the persistent discrepancy between anatomical/paleontological and embryological evidence over the identity of avian digits. In this paper, recent evidence pertaining to the question of avian digit homology is reviewed and the various ideas of how to resolve the disagreement among developmental and phylogenetic evidence are evaluated. Paleontological evidence unequivocally supports the hypothesis that the fully formed digits of maniraptoran theropods are digits DI, DII, and DIII, because the phylogenetic position of Herrerasaurus is resolved, even when hand characters are excluded from the analysis. Regarding the developmental origin of the three digits of the avian hand the discovery of an anterior digit condensation in the limb bud of chickens and ostriches conclusively shows that these three digits are developing from condensations CII, CIII, and CIV. The existence of this additional anterior condensation has been confirmed in four different labs, using four different methods: Alcian blue staining, PNA affinity histochemistry, micro-capillary regression and Sox9 expression. Finally, recent evidence shows that the digit developing from condensation CII has a Hox gene expression pattern that is found in digit DI of mice forelimb and chick hind limbs. The sum of these data supports the idea that digit identity has shifted relative to the location of condensations, known as Frame Shift Hypothesis, such that condensation CII develops into digit DI and condensation CIII develops into digit DII, etc. A review of the literature on the digit identity of the Italian Three-toed Skink or Luscengola (Chalcides chalcides), shows that digit identity frame shifts may not be limited to the bird hand but may be characteristic of "adaptive" digit reduction in amniotes (sensu Steiner, H., Anders, G., 1946. Zur Frage der Entstehung von Rudimenten. Die Reduktion der Gliedmassen von Chalcides tridactylus Laur. Rev. Suisse Zool. 53, 537-546) in general. In this mode of evolution two digits are lost, in the course of the adaptation of the three anterior digits to a function that does not require the two posterior digits. This evidence suggests that the evolution of digits in tetrapods can proceed at least on two distinct levels of integration, the level of digit condensations and that of adult digits. PMID:17046354

Wagner, Günter P

2005-11-01

220

Assessment of the magnetic field exposure due to the battery current of digital mobile phones.  

PubMed

Hand-held digital mobile phones generate pulsed magnetic fields associated with the battery current. The peak value and the waveform of the battery current were measured for seven different models of digital mobile phones, and the results were applied to compute approximately the magnetic flux density and induced currents in the phone-user's head. A simple circular loop model was used for the magnetic field source and a homogeneous sphere consisting of average brain tissue equivalent material simulated the head. The broadband magnetic flux density and the maximal induced current density were compared with the guidelines of ICNIRP using two various approaches. In the first approach the relative exposure was determined separately at each frequency and the exposure ratios were summed to obtain the total exposure (multiple-frequency rule). In the second approach the waveform was weighted in the time domain with a simple low-pass RC filter and the peak value was divided by a peak limit, both derived from the guidelines (weighted peak approach). With the maximum transmitting power (2 W) the measured peak current varied from 1 to 2.7 A. The ICNIRP exposure ratio based on the current density varied from 0.04 to 0.14 for the weighted peak approach and from 0.08 to 0.27 for the multiple-frequency rule. The latter values are considerably greater than the corresponding exposure ratios 0.005 (min) to 0.013 (max) obtained by applying the evaluation based on frequency components presented by the new IEEE standard. Hence, the exposure does not seem to exceed the guidelines. The computed peak magnetic flux density exceeded substantially the derived peak reference level of ICNIRP, but it should be noted that in a near-field exposure the external field strengths are not valid indicators of exposure. Currently, no biological data exist to give a reason for concern about the health effects of magnetic field pulses from mobile phones. PMID:14695008

Jokela, Kari; Puranen, Lauri; Sihvonen, Ari-Pekka

2004-01-01

221

Research in digital adaptive flight controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

Kaufman, H.

1976-01-01

222

Digital Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Digital Communication, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume IV âÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Electrical signal types, Optical data communication, and Network topology. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-11

223

Digital Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.

Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

2002-01-01

224

Digital Faces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will "digitize" photographs of human faces using various grid sizes and shades of gray. Through this activity, they gain an understanding of image resolution and how much information is needed to answer various questions.This introductory activity introduces skills that are used to recognize and interpret remotely sensed images, such as aerial photos and satellite images. To complete the activity, educators reproduce 8"x10" head shots of students (or use magazine images), and need to create transparencies with grid squares of different sizes to overlay the photographs. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

225

Digital Durham  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Durham, North Carolina has been the subject of many scholarly works, and its particular location and context makes it a compelling place for persons interested in examining urbanization, immigration, industrialization, and emancipation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Created by Duke University and the North Carolina State Library, this digital archive presents a cornucopia of primary sources, including personal letters, entries from a prominent general store in the region, maps, and census data. Visitors should feel free to browse through these documents, or they can also perform a detailed search. Other features of the site include a brief geographic overview of the Piedmont region and a glossary of terms used in the 1880 census. Educators will enjoy looking over the "Teachers' Corner", which includes lesson plans that utilize some of the primary documents in the archive.

226

Digital structural  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.

Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Tanaka, K. L.

1998-01-01

227

Modern Summation Methods for Loop Integrals in Quantum Field Theory: The Packages Sigma, EvaluateMultiSums and SumProduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large class of Feynman integrals, like e.g., two-point parameter integrals with at most one mass and containing local operator insertions, can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric expressions. In this survey article we present a difference field approach for symbolic summation that enables one to simplify such definite nested sums to indefinite nested sums. In particular, the simplification is given -if possible- in terms of harmonic sums, generalized harmonic sums, cyclotomic harmonic sums or binomial sums. Special emphasis is put on the developed Mathematica packages Sigma, EvaluateMultiSums and SumProduction that assist in the task to perform these simplifications completely automatically for huge input expressions.

Schneider, C.

2014-06-01

228

Evolution of Digital Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concepts of digital organisms and digital evolution. They learn about the research that digital evolution software makes possible, and compare and contrast it with biological evolution.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

229

NCI Digital Media Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

NCI Digital Media Guidelines NCI Digital Media Guidelines The NCI Digital Media Guidelines provide developers and content managers guidance on the visual and content standards, as well as policies and procedures, in effect for National Cancer Institute

230

Weight Loss Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

231

Digital communication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental principles of digital communication and the design of practical digital communication systems are explored in an introductory textbook for senior and graduate students of electrical engineering. Chapters are devoted to sampling principles, baseband digital waveforms, baseband digital systems, bandpass binary digital systems, and M-ary digital systems. Deterministic signals, networks, and random-signal theory are reviewed in extensive appendices, and graphs, flow charts, diagrams, and problems are provided.

Peebles, Peyton Z., Jr.

232

QCD analysis of the Bjorken sum rule revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present extended analysis of the polarized Bjorken sum rule using the four-loop expression for the coefficient function C Bj(?s) available now and the recent low Q 2-data from the Jefferson Lab and COMPASS experiments. We demonstrate that the perturbative series for the function C Bj gives a hint to its asymptotic nature manifesting itself in the region Q 2 ? 1 GeV2. It is confirmed by the considered integral model for the perturbative QCD correction. We analyze values of higher-twist terms extracted from the mentioned data and discuss the interplay between higher orders perturbative and higher-twist contributions. We extend our consideration to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule and investigate the relation between higher twist coefficients in these two sum rules.

Khandramai, V. L.; Solovtsova, O. P.; Teryaev, O. V.

2014-01-01

233

Electron-pair radial sum and difference density functions.  

PubMed

For deeper understanding of electron-electron radial holes, we introduce and discuss electron-pair radial sum S(s) and difference T(t) density functions, which respectively represent the probability densities for the radial sum s = r(1) + r(2) and difference t = r(1) - r(2) variables of two electrons. Fundamental properties of the densities S(s) and T(t) are clarified. The appearance of radial holes given by T(0) = 0 is shown to have a nontrivial effect on the sum density S(s) as well. Numerical illustrations are given for the 1s2s (1)S and (3)S states of the helium atom and for the ground state of the lithium atom. PMID:19449911

Koga, Toshikatsu; Sekiya, Masahiro

2009-05-14

234

Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give rise to certain convergence problems widely ignored by physicists. We give a complete answer in the case of smooth potentials and formulate a number of open problems related to less regular perturbations.

Cornean, Horia D.; Nenciu, Gheorghe

2010-11-01

235

Z-Sum approach to loop integrals using Taylor expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the applicability of the Z-Sum approach to multi-loop calculations with massive particles in perturbative quantum field theory. We systematically analyze the case of one-loop scalar integrals, which represent the building blocks of any higher-loop calculation. We focus in particular on triangle one-loop integrals and identify strengths and limitations of the Z-Sum approach, extending our results to the case of one-loop box integrals when appropriate. We conclude with the calculation of a specific physical example: the calculation of heavy-flavor corrections to deep-inelastic-scattering structure functions.

Rottmann, Paulo A.; Reina, Laura

2011-09-01

236

Chiral symmetry of nucleon resonances in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

The QCD sum rule approach is employed in order to study chiral properties of positive- and negative-parity nucleon resonances. It is pointed out that nucleons with an 'exotic' chiral property, which can be represented by local five-quark operators, can be paired with a standard nucleon forming a single chiral multiplet. The sum rules of the five-quark operators, however, are shown not to couple strongly to chirally exotic nucleon resonances at the mass region of less than 2 GeV.

Nakamura, T.; Gubler, P.; Oka, M. [Department of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2008-07-01

237

0.5981 ?m Sum Frequency Mixing in KTP Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on accurate values of refractive indices, the phase matching angles (?m) and effective nonlinear coefficients (deff) for type I and II sum frequency mixing of 1.0795 and 1.3414 ?m radiations were calculated in KTP crystal. The optimum phase matching conditions are that ?m = 75.74° in the XZ plane (phiv = 0) and deff = 17.42 × 10-9 esu. The calculated results agree well with the experimental results. Thus, the cw 0.5981 ?m sum frequency radiation was achieved in KTP crystal using a 1.0795 and 1.3414 ?m double-wavelength Nd:YAP cw laser.

Shen, Hongyuan; Zhou, Yuping; Lin, Wenxiong; Zeng, Ruirong; Yu, Guifang; Huang, Chenghui; Zeng, Zhengdong; Zhang, Weijia; Jia, Shouquan; Jiang, Peizhi; Xiao, Chaoliang

1991-04-01

238

Faithful entanglement swapping based on sum-frequency generation.  

PubMed

We show that an entanglement swapping operation performed with spontaneous parametric down-conversion can be made faithful without postselection using sum-frequency generation. This invites us to revisit the sum-frequency process and from a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that it provides a realistic solution for nonlinear optics at the single-photon level. This opens the way to attractive alternatives to six-photon protocols based on linear optics used, e.g., for the heralded creation of maximally entangled pairs or for device-independent quantum key distribution. PMID:21517286

Sangouard, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Curtz, Noé; Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo

2011-03-25

239

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

240

Bach Digital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that Johann Sebastian Bach was a gifted and prodigious composer would be like saying that Shakespeare merely wrote a few plays. This Web site is a loving tribute to his work, undertaken by the main repositories of Bach's compositions, including the Bach-Archiv in Leipzig and the University of Leipzig. New visitors to the site will want to take the well-produced guided tour that helps orient users to the wide variety of materials contained on the site. Perhaps one of the main highlights of the site is the original Bach autographs that have been digitized for public perusal. Autographs are musical manuscripts that have been written by the composer himself, and in the case of Bach, offer intimate insight into the composition process. Along with essays on the preservation of these important documents, viewers can view selected compositions, among them the "Prelude and Fugue in G Major" and the "Christmas Oratorio." Additionally, visitors can hear sound samples and view photographs of musical instruments built during his lifetime, including a lute, the legendary organ from Hilbersdorf, and echo flutes. Overall, it's a fine tribute to Bach, and more broadly, musicology.

2000-01-01

241

The origins of quark-hadron duality: How does the square of the sum become the sum of the squares?  

SciTech Connect

Bloom-Gilman duality demonstrates empirically that the electroproduction of N*'s at low momentum transfers averages smoothly around the scaling curve measured at large momentum transfers. The latter is proportional to the sum of the squares of the constituent charges whereas the former involves the coherent excitation of resonances and is driven by the square of summed constituent charges. We determine the minimal necessary conditions for this equality to be realized so that duality can occur and consider the implications for a range of processes that may be studied soon at CEBAF.

Frank E. Close; Nathan Isgur

2001-01-30

242

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2013-04-01

243

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2013-04-01

244

Hyper-Sums of Powers of Integers and the Akiyama-Tanigawa Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this short essay, we consider hyper-sums of powers of integers, namely sums of power sums. We can obtain easily their formulae as polynomials by using formulae for ordinary sums of powers of integers. The coefficient of the first-degree term in each polynomial coincides with the matrix element of the Akiyama-Tanigawa matrix.

Inaba, Yoshinari

2005-05-01

245

A tutorial on sum of squares techniques for systems analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial is about new system analysis techniques that were developed in the past few years based on the sum of squares decomposition. We present stability and robust stability analysis tools for different classes of systems: systems described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations or differential algebraic equations, hybrid systems with nonlinear subsystems and\\/or nonlinear switching surfaces, and time-delay systems described

Antonis Papachristodoulou; Stephen Prajna

2005-01-01

246

Optical quadrupole sum-frequency generation in sodium vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that second-order coherent sum-frequency generation via quadrupole transitions in metal vapors can be easily detected. The process is as strong as the allowed third-order processes. Our experimental results agree very well with theoretical predictions. (AIP)

D. S. Bethune; R. W. Smith; Y. R. Shen

1976-01-01

247

Optical Quadrupole Sum-Frequency Generation in Sodium Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that second-order coherent sum-frequency generation via quadrupole transitions in metal vapors can be easily detected. The process is as strong as the allowed third-order processes. Our experimental results agree very well with theoretical predictions.

D. S. Bethune; R. W. Smith; Y. R. Shen

1976-01-01

248

A geometrical approach to sums of uniform random variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sums of independent random variables that have uniform probability densities are considered. With elementary geometry, the probability density is determined for the cases of two, three, and four variables and applications to the teaching of error analysis are discussed. The solution for the general case of any number of variables is geometrically motivated and this solution is discussed.

Bruce Denardo; Andrés Larraza

1989-01-01

249

Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

1994-01-01

250

The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.

Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin

2013-01-01

251

28 CFR 523.16 - Lump sum awards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Any staff member may recommend to the Warden the approval of an inmate for a lump...part of a regularly assigned duty. The Warden may make lump sum awards of extra good...award in excess of thirty days and the Warden concurs, the Warden shall...

2013-07-01

252

Heavy-meson decay constants from QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sketch a recent sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the heavy pseudoscalar mesons D, Ds, B, and Bs from the two-point correlator of heavy-light pseudoscalar currents [1]. Our main emphasis lies on the control over all the uncertainties in the decay constants, related both to the input QCD parameters and to the limited accuracy of the method of sum rules. Gaining this control has become possible by application of our new procedure of extracting hadron observables based on a dual threshold depending on the Borel parameter. For the charmed-meson decay constants, we find fD = (206.2+/-7.3(OPE)+/-5.1syst)) MeV, fDs = (245.3+/-15.7(OPE)+/-4.5(syst)) MeV. For the beauty mesons, the decay constants turn out to be extremely sensitive to the precise value of the MS mass of the b-quark, mb(mb). By requiring our sum-rule estimate to match the average of the lattice determinations of fB, we extract the rather accurate value mb(mb) = (4.245+/-0.025) GeV Feeding this parameter value into our sum-rule formalismleads to the beauty-meson decay constants fB = (193.4+/-12.3(OPE)+/-4.3(syst)) MeV, fBs = (232.5+/-18.6(OPE)+/-2.4syst)) MeV.

Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

2010-12-01

253

The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Albright, Brian

2012-01-01

254

NSF Sums Up First Year of Instrumentation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Foundation's College Science Instrumentation Program (CSIP) provides four-year colleges with money to buy modern instruments. Accomplishments of the program during its first year (including 234 awards totaling $5.5 million) and future directions are summed up by Robert F. Watson, head of the CSIP program. (JN)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1985

1985-01-01

255

Probability Inequalities for Sums of Bounded Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper bounds are derived for the probability that the sum S of n independent random variables exceeds its mean ES by a positive number nt. It is assumed that the range of each summand of S is bounded or bounded above. The bounds for Pr {S – ES ? nt} depend only on the endpoints of the ranges of the

Wassily Hoeffding

1963-01-01

256

Technical Description of an Electronic Distribution and Summing Element.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Electronic Distribution and Summing Element (EDSE) consists of one 10-1/2 in. by 11-1/2 in. stitch wired circuit module. ECL 10,000 series integrated circuits provide the operating speed necessary for use of the EDSE in the Acoustic Array Simulator su...

1975-01-01

257

The Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multi-target tracking algorithm, termed as the Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density (GSCPHD) filter, is proposed. The filter is calculated by a bank of convolution filters with Gaussian approximations to the predicted and posterior densities. It is shown that the ability to deal with complex observation model, non or small observation noise of the GSCPHD over the Gaussian

Jian Jun Yin; Jian Qiu Zhang; Ze Sen Zhuang

2008-01-01

258

Sufficient Conditions for Convergence of the Sum-Product Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Novel conditions are derived that guarantee con- vergence of the Sum-Product Algorithm (also known as Loopy Belief Propagation or simply Belief Propagation (BP)) to a unique fixed point, irrespective of the initial messages, for parallel (synchronous) updates. The computational complexity of the con- ditions is polynomial in the number of variables. In contrast with previously existing conditions, our results are

Joris M. Mooij; Hilbert J. Kappen

2007-01-01

259

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

260

Friedel Sum Rule for an Interacting Multiorbital Quantum Dot  

SciTech Connect

A generalized Friedel sum rule is derived for a quantum dot with internal orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The result is valid when all many-body correlations are taken into account and it links the phase shift of the scattered electron to the displacement of its spectral density into the dot.

Rontani, Massimo [CNR-INFM National Research Center S3, Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy)

2006-08-18

261

Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…

Zia, Lee

1991-01-01

262

On the Positive Sum Property of Graver Test Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the positive sum property, a property inherent to Graver test sets and show how this property leads to a simple algorithm to compute LP and IP Graver test sets. MIP test sets, however, need not be finite in general. We present a finite set of vectors from which an improving vector can be reconstructed. Moreover, we show that

Raymond Hemmecke

2000-01-01

263

Value Function Approximation in Zero-Sum Markov Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates value function approx- imation in the context of zero-sum Markov games, which can be viewed as a generalization of the Markov decision process (MDP) frame- work to the two-agent case. We generalize er- ror bounds from MDPs to Markov games and describe generalizations of reinforcement learn- ing algorithms to Markov games. We present a generalization of the

Michail G. Lagoudakis; Ronald Parr

2002-01-01

264

Least Squares Quadratic (LSQ) Approximation to Lognormal Sum Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, least squares (LS) approximation approach is used to solve the approximation problem of a sum of lognormal random variables. It is shown that least squares quadratic (LSQ) approximation exhibits an excellent match with the simulation results in a wide range of the distributions of the summands. Using the coefficients obtained from the LSQ method, closed-form expressions for

Lian Zhao; Jiu Ding

2006-01-01

265

A Simple Theoretical Approach to Cumulative Sum Control Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

By considering the use of a cumulative sum control chart, in the way described by Page [3] and Barnard [2], as the application of two sequential probability ratio tests to the observed series taken in reversed order, some approximate formulae for properties of this procedure are obtained. These are simple formulae relating the probabilities of detection of a given change

N. L. Johnson

1961-01-01

266

Intersections of Quadrics, Moment-angle Manifolds and Connected Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topology of the intersection of two real homogeneous coaxial quadrics was studied by the second author who showed that its intersection with the unit sphere is in most cases diffeomorphic to a connected sum of sphere products. In the present work we study the intersections of k>2 quadrics. Combinaning that approach with a recent one (due to Antony Bahri,

Samuel Gitler; Santiago Lopez de Medrano

2009-01-01

267

Nuclear binding effects in relativistic Coulomb sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the formulation of relativistic Coulomb sum rules to account for the average effects of nuclear binding on the initial and final states of ejected nucleons. Relativistic interactions are included by using a Dirac representation adapted from a vector-scalar field theory. The scalar field reduces the effective nucleons mass M* and increases the relativistic effects of recoil and Fermi

D. S. Koltun; T. C. Ferrée

1995-01-01

268

Nuclear binding effects in relativistic Coulomb sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the formulation of relativistic Coulomb sum rules to account for the average effects of nuclear binding on the initial and final states of ejected nucleons. Relativistic interactions are included by using a Dirac representation adapted from a vector-scalar field theory. The scalar field reduces the effective nucleons mass {ital M}{sup *} and increases the relativistic effects of recoil

D. S. Koltun; T. C. Ferree

1995-01-01

269

Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.  

PubMed

For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches. PMID:24045984

Samaj, Ladislav

2013-09-01

270

Sums over geometries and improvements on the mean field approximation  

SciTech Connect

The saddle points of a Lagrangian due to Efetov are analyzed. This Lagrangian was originally proposed as a tool for calculating systematic corrections to the Bethe approximation, a mean-field approximation which is important in statistical mechanics, glasses, coding theory, and combinatorial optimization. Detailed analysis shows that the trivial saddle point generates a sum over geometries reminiscent of dynamically triangulated quantum gravity, which suggests new possibilities to design sums over geometries for the specific purpose of obtaining improved mean-field approximations to D-dimensional theories. In the case of the Efetov theory, the dominant geometries are locally treelike, and the sum over geometries diverges in a way that is similar to quantum gravity's divergence when all topologies are included. Expertise from the field of dynamically triangulated quantum gravity about sums over geometries may be able to remedy these defects and fulfill the Efetov theory's original promise. The other saddle points of the Efetov Lagrangian are also analyzed; the Hessian at these points is nonnormal and pseudo-Hermitian, which is unusual for bosonic theories. The standard formula for Gaussian integrals is generalized to nonnormal kernels.

Sacksteder, Vincent E. IV [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector III, Block JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2007-11-15

271

Planning load dispatch with CuSum quality control charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important question in a freight consolidation programme is: When (or how often) should a vehicle transporting a load of orders consolidated over time be dispatched? Dispatching too early results in higher per-unit transportation costs, while continuing to accumulate decreases customer service and increases inventory holding costs. This paper presents a heuristic decision model, based on concepts of CuSum quality

James K. Higginson

2007-01-01

272

A Linear Algorithm for the Pos\\/Neg-Weighted 1Median Problem on a Cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1-median problem on a network asks for a vertex minimizing the sum of the weighted shortest path distances from itself\\u000a to all other vertices, each associated with a certain positive weight. We allow fornegative weights as well and devise an exact algorithm for the resulting ‘pos\\/neg-weighted’ problem defined on a cactus. The algorithm\\u000a visits every vertex just once and

Rainer E. Burkard; Jakob Krarup

1998-01-01

273

H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

Prensky, Marc

2009-01-01

274

Informed Test Component Weighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

Rudner, Lawrence M.

2001-01-01

275

Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness, volume 9. Attachment C: Flight STS-40 report. Attachment D: SUMS software listing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume provides a software listing and graphical data gathered from flight STS-40.

Wright, Willie

1992-01-01

276

Weight Gain during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... weight gain during pregnancy? Use our weight-gain tracking chart to follow your progress. For more information ... During Pregnancy Last reviewed September 2009 See also: Tracking your weight gain , How your baby grows Most ...

277

One-parameter scaling and exponential-sum fitting for water vapor and CO2 infrared transmission functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A medium-sized band model for water vapor and CO2 absorption is developed using the one-parameter scaling approximation. The infrared spectrum is divided into 10 bands. The Planck-weighted diffuse transmittance is reduced to a function dependent only upon the scaled absorber amount and fit by an exponential sum. By selecting specific sets of absorption coefficients for exponential-sum fitting, computations of fluxes and cooling rate are made very fast. Compared to a broadband model, the accuracy, speed, and versatility are all enhanced. With absorption due to water vapor line, continuum, CO2 as well as O3 included, the parameterization introduces an error of less than 1.5 W/sq m in fluxes and less than 0.15 C/day in the tropospheric and lower stratospheric cooling rates.

Chou, Ming-Dah; Ridgway, William L.; Yan, Michael M.-H.

1993-01-01

278

Statistics of weighted Poisson events and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistics of the sum of random weights where the number of weights is Poisson distributed has important applications in nuclear physics, particle physics and astrophysics. Events are frequently weighted according to their acceptance or relevance to a certain type of reaction. The sum is described by the compound Poisson distribution (CPD) which is shortly reviewed. It is shown that the CPD can be approximated by a scaled Poisson distribution (SPD). The SPD is applied to parameter estimation in situations where the data are distorted by resolution effects. It performs considerably better than the normal approximation that is usually used. A special Poisson bootstrap technique is presented which permits to derive confidence limits for observations following the CPD.

Bohm, G.; Zech, G.

2014-06-01

279

User's Reference Guide for ODRPACK Version 2.01: Software for Weighted Orthogonal Distance Regression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ODRPACK is a software package for weighted orthogonal distance regression, i.e., for finding the parameters that minimize the sum of the squared weighted orthogonal distances from a set of observations to the curve or surface determined by the parameters....

P. T. Boggs R. H. Byrd J. E. Rogers R. B. Schnabel

1992-01-01

280

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk  

PubMed Central

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

281

Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.  

PubMed

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-12-01

282

Direct Sum Matrix Game with Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game  

PubMed Central

A direct sum form is proposed for constructing a composite game from two games, prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game. This kind of direct sum form game is called a multiple roles game. The replicator dynamics of the multiple roles game with will-mixed populations is explored. The dynamical behaviors on square lattice are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of population on square lattice depend on the mixing proportion of the two simple games. Mixing SD activities to pure PD population inhibits the proportion of cooperators in PD, and mixing PD activities to pure SD population stimulates the proportion of cooperators in SD. Besides spatial reciprocity, our results show that there are roles reciprocities between different types of individuals.

Ma, Chengzhang; Cao, Wei; Liu, Wangheng; Gui, Rong; Jia, Ya

2013-01-01

283

Smoothing Newton Method for Minimizing the Sum of  p Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the problem of minimizing the sum of p-norms, where p is a fixed real number in the interval [1,2]. This nondifferentiable problem arises in many applications, including the VLSI\\u000a (very-large-scale-integration) layout problem, the facilities location problem and the Steiner minimum tree problem under\\u000a a given topology. In this paper, we establish the optimality conditions, duality and uniqueness results for

S. H. Pan; Y. X. Jiang

2008-01-01

284

Scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter: Theory and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we consider the state estimation problem in nonlinear\\/non-Gaussian systems. We introduce a framework, called the scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter (SUT-GSF), which combines two ideas: the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF) based on the concept of scaled unscented transform (SUT) (Julier and Uhlmann (2004) [16]), and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The SUT is used to

Xiaodong Luo; Irene M. Moroz; Ibrahim Hoteit

2010-01-01

285

Multispectral Texture Analysis Using Interplane Sum and Difference-Histograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new approach for color texture classification which extends the gray level sum- and difference\\u000a histogram features [8]. Intra- and inter-plane second order features capture the spatial correlations between color bands. A powerful set of features\\u000a is obtained by non-linear color space conversion to HSV and thresholding operation to eliminate the influence of sensor noise

Christian Münzenmayer; Heiko Volk; Christian Küblbeck; Klaus Spinnler; Thomas Wittenberg

2002-01-01

286

A note on functional CLT for truncated sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let {X,Xi}i?1 be i.i.d. random variables with a symmetric continuous distribution and EX2=?, and {bn}n?1 be a sequence of increasing positive numbers. When X belongs to the Feller class, and nP(|X|>bn)??n??, a functional CLT for the truncated sums Sn=?i=1nXiI|Xi|?bn is proved.

Vladimir Pozdnyakov

2003-01-01

287

The Economic Design of Cumulative Sum Control Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cumulative sum chart for controlling the mean of a manufacturing process having normally distributed quality with known variance is studied. The costs of repairing the process, of operating out-of-control, and of maintaining the chart are assumed known. A formula giving approximately the long-run time average cost of operation as a function of the control chart parameters is given. Some

Howard M. Taylor

1968-01-01

288

SUMS OF 4k SQUARES: A POLYNOMIAL APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let k and n be positive integers. Let sk(n) denote the number of representations of n as the sum of k squares. Ramanujan (17), (18, p. 159) gave without proof a formula for sk(n) when k is even. Mordell (15) used modular forms to give the first proof of Ramanujan's formula. In 2001 Cooper (6) used Ramanujan's 1?1 summation formula

Ayse Alaca; Saban Alaca; Kenneth S. Williams

2009-01-01

289

Model Independent Sum Rules for Strange Form Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study chiral models with SU(3) group structure such as Skyrmion and chiral bag to yield theoretical predictions of proton strange form factor comparable to the recent experimental data of the SAMPLE Collaboration. For these predictions we formulate model independent sum rules for proton strange form factor in terms of baryon octet magnetic moments. We also investigate the Becci-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetries associated with the Stückelberg coordinates, ghosts and anti-ghosts involved in the Skyrmion model.

Hong, Soon-Tae

2004-08-01

290

Algebraic Riccati equations in zero-sum differential games  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedure for finding the closed-loop Nash equilibrium solution of two-player zero-sum linear time-invariant differential games with quadratic performance criteria and classical information pattern may be reduced in most cases to the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Based on the results obtained by Willems, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of solutions to these equations are derived, and explicit conditions for a scalar example are given.

Johnson, T. L.; Chao, A.

1974-01-01

291

Terahertz\\/optical sum and difference frequency generation in liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-sensitivity setup for the observation of chi(2)-based, terahertz\\/optical, sum and difference frequency generation in liquids is presented. It relies on launching wavefront modulated terahertz radiation into a liquid traversed by an optical beam. Phase matching and polarization selection rules can be tuned to support three wave mixing via either chiral allowed electric dipole processes or higher order quadrupole\\/magnetic dipole

Thomas Feil; S. J. Allen

2011-01-01

292

0.5981 mum Sum Frequency Mixing in KTP Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on accurate values of refractive indices, the phase matching angles (thetam) and effective nonlinear coefficients (deff) for type I and II sum frequency mixing of 1.0795 and 1.3414 mum radiations were calculated in KTP crystal. The optimum phase matching conditions are that thetam = 75.74° in the XZ plane (phiv = 0) and deff = 17.42 × 10-9 esu.

Hongyuan Shen; Yuping Zhou; Wenxiong Lin; Ruirong Zeng; Guifang Yu; Chenghui Huang; Zhengdong Zeng; Weijia Zhang; Shouquan Jia; Peizhi Jiang; Chaoliang Xiao

1991-01-01

293

Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

Ahumada, Albert J Jr

2002-01-01

294

Propagator and Slater sum in one-body potential theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a one-body potential V(r) generating eigenfunctions i(r) and corresponding eigenvalues i, the Feynman propagator K(r, r, t) is simply related to the canonical density matrix C(r, r}, ?) by ? it. The diagonal element S(r, r},?) of C is the so-called Slater sum of statistical mechanics. Differential equations for the Slater sum are first briefly reviewed, a quite general equation being available for a one-dimensional potential V(x). This equation can be solved for a sech2 potential, and some physical properties of interest such as the local density of states are derived by way of illustration. Then, the Coulomb potential -Ze2/r is next considered, and it is shown that what is essentially the inverse Laplace transform of S(r, ?)/? can be calculated for an arbitrary number of closed shells. Blinder has earlier determined the Feynman propagator in terms of Whittaker functions and contact is here established with his work. The currently topical case of Fermion vapours which are harmonically confined is then treated, for both two and three dimensions. Finally, in an Appendix, a perturbation series for the Slater sum is briefly summarized, to all orders in the one-body potential V(r). The corresponding kinetic energy is thereby accessible.

March, N. H.; Howard, I. A.

2003-05-01

295

Spin-3/2 pentaquark in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

The QCD sum rule method is formulated for the strangeness +1 pentaquark baryon with isospin I=0 and spin-parity J{sup {pi}}=(3/2){sup {+-}}. The spin-(3/2) states are considered to be narrower than the spin-(1/2) ones, and thus may provide a natural explanation for the experimentally observed narrow width of {theta}{sup +}. In order to obtain reliable results in QCD sum rule calculations, we stress the importance of establishing a wide Borel window, where convergence of the operator product expansion and sufficient low-mass strength of the spectral function are guaranteed. To this end, we employ the difference of two independent correlators so that the high-energy continuum contribution is suppressed. The stability of the physical quantities against the Borel mass is confirmed within the Borel window. It is found that the sum rule gives positive evidence for the (I,J{sup {pi}})=(0,(3/2){sup +}) state with a mass of about 1.4{+-}0.2 GeV, while we cannot extract any evidence for the (0,(3/2){sup -}) state.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto [Department of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Jido, Daisuke [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kojo, Toru [RBRC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Nishikawa, Tetsuo [Faculty of Health Science, Ryotokuji University, Urayasu, Chiba, 279-8567 (Japan)

2009-06-01

296

Two point correlations between velocity sums and differences in turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In turbulent flows, the universality of small scales has been a subject of ongoing investigation. Recent work has explored the degree to which small scales are independent of large scales by measuring correlations between velocity differences over a distance r (whose variance is dominated by scales near r) and velocity sums over the same distance (whose variance is dominated by large scales). Some correlations between velocity differences and sums are required by the Navier-Stokes equations (Hosokawa, Prog. Theor. Phys. Lett., 118:169, 2007.) This talk will focus on experimental measurements of correlations between velocity sums and velocity differences in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids. We find that these correlations provide an accurate way to measure the energy dissipation rate that complements existing methods based on the third order structure functions. The correlations which are required by Navier-Stokes dynamics do not appear to violate the assumption of independence between the large and small scales, however there are other correlations in our measurements that show clear dependence of the small scales on the large scales.

Rotile, Nicholas; Voth, Greg; Wijesinghe, Susantha

2012-02-01

297

Total internal partition sums to support planetary remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total internal partition sums are determined from 65 to 3010 K for 13C 18O 2, 13C 18O 17O, 12CH 3D, 13CH 3D, H 12C 12CD, 13C 12CH 6, 12CH 379Br, 12CH 381Br, 12CF 4, H 12C 12C 12C 12CH, H 12C 12C 12C 14N, H 12C 12C 13C 14N, H 12C 13C 12C 14N, H 13C 12C 12C 14N, H 12C 12C 12C 15N, D 12C 12C 12C 14N, 14N 12C 12C 14N, 15N 12C 12C 15N, 12C 32S, 12C 33S, 12C 34S, 13C 32S, H 2, HD, 32S 16O, 32S 18O, 34S 16O, 12C 3H 4, 12CH 3, 12C 32S 2, 32S 12C 34S, 13C 32S 2, and 32S 12C 33S. These calculations complete the partition sum data needed for additional isotopologues in HITRAN2008 and also extend the partition sums to molecules of astrophysical interest. These data, at 25 K steps, are incorporated into a FORTRAN code (TIPS_2011.for) that can be used to rapidly generate the data at any temperature in the range 70-3000 K.

Laraia, Anne L.; Gamache, Robert R.; Lamouroux, Julien; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.

2011-09-01

298

Preventing Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... Calculator Children's BMI Tool for Schools Child and Teen - About BMI Measuring Children's Height and Weight Accurately At Home Balancing Calories Other Factors in Weight Gain Preventing Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping it Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ...

299

Trapping on Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks with Small-World Property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present weighted tetrahedron Koch networks depending on a weight factor. According to their self-similar construction, we obtain the analytical expressions of the weighted clustering coefficient and average weighted shortest path (AWSP). The obtained solutions show that the weighted tetrahedron Koch networks exhibits small-world property. Then, we calculate the average receiving time (ART) on weighted-dependent walks, which is the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at the trap located at a hub node. We find that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order.

Dai, Meifeng; Xie, Qi; Xi, Lifeng

2013-04-01

300

Optimal Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal birth weight and outcome are influenced by maternal weight gain. Low gestational weight gain is associated with poor\\u000a fetal growth and risk of preterm delivery. Excessive weight gain affects infant growth, body fatness in childhood, and the\\u000a potential for postpartum weight retention and future obesity. Guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommend that a woman\\u000a with a normal body

Grace A. Falciglia; Kristin H. Coppage

301

Digital Circuit Design Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis effort outlines the design and implementation of a graphics oriented digital design environment. This graphics environment provides the user with the tools to design digital circuits and then interface the user's circuit design with other tool...

C. A. Adams

1987-01-01

302

Digital rectal exam  

MedlinePLUS

A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to check for ... signs of prostate cancer . In women, a digital rectal exam may be performed during a routine gynecologic ...

303

Digital Control Computer 'Sava'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents the digital control computer 'Sava'. This computer was designed for operation in the system for programmed control of the roughing train of the hot sheet mill in Zemun. Based on mill information, the digital computer controls screwdowns...

Z. Simic V. Todorovic R. Tonic

1968-01-01

304

Secure Digital Speech Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a secure digital speech communication system, and more particularly to waveform coding with digital samples. A novel form of waveform coding is used, designed a Critical Point Coder (CPC). It operates by transmitting only those p...

G. Benke

1984-01-01

305

Digital Library Curriculum collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Library Curriculum collection contains modules that form the basis for one or a several courses on digital libraries - thus constituting a unified curriculum for the field. They also can be used in computer science, library science, information science, and other programs for other types of courses or as supplements to an existing course. Core topics include digital objects, collection development, knowledge organization, architecture, user behavior and interactions, servics, preservation, management and evaluation and digital library education and research.

2011-01-04

306

Digital Homecare – An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital homecare is a phrase that is easily understood and can be described as a container expression. Assistive technology,\\u000a telemedicine, mhealth, rehabilitation, are all contained within digital homecare. But it is impossible to find a proper definition\\u000a of digital homecare. Looking for “digital homecare” in PubMed or Google Scholar delivers less than a dozen results. An important\\u000a modern reference site

Kanagasingam Yogesan; Lodewijk Bos; Peter Brett; Michael Christopher Gibbons

307

A digital frequency synthesizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital frequency synthesizer has been designed and constructed based on generating digital samples ofexp [j(2^{pi}nk\\/N)]at timenT. The real and imaginary parts of this exponential form samples of quadrature sinusoids where the frequency indexkis allowed to vary(-N\\/4) leq K < (N\\/4). The digital samples drive digital to analog converters followed by low-pass interpolating filters to produce analog sinusoids. The method

JOSEPH TIERNEY; CHARLES M. RADER; B. Gold

1971-01-01

308

Minimal weight and colexicographically minimal integer representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redundant number systems (e.g., signed binary representations) have been utilized to efficiently implement algebraic operations required by public-key cryptosystems, especially those based on elliptic curves. Several families of integer representations have been proposed that have a minimal number of nonzero digits (so-called minimal weightrepresentations). We observe that many of the constructions for minimal weight representations actually work by building representations

Clemens Heuberger; James A. Muir

2007-01-01

309

Reflowing digital ink annotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annotating paper documents with a pen is a familiar and indispensable activity across a wide variety of work and educational settings. Recent developments in pen-based computing promise to bring this experience to digital documents. However, digital documents are more flexible than their paper counterparts. When a digital document is edited, or displayed on different devices, its layout adapts to the

David Bargeron; Tomer Moscovich

2003-01-01

310

Copyright and digital libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of Communications highlights some of the many projects underway for the creation or enhancement of digital libraries. At the moment, no one seems to think there will be only one gargantuan digital library to sate the public's appetite for information. Rather, the expectation is that there will be many digital libraries, most of which will have specialized collections

Pamela Samuelson

1995-01-01

311

Secure Digital Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a biometric solution to solve some of the significant problems associated with use of digital camera images as evidence in a court of law. We present a lossless watermarking solution to the problems associated with digital image integrity and the relationship to its chain of custody. The integrity of digital images as evidence rests on

Paul Blythe; Jessica Fridrich

312

Digital subtraction laryngography  

SciTech Connect

Digital subtraction laryngography was used to evaluate laryngeal function in 8 patients: 4 with normal larynxes and 4 with laryngeal disease. Subtracted digital images provided a dynamic display of the extent and symmetry of vocal cord excursions and pyriform sinus inflation, and the vocal cord resting position was also clearly depicted. The technical details of digital subtraction laryngography and its application are described.

Brown, B.W.; Enzmann, D.R.; Hopp, M.L.; Castellino, R.A.

1983-06-01

313

Digital subtraction laryngography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital subtraction laryngography was used to evaluate laryngeal function in 8 patients: 4 with normal larynxes and 4 with laryngeal disease. Subtracted digital images provided a dynamic display of the extent and symmetry of vocal cord excursions and pyriform sinus inflation, and the vocal cord resting position was also clearly depicted. The technical details of digital subtraction laryngography and its

B. W. Brown; D. R. Enzmann; M. L. Hopp; R. A. Castellino

1983-01-01

314

Journal of Digital Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Digital Information is an electronic-only, peer-reviewed journal covering topics related to digital libraries, hypertext and hypermedia systems, and the issues of digital information. The journal's main page features links to articles in the current issue; previous issues are browseable by issue number, author, title, or theme. They may also be searched by keywords in title or text.

315

DVD - digital versatile disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes

Gaunt

1997-01-01

316

Networking digital video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluent Machines Inc., has developed Fluency, a system architecture for digital video consisting of FluentStreams system software, FluentLinks network software and the VSA-1000 digital video system hardware. The author presents the technical challenges inherent in networking digital video, and describes how Fluent's system architecture is designed to meet these requirements

P. Uppaluru

1992-01-01

317

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the field of digital image processing is presented, with concentration upon image formation and recording processes, digital sampling and digital image display, and with in-depth coverage of image coding and image restoration. New results in image restoration are also presented, covering restoration by use of an eye-model constraint and nonlinear restoration by maximization of the posterior density

B. R. Hunt

1975-01-01

318

Bridging the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner…

Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny

2008-01-01

319

Digital Literacy. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools…

Williamson, Ronald

2011-01-01

320

GENERALIZED DIGITAL CONTOURING PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a digital computer contouring program developed by combining desirable characteristics from several existing contouring programs. It can easily be adapted to many different research requirements. The overlaid structure of the program permits desired modifications to be made with ease. The contouring program performs both the task of generating a depth matrix from either randomly or regularly spaced surface heights and the task of contouring the data. Each element of the depth matrix is computed as a weighted mean of heights predicted at an element by planes tangent to the surface at neighboring control points. Each contour line is determined by its intercepts with the sides of geometrical figures formed by connecting the various elements of the depth matrix with straight lines. Although contour charts are usually thought of as being two-dimensional pictorial representations of topographic formations of land masses, they can also be useful in portraying data which are obtained during the course of research in various scientific disciplines and which would ordinarily be tabulated. Any set of data which can be referenced to a two-dimensional coordinate system can be graphically represented by this program. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on the CDC 6000 Series. This program was developed in 1971.

Jones, R. L.

1994-01-01

321

The edge-weighted clique problem: Valid inequalities, facets and polyhedral computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let Kn=(V,E) be the complete undirected graph with weights ce associated to the edges in E. We consider the problem of finding the subclique C=(U,F) of Kn such that the sum of the weights of the edges in F is maximized and |U|?b, for some b?[1,…,n]. This problem is called the Maximum Edge-Weighted Clique Problem (MEWCP) and is NP-hard. In

Elder Magalhães Macambira; Cid Carvalho de Souza

2000-01-01

322

Recent Polarization Experiments and the GDH Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the spin-difference cross sections entering the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule are reviewed. Results on the proton from Mainz and Bonn exceeded the GDH prediction by 22 mub, requiring as yet unmeasured canceling high-energy components. Recent experiments with frozen-spin HD at BNL reveal a different angular dependence for pi{sup 0} production than what was assumed in Mainz analyses in lieu of direct measurements and integrate to a value that is 18 mub lower, suggesting a rapid convergence. Results for deuterium over limited energy ranges are consistent with large canceling contributions but differ from existing state of the art calculations.

Sandorfi, A. M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Hoblit, S. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Deptartment of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Ardashev, K. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Deptartment of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Bade, C.; Hicks, K.; Kizigul, S.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J. [Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Bartalini, O.; D'Angelo, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Moricciani, D.; Schaerf, C. [Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata' and INFN-Sezione di Roma2, Rome (Italy); Blecher, M.; Kageya, T. [Physics Deptartment, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Caracappa, A.; Kistner, O. C.; Lowry, M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2009-07-27

323

Approximation of p-summing operators by adjoints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the following question for the ideals ?p of absolutely p-summing operators: Is it true that, for given Banach spaces X and Y, the unit ball of the space ?p(X,Y) is dense, for some natural topology, in the unit ball of the space ?p(X,Y**) or in the unit ball of the corresponding space ?pdual(Y*,X*): = {U:Y*-->X*|U*|X??p(X,Y**)}? As ``natural topologies'', we consider strong and weak operator topologies, compact-open topology, topology of X × Y*-convergence etc.

Reinov, Oleg I.

2012-05-01

324

Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226  

SciTech Connect

Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011. A second batch of approximately 500 more drums were measured and analyzed during the following 2 1/2 months. Four different HPGe detectors were employed for the operation. The screening and spectral summing approach can reduce the overall measurement and analysis time required. However, developing the technical details and automation spreadsheets requires a significant amount of expert time prior to beginning field operations and must be considered in the overall project schedule. This approach has continued to be used for characterizing several hundred more empty drums in 2012 and is planned to continue in 2013. (authors)

Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)] [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)

2013-07-01

325

A note on the sum of the sample autocorrelation function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the sum of the sample autocorrelation function at lag h?1 is always -{1}/{2} for any stationary time series with arbitrary length T?2 (Hassani, 2009 [1]). In this paper, the distribution of a set of the sample autocorrelation function using the properties of this quantity is considered. It is found that the distribution of a set of the sample autocorrelation estimates is not independent and identically distributed. This finding implies that the result of diagnostic check and model building using the traditional assumption of iid can be quite misleading.

Hassani, Hossein

2010-04-01

326

Spin content of {lambda} in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the isoscalar axial-vector coupling constants of the {lambda} hyperon using the method of QCD sum rules. A determination of these coupling constants reveals the individual contributions of the u, d, and the s quarks to the spin content of {lambda}. Our results for the light-quark contributions are in agreement with those from experiment assuming flavor SU(3). We also find that the flavor-SU(3)-breaking effects are small and the contributions from the u and the d quarks to the {lambda} polarization are negatively polarized as in the flavor-SU(3) limit.

Erkol, Gueray; Oka, Makoto [Laboratory for Fundamental Research, Ozyegin University, Kusbakisi Cad. No:2 Altunizade Uskudar Istanbul, 34662 Turkey (Turkey); Department of Physics, H27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2009-06-01

327

He3 Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the He?3(e?,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1?Q2?0.9GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region.

Slifer, K.; Amarian, M.; Auerbach, L.; Averett, T.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Bertozzi, B.; Black, T.; Brash, E.; Brown, D.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J.; Cates, G.; Chai, Z.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Ciofi Degli Atti, C.; Cisbani, E.; de Jager, C. W.; Deur, A.; Disalvo, R.; Dieterich, S.; Djawotho, P.; Finn, M.; Fissum, K.; Fonvieille, H.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Glöckle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, E.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hersman, B.; Holmes, R.; Huber, G. M.; Hughes, E.; Humensky, B.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Jensen, S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jutier, C.; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, A.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumar, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriqi, E.; Laveissiere, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Liang, M.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G.; Malov, S.; Marroncle, J.; McCormick, K.; McKeown, R. D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Nogga, A.; Pace, E.; Papandreou, Z.; Pavlin, T.; Petratos, G. G.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R.; Roblin, Y.; Rowntree, D.; Rvachev, M.; Sabatié, F.; Saha, A.; Salmè, G.; Scopetta, S.; Skibi?ski, R.; Souder, P.; Saito, T.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Takahashi, K.; Teijiro, S.; Todor, L.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Urciuoli, G.; van der Meer, R.; Vernin, P.; Voskanian, H.; Wita?a, H.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiong, F.; Xu, W.; Yang, J.-C.; Zhang, B.; Zolnierczuk, P.

2008-07-01

328

3He spin-dependent cross sections and sum rules.  

PubMed

We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the 3He over -->(e over -->,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1< or =Q2< or =0.9 GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region. PMID:18764175

Slifer, K; Amarian, M; Auerbach, L; Averett, T; Berthot, J; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, B; Black, T; Brash, E; Brown, D; Burtin, E; Calarco, J; Cates, G; Chai, Z; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi Degli Atti, C; Cisbani, E; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; DiSalvo, R; Dieterich, S; Djawotho, P; Finn, M; Fissum, K; Fonvieille, H; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Goldberg, E; Gomez, J; Gorbenko, V; Hansen, J-O; Hersman, B; Holmes, R; Huber, G M; Hughes, E; Humensky, B; Incerti, S; Iodice, M; Jensen, S; Jiang, X; Jones, C; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jutier, C; Kamada, H; Ketikyan, A; Kominis, I; Korsch, W; Kramer, K; Kumar, K; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Lakuriqi, E; Laveissiere, G; Lerose, J J; Liang, M; Liyanage, N; Lolos, G; Malov, S; Marroncle, J; McCormick, K; McKeown, R D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Mitchell, J; Nogga, A; Pace, E; Papandreou, Z; Pavlin, T; Petratos, G G; Pripstein, D; Prout, D; Ransome, R; Roblin, Y; Rowntree, D; Rvachev, M; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Salmè, G; Scopetta, S; Skibi?ski, R; Souder, P; Saito, T; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Takahashi, K; Teijiro, S; Todor, L; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Urciuoli, G; Van der Meer, R; Vernin, P; Voskanian, H; Wita?a, H; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiong, F; Xu, W; Yang, J-C; Zhang, B; Zolnierczuk, P

2008-07-11

329

F-TF Sum and Difference angle formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In this task, you will show how all of the sum and difference angle formulas can be derived from a single formula when combined with relations you have...

330

Mystery Sums, Part One â Deduce the Unknown Addends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of four letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

331

Pseudounitary freedom in the operator-sum representation  

SciTech Connect

A dynamical map is a map that takes one density operator to another. Such a map can be written in an operator-sum representation (OSR) by using a spectral decomposition. The method of construction applies to general maps, which need not be completely positive. The OSR is not unique; there is freedom to choose a different set of operators in the OSR, yet still obtain the same map. Here, we show that, whereas the freedom for completely positive maps is unitary, the freedom for maps that are not necessarily completely positive is pseudounitary.

Ou, Yong-Cheng [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Byrd, Mark S. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Department of Computer Science, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States)

2010-08-15

332

Terahertz/optical sum and difference frequency generation in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-sensitivity setup for the observation of ?(2)-based, terahertz/optical, sum and difference frequency generation in liquids is presented. It relies on launching wavefront modulated terahertz radiation into a liquid traversed by an optical beam. Phase matching and polarization selection rules can be tuned to support three wave mixing via either chiral allowed electric dipole processes or higher order quadrupole/magnetic dipole processes. Under nonresonant excitation, hyperpolarizabilities from quadrupole/magnetic dipole processes are measured. Since this approach does not require terahertz transmission through macroscopic thicknesses of water, it has the potential to open a new window on the terahertz dynamics of water solvated molecules.

Feil, Thomas; Allen, S. J.

2011-02-01

333

Sum rules, plasma frequencies and Hall phenomenology in holographic plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the AC optical and Hall conductivities of Dp/ Dq-brane intersections in the probe approximation and use sum-rules to study various associated transport coefficients. We determine that the presence of massive fundamental matter, as compared to massless fundamental matter described holographically by a theory with no dimensional defects, reduces the plasma frequency. We further show that this is not the case when the brane intersections include defects. We discuss in detail how to implement correctly the regularization of retarded Green's functions so that the dispersion relations are satisfied and the low energy behaviour of the system is physically realistic.

Mas, Javier; Shock, Jonathan P.; Tarrío, Javier

2011-02-01

334

Digital filter design for radar image formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel weighted-least-squares approaches to the design of digital filters for SAR applications are presented. The filters belong to three different categories according to their combinations of minimax passband, least-squares stopband, minimax stopband, and maximally-flat passband. For real-time applications, it is important to design the sets of digital filter coefficient tables in an offline environment; the appropriate precomputed filter is then selected for each SAR signal-processing function, as a function of both mode and mapping geometry during real-time processing.

Adams, John W.; Nelson, Jeffrey E.; Banh, N. D.; Moncada, John J.; Bayma, Robert W.

1989-01-01

335

Mixed analog-digital image processing circuit based on Hamming artificial neural network architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile integrated circuit based on the Hamming artificial neural network (ANN) architecture is presented. The circuit operation relies on capacitive processing of sum-of-products terms, complemented with digital post- processing allowing various complex functions to be processed on chip, with a minimal hardware overhead. VLSI realization and measurements are discussed.

Stéphane Badel; Alexandre Schmid; Yusuf Leblebici

2004-01-01

336

Row-Sum of a Class of M-Bonomial Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formulae for row-sum of M-bonomial coefficients [image omitted] where G is an mth g-gonal number is developed from a study of the ratio between consecutive terms of the sequence of row-sum. The result generalizes the formula for row-sum of binomial coefficients: [image omitted].

Asiru, Muniru A.

2011-01-01

337

Relative Prefix Sums: An Efficient Approach for Querying Dynamic OLAP Data Cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range sum queries on data cubes are a powerful tool for analysis. A range sum query applies an aggregation operation (e.g., SUM) over all selected cells in a data cube, where the selection is specified by providing ranges of values for numeric dimensions. Many application domains require that information provided by analysis tools be current or \\

Steven Geffner; Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi; Terence R. Smith

1999-01-01

338

Therapy and Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Mind > Dealing With Problems > Therapy and Weight Management Print A A A Text Size What's in ... This is where counselors (like psychologists or weight-management social workers) can help. They are trained to ...

339

Weight-loss medications  

MedlinePLUS

Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider if any are right for you. About 5 to ... whether the cost, side effects, and the small weight loss you can expect are worth it to you. ...

340

Pregnancy and Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... News Spotlights Media Resources Selected Profiles & Interviews Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links ... that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for ...

341

Weighted network modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

2007-06-01

342

Digital rights management for digital cinema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.

Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.

2001-12-01

343

Differences in motivations and weight loss behaviors in young adults and older adults in the National Weight Control Registry  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to compare young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) in the National Weight Control Registry on motivations for weight loss and weight loss behaviors. Participants (N=2,964, 82% female, 94% White, BMI=24.8±4.4) were divided into two age groups (18–35 vs. 36–50) and compared on motivations, strategies for weight loss, diet, physical activity (PA), and the TFEQ. YA were 28.6% of the sample (n=848). YA and OA achieved similar weight losses (p=.38) but duration of maintenance was less in YA (43 vs. 58 months, p<001). YA were more likely to cite appearance and social motivations for weight loss, were less motivated by health, and were less likely to report a medical trigger for weight loss (p's<.001). YA were more likely to use exercise classes and to lose weight on their own, and less likely to use a commercial program (p's<.001). YA reported engaging in more high intensity PA (p=.001). There were no group differences in total calories consumed (p=.47), or percent calories from fat (p=.97), alcohol (p=.52) or sugar sweetened beverages (p=.26). In sum, YA successful weight losers (SWL) are motivated more by appearance and social influences than OA, and physical activity appears to play an important role in their weight loss efforts. The differences reported by YA and OA SWL should be considered when developing weight loss programs for YA.

LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Leahey, Tricia M.; Hill, James O.; Wing, Rena R.

2012-01-01

344

Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

Lynch, Clifford

2002-01-01

345

WEIGHTED EXPONENTIAL INEQUALITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sucient conditions on weight pairs are found for the validity of a class of weighted exponential inequalities involving certain classical operators. Among the operators considered are the Hardy averaging operator and its variants in one and two dimensions, as well as the Laplace transform. Discrete analogues yield characterizations of weighted forms of Carleman's inequality.

H. P. HEINIG; R. KERMAN; M. KRBEC

346

Calculating Molecular Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

2013-06-17

347

Analog-digital codesign using coarse quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With regards to electronic systems, two important trends can be observed. The first trend is generally known as Moore's law: the digital processing capacity per chip is increasing a factor two every 18 months. Another part of the first trend is that the performance increase of integrated linear or analog processing is slow, a factor two every 4.7 years. The second trend is that the rate of data exchange between electronic systems is increasing rapidly. Because of these high data rates especially the design of data converters from analog to digital (ADCs) is demanding. For a specific set of applications, the requirements for the ADC can be relaxed by reducing the resolution of the conversion from analog to digital. Within these specific applications, signal characteristics rather than instantaneous values of the signal are determined. Reducing the resolution to an extreme extend is called 'coarse quantization'. The design of mixed signal systems is guided by a Y-chart design methodology. Analog-Digital Codesign, guided by the Y-chart approach, leads to mixed-signal systems with reduced costs compared to systems designed with the traditional methodology. The Y-chart approach also enables the use of coarse quantization as an additional design parameter to further reduce costs. This is illustrated by two case studies. The first case study concentrates on the design of a digital predistorter for Power Amplifiers (PAs) in telecommunication transmitters. In the second case study, we reconsider the design of a part of a Radio Telescope, used for Radio Astronomy. This part is called the Tied Array Adder and it sums signals from different telescopes. Both case studies show that coarse quantization can lead to mixed-signal systems with lower costs but system parameters will change. The explicit reconsideration of functional specifications, facilitated by the Y-chart approach, is therefore essential for the introduction of coarse quantization.

Kokkeler, Andre Bernardus Joseph

348

Spin Sum Rules and Polarizabilities: Results from Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon spin structure has been an active, exciting and intriguing subject of interest for the last three decades. Recent experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers provide new information in the confinement regime and the transition region from the confinement regime to the asymptotic freedom regime. New insight is gained by exploring moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Burkhardt-Cottingham and Bjorken). The Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is verified to good accuracy. The spin structure moments data are compared with Chiral Perturbation Theory calculations at low momentum transfers. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g{sub 1} at momentum transfer of 0.05 to 0.1 GeV{sup 2} but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability {delta}{sub LT} (the {delta}{sub LT} puzzle). New data have been taken on the neutron ({sup 3}He), the proton and the deuteron at very low Q{sup 2} down to 0.02 GeV{sup 2}. They will provide benchmark tests of Chiral dynamics in the kinematic region where the Chiral Perturbation theory is expected to work.

Jian-Ping Chen

2006-11-15

349

van der Waals forces, sum rules, and pseudostate expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamine the pseudostate expansion used previously to evaluate van der Waals (vdW) coefficients and finite-mass corrections. In particular, we wish to understand the very rapid convergence of the expansion, which for the case of two hydrogenic atoms requires only ten terms to achieve an accuracy of 1×10-10. The analysis proceeds from the representation of the vdW coefficients as integrals of single-atom frequency-dependent polarizabilities. These in turn can be expanded in power series with coefficients of the form JnM2(nl)/(Enl-E1s)k, where M(nl) is a multipole matrix element between the ground (1s) and excited (nl) states. Although defined as sums over an infinite set of hydrogenic states, the coefficients of each order k are reproduced exactly by a finite sum over suitable pseudostates. By analytic continuation, the frequency-dependent polarizabilities computed using pseudostates are expected to be very close to the exact values, and hence the rapid convergence of the vdW coefficients is understood.

Au, C. K.; Drachman, Richard J.

1988-02-01

350

?? interactions in finite-density QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of ? hyperons in pure ? matter are studied with the finite-density quantum chromodynamics (QCD) sum rule approach. The first-order quark and gluon condensates in ? nuclear matter are deduced from the chiral perturbation theory. The sum-rule predictions are sensitive to the four-quark condensates, ?2 and ??, and the ?N sigma term. When ?2 is nearly independent of density and ?? depends strongly on density, we can obtain weakly attractive ?? potentials (about several MeV) in the low ? density region, which agrees with the information from the latest double ? hypernucleus experiments. The nearly no-density dependence of ?2 and strong density dependence of ?? can be explained naturally if the properties of ?2 and ?? are assumed to be similar to those of ?? and K¯K in nuclear medium, respectively.

Zhong, X. H.; Ning, P. Z.

2007-05-01

351

The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, \\fl \\qquad abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term: \\fl \\qquad a \\dashv b \\dashv c - a \\dashv c \\dashv b - b \\vdash a \\dashv c + b \\vdash c \\vdash a + c \\vdash a \\dashv b - c \\vdash b \\vdash a. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree <=9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, we obtain \\fl \\qquad [a,b,c] + [a,c,b] \\equiv 0, \\quad [a,[b,c,d],e] + [a,[c,b,d],e] \\equiv 0 these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

Bremner, Murray R.; Sánchez-Ortega, Juana

2010-11-01

352

Weights and measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual museum presents the role of the United States government in the development and standardization of weights and measures. Produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the exhibit displays objects in eight virtual rooms: America Before Standard Weights and Measures; Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler; The Office of Weights and Measures in the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1836-1901; The Mendenhall Order; The Founding of the National Bureau of Standards in 1901; From Artifacts to Physical Constants; The Dissemination of Standard Weights and Measures; and A Social History of Weights and Measures. Text as well as images relate the history.

Greenhouse, Lisa; National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2001-01-01

353

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

354

Maximum permissible load weight of a Taishuh pony at a trot.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the loading capacity of a trotting Taishuh pony by gait analysis using a motion analysis system. Seven Taishuh Ponies (5 mares and 2 geldings) and their rider were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) and recorded by 2 high-resolution digital DVD cameras (at a sampling frequency of 60 Hz) as they were trotting along a straight course. Each horse performed 7 tests: 1 test with a loaded weight of 70 kg, 5 tests with random loaded weights between 80 kg and 120 kg, and a final test with a loaded weight of 70 kg again. Three-dimensional movements of each marker were analyzed using motion capture system. The time series of the vertical displacements of the marker was subjected to spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first 2 peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity of the gait, and the sum of symmetry and regularity was defined as stability. The cross-spectrum analysis (Blackman-Tukey method) also was performed to analyze the time lag and cross-correlation coefficient between the time series of both pony and rider. Among ponies, symmetry in the 120 kg test (0.54) was significantly lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.75, P < 0.05) and stabilities in the 100 kg (1.17) and 120 kg (1.17) tests were significantly less than that in the first 70 kg (1.46, P < 0.05). Regarding the rider, there were no significant differences in symmetry, regularity, and stability between loaded weights. The time lag between the time series of horse and rider in the 120 kg test (47.6 ms) was significantly greater than that in the first 70 kg (14.3 ms, P < 0.05) test. These results suggests that the maximum permissible load weight of the Taishuh pony trotting at 3.0 m/s over a short distance was less than 100 kg, which is 43% of the BW. PMID:23736046

Matsuura, A; Sakuma, S; Irimajiri, M; Hodate, K

2013-08-01

355

Baldwin Library of Children's Literature, Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Baldwin Library Digital Collection at the University of Florida includes over 2500 fully digitized children's books, published in the United States and Great Britain between 1850 and 1900 (selected from more than more than 100,000 in the Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature, dating from the mid-1600s through 2007). Although baby-boomers may be disappointed in not finding their childhood favorites, it is nonetheless amazing to page through an illustrated edition of Little Red Riding Hood, published in 1895 by Raphael Tuck & Sons. Browsing through the list of recently added items also reveals the digital version of "Bill an' me": sum ov our adventers in de "Midway Plaisance", a souvenir book documenting two boys' adventures at the World's Columbian Exposition, the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893. Books in the collection reflect the mores of the times in which they were published; for example, although the protagonists seem on the youthful side to 21st century eyes, Bill an me's adventures include the drinking of alcoholic beverages.

356

Yogurt and weight management.  

PubMed

A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887

Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

2014-05-01

357

Saving Amputated Digits  

PubMed Central

Since the advent of microsurgery in the 1960's it has become possible to sucessfully repair vessels as small as 0.5 mm in diameter, which makes the replantation of totally severed digits possible. Some centers have reported 50 to 60 percent survival of completely severed digits and up to 100 percent survival of amputated hands and of partially amputed but otherwise non-viable digits that were reattached. In view of this success, severed members should be considered as potentially replantable. The recommended indications for replantation are: (1) multiple digital amputations at or proximal to the proximal interphalangeal joint; (2) amputation of the thumb; (3) amputation of the wrist or hand; (4) partially attached digits that are non-viable without reattachment. The surviving replanted digits give functional improvement to the hand and prove cosmetically acceptable. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Frykman, Gary K.; Wood, Virchel E.

1974-01-01

358

Informedia Digital Video Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Informedia Digital Video Library Project is developing new technologies for creating full-content search and retrieval digital video libraries. Working in collaboration with WQED Pittsburgh, the project is creating a testbed that will enable K-12 students to access, explore, and retrieve science and mathematics materials from the digital video library. The library will initially contain 1,000 hours of video from

Michael G. Christel; Takeo Kanade; M. Mauldin; Raj Reddy; Marvin A. Sirbu; Scott M. Stevens; Howard D. Wactlar

1995-01-01

359

Digital subtraction laryngography.  

PubMed

Digital subtraction laryngography was used to evaluate laryngeal function in 8 patients: 4 with normal larynxes and 4 with laryngeal disease. Subtracted digital images provided a dynamic display of the extent and symmetry of vocal cord excursions and pyriform sinus inflation, and the vocal cord resting position was also clearly depicted. The technical details of digital subtraction laryngography and its application are described. PMID:6342030

Brown, B M; Enzmann, D R; Hopp, M L; Castellino, R A

1983-06-01

360

Digital security technology simplified.  

PubMed

Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609

Scaglione, Bernard J

2007-01-01

361

Digitization Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

362

Digital Commerce Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Digital Commerce Center is to help "businesses compete in the new world of digital commerce through an understanding and application of digital technology, information and media." Created and maintained by EC2, a start-up incubator based at the University of Southern California, the Digital Commerce Center offers an extensive collection of resources and information. The resources are divided into seven sections including Internet Advertising, Media Convergence, and Small Business Advisor, and all sections and subsections are thoughtfully annotated.

363

Digital solar system geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

1991-01-01

364

Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies of ice interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study the (0001) surface of hexagonal ice (Ih) in contact with: air, a hydrophobic substrate, and a hydrophilic substrate. The spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various temperatures. For the air/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Surface disordering appears to set in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is a strong indication of the presence of surface melting of ice. For the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ice interfaces, a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen-bonded OH stretch peak was observed. The free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the air/ice interface due to the interactions with substrates at the interfaces.

Wei, Xing; Miranda, Paulo B.; Zhang, Chun; Shen, Y. R.

2002-08-01

365

Sum rule approach to a soft dipole mode in ? hypernuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying the sum rule approach, we investigate the energy of a soft dipole motion in ? hypernuclei, which results from a dipole oscillation of a ? hyperon against the core nucleus. To this end, we systematically study single-? hypernuclei, from ?16O to ?208Pb, for which the ground-state wave function is obtained in the frame-work of Hartree-Fock method with several Skyrme-type ?N interactions. Our results indicate that the excitation energy of the soft dipole ? mode, Esd?, decreases as the mass number increases. We find that the excitation energy is well parametrized as Esd?=26.6A-1/3+11.2A-2/3 MeV for the SkM* NN interaction and Esd?=21.3A-1/3+22.6A-2/3 MeV for the SIII NN interaction as a function of mass number A.

Minato, F.; Hagino, K.

2013-12-01

366

Summing up all genus free energy of ABJM matrix model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The localization technique allows us to compute the free energy of the U( N) k × U( N)- k Chern-Simons-matter theory dual to type IIA strings on AdS 4 × CP 3 from weak to strong 't Hooft coupling ? = N/ k at finite N, as demonstrated by Drukker, Mariño, and Putrov. In this note we study further the free energy at large 't Hooft coupling with the aim of testing AdS/CFT at the quantum gravity level and, in particular, sum up allthe1/ N corrections, apart from the worldsheet instanton contributions. The all genus partition function takes a remarkably simple form — the Airy function, {text{Ai}}left( {{{left( {{{{? {k^2}}} left/ {{sqrt {2} }} right.}} right)}^{{{2} left/ {3} right.}}}{?_{text{ren}}}} right) , with the renormalized 't Hooft coupling ?ren.

Fuji, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Moriyama, Sanefumi

2011-08-01

367

Carbohydrate surface attachment characterized by sum frequency generation spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Covalent surface attachment of carbohydrate moieties using maleimide-sulfhydril reaction was characterized by surface-selective vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. The comparative VSFG spectra of the precursor maleimide-terminated SAM and the product glucose adlayer reveal the high efficiency of the surface coupling reaction (>90%) and the details of the molecular organization of the formed carbohydrate adlayer. The glucose groups are orientationally well ordered, as judged by their sharp C-H stretch bands. The chemical structure of the linker can significantly affect the orientation of the carbohydrate moiety at the surface. Two alkanethiol linkers of different chain lengths (11 and 16 carbons) yield similar orientations of the glucose in the adlayer whereas the cysteine-containing linker produces markedly different relative peak intensities of the glucose C-H stretch bands in the VSFG spectra, suggesting a significantly different orientation with respect to the surface plane. PMID:19140705

Yatawara, Achani K; Tiruchinapally, Gopinath; Bordenyuk, Andrey N; Andreana, Peter R; Benderskii, Alexander V

2009-02-17

368

Sum rules and interlayer conductivity of high-Tc cuprates  

PubMed

Analysis of the interlayer infrared conductivity of cuprate high-transition temperature superconductors reveals an anomalously large energy scale extending up to midinfrared frequencies that can be attributed to formation of the superconducting condensate. This unusual effect is observed in a va- riety of materials, including Tl2Ba2CuO6+x, La2-xSrxCuO4, and YBa2Cu3O6.6, which show an incoherent interlayer response in the normal state. Midinfrared range condensation was examined in the context of sum rules that can be formulated for the complex conductivity. One possible interpretation of these experiments is in terms of a kinetic energy change associated with the superconducting transition. PMID:9872736

Basov; Woods; Katz; Singley; Dynes; Xu; Hinks; Homes; Strongin

1999-01-01

369

Test of Sum Rules in Nucleon Transfer Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative consistency of nucleon transfer reactions as a probe of the occupancy of valence orbits in nuclei is tested. Neutron-adding, neutron-removal, and proton-adding transfer reactions were measured on the four stable even Ni isotopes, with particular attention to the cross section determinations. The data were analyzed consistently in terms of the distorted wave Born approximation to yield spectroscopic factors. Valence-orbit occupancies were extracted, utilizing the Macfarlane-French sum rules. The deduced occupancies are consistent with the changing number of valence neutrons, as are the vacancies for protons, both at the level of <5%. While there has been some debate regarding the true “observability” of spectroscopic factors, the present results indicate that empirically they yield self-consistent results.

Schiffer, J. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Freeman, S. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mitchell, A. J.; Parker, P. D.; Sharp, D. K.; Thomas, J. S.

2012-01-01

370

Weight control in the management of hypertension. World Hypertension League.  

PubMed Central

This article, which includes a brief description of the mechanisms and some epidemiological findings in obesity and high blood pressure, sums up present knowledge on a complex subject and provides guidance to medical practitioners on the management of obese hypertensive patients. Weight reduction, together with drug therapy in severe and moderate hypertension, and other non-pharmacological methods and continuing observation in mild hypertension are the essential measures to be applied. In addition to the lowering of blood pressure, weight loss offers several other metabolic and haemodynamic benefits.

1989-01-01

371

Sum frequency generation using an optical parametric oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A number of applications would benefit from sources of tunable coherent ultraviolet (uv) radiation in the 250 to 400 nm range. Among these are uv fluorescence laser detection and ranging (LIDAR). Other applications such as photolithography could use a fixed-frequency solid-state equivalent to excimer lasers. Broad tunability in this wavelength region has generally been accessed by frequency doubling tunable visible or near infrared lasers or by frequency mixing these lasers with the harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. Unfortunately, to cover the full wavelength range requires multiple dye changes and/or multiple nonlinear crystals because of the relatively narrow tuning range of any one laser medium. The use of optical parametric oscillators (OPO`s) with their wide tuning range as a tunable source of near infrared light coupled with a single {beta}-barium borate (BBO) crystal for sum frequency mixing with the Nd:YAG harmonics should yield a convenient alternative to cover this wavelength range. In this paper we demonstrate that an OPO can be efficiently sum frequency mixed with the Nd:YAG harmonics to produce tunable uv radiation in the 250--400 nm range. This is significant because OPO`s generally have poor beam quality which limits their nonlinear conversion in critically phase matched processes. Specifically, we have mixed the 780 nm signal beam from a potassium tytanyl phosphate (KTP) OPO with the second harmonic from a Nd:YAG laser in BBO converting up to 50% of the OPO photons into 316 nm photons. We have also demonstrated the generation of narrow bandwidth 248 nm by mixing 827 nm from the OPO with the third harmonic of the Nd:YAG.

Alford, W.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Smith, A.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowenthal, D.D.; Mead, R.D. [Aculight Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States)

1993-11-01

372

Impact of digital control in power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the impact of digital control in high-frequency switched-mode power supplies (SMPS), including point-of-load and isolated DC-DC converters, microprocessor power supplies, power-factor-correction rectifiers, electronic ballasts, etc., where switching frequencies are typically in the hundreds of kHz to MHz range, and where high efficiency, static and dynamic regulation, low size and weight, as well as low controller

Dragan MaksimoviC; Regan Zane; Robert Erickson

2004-01-01

373

Force and Moment Reconstruction for a Nuclear Transportation Cask Using Sum of Weighted Accelerations and Deconvolution Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 9-m drop test was conducted of a 1/3-scale-model spent fuel cask onto an unyielding target. The structural response of the impact limiters and attachments wa evaluated. A mass model of the cask body, with steel-sheathed redwood and balsa impact limiters...

H. R. Yoshimura V. Bateman T. G. Carne D. L. Gregory S. W. Attaway

1989-01-01

374

Weighted sum threshold logic operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) using resonant-tunneling transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional operation of the MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) has been studied using multiple-input logic gates. The MOBILE uses two resonant-tunneling transistors (RTTs) connected in series and driven by an oscillating bias voltage to produce a mono-to-bistable transition of the circuit. A MOBILE having three input gates with a 1:2:4 width ratio can distinguish all 8 (23) input patterns

Tomoyuki Akeyoshi; Koichi Maezawa; Takashi Mizutani

1993-01-01

375

Walks on Weighted Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square displacement are calculated for two walks on the Barrat-Barthélemy-Vespignani (BBV) networks. It is found that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.

Wu, An-Cai; Xu, Xin-Jian; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Ying-Hai

2007-02-01

376

The calibration status of P-sum mode for XIS on board Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XIS (X-ray Imaging Spectrometer) on board Suzaku satellite provides two kinds of clocking modes, the Normal and the Parallel-Sum (P-sum) mode. In the P-sum mode, observer can obtain the highest time resolution 8/1024 (~8ms) with XIS. But, the spatial resolution in the Y-direction of the CCD is lost with P-sum mode. Because, in the P-sum mode, the pixel data from multiple rows are summed in the Y-direction on the CCD, and the sum is put in the Pixel RAM as a single row. We have analyzed observed data of E0102-72 which was observed with P-sum mode for calibration purpose have studied the performance of P-sum mode. For seven years after the lunch, we find the gain of both XIS0 and XIS3 p-sum mode data has gradually changed from 3.6eV/ch to 4.2eV/ch. And the energy resolution has also changed from 60eV to 140eV at the energy of NeIX.

Kohmura, T.; Kawai, K.; Ikeda, S.; Kaneko, K.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Nakajima, H.; Koyama, K.; Tsuru, T. G.; Nobukawa, M.; Dotani, T.; Ozaki, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; Matsuta, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, K.; Uchiyama, H.; Mori, K.; Suzaku XIS Team

2012-03-01

377

Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of said second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.

Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

378

Digital Circuit Design Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has described the different trends in the digital circuit design and changes over the past two decades moving from chips that contained tens of thousands of devices to today' s chips that may contain over a billion transistors. The job of the digital circuit designer has grown with the chips, moving from optimizing and validating gates, to working

Mark Horowitz; Donald Stark; Elad Alon

2008-01-01

379

Digital Program Sustainability Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three library leaders who oversee digital library programs operating on the CONTENTdm platform talk about what it takes to build and sustain a digital library program. Panelists will draw upon their experiences of increasing staffing and infrastructure to create capacity, developing ways to lower costs, and experimenting with new funding models to supplement diminishing budgets.

Bradley D. Faust; Paul A. Soderdahl; Kenning Arlitsch

2011-01-01

380

Digitization of stained glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital photography was applied to the capture of images of the stained glass windows in the historic parish church in Fairford, Gloucestershire, England. Because of their size, the windows had to be photographed in 45 separate sections in order to capture all the detail present in the painting on the glass. The digital images of each section, approximately 3000 by

Lindsay W. MacDonald

1997-01-01

381

Analog to Digital Converter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for converting a signal voltage into a multibit digital word that defines that voltage magnitude and polarity. The input voltage V to be digitized is used to control the frequency of a voltage controlled oscillator, whose output is defined to be ...

B. L. Lewis

1981-01-01

382

Digital rotation measurement unit  

DOEpatents

A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

Sanderson, S.N.

1983-09-30

383

Digital Collections Inventory Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

McClung, Patricia A.

384

The Digital Silk Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and proposed mechanisms for digital money all require large overhead to transfer money between parties. This overhead makes them unsuitable for extremely low cost activities, such as delivering and routing packets. The digital silk road is a proposed money system with extremely low transaction cost built into the communication protocols. The money introduced by this system is much more

Norman Hardy; Eric Dean Tribble

1993-01-01

385

Digital Visual Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other literacies (textual literacy, numeracy), digital visual literacy (DVL) is the ability both to create and to understand certain types of information, in this case visual materials created with a computer. DVL is now essential in many daily life and workplace tasks, from looking critically at newspaper images or TV evening news to using a digital camera, making a

Anne Morgan Spalter; Andries van Dam

2008-01-01

386

Digital Libraries: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the basic components of a digital library. Highlights include library collections; metadata; services, including information seeking and retrieval, reference query fulfillment, and user training; user interaction with digital libraries, including searching, browsing, and navigation; economic support; maintenance;…

Schwartz, Candy

2000-01-01

387

Line Digitizer Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the software developed to date for the On Line digitizer system. The software provides means to transfer digital imagery and auxiliary data to a host computer hard disk, to test system components and display the imagery and auxiliary...

S. R. F. Sims

1984-01-01

388

Music Instruction Goes Digital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faced with meager enrollment in band, orchestra, and choir programs, schools are using digital technology to excite students about creating music on today's terms. This article discusses how music educators reinvent their profession by acknowledging and incorporating the way students interact with music today--digitally. Bill Evans, a music…

Demski, Jennifer

2011-01-01

389

DVD - digital versatile disks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas wher...

R. Gaunt

1997-01-01

390

Digital communications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

Boorstyn, R. R.

1973-01-01

391

Digital Beamforming Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eight element Digital Beamforming (DBF) array is described. The array has the capability of forming multiple simultaneous beams by converting the RF amplitude and phase of each element to a digital format followed by beamforming in a general purpose co...

J. M. Loomis J. F. Rose

1983-01-01

392

Optimization of digital designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application specific integrated circuit is optimized by translating a first representation of its digital design to a second representation. The second representation includes multiple syntactic expressions that admit a representation of a higher-order function of base Boolean values. The syntactic expressions are manipulated to form a third representation of the digital design.

Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

393

Writing and Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a…

van Waes, Luuk, Ed.; Leijten, Marielle, Ed.; Neuwirth, Chris, Ed.

2006-01-01

394

Will Digital Texts Succeed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With faculty changing instructional practices to take advantage of customizable, focused content (and digital delivery of that content), many people assume that digital distribution is the answer to bringing the costs of course content delivery in line. But the picture just isn't that simple. A wide continuum of options is available to faculty and…

Acker, Stephen R.

2008-01-01

395

Everglades Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Everglades Digital Library (EDL) is a comprehensive portal to high-quality digital resources relating to the south Florida environment. These resources include online texts, articles, reports, photographs, maps, datasets, educational materials, and historical records, as well as links to organizational web sites and agency home pages. These materials come from libraries, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and other sources.

396

Digital Knowledge Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. Networking and computing technologies have now become sufficiently advanced to support the design and deployment of large digital libraries which are capable of supporting the conventional end-user functions. Digital libraries are a natural extension of the evolution in which libraries have…

Pandian, M. Paul

2008-01-01

397

Method of improving a digital image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of improving a digital image is provided. The image is initially represented by digital data indexed to represent positions on a display. The digital data is indicative of an intensity value I.sub.i (x,y) for each position (x,y) in each i-th spectral band. The intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is adjusted to generate an adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band in accordance with ##EQU1## where S is the number of unique spectral bands included in said digital data, W.sub.n is a weighting factor and * denotes the convolution operator. Each surround function F.sub.n (x,y) is uniquely scaled to improve an aspect of the digital image, e.g., dynamic range compression, color constancy, and lightness rendition. The adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is filtered with a common function and then presented to a display device. For color images, a novel color restoration step is added to give the image true-to-life color that closely matches human observation.

Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

398

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

2012-12-26

399

Digital Document Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Gladney has an established background in the field of digital document management, and he also holds a number of patents. Gladney started publishing the Digital Document Quarterly (DDQ) in 2002 as an online publication that covers everything from the information revolution to providing information about digital preservation solutions. Visitors to the site can read the introduction to the DDQ, and then make their way through all of the previous issues. It's easy to see why different information science professionals and librarians would find the archive useful, as the topics covered here include basic topics in digital preservation, preserving office records, information retrieval, and even the epistemology of digital preservation. The site is rounded out by a nice glossary of terms, which covers everything from "abstract" to "value".

2008-01-01

400

The Digital Archaeological Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as "A Service of Digital Antiquity," the Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) is an international digital repository for the digital records of archaeological investigations. This remarkable archive is overseen by a board of directors with expertise in a range of professional fields, along with experts from the University of Arkansas, Arizona State University, and the University of York. A good place to start might be the sections that orient visitors to the work here. They include Access & Use, Contribute, Preservation, and Who Uses tDAR? The Featured Content area offers users a glimpse of the most useful archaeological records contained within the archive. Near the bottom of the homepage, visitors can peruse the What's New at tDAR" area to get a feel for digital images recently added to the collection, along with field reports. [KMG

2013-01-01

401

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

402

Implementation of Digital Quadrature Modulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two basic methods of implementing digital quadrature modulation have been proposed. Although the multiplying D/A implementation appears at first look to be simpler than the digital multiplier implementation, a more detailed analysis favors the digital mul...

I. P. Bottlik

1978-01-01

403

Digital biology and chemistry.  

PubMed

This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and cellular analysis. Microfluidics will impact digital biology and chemistry and will also benefit from them if it becomes massively distributed. PMID:24889331

Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

2014-07-29

404

Accumulative weights program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program provides capability of assessing weight above given structural station planes for inert and variable masses for any selected loading condition. Output is produced that yeilds weight data concentrated on and/or cantilevered from stations along Saturn 5 vehicle's verticle axis. Input data availability limits program's function to vertical structures.

Pate, W. B.; Pincha, P. J.

1971-01-01

405

METHOD OF WEIGHT DETERMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate method for measuring the weight of large masses of material ; such as oil, molten metals, rubber, water, and other liquids during processing is ; patented. A short-lived radioisotope is added to the material, whose weight is ; to be determined, and uniformly dispersed in the material. A sample is taken ; from the material and weighed, and

1963-01-01

406

The weighted oblimin rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cureton & Mulaik (1975) proposed the Weighted Varimax rotation so that Varimax (Kaiser, 1958) could reach simple solutions when the complexities of the variables in the solution are larger than one. In the present paper the weighting procedure proposed by Cureton & Mulaik (1975) is applied to Direct Oblimin (Clarkson & Jennrich, 1988), and the rotation method obtained is called

Urbano Lorenzo-Seva

2000-01-01

407

The Meaning of Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

Iona, Mario

1975-01-01

408

Weight and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

409

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

410

The Digital Carrot, the Digital Stick  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author asserts that technology is not the answer to digital piracy at colleges and universities. Citing the three most common explanations given for copyright infringement--that students cannot always get what they want, cannot always use what they can get, or think the price of what they can get is unfair--he asserts that the…

Jackson, Gregory A.

2007-01-01

411

Kinetic energy sum spectra in nonmesonic weak decay of hypernuclei  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the coincidence spectra in the nonmesonic weak decay (NMWD) {lambda}N{yields}nN of {lambda} hypernuclei {sub {lambda}}{sup 4}He, {sub {lambda}}{sup 5}He, {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}C, {sub {lambda}}{sup 16}O, and {sub {lambda}}{sup 28}Si, as a function of the sum of kinetic energies E{sub nN}=E{sub n}+E{sub N} for N=n,p. The strangeness-changing transition potential is described by the one-meson-exchange model, with commonly used parametrization. Two versions of the independent-particle shell model (IPSM) are employed to account for the nuclear structure of the final residual nuclei. They are as follows: (a) IPSM-a, where no correlation, except for the Pauli principle, is taken into account and (b) IPSM-b, where the highly excited hole states are considered to be quasistationary and are described by Breit-Wigner distributions, whose widths are estimated from the experimental data. All np and nn spectra exhibit a series of peaks in the energy interval 110 MeV sum spectra in the NMWD. It is in comparison to this picture that one should appraise the effects of the final-state interactions and of the two-nucleon-induced decay mode.

Barbero, Cesar [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Galeao, Alfredo P. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hussein, Mahir S. [Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Krmpotic, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

2008-10-15

412

Using Triangularly Weighted Interpolation to Get 13Bit PCM from a Sigma-Delta Modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyze a method of interpolation that improves the amplitude resolution of an analog-to-digital converter. The technique requires feedback around a quantizer that operates at high speed and digital accumulation of its quantized values to provide a PCM output. We show that use of appropriate weights in the accumulation has important advantages for providing finer resoution, less spectral

JAMES C. CANDY; Y. Ching; D. Alexander

1976-01-01

413

Ewald sums for Yukawa potentials in quasi-two-dimensional systems  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the author derive Ewald sums for Yukawa potential for three-dimensional systems with two-dimensional periodicity. This sums are derived from the Ewald sums for Yukawa potentials with three-dimensional periodicity [G. Salin and J.-M. Caillol, J. Chem. Phys.113, 10459 (2000)] by using the method proposed by Parry for the Coulomb interactions [D. E. Parry, Surf. Sci.49, 433 (1975); 54, 195 (1976)].

Mazars, Martial [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2007-02-07

414

Partial-Sum Queries in OLAP Data Cubes Using Covering Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial-sum query obtains the summation over a set of specified cells of a data cube. We establish a connection between the covering problem in the theory of error-correcting codes and the partial-sum problem and use this connection to devise algorithms for the partial-sum problem with efficient space-time trade-offs. For example, using our algorithms, with 44 percent additional storage, the

Ching-tien Ho; Jehoshua Bruck; Rakesh Agrawal

1998-01-01

415

Using wavelet decomposition to support progressive and approximate range-sum queries over data cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

that can be used to analyze the contents of databases anddata warehouses. A range query applies an aggregationoperation (e.g., SUM, AVERAGE) over all selected cellsin a data cube, where the selection is specified by providingranges of values on different dimensions. Previousapproaches to process the range sum query on data cubes(e.g., prefix sum) have low query costs but have high updatecosts.

Yi-Leh Wu; Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi

2000-01-01

416

A New Result for the Distribution of the Sum of Nakagami-m Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the classical problem of finding the probability density function of the sum of Nakagami-m random variables. An exact infinite series formula is derived for the sum of three identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) Nakagami-m random variables and subsquently it is extended to the sum of four and in general M number of random variables. A

K. D. P. Dharmawansa; R. M. A. P. Rajatheva; K. M. Ahmed

2006-01-01

417

On the Distribution of the Sum of Nakagami-m Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the classical problem of finding the probability density function (pdf) of the sum of Nakagami-m random variables. Exact infinite series representations are derived for the sum of three and four identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) Nakagami-m random variables, and subsequently, it is extended to the sum of general number of random variables. A useful pattern

Prathapasinghe Dharmawansa; P. Rajatheva; P. Ahmed

2007-01-01

418

Symbolic methods for the evaluation of sum rules of Bessel functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of the umbral formalism allows a significant simplification of the derivation of sum rules involving products of special functions and polynomials. We rederive in this way known sum rules and addition theorems for Bessel functions. Furthermore, we obtain a set of new closed form sum rules involving various special polynomials and Bessel functions. The examples we consider are relevant for applications ranging from plasma physics to quantum optics.

Babusci, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via E. Fermi 40, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via E. Fermi 40, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Dattoli, G. [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)] [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Górska, K. [H. Niewodnicza?ski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Eljasza-Radzikowskiego 152, PL 31342 Kraków, Poland and Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 66318, B 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [H. Niewodnicza?ski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Eljasza-Radzikowskiego 152, PL 31342 Kraków, Poland and Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 66318, B 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Penson, K. A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7600, Tour 13 - 5ième ét., B.C. 121, 4 pl. Jussieu, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7600, Tour 13 - 5ième ét., B.C. 121, 4 pl. Jussieu, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2013-07-15

419

Detection of Signals by Weighted Integrate-and-Dump Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Weighted Integrate and Dump Filter (WIDF) is presented that results in reducing those losses in telemetry symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) which occur in digital Integrate and Dump Filters (IDFs) when the samples are not phase locked to the input data...

R. Sadr

1987-01-01

420

Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques.

Chen, Zhan

2010-01-01

421

Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

Greenblatt, R. E.

2013-10-01

422

Rarefied-continuum gas dynamics transition for SUMS project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is to develop an analytic method for reducing SUMS data for the determination of the undisturbed atmosphere conditions ahead of the shuttle along its descending trajectory. It is divided into an internal flow problem, an external flow problem and their matching conditions. Since the existing method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) failed completely for the internal flow problem, the emphasis is on the internal flow of a highly non-equilibrium, rarefied air through a short tube of a diameter much less than the gaseous mean free path. A two fluid model analysis of this internal flow problem has been developed and studied with typical results illustrated. A computer program for such an analysis and a technical paper published in Lecture Notes in Physics No. 323 (1989) are included as Appendices 3 and 4. A proposal for in situ determination of the surface accommodation coefficients sigma sub t and sigma e is included in Appendix 5 because of their importance in quantitative data reduction. A two fluid formulation for the external flow problem is included as Appendix 6 and a review article for AIAA on Hypersonic propulsion, much dependent on ambient atmospheric density, is also included as Appendix 7.

Cheng, Sin-I

1989-01-01

423

Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.  

PubMed

A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085

Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan

2014-05-01

424

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences  

SciTech Connect

During the week 8-12 April 1996, an international conference summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster after one decade took place in Vienna. Organizers were the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (EC/IAEA/WHO 1996). One of the authors, A. Kaul, presented the outcome of the conference as given below to the IPRA 9 congress which was held in Vienna the following week. Two caveats have to be mentioned here: firstly, only facts actually reported and reviewed at the conference can be accounted for, and, secondly, according to the groundrules of the conference, the deadline for the background papers of the conference was the 9 February 1996, meaning that facts materializing after that time are not covered in this paper. The same applied to information given at the conference that was not properly reviewed and published. Reports, for example, given at the conference on an observed increase of thyroid cancers and leukemia among liquidators and of diabetes mellitus among children are not yet substantiated and are, therefore, not yet recognized as consequences. If corroborated, and it is obvious that all higher exposed groups should be closely monitored in the future, an update on the consequences will have to take this into account. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Kaul, A.; Landfermann, H.; Thieme, M.

1996-11-01

425

QCD sum rule determination of the charm-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

QCD sum rules involving mixed inverse moment integration kernels are used in order to determine the running charm-quark mass in the MS scheme. Both the high and the low energy expansion of the vector current correlator are involved in this determination. The optimal integration kernel turns out to be of the form p(s)=1-(s{sub 0}/s){sup 2}, where s{sub 0} is the onset of perturbative QCD. This kernel enhances the contribution of the well known narrow resonances, and reduces the impact of the data in the range s{approx_equal}20-25 GeV{sup 2}. This feature leads to a substantial reduction in the sensitivity of the results to changes in s{sub 0}, as well as to a much reduced impact of the experimental uncertainties in the higher resonance region. The value obtained for the charm-quark mass in the MS scheme at a scale of 3 GeV is m{sub c}(3 GeV)=987{+-}9 MeV, where the error includes all sources of uncertainties added in quadrature.

Bodenstein, S. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Bordes, J.; Penarrocha, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universitat de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Dominguez, C. A. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); Schilcher, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2011-04-01

426

Wavelength conversion of incoherent light by sum-frequency generation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we reveal that some kinds of optical nonlinearities are further enhanced when incoherent light, instead of a laser, is used as a pump light. This idea was confirmed both theoretically and experimentally in the case of sum-frequency generation (SFG) using the optical second nonlinearity. The conversion efficiency of the SFG with incoherent light pumping increased as the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light decreased, finally reaching twice the conversion efficiency of conventional second harmonic generation (SHG) by laser pumping. This method dramatically relaxes the severe requirements of phase matching in the nonlinear optical process. The conversion efficiency became less sensitive to misalignment of the wavelength of pump light and also of device operation temperature when the bandwidth of the incoherent pump light was sufficiently broad, although the improvement of the conversion efficiency had an inverse relationship with the insensitivity to the phase-matching condition. The temperature tuning range was enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the conventional SHG method. As an example of a promising application of this new idea, we performed the generation of quantum entangled photon-pairs using cascaded optical nonlinearities (SFG and the subsequent spontaneous parametric down conversion) in a single periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide device, in which the incoherent light was used as the pump source for both the parametric processes. We have achieved high fidelity exceeding 99% in quantum-state tomography experiments. PMID:24921492

Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi

2014-06-01

427

Rational trigonometric approximations using Fourier series partial sums  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of approximations (S(sub N,M)) to a periodic function f which uses the ideas of Pade, or rational function, approximations based on the Fourier series representation of f, rather than on the Taylor series representation of f, is introduced and studied. Each approximation S(sub N,M) is the quotient of a trigonometric polynomial of degree N and a trigonometric polynomial of degree M. The coefficients in these polynomials are determined by requiring that an appropriate number of the Fourier coefficients of S(sub N,M) agree with those of f. Explicit expressions are derived for these coefficients in terms of the Fourier coefficients of f. It is proven that these 'Fourier-Pade' approximations converge point-wise to (f(x(exp +))+f(x(exp -)))/2 more rapidly (in some cases by a factor of 1/k(exp 2M)) than the Fourier series partial sums on which they are based. The approximations are illustrated by several examples and an application to the solution of an initial, boundary value problem for the simple heat equation is presented.

Geer, James F.

1993-01-01

428

Exploring the D*? system within QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the D*? system made by using the method of QCD sum rules to determine the mass of possible resonances generated in the same system. Using isospin and spin projectors, we investigate the different configurations and obtain evidences for three D* mesons with isospin I=1/2, spin S=0, 1, 2 and with masses 2500±67, 2523±60, and 2439±119MeV, respectively. The last state can be associated with D2*(2460) (spin 2) listed by the Particle Data Group, while one of the first two might be related to D*(2640), with unknown spin parity. In the case of I=3/2 we also find evidences of three states with spin 0, 1, and 2, respectively, with masses 2467±82, 2420±128, and 2550±56MeV. The results for the sector I=1/2 and S=0, 1, 2, are intriguingly similar to a previous study of the D*? system based on effective field theories, supporting in this way a molecular picture for the resonances D*(2640) and D2*(2460), while the results for I=3/2 hint towards the existence of exotic mesons since a multiquark configuration is required to get the quantum numbers of the states found.

Martínez Torres, A.; Khemchandani, K. P.; Nielsen, M.; Navarra, F. S.; Oset, E.

2013-10-01

429

Flexibility in weight management.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between changes in flexible vs. rigid restraints of eating during weight management, as well as how changes in the cognitive restraint of eating were related to psychological well-being and flexibility. The data includes information on 49 overweight persons who participated in a weight loss and maintenance (WLM) intervention and a follow-up assessment after 8-9months. An increase in flexible cognitive restraint during the weight loss intervention was related to better weight loss maintenance and well-being. The more flexible restraint increased during the WLM intervention, the more psychological distress decreased. Moreover, larger reduction of rigid restraint during the follow-up period (between the WLM intervention and the follow-up assessment) was related to a better maintenance of improved psychological well-being at the follow-up endpoint. These results suggest that increasing flexible control while reducing rigid control of eating after an active weight loss phase improves success in weight management and the psychological well-being of weight losers. PMID:24854807

Sairanen, Essi; Lappalainen, Raimo; Lapveteläinen, Anja; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila

2014-04-01

430

Advanced transient waveform digitizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of multi-channel transient waveform digitization integrated circuits with up to 5 GHz sample rates and parallel 10-bit digitization has been designed, tested, and fabricated in large quantities. The current CMOS circuit uses four arrays of 128 fast switched capacitors per channel to record four parallel analog transient inputs. Triggering and clocking is provided by a current-mode adjustable asynchronous active delay line that uses look-ahead to generate 128 4-way interleaved clocks without the need for external high-speed clocking. After transient capture, each channel is fed into 128 parallel 10-bit analog to digital converters for fast, channel-parallel digitization, followed by digital readout. The fast triggering and waveform capture, channel-parallel digitization and convenient word-parallel digital readout results in a responsive and low dead-time system. Acquisition sample rates range from ~50 kHz to ~3 GHz. Analog input bandwidth is approximately 350 MHz. Fixed-pattern spatial noise, after on-chip digitization, is equivalent to ~5 mV RMS. Temporal noise is typically equivalent to ~1 mV RMS, for a signal to noise ratio of ~2,500:1, RMS. This integrated circuit, the "Analog Transient Waveform Digitizer," has been successfully used to instrument the AMANDA and KamLAND neutrino physics experiments, and has been selected for use in the IceCube neutrino observatory. Current efforts to improve this technology will yield larger array sizes, sample rates in excess of 10 GHz, analog bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz, higher conversion rates, lower dead-time, greater uniformity and enhanced flexibility and ease of use.

Kleinfelder, Stuart

2003-02-01

431

A novel weighted-direction color interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital camera capture images by covering the sensor surface with a color filter array (CFA), only get a color sample at pixel location. Demosaicking is a process by estimating the missing color components of each pixel to get a full resolution image. In this paper, a new algorithm based on edge adaptive and different weighting factors is proposed. Our method can effectively suppress undesirable artifacts. Experimental results based on Kodak images show that the proposed algorithm obtain higher quality images compared to other methods in numerical and visual aspects.

Tao, Jin-you; Yang, Jianfeng; Xue, Bin; Liang, Xiaofen; Qi, Yong-hong; Wang, Feng

2013-08-01

432

Digital sonar system  

SciTech Connect

A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

Young, Kenneth K. (Seattle, WA); Wilkes, R. Jeffrey (Seattle, WA)

1995-01-01

433

Shall I go digital?  

PubMed

Dental radiographic imaging is slowly transferring to digital format. The decision to invest in this new technology should be based on a good understanding of the different types of digital imaging available within the dental field. This article outlines its use in general dental practice, highlighting the pros and cons of the various systems both for intra-oral and extra-oral radiography. Clinical Relevance: An understanding of the mechanisms of digital imaging and their associated potential problems are required by any clinician moving to film-less imaging. PMID:24930253

Thomas, Bethan L; Davies, Jonathan; Whaites, Eric

2014-05-01

434

Digital Libraries Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eight US institutions are sponsoring this recently-announced initiative including the National Science Foundation, the Library of Congress, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Phase 2 of the Digital Libraries Initiative is designed to extend research, accelerate development, and create new capabilities for digital libraries, as well as investigate the study of the interaction between people and digital libraries in various contexts. The initiative is divided into the areas of research, and testbeds & applications. Further information, along with proposal due dates and award amounts are available at the site.

435

Cuban Theater Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cuban Theater Digital Archive (CTDA) is a resource for research, teaching and learning in Cuban theater and performance as well as in related fields. The archive was created with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and is managed as a digital humanities partnership between the University of Miami College of Arts and Sciences and Cuba's National Council for the Performing Arts. The Creators area features profiles of various works crafted by artistic professionals, including Lorelis Amores, Adelfa Cantelli, and Rafael Fiallo. Additionally, the site includes a Digital Objects area that highlights a variety of works of art, including photographs, posters, and theatrical performance.

436

Digital sonar system  

DOEpatents

A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.

Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.

1995-11-21

437

Sum rule measurements of the spin-dependent compton amplitude (nucleon spin structure at Q{sup 2} = 0)  

SciTech Connect

Energy weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photo-production cross sections ({sigma}{sub {1/2}} - {sigma}{sub 3/2}) provide information on the nucleon`s Spin-dependent Polarizability ({gamma}), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. (The latter forms the Q{sup 2}=0 limit of recent spin-asymmetry experiments in deep-inelastic lepton-scattering.) There are no direct measurements of {sigma}{sub {1/2}} or {sigma}{sub 3/2}, for either the proton or the neutron. Estimates from current {pi}-photo-production multipole analyses, particularly for the proton-neutron difference, are in good agreement with relativistic-l-loop Chiral calculations ({chi}PT) for {gamma} but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) both the 2-loop corrections to the Spin-Polarizability are large and the existing multipoles are wrong, or (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon. The helicity-dependent photo-reaction amplitudes, for both the proton and the neutron, will be measured at LEGS from pion-threshold to 470 MeV. In these double-polarization experiments, circularly polarized photons from LEGS will be used with SPHICE, a new frozen-spin target consisting of {rvec H} {center_dot} {rvec D} in the solid phase. Reaction channels will be identified in SASY, a large detector array covering about 80% of 4{pi}. A high degree of symmetry in both target and detector will be used to minimize systematic uncertainties.

Babusci, D.; Giordano, G. [Laboratori Nationali di Frascati-INFN, Rome (Italy); Baghaei, H.; Cichocki, A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Breuer, M.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.P. [IN2P3, Orsay (France); Caracappa, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Fan, Q. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

438

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

439

Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants: Teaching with Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is witnessing an increasing demand for technology use in the classroom. At the same time, new teachers are entering the profession in high numbers, some being labeled as "Digital Natives" while others are labeled "Digital Immigrants". This qualitative case study investigated the technology practices of Digital Native and Digital

Martin, Ellen Marie Peterson

2011-01-01

440

Limits of Weight Spaces, Lusztig's q-Analogs, and Fiberings of Adjoint Orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a connected complex semisimple algebraic group, and T a maximal torus inside a Borel subgroup B , with g, t, and b their Lie algebras. Let V be a representation in the category & for g. The t-decomposition V = E9 JlEt* V Jl of V into a direct sum of finite-dimensional weight spaces is central in

Ranee-Kathryn Brylinski

1989-01-01

441

Creep simulation of asymmetric effects by use of stress mode dependent weighting functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a framework for creep modeling of materials exhibiting different behaviors in different loading scenarios, such as tension, compression and shear, respectively. To this end an additive decomposition of the flow rule is assumed into a sum of weighted stress mode related quantities. The characterization of the stress modes is obtained in the octahedral plane of the deviatoric

Rolf Mahnken

2003-01-01

442

Prizes for weight loss.  

PubMed Central

A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health.

Englberger, L.

1999-01-01

443

Weighted Fano threefold hypersurfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study birational transformations into elliptic fibrations and birational automorphisms of quasismooth anticanonically embedded weighted Fano 3-fold hypersur- faces with terminal singularities classified by A. R. Iano-Fletcher, J. Johnson, J. Kollar, and M. Reid.

BerlinNew York

444

Weight gain - unintentional  

MedlinePLUS

... changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (Hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling due to a ...

445

Your Child's Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese. Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

446

Sleep Apnea and Weight  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... of a small study published in the journal Sleep Medicine that suggests that when moderately obese apnea patients lose just 5% of their body weight they can stop early-stage disease from getting worse. Starting in 2004, researchers tracked ...

447

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

448

Digital seismic station. Digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work have two clearly differentiated parts. The first one refers to the instrumental development of a digital short period seismic station, while in second one some aspects of the digital signal processing are studied. In the first part, it is shown as a simple capacitor in series with the load resistance increase the band width of the response in more than 30%, without any reduction of the effective gain and the internal noise is not increased regarding the classical load. Also, the system of acquisition has been developed, based on the analogical-digital converter CS5323/CS5322 that it provides a dynamic range of 130 decibels to 125 mps. The data acquisition for the parallel port of an embedded PC, working with LINUX operating system, is an innovation in this instrumental field. The programs and the necessary drivers were developed. The synchronization system was developed by a PLL software that permit a precision better than one millisecond. Finally, the calibration methods proposed by means of the measure of the equivalent impedance of the sensor (parametric method), as well as the modifications of the empiric calibration method by comparison the response of two sensors have been decisive, suggesting that the usually accepted models suffer of some parasite capacities that would justify the observed differences between both methods. In second part, a detailed analysis on the design of digital filters is showed, as much FIR as IIR filters. A non-linear filter that applies the coherent structures for levels, based on the Wavelet transform, is proposed. It includes the detection and reduction of "spikes" and a method for filtering periodic noises, based on the time Fourier series. Finally, an exhaustive comparison of several detection algorithms, working on a single component, is made, analyzing the detection percentages and their "picking" capabilities. Their results show that none of them is able to adapt to all the circumstances, highlighting those based on the skewness and the kurtosis properties for their high percentage of successes.

Pazos Garcia, Antonio A.

449

Digital Troposcatter Performance Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a computer prediction model for digital troposcatter communication system design is described. Propagation and modem performance are modeled. These include Path Loss and RSL distributions for troposcatter propagation and mixed troposcat...

A. Malaga J. Fetteroll P. Monsen S. Parl S. Tolman

1983-01-01

450

Digital Art Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Art Museum (DAM) is an "online resource for the history and practice of digital fine art.â On this dynamic site, visitors can look over sections that include Artists, Exhibitions, and Timelines. First-time visitors should start with the Featured Artist section to explore a new contemporary artist every week. Moving along, News for You presents information about upcoming art exhibits around the world, as well as ones that are coming specifically to the DAM site. Thoughtful meditations on digital art exhibits from Bruges to Birmingham can be found in Essays and the Exhibitions area contains an arresting series of plotter drawings by well-known contemporary artists, Vera Molnar and George Nees. Finally, links to institutions, galleries, and digital art festivals in Germany, France, and other countries can all be found in Resources.

451

Digital Systems Design Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description...

S. G. Shiva

1979-01-01

452

Digital ac monitor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

1987-06-09

453

Digital pulse shape discrimination.  

PubMed

Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogoue techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogoue signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. PMID:17575295

Miller, L F; Preston, J; Pozzi, S; Flaska, M; Neal, J

2007-01-01

454

Digital Humanities Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2009, Digital Humanities Now (DHNow) is "an experimental edited publication that highlights and distributes informally published digital humanities scholarship and resources from the open web." A scrolling set of resources on the homepage features the Editor's Choice, which includes Grasping Technology, Trends in Digital Scholarship Centers, and other helpful topics. Moving on, visitors can look over job announcements in higher education, learn about upcoming conferences, and learn about funding opportunities. The Resources area is a gem offering helpful tools, such as the PressForward Plugin. Finally, a plethora of archived Reports are available, including meditations on Roman mapping, American art history and digital scholarship, and approaches to low-effort crowd sourcing.

455

Digital Cartography of Io.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high resolution controlled mosaic of the hemisphere of Io centered on longitude 310 degrees is produced. Digital cartographic techniques were employed. Approximately 80 Voyager 1 clear and blue filter frames were utilized. This mosaic was merged with lo...

A. S. Mcewen B. Duck K. Edwards

1991-01-01

456

Adaptive Digital Communication System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Variable rate, bidirectional digital communication is provided by an apparatus composed of a variable rate Manchester encoder/decoder coupled to a modulator which produces signals appropriate for transmission, and to a demodulator which extracts informati...

R. L. Gowan H. A. Quesnell

1980-01-01

457

Digital Communication System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A closed-loop, digital data communication system utilizing an optimum number of interconnecting wires is described. The system has particular application in a space vehicle where it may be desired to communicate voice or other transducer-derived informati...

L. G. Monford

1972-01-01

458

A Transistorized Digital Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The M-54 general-purpose transistorized digital computer is described. This computer is a modification of one of the first transistorized computer models developed at the Moscow 'Order of Lenin' Power Engineering Institute. This single-address machine is ...

I. A. Bashmakov V. S. Zubov V. A. Fedin T. I. Golubeva T. K. Rybakova

1968-01-01

459

Digital Wave Processing Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of geophysical plasmas will be investigated by the Cluster mission. The digital wave processing (DWP) experiment implements the four ESA/NASA Cluster satellites as a component of the wave experiment consortium. The processing system within ...

L. J. C. Woolliscroft J. A. Thompson P. M. E. Decreau M. Parrot A. Egeland

1988-01-01

460

Programmable digital modem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on programmable digital modems (PDM) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include data rate range and operational modes, test and demonstration equipment, program goals, modulation formats, and PDM design challenges.

Kappes, M.

1992-01-01

461

Digital Equipment Susceptibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of the third-quarter effort of a 22-month investigation into the measurement procedures and techniques for electromagnetic susceptibility testing of digital receiving equipment. The period covered is from 1 March 1971 to 30...

D. D. Baxter S. A. Leslie J. L. Wilson

1971-01-01

462

Processing of Digital Ionograms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation is a summary of digital ionogram processing techniques. Real-time and on-line methods were emphasized and this implies continuing improvement and increasing complexity of the processing algorithms along with the technological advancement...

B. W. Reinisch

1981-01-01

463

Digital Curation Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Curation Centre (DCC) states as its motto: "because good research needs good data." Based in the United Kingdom, the DCC provides expert advice and helps those in the UK higher education and research communities store, manage, protect, and share digital research data. As such, the site is a great resource for information specialists, particularly librarians and academics. Visitors should make sure to check out the Digital Curation area which provides a bit of background on the field, along with information for newcomers to the field. The homepage also contains a neat feature entitled Editor's Choice, which brings together reports on digital preservation, information on new books, and much more. Also, visitors can sign up for the DCC's newsletter and take a look at its tag cloud. The Resources area should also not be missed as it features how-to guides, data management plans, case studies, and white papers.

464

Digital Fundamentals: Course Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provided by eSyst describes digital fundamentals. An introduction explains the traditional view and systems view of this topic. The course includes numerous instructor presentations and student guides. Topics for these include serial digital interfaces, circuit boards, and microprocessors. A detailed course outline, student learning outcomes, and links to additional online resources are also provided. Users must create a free, quick login in order to download the materials.

2012-07-03

465

Harmful Algae Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harmful Algae Digital Library contains a collection of Sea Grant documents in digital format (primarily PDF) arranged by subject area: red tide/PSP, brown tide, ciguatera, killer algae, and Pfiesteria. This collection is part of the National Sea Grant Library (NSGL), which maintains over 36,000 searchable records dedicated to environmental stewardship, long-term economic development and responsible use of America's coastal, ocean and Great Lakes resources.

Library, National S.; University Of Rhode Island-Bay Campus, Noaa

466

Digital channel efficiency model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a bit rate reduction system. The Digital Channel Efficiency Model (DCEM) effectively doubles the transmission bandwidth (number of channels) of digital communications systems, by providing an overall 2:1 compression of DCM signals, either DCS or NATO, transparent to any users, with no modifications of existing equipment. The DCEM also provides a variety of DCS-NATO interface modes at the digroup level.

Lowe, D. R.

1984-09-01

467

Survey of digital filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

Nagle, H. T., Jr.

1972-01-01

468

1998 Digital Avionics Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article summarizes the highlights of recent events and developments in digital avionics in space, aircraft, and weapons. The article is about 1,200 words long. Information for the article was collected from members of the Digital Avionics Technical Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. This information was previously cleared by the members' parent organization. Information for the article was also gathered from Aviation Week and Space Technology and similar sources.

Polites, Michael E.

1998-01-01

469

Digit ratio in birds.  

PubMed

The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds. PMID:18833568

Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

2008-12-01

470

Sloan digital sky survey  

SciTech Connect

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will produce a detailed digital photometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field 2.5 meter telescope. From this map we will select {approximately} 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars, and obtain high resolution spectra using the same telescope. The imaging catalog will contain 10{sup 8} galaxies, a similar number of stars, and 10{sup 6} quasar candidates.

Kent, S.M.; Stoughton, C.; Newberg, H.; Loveday, J.; Petravick, D.; Gurbani, V.; Berman, E.; Sergey, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Lupton, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1994-04-01

471

Digital image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Systems Division of IBM has developed an image processing facility to experimentally process, view, and record digital image data. This facility has been used to support LANDSAT digital image processing investigations and advanced image processing research and development. A brief description of the facility is presented, some techniques that have been developed to correct the image data are discussed, and some results obtained by users of the facility are described.

Bernstein, R.; Ferneyhough, D. G., Jr.

1975-01-01

472

Sum frequency generation spectroscopy of the aqueous interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid interface of aqueous solutions is of central importance to numerous phenomena from cloud processing of combustion generated oxides to corrosion degradation of structural materials to transport across cell membranes. Despite the importance of this interface, little molecular-level information was known about it prior to the last decade-and-a-half. Molecular-level information is important not only for a fundamental understanding of processes at interfaces, but also for predicting methods for diminishing deleterious effects. Recently, the non-linear spectroscopic method, sum frequency generation (SFG), has been applied to the investigation of the structure of the liquid interface. This review focuses on the liquid-air interface of aqueous solutions containing soluble, ionic species - H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, alkali sulphates and bisulphates, NaCl and NaNO3 - as well as soluble molecular species-glycerol, sulphuric acid and ammonia. Ionic materials influence the structure of water at the interface through an electric double layer which arises from the differential distribution of anions and cations near the interface. Due to the extreme size of the proton, the strongest field is generated by acidic materials. As the concentration of these ionic materials increases, ion pairs form diminishing the strength of the double layer. This enables the ion-pair complex to penetrate to the interface and either displace water or bind it into hydrated complexes. Soluble materials of lower surface tension partition to the interface and either displace water from the interface or bind water into hydrated complexes. In particular, the conjectured ammonia-water complex on aqueous solutions is observed and it is determined to tilt 34-38 from the normal.

Shultz, Mary Jane; Schnitzer, Cheryl; Simonelli, Danielle; Baldelli, Steve

473

On the Gibbs phenomenon 4: Recovering exponential accuracy in a sub-interval from a Gegenbauer partial sum of a piecewise analytic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We continue our investigation of overcoming Gibbs phenomenon, i.e., to obtain exponential accuracy at all points (including at the discontinuities themselves), from the knowledge of a spectral partial sum of a discontinuous but piecewise analytic function. We show that if we are given the first N Gegenbauer expansion coefficients, based on the Gegenbauer polynomials C(sub k)(sup mu)(x) with the weight function (1 - x(exp 2))(exp mu - 1/2) for any constant mu is greater than or equal to 0, of an L(sub 1) function f(x), we can construct an exponentially convergent approximation to the point values of f(x) in any subinterval in which the function is analytic. The proof covers the cases of Chebyshev or Legendre partial sums, which are most common in applications.

Gottlieb, David; Shu, Chi-Wang

1994-01-01

474

Digital imaging of haematological morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Microscopic images of haematological cells are now routinely photographed using digital cameras. Advances in technology mean that the quality of such digital images can now approach that viewed through a microscope. At the same time there is an emerging appreciation that such images can be used in many roles: digital images are now being used to construct digital virtual

C. V. HUTCHINSON; M. L. BRERETON; J. BURTHEM

2005-01-01

475

Escaping the Digital Dark Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the loss of stored knowledge due to the continuous obsolescence of digital formats and platforms. Topics include digital storage versus digital preservation; the use of metadata and efforts to create standards for it; information on the Internet; and the need for long-term planning to solve digital degradation. (LRW)

Brand, Stewart

1999-01-01

476

Digital holography: 30 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital holography is analysis, synthesis and simulation of wave fields by means of digital computers and processors. Since first publications in digital holography, more than 30 years have passed. From then on, the ideas of digital holography formulated at that time has found quite a number of applications and implementations; but not all of them. Some old dreams such as

Leonid P. Yaroslavsky

2002-01-01

477

Digital Imaging in Cytopathology  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances are occurring in the field of cytopathology, particularly in the field of digital imaging. Today, digital images are used in a variety of settings including education (E-education), as a substitute to multiheaded sessions, multisite conferences, publications, cytopathology web pages, cytology proficiency testing, telecytology, consultation through telecytology, and automated screening of Pap test slides. The accessibility provided by digital imaging in cytopathology can improve the quality and efficiency of cytopathology services, primarily by getting the expert cytopathologist to remotely look at the slide. This improved accessibility saves time and alleviates the need to ship slides, wait for glass slides, or transport pathologists. Whole slide imaging (WSI) is a digital imaging modality that uses computerized technology to scan and convert pathology and cytology glass slides into digital images (digital slides) that can be viewed remotely on a workstation using viewing software. In spite of the many advances, challenges remain such as the expensive initial set-up costs, workflow interruption, length of time to scan whole slides, large storage size for WSI, bandwidth restrictions, undefined legal implications, professional reluctance, and lack of standardization in the imaging process.

Khalbuss, Walid E.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.

2011-01-01

478

Digital Elevation Models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

U.S. Geological Survey

1993-01-01

479

Digital Formats for Content Reproductions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This small document, though designed mainly to aid entrants in the Library of Congress/Ameritech Digital Library Competition, is also an updated inside look at the procedures used to create the digital images in LOC's National Digital Library Program, particularly its famous American Memory digital collection. The report details the standards used by the Library in digitization of images, text, maps, sound files, and movies. While these are not necessarily universal standards, few institutions or individuals have more experience than LOC in these endeavors. Digital Formats will be of great value to anyone interested in digitizing library collections.

480

Fixed Points and Stability for a Sum of Two Operators in Locally Convex Spaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some fixed point theorems for a sum of two operators are proved, generalizing to locally convex spaces a fixed point theorem of M. A. Krasnoselskii, for a sum of a completely continuous and a contraction mapping, as well as some of its recent variants. A ...

G. L. Cain M. Z. Nashed

1971-01-01

481

A Robust UART Architecture Based on Recursive Running Sum Filter for Better Noise Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel architecture of universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) based on recursive running sum (RRS) filter. UARTs are used for asynchronous serial data communication between remote embedded systems. If physical channel is noisy then, serial data bits get corrupted during transmission. The robust UART core described here, utilizes recursive running sum filter to remove noisy samples. Input

Himanshu Patel; Sanjay Trivedi; R. Neelkanthan; V. R. Gujraty

2007-01-01

482

On the Church-Rosser property for the direct sum of term rewriting systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct sum of two term rewriting systems is the union of systems having disjoint sets of function symbols. It is shown that if two term rewriting systems both have the Chruch-Rosser property, then the direct sum of these systems also has this property.

Yoshihito Toyama

1987-01-01

483

Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants: Physical meaning, comparison with experiment, and generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical interpretation of recently obtained sum rules for dielectric functions and for the index of refraction is provided in terms of the inertial properties of the linear dielectric response of material media. The superconvergent sum rules are then compared with experimental optical data for AgCl, Al, and Mo and shown to produce good agreement as well as a critical

M. Altarelli; D. Y. Smith

1974-01-01

484

The Fitting of Pearson Curves to Sums of Independent Random Variables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown that the distribution of a sum of independent beta random variables is often well approximated by a properly scaled beta distribution. The relationship between the type of Pearson curve which best fits a sum of independent random variables and...

T. Sellke

1983-01-01

485

Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

Hersh, Reuben

2012-01-01

486

Incomplete Sums, DC-Constrained Codes, and Codes that Maintain Synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The codes formed by vectors of values of characters of polynomials with argument running over (a subset of) points of a finite field are a frequent object of investigation since one can estimate their parametes via the classical inequalities for the values of exponential sums. In [2] it was observed that applying estimates of incomplete sums, one can prove that

Alexander Barg

1993-01-01

487

On the Higher Power Sums of Reciprocal Higher-Order Sequences  

PubMed Central

Let {un} be a higher-order linear recursive sequence. In this paper, we use the properties of error estimation and the analytic method to study the reciprocal sums of higher power of higher-order sequences. Then we establish several new and interesting identities relating to the infinite and finite sums.

Zhang, Jin

2014-01-01

488

Stochastic Ordering Of the Latent Trait by the Sum Score Under Various Polytomous IRT Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sum score is often used to order respondents on the latent trait measured by the test. Therefore, it is desirable that under the chosen model the sum score stochastically orders the latent trait. It is known that unlike dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, most polytomous IRT models do not imply stochastic ordering. It is unknown, however, (1) whether

L. Andries van der Ark

2005-01-01

489

Asymptotic formulas for partial sums of class numbers of indefinite binary quadratic forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarnak obtained the asymptotic formula of the sum of the class numbers of indefinite binary quadratic forms from the prime geodesic theorem for the modular group. In the present paper, we show several asymptotic formulas of partial sums of the class numbers by using the prime geodesic theorems for the congruence subgroups of the modular group.

Yasufumi Hashimoto

2008-01-01

490

Least squares approximation to lognormal sum distribution via piecewise linear functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the least squares approximation via a piecewise linear function approach is applied to solve the approximation problem of a sum of lognormal random variables. A number of linear basis functions are applied and the corresponding coefficients are specified to form a piecewise linear approximation to the sum lognormal cumulative distribution function. By using the proposed approach, arbitrary

Lian Zhao; Jiu Ding

2009-01-01

491

Implementation of a phoneme recognition system using zero-crossing and magnitude sum function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of techniques have been proposed in the literature for phoneme based speech recognition system. In this paper, a technique for automatic phoneme recognition using zero-crossings (ZC) and magnitude sum function (MSF) is proposed. The number of zero-crossings and magnitude sum function per frame are extracted and a minimum distance classifier is proposed to recognize the phonemes in each

J. Manikandan; B. Venkataramani; P. Preeti; G. Sananda; K. V. Sadhana

2009-01-01

492

COMMUTATIVE RINGS WHOSE ELEMENTS ARE A SUM OF A UNIT AND IDEMPOTENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As defined by Nicholson a (noncommutative) ring is a clean ring if every element of is a sum of a unit and an idempotent. Let be a commutative ring with identity. We define to be a uniquely clean ring if every element of can be written uniquely as the sum of a unit and an idempotent. Examples of clean rings

D. D. Anderson; V. P. Camillo

2002-01-01

493

On a Geometric Approach to the Segment Sum Problem and Its Generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a sequence of n real numbers a1;a2;a3;:::;an, the maximum segment sum problem is that of determin- ing indices i and j (1 • ijn) such that the sum s(i;j) = ai + ai+1 + ::: + aj is a maximum. Monotone matrices were shown to be remarkably efiective in solv- ing several geometric optimization problems. The sur- prise is

Asish Mukhopadhyay; Eugene Greene

2007-01-01

494

A short note on monotone matrices and the sum selection problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a sequence of n real numbers a1, a2, a3, . . . , an, the maximum segment sum problem is that of determining indices i and j (1 ? ijn) such that the sum s(i, j) = ai + ai+1 + . . . + aj is a maximum. Monotone matrices were shown to be remarkably effective in solving

Asish Mukhopadhyay; Eugene Greene

495

Sum rules for strange form factors and flavor singlet axial charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In chiral models with SU(3) group structure, strange form factors of baryon octet are evaluated by constructing their sum rules to yield theoretical predictions comparable to the recent experimental data of the SAMPLE Collaboration. We also study sum rules for the flavor singlet axial currents for the EMC experiment in a modified quark model.

Hong, Soon-Tae

2004-04-01

496

Uplink sum capacity evaluation of multi-user distributed antenna systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter focuses on the simplified sum capacity evaluation for the uplink of a generalized multi-user distributed antenna system (DAS). Based on system scale-up, we derive a good approximation of the sum capacity by generalizing the results from random matrix theory. An iterative method is presented to calculate the unknown parameters in the approximation. The approximation is illustrated to be

Wei Feng; Yunzhou Li; Shidong Zhou; Jing Wang; Minghua Xia

2010-01-01

497

Sex Differences in Sum Scores May Be Hard to Interpret: The Importance of Measurement Invariance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most assessment instruments, distinct items are designed to measure a trait, and the sum score of these items serves as an approximation of an individual's trait score. In interpreting group differences with respect to sum scores, the instrument should measure the same underlying trait across groups (e.g., male/female, young/old). Differences…

Slof-Op 't Landt, M. C. T.; van Furth, E. F.; Rebollo-Mesa, I.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Slagboom, P. E.; Boomsma, D. I.; Meulenbelt, I.; Dolan, C. V.

2009-01-01

498

78 FR 53014 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance...Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice...Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management...or sent through electronic mail to oira_submission...Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue...One Sum Payment (Government Life...

2013-08-27

499

On the Relationships between Sum Score Based Estimation and Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the sum score based (SSB) formulation of the Rasch model, where items and sum scores of persons are considered as factors in a logit model. After reviewing the evolution leading to the equality between their maximum likelihood estimates, the SSB model is then discussed from the point of view of pseudo-likelihood and of…

del Pino, Guido; San Martin, Ernesto; Gonzalez, Jorge; De Boeck, Paul

2008-01-01

500

Digital RF Processing Techniques for Device Mismatch Tolerant Transmitters in Nanometer-Scale CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposed estimation techniques and compensation algorithms against CMOS device variability in an all-digital RF polar transmitter. The transmitter is built using dense and fast digital logic and comprises two converters that transform transmit modulation from digital to RF frequency\\/phase and amplitude analog domains. The converters built with segmented banks consist of a large number of unit-weighted devices which

Khurram Waheed; Robert Bogdan Staszewski

2007-01-01