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1

Energy weighted sums of longitudinal response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy weighted sums WL( k) of longitudinal response of three- and four-body nuclei and nuclear matter are calculated with realistic nuclear forces and variational wave functions. Results with Faddeev wave functions are also reported for three-body nuclei. The isospin exchange interactions give large contributions to WL( k) and enhance it by 10-80% in the region of interest. We analyze the longitudinal scattering data on 3He, 12C, 40Ca, 48Ca and 56Fe. The WL( k) of 12C, 40Ca, 48Ca and 56Fe are estimated from that of nuclear matter by taking into account its dependence on neutron excess ( N- Z)/ A. The experimental data provide SL( k, ?) at ? < Emax, and in the best cases, 3He ( 12C) at k = 350 MeV/ c, it gives only 86% (68%) of the predicted sum. The response at ? > Emax is assumed to be given by an exponential or square tail that joins the data at ? < Emax, and gives the remainder of WL( k). The contribution of the tail to the longitudinal structure function SL( k) is not too sensitive to its assumed (exponential or square) shape, and greatly improves the agreement between experiment and theory of SL( k).

Schiavilla, R.; Fabrocini, A.; Pandharipande, V. R.

1987-10-01

2

Partition-based weighted sum filters for image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we develop the concept of partitioning the observation space to build a general class of filters referred to as partition-based weighted sum (PWS) filters. In the general framework, each observation vector is mapped to one of partitions comprising the observation space, and each partition has an associated filtering function. Here, we focus on partitioning the observation space

Kenneth E. Barner; Ahmad M. Sarhan; Russell C. Hardie

1999-01-01

3

A WEIGHTED SUM PARAMETER TO SIMPLIFY DISCUSSION ON ALDEHYDE EXPOSURE  

E-print Network

A WEIGHTED SUM PARAMETER TO SIMPLIFY DISCUSSION ON ALDEHYDE EXPOSURE R Meininghaus1 , E. Bastin2 ABSTRACT In the present work, the personal exposure of a French urban population to several aldehydes in sensory irritation of aldehydes. The personal exposure of 17 volunteers was assessed with personal passive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ?Z?=?2 nuclei within the SO(8) model  

SciTech Connect

Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ?Z?=?2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ?Z?=?2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.

Štefánik, Dušan [Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava (Slovenia); Šimkovic, Fedor [IEAP CTU, CZ-128 00 Prague, Czech Republic and BLTP, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Faessler, Amand [Inst. of Theor. Phys., University of Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2013-12-30

5

A functional MOS transistor featuring gate-level weighted sum and threshold operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional MOS transistor is proposed which works more intelligently than a mere switching device. The functional transistor calculates the weighted sum of all input signals at the gate level, and controls the `on' and `off' of the transistor based on the result of such a weighted sum operation. Since the function is quite analogous to that of biological neurons,

Tadashi Shibata; Tadahiro Ohmi

1992-01-01

6

Digital Protection of Power Transformer Based on Weighted Least Square Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new weighted leastsquare scheme for differential protection of power transformers using digital techniques. The differential current waveform is modelled as a sum of decaying dc, fundamental and selected higher harmonic components. The model coefficients are established by using a least-square filtering technique for the sampled data. A root mean square error criterion is established to select

M. A. Rahman; P. K. Dash; E. R. Downton

1982-01-01

7

Digital Protection of Power Transformer Based on Weighted Least Square Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new weighted least-square scheme for differential protection of power transformers using digital techniques. The differential current waveform is modeled as a sum of decaying de, fundamental and selected higher harmonic components. The model coefficients are established by using a least-square filtering technique for the sampled data. A root mean square error criterion is established to select

M. A. Rahman; P. K. Dash; E. R. Downton

1982-01-01

8

Optimization of Partition-Based Weighted Sum Filters and Their Application to Image Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partition-based Weighted Sum (P-WS) filtering is an effective method for processing nonstationary signals, especially those with regularly occurring structures, such as images. P-WS filters were originally formulated as Hard-partition Weighted Sum (HP-WS) filters and were successfully applied to image denoising. This formulation relied on intuitive arguments to generate the filter class. Here we present a statistical analysis that justifies the

Min Shao; Kenneth E. Barner

2006-01-01

9

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...remaining useful life of the asset. For decimal equivalents of such fractions... (ii) Table I.This table shows decimal equivalents of sum of the years-digits...lives from 1 to 100 years. Table I—Decimal Equivalents for Use of Sum of the...

2010-04-01

10

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...remaining useful life of the asset. For decimal equivalents of such fractions... (ii) Table I.This table shows decimal equivalents of sum of the years-digits...lives from 1 to 100 years. Table I—Decimal Equivalents for Use of Sum of the...

2014-04-01

11

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...remaining useful life of the asset. For decimal equivalents of such fractions... (ii) Table I.This table shows decimal equivalents of sum of the years-digits...lives from 1 to 100 years. Table I—Decimal Equivalents for Use of Sum of the...

2012-04-01

12

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...remaining useful life of the asset. For decimal equivalents of such fractions... (ii) Table I.This table shows decimal equivalents of sum of the years-digits...lives from 1 to 100 years. Table I—Decimal Equivalents for Use of Sum of the...

2013-04-01

13

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...remaining useful life of the asset. For decimal equivalents of such fractions... (ii) Table I.This table shows decimal equivalents of sum of the years-digits...lives from 1 to 100 years. Table I—Decimal Equivalents for Use of Sum of the...

2011-04-01

14

How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of…

Matthews, William J.

2013-01-01

15

Real time soft-partition-based weighted sum filtering with GPU acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently image processing such as noise reduction, restoration, and super-resolution using the soft-partition-based weighted sum filters have shown state-of-the-art results. The partition-based weighted sum filters are spatially adaptive filtering techniques by combining vector quantization and linear finite impulse response filtering, which have been shown to achieve much better results than spatial-invariant filtering methods. However, they are computationally prohibitive for practical applications because of enormous computation involved in both filtering and training. Real-time filtering is impossible even for small image and window sizes. This paper presents fast implementations of the soft-partition-based weighted sum filtering by exploiting the massively parallel processing capabilities of a GPU within the CUDA framework. For the implementations, we focus on memory management and implementation strategies. The performance on various image and window sizes is measured and compared between the GPU-based and CPU-based implementations. The results show that the GPU-based implementations can significantly accelerate computations for the soft-partition-based weighted sum filtering, and make real-time image filtering possible.

Zhang, Shuqun; Furia, Bryan

2014-09-01

16

Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure  

SciTech Connect

Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.

Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.

1993-12-31

17

Statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences formed from the sum of maximum-length sequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.

Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.

1973-01-01

18

A Weighted Cumulative Sum (WCUSUM) to monitor medical outcomes with dependent censoring  

PubMed Central

We develop a Weighted CUmulative SUM (WCUSUM) to evaluate and monitor pre-transplant waitlist mortality of facilities in the context where transplantation is considered to be dependent censoring. Waitlist patients are evaluated multiple times in order to update their current medical condition as reflected in a time dependent variable called the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Higher MELD scores are indicative of higher pre-transplant death risk. Moreover, under the current liver allocation system, patients with higher MELD scores receive higher priority for liver transplantation. To evaluate the waitlist mortality of transplant centers, it is important to take this dependent censoring into consideration. We assume a ‘standard’ transplant practice through a transplant model and utilize Inverse Probability Censoring Weights (IPCW) to construct a weighted CUSUM. We evaluate the properties of a weighted zero-mean process as the basis of the proposed weighted CUSUM. We then discuss a resampling technique to obtain control limits. The proposed WCUSUM is illustrated through the analysis of national transplant registry data. PMID:24623573

Sun, Rena Jie; Kalbfleisch, John D.; Schaubel, Douglas E.

2014-01-01

19

A Closer Look at Drawbacks of Minimizing Weighted Sums of Objectives for Pareto Set Generation in Multicriteria Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard technique for generating the Pareto set in multicriteria optimizationproblems is to minimize (convex) weighted sums of the different objectives for variousdifferent settings of the weights. However, it is well-known that this method succeedsin getting points from all parts of the Pareto set only when the Pareto curve is convex.This article provides a geometrical argument as to why this

Indraneel Das; John Dennis

1996-01-01

20

Reconstructing weight-bearing surfaces: digital pad transposition.  

PubMed

The paw pads of dogs and cats are specialized skin structures that provide cushioned, durable, weight-bearing surfaces. Otherwise normal limbs may be rendered useless when pad tissue is lost because of trauma or tumor resection. This article reviews previously described reconstructive techniques involving the movement of pad tissue into weight-bearing defects. In addition, a case series of single-stage digital pad transfer to replace all or part of metacarpal or metatarsal defects is reported. This technique was predictably successful with minimal complications in conjunction with complete tumor resection, although results in two cases of severe paw trauma were less favorable. PMID:17724941

Neat, Benjamin C; Smeak, Daniel D

2007-01-01

21

Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.

Jolos, R. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Brentano, P. von [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

2009-04-15

22

The application of taylor weighting, digital phase shifters, and digital attenuators to phased-array antennas.  

SciTech Connect

Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.

Brock, Billy C.

2008-03-01

23

How are overlapping time intervals perceived? Evidence for a weighted sum of segments model.  

PubMed

This study investigated the way in which people time two overlapping intervals. Timing models already proposed in the literature predict different effects of the degree of overlap on each estimate, and empirical findings were compared to these predictions. Two unimodal experiments (in which each to-be-timed interval was a visual stimulus) and one bimodal experiment (in which one to-be-timed interval was auditory and the other visual) were conducted. The estimate of the first interval was either unaffected or decreased, and the estimate of the second interval consistently increased as the intervals were more temporally separated. The only model in the literature that could account for such result patterns is a single pacemaker single accumulator structure with an additional recency weighting (see the weighted sum of segments model). That is, participants appear to segment the two overlapping intervals into three non-overlapping and overlapping segments, time these segments separately, and then combine them to estimate each interval. Importantly, a recency weighting, determined by the time that has passed since the end of that segment, is also applied to each segment in the summation process. Further, in the bimodal experiment the order in which the stimuli of different modalities were presented affected the way in which they were timed, a finding that none of the current models can explain. This highlights that a comprehensive model of interval timing must consider not only the modalities of to-be-timed intervals but also the order in which different modalities must be timed. PMID:25703484

Bryce, Donna; Seifried-Dübon, Tanja; Bratzke, Daniel

2015-03-01

24

A law of the single logarithm for weighted sums of arrays applied to bootstrap model selection in regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize a law of the single logarithm obtained by Qi (1994) and Li et al. (1995) to the case of weighted sums of triangular arrays of random variables. We apply this result to bootstrapping the all-subsets model selection problem in regression, where we show that the popular Bayesian Information Criterion of Schwarz (1978) is no longer asymptotically consistent.

Pierre Lafaye de Micheaux

2012-01-01

25

A Weighted Sum of Multi-scale Gaussians Generates New Near-ideal Interpolation Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpolation is a very important technique in medical image processing. Of the different generations of interpolation kernels, the one using combinations of Gaussians and its partial derivatives, is locally compact, has excellent Fourier properties and is easy to handle analytically. But the de-constancy behaviour i.e. the sum of the samples of these Gaussian kernels is not necessarily one and also

Sandip Sarkar; Kuntal Ghosh; Kamales Bhaumik

2005-01-01

26

Neural weighted least-squares design of FIR higher-order digital differentiators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the neural network based algorithm for equiripple design of higher-order digital differentiators in the weighted least-squares sense. The proposed approach formulates an error representation reflecting the difference between the desired amplitude response and the designed response in a Lyapunov error function. The optimal filter coefficients are obtained when neural network achieves convergence. Furthermore, by using a weighted

Yue-Dar Jou; Fu-Kun Chen; Chao-Ming Sun

2009-01-01

27

Accurate displacement measurement via a self-adaptive digital image correlation method based on a weighted ZNSSD criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been increasingly employed to implement surface deformation measurements in many engineering fields. Practically, it has been demonstrated that the choice of subset sizes exerts a strong influence on measurement results of DIC, especially when there exists locally larger deformation over the subsets involved. This paper proposes a novel subpixel registration algorithm with Gaussian windows to implicitly optimize the subset sizes by adjusting the shape of Gaussian windows in a self-adaptive fashion with the aid of a so-called weighted zero-normalized sum-of-squared difference correlation criterion. The feasibility and effectiveness of the self-adaptive algorithm are carefully verified through a set of well-designed synthetic speckle images, which indicates that the presented algorithm is able to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of displacement measurements as compared with the traditional subpixel registration methods.

Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Jianyong; Peng, Xiaoling; Xiong, Chunyang; Fang, Jing; Yuan, Fan

2014-01-01

28

Accuracy of a Digital Weight Scale Relative to the Nintendo Wii in Measuring Limb Load Asymmetry  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry. PMID:25202181

Kumar, NS Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah

2014-01-01

29

Penile length, digit length, and anogenital distance according to birth weight in newborn male infants  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anogential distance (AGD) and the 2:4 digit length ratio appear to provide a reliable guide to fetal androgen exposure. We intended to investigate the current status of penile size and the relationship between penile length and AGD or digit length according to birth weight in Korean newborn infants. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and February 2014, among a total of 78 newborn male infants, 55 infants were prospectively included in this study. Newborn male infants with a gestational age of 38 to 42 weeks and birth weight>2.5 kg were assigned to the NW group (n=24) and those with a gestational age<38 weeks and birth weight<2.5 kg were assigned to the LW group (n=31). Penile size and other variables were compared between the two groups. Results Stretched penile length of the NW group was 3.3±0.2 cm, which did not differ significantly from that reported in 1987. All parameters including height, weight, penile length, testicular size, AGD, and digit length were significantly lower in the LW group than in the NW group. However, there were no significant differences in AGD ratio or 2:4 digit length ratio between the two groups. Conclusions The penile length of newborn infants has not changed over the last quarter century in Korea. With normal penile appearance, the AGD ratio and 2:4 digit length ratio are consistent irrespective of birth weight, whereas AGD, digit length, and penile length are significantly smaller in newborns with low birth weight.

Park, Jae Young; Lim, Gina; Oh, Ki Won; Ryu, Dong Soo; Park, Seonghun; Jeon, Jong Chul; Cheon, Sang Hyeon; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Park, Sejun

2015-01-01

30

Review of innovations in digital health technology to promote weight control.  

PubMed

Advances in technology have contributed to the obesity epidemic and worsened health by reducing opportunities for physical activity and by the proliferation of inexpensive calorie-dense foods. However, much of the same technology can be used to counter these troublesome trends by fostering the development and maintenance of healthy eating and physical activity habits. In contrast to intensive face-to-face treatments, technology-based interventions also have the potential to reach large numbers of individuals at low cost. The purpose of this review is to discuss studies in which digital technology has been used for behavioral weight control, report on advances in consumer technology that are widely adopted but insufficiently tested, and explore potential future directions for both. Web-based, mobile (eg, smartphone), virtual reality, and gaming technologies are the focus of discussion. The best evidence exists to support the use of digital technology for self-monitoring of weight-related behaviors and outcomes. However, studies are underway that will provide additional, important information regarding how best to apply digital technology for behavioral weight control. PMID:24664797

Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S

2014-01-01

31

Weighted sum-rate maximization for multi-user SIMO multiple access channels in cognitive radio networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, an efficient distributed and parallel algorithm is proposed to maximize the sum-rate and optimize the input distribution policy for the multi-user single input multiple output multiple access channel (MU-SIMO MAC) system with concurrent access within a cognitive radio (CR) network. The single input means that every user has a single antenna and multiple output means that base station(s) has multiple antennas. The main features are: (i) the power distribution for the users is updated by using variable scale factors which effectively and efficiently maximize the objective function at each iteration; (ii) distributed and parallel computation is employed to expedite convergence of the proposed distributed algorithm; and (iii) a novel water-filling with mixed constraints is investigated, and used as a fundamental block of the proposed algorithm. Due to sufficiently exploiting the structure of the proposed model, the proposed algorithm owns fast convergence. Numerical results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective and fast convergent. Using the proposed approach, for the simulated range, the required number of iterations for convergence is two and this number is not sensitive to the increase of the number of users. This feature is quite desirable for large scale systems with dense active users. In addition, it is also worth noting that the proposed algorithm is a monotonic feasible operator to the iteration. Thus, the stop criterion for computation could be easily set up.

He, Peter; Zhao, Lian; Lu, Jianhua

2013-12-01

32

Personal Digital Assistants are Comparable to Traditional Diaries for Dietary Self-Monitoring During a Weight Loss Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

   Dietary self-monitoring is considered the core of behavioral weight control programs. As software for personal digital assistants\\u000a (PDA) has become more available, this study investigated whether the use of a PDA would improve dietary self-monitoring frequency\\u000a and subsequent weight loss over the use of traditional paper diaries. One-hundred-seventy-six adults (BMI 25–39.9) participated\\u000a in a 6-month behavioral weight control program. Treatment

Bethany A. Yon; Rachel K. Johnson; Jean Harvey-Berino; Beth Casey Gold; Alan B. Howard

2007-01-01

33

Integrated-Circuit Active Digital Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pipeline architecture with parallel multipliers and adders speeds calculation of weighted sums. Picture-element values and partial sums flow through delay-adder modules. After each cycle or time unit of calculation, each value in filter moves one position right. Digital integrated-circuit chips with pipeline architecture rapidly move 35 X 35 two-dimensional convolutions. Need for such circuits in image enhancement, data filtering, correlation, pattern extraction, and synthetic-aperture-radar image processing: all require repeated calculations of weighted sums of values from images or two-dimensional arrays of data.

Nathan, R.

1986-01-01

34

Extension of Weighted Sum of Gray Gas Data to Mathematical Simulation of Radiative Heat Transfer in a Boiler with Gas-Soot Media  

PubMed Central

In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981

Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz

2014-01-01

35

Relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model and the full spectrum k-distribution model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model and the full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) model in isothermal and homogeneous media is investigated in this paper. The SLW transfer equation can be derived from the FSK transfer equation expressed in the k-distribution function without approximation. It confirms that the SLW model is equivalent to the FSK model in the k-distribution function form. The numerical implementation of the SLW relies on a somewhat arbitrary discretization of the absorption cross section whereas the FSK model finds the spectrally integrated intensity by integration over the smoothly varying cumulative-k distribution function using a Gaussian quadrature scheme. The latter is therefore in general more efficient as a fewer number of gray gases is required to achieve a prescribed accuracy. Sample numerical calculations were conducted to demonstrate the different efficiency of these two methods. The FSK model is found more accurate than the SLW model in radiation transfer in H2O; however, the SLW model is more accurate in media containing CO2 as the only radiating gas due to its explicit treatment of ‘clear gas.’

Chu, Huaqiang; Liu, Fengshan; Consalvi, Jean-Louis

2014-08-01

36

Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise.  

PubMed

Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S

2015-02-01

37

A digitally controlled AGC loop circuitry for GNSS receiver chip with a binary weighted accurate dB-linear PGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel digitally controlled automatic gain control (AGC) loop circuitry for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver chip is presented. The entire AGC loop contains a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an AGC circuit and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is implemented in a 0.18 ?m complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and measured. A binary-weighted approach is proposed in the PGA to achieve wide dB-linear gain control with small gain error. With binary-weighted cascaded amplifiers for coarse gain control, and parallel binary-weighted trans-conductance amplifier array for fine gain control, the PGA can provide a 64 dB dynamic range from ?4 to 60 dB in 1.14 dB gain steps with a less than 0.15 dB gain error. Based on the Gaussian noise statistic characteristic of the GNSS signal, a digital AGC circuit is also proposed with low area and fast settling. The feed-backward AGC loop occupies an area of 0.27 mm2 and settles within less than 165 ?s while consuming an average current of 1.92 mA at 1.8 V.

Gang, Jin; Yiqi, Zhuang; Yue, Yin; Miao, Cui

2015-03-01

38

Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise  

PubMed Central

Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker’s noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human’s response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

RIMELL, Andrew N.; MANSFIELD, Neil J.; PADDAN, Gurmail S.

2014-01-01

39

Pedicle digital pad transfer and negative pressure wound therapy for reconstruction of the weight-bearing surface after complete digital loss in a dog.  

PubMed

A young Labrador Retriever was presented for treatment of severe distal hindlimb necrosis caused by bandage ischemia. During digit amputation at the metatarsophalangeal joints, the third and fourth digital pads were salvaged and transferred to the metatarsal stump to create a weight-bearing surface. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was utilized for flap immobilization and to promote granulation tissue in the remaining wound defect. Sturdy adherence of the digital pads was achieved after only four days. The skin defect healed completely by second intention and the stump was epithelialized with a thin pad after three months. At the nine month follow-up examination, the stump had a thick hyperkeratinized pad. The dog walked and ran without any apparent signs of discomfort and compensated for the loss of limb length by extending the stifle and tarsocrural joints. Despite a challenging wound in a difficult anatomical location, digital pad flap transfer and NPWT proved successful in restoring long-term ambulation in an active large breed dog. PMID:25449188

Or, M; Van Goethem, B; Polis, I; Spillebeen, A; Vandekerckhove, P; Saunders, J; de Rooster, H

2015-03-17

40

Projection-based energy weighting on photon-counting X-ray images in digital subtraction mammography: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.

Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung

2014-03-01

41

A Comparative Study of Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer using MOL Solution of DOM with Gray Gas, Wide-Band Correlated-k, and Spectral Line-Based Weighted Sum of Gray Gases Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation code based on the method of lines (MOL) solution of the discrete ordinates method (DOM) for the prediction of radiative heat transfer in nongray absorbing-emitting media was developed by incorporation of two different gas spectral radiative property models, wide-band correlated-k (WBCK) and spectral line-based weighted sum of gray gases (SLW) models. Predictive accuracy and computational efficiency of the

Fatma Nihan Çayan; Nevin Selçuk

2007-01-01

42

Recursion formulas for growing memory digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing memory digital filter is defined by considering the input(y_{nu-u})-output(Z_m)relationship in the formZ_m = sum_{u=0}^m W_{um} y_{m-u}, m = 0, 1, 2, cdotswhereW_{um}is the weighting sequence of a linear time varying digital filter. Contained herein are a derivation of an optimum growing memory smoothing and prediction filter in the least squares sense for polynomial input functions, (of degree =K)

M. Blum

1958-01-01

43

Angle Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Examine the angles in a triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon or octagon and find a relationship between the number of sides and the sum of the interior angles." (Source: 2000-2012 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2010-05-20

44

Chromatic sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an expository article without proofs. The detailed theory of chromatic sums is explained in five papers in the Canadian\\u000a Journal of Mathematics ([6]). Here we abbreviate the title of each of these as \\

W. Tutte

45

Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices  

PubMed Central

Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942

Schneider, Iris K.; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.

2015-01-01

46

Cluster merging based on weighted mahalanobis distance with application in digital mammograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new clustering algorithm that uses a weighted Mahdlanobis distance as a distance metric to perform partitional clustering is proposed. The covariance matrices of the generated clusters are used to determine cluster similarity and closeness so that clusters which are similar in shape and close in Mahalanobis distance can be merged together serving the ultimate goal of automatically determining the

K. Younis; M. Karim; R. Hardie; J. Loomis; S. Rogers; M. DeSimio

1998-01-01

47

A new state reconstructor for digital controls systems using weighted-average measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state reconstructor is presented for a linear continuous-time plant driven by a zero-order-hold. It takes a continuous-time output vector from the plant and convolutes it with a weighting-function matrix whose elements are time dependent. This result is integrated over T second intervals to generate weighted-averaged measurements, every T seconds, that are used in the state reconstruction process. If the plant is noise-free and can be modeled precisely, the output of this state reconstructor exactly equals the true state of the plant and accomplishes this without knowledge of the plant's initial state. If noise or modeling errors are a problem, it can be catenated with a state observer or a Kalman filter for a synergistic effect.

Polites, Michael E.

1989-01-01

48

Digital control of a shaker to a specified shock spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital computer based control system was developed for a biaxial electrohydraulic shaker table used for seismic qualification testing of nuclear power plant components. The system drive signals were developed from a weighted linear sum of 1\\/6-octave psuedo random noise signals. Preliminary drive signal shaping is accomplished through the use of a series of table mounted dummy mass transfer functions

J. F. Unruh

1982-01-01

49

Lucky Sums?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this probability game for two students, each player predicts the sum of the two numbers that will be rolled for each of 12 rolls of a pair of dice and then records his/her predictions on the game sheet. Students play the game and the player whose predictions were the most accurate wins. After the game has been played through once, students are given an opportunity to revise their strategy and play again. Creating a table of theoretical probabilities after the first round of play will help student develop their strategies.

2011-01-01

50

The Subset Sum game?  

PubMed Central

In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an NP-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem.

Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim

2014-01-01

51

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1993-08-17

52

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

53

Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

2011-01-01

54

Sums of Consecutive Integers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.

Pong, Wai Yan

2007-01-01

55

Sum-Difference Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

Shi, Yixun

2010-01-01

56

Introduction Odd Sum Cases  

E-print Network

Outline Introduction Easy Cases Odd Sum Cases Conclusions and Open Questions How To Be A Better;Outline Introduction Easy Cases Odd Sum Cases Conclusions and Open Questions Introduction Overview of Babylon Combinatorial Game Theory Easy Cases Notation One or Two Red Odd Sum Cases Conclusions and Open

Goadrich, Mark

57

"Teens Talk Healthy Weight": the impact of a motivational digital video disc on parental knowledge of obesity-related diseases in an adolescent clinic.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a 7-minute educational and motivational weight-management digital video disc (DVD) that uses real patient/parent testimonials and provider-patient interactions, on adolescent and parent knowledge of obesity-related diseases; readiness, motivation, and self-efficacy to lose weight; connectedness to care provider; and likelihood of return to clinic for follow-up care. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 40 overweight/obese adolescent participants (22.5% male, 77.5% female, mean age=15.43 years) and their parents (n=38) who visited a referral-only adolescent clinic for the first time from October 2009 to March 2010. Adolescents were randomly assigned by a research assistant to standard care alone or standard care plus DVD. Standard care (protocol-driven medical and nutritional assessment and counseling) was provided to all adolescents by a registered dietitian nutritionist and physician or nurse practitioner. Adolescents in the intervention group also viewed the DVD. Adolescents and parents completed assessments pre- and post-clinic visit. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to evaluate group differences, while controlling for race/ethnicity and age. Parents who viewed the DVD experienced greater improvements in obesity-related disease knowledge than parents who did not view the DVD. Adolescents in both groups improved on measures of motivation to lose weight and dieting self-efficacy, based on pre and post-test questionnaires. A 7-minute educational and motivational DVD helped improve parent knowledge, but was not more powerful than standard care alone in changing other weight-related outcomes in this adolescent clinic. Because it led to increased parental knowledge, incorporating the DVD into clinical practice could also allow more time for health providers to focus on specific obesity-related treatment/education. Future research might examine whether the DVD has more utility in different settings, such as primary care. PMID:24882205

Windham, Meghan E; Hastings, Elisabeth S; Anding, Roberta; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Wiemann, Constance M

2014-10-01

58

A Surprise in Sum Rules - Modulating Factors  

E-print Network

A generic physical situation is considered where Im $\\Pi$, the imaginary part of polarization operator (generalized susceptibility), can be measured on a finite interval and the high frequency asymptotics (up to a few orders) of $\\Pi$ can be calculated theoretically. In such a case, it is desirable to derive an equivalent form of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, the so-called sum rule, in which both the high-frequency part of Im $\\Pi$ in the dispersion integral and the high-order contribution to $\\Pi$ are suppressed. We provide a general framework for derivation of such sum rules, without any recourse to an infinite-order differential operator. We derive sum rules for a wide set of weight functions and show that any departure from the $e^{-t}$ behaviour of the weight function in sum rules leads to modulating factors on the theoretical side of sum rules, providing its low frequency regularization. We argue that by including modulating factors one can extend the domain of validity of sum rules further to an intermediate region of frequencies and can account for ``bumps" which were observed numerically on the phenomenological side of sum rules at ``intermediate'' frequencies.

Alexander Moroz; Jan Fischer

1996-02-14

59

Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models  

PubMed Central

Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

2014-01-01

60

Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.  

PubMed

Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

2013-01-01

61

Summing Consecutive Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem offers a simple context to begin an exploration of the properties of numbers and to make conjectures about those properties. Learners explore the sums of consecutive numbers and whether all positive numbers from 1-30 can be written as the sum of two or more consecutive numbers. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

62

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

63

Mystery Sums, Part Two  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This second Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value from -10 to 10 of the letters, A, B, -B and C. Players drag any two letters across a divider to the right to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Daniel Scher

2012-10-08

64

Mystery Sums, Part Three  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This third Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad, as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately) allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of ten letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players encompass letters within a circle to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Daniel Scher

2012-10-08

65

SUMS calibration test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

Robertson, G.

1982-01-01

66

The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

2013-03-01

67

Brane world sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of consistency conditions is derived from Einstein equations for brane world scenarios with a spatially periodic internal space. In particular, the sum of the total tension of the flat branes and the non-negative integral of the gradient energy of the bulk scalars must vanish. This constraint allows us to make a simple consistency check of several models. We

Gary Gibbons; Renata Kallosh; Andrei Linde

2001-01-01

68

Digital Media Developing Digital  

E-print Network

Developing Digital Media Developing Digital Media Digital Media Case Study During 2012, IT Services component of student and staff development." In terms of the use of digital media for teaching, Mark Dixon this digital content, mentorship of paramedic students was informal and delivered locally. According to Mairéad

69

SumAll  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interested in learning about your social media reach? You may want to check out SumAll which is a rather nice way to do just that. After signing up for the free version, visitors will receive a daily digest of their social media influence on over a dozen platforms, including LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+ and others. It's a powerful tool that is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-13

70

Number Cube Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this calculator activity students complete an experiment on the frequency of sums by rolling two dice fifty times and recording their data. Students record their data in a table using tallies, fractions, decimals, and percent form. Individual data is then compiled into a class chart to identify patterns in data when more trials are conducted. This activity is designed to be completed using the TI-15 Explorer calculator. A PDF of the lesson plan and student sheet is included.

2008-06-09

71

Sums of Infinite Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spiral is a curve traced by moving either outward or inward about a fixed point called the pole. A Baravelle Spiral is generated by connecting the midpoints of the successive sides of a regular polygon. Triangles will be formed. The process of identifying and repeatedly connecting the midpoints is called iteration. Mathematically, the Baravelle Spiral is a geometric illustration of a concept basic to the Calculus: The sum of an infinite geometric series - an unbounded set of numbers where each term is related by a common ratio, or multiplier, of "r" - converges to a finite number called a limit when 0 < r < 1. Much time in the Calculus curriculum, and its applications in the sciences, focuses on whether a particular mathematical expression has a limit and thus be highly useful. Historically, one of our oldest mathematical documents, the Rhind Papyrus (ca. 1650 BC), offers a set of data thought to represent a geometric series and possibly an understanding of the formula for finding its sum. In this case, the common ratio of r = 7 is obviously NOT less than 1 and leads to 71+72 +73 + 74 + 75 = 19,607. While not a converging series, as in the case of Baravelle Spirals, we appreciate the early Egyptian fascination with sums of series.

Lai, Robert

2006-01-01

72

Sums of Squares and Cubes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an exploration of a number of ways these quantities can be demonstrated and some interconnections between them. Discussed are triangular numbers, sums of squares, sums of cubes, table squares, and counting rectangles. (CW)

French, Doug

1990-01-01

73

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

74

Using Squares to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…

DeTemple, Duane

2010-01-01

75

Sum Rules of the Multiple Giant Dipole States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various sum rules for multiple giant dipole resonance states are derived. For\\u000athe triple giant dipole resonance states, the energy-weighted sum of the\\u000atransition strengths requires a model to be related to those of the single and\\u000adouble giant dipole resonance states. It is also shown that the non-diagonal\\u000amatrix elements of the double commutator between the dipole operator and

H. Kurasawa; T. Suzuki; P. F. Bortignon

2005-01-01

76

A 2-categorical state sum model  

E-print Network

It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6$j$-symbols. These weights solve an hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in [1], which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov's invariant of 4-manifolds.

Aristide Baratin; Laurent Freidel

2015-02-04

77

Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases  

PubMed Central

Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer n as a sum n=?k?kUk, where the digits ?k are taken from a finite alphabet ? and (Uk)k is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with U0=1. The most prominent example of a base sequence (Uk)k is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight ?k|?k| are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices. PMID:22163376

Grabner, Peter J.; Steiner, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

78

Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases.  

PubMed

Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer n as a sum n=?k?kUk, where the digits ?k are taken from a finite alphabet ? and (Uk)k is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with U0=1. The most prominent example of a base sequence (Uk)k is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight ?k|?k| are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices. PMID:22163376

Grabner, Peter J; Steiner, Wolfgang

2011-10-21

79

An efficient method for evaluating energy-dependent sum rules  

E-print Network

Energy-dependent sum rules are useful tools in many fields of physics. In nuclear physics, they typically involve an integration of the response function over the nuclear spectrum with a weight function composed of integer powers of the energy. More complicated weight functions are also encountered, e.g., in nuclear polarization corrections of atomic spectra. Using the Lorentz integral transform method and the Lanczos algorithm, we derive a computationally efficient technique for evaluating such sum rules that avoids the explicit calculation of both the continuum states and the response function itself. Our numerical results for electric dipole sum rules of the Helium-4 nucleus with various energy-dependent weights show rapid convergence with respect to the number of Lanczos steps. This demonstrates the usefulness of the method in a variety of electroweak reactions.

Nir Nevo Dinur; Chen Ji; Sonia Bacca; Nir Barnea

2014-03-29

80

Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums

Ablinger, Jakob; Blümlein, Johannes; Schneider, Carsten

2013-08-01

81

Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms  

SciTech Connect

In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria)] [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria); Blümlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

2013-08-15

82

Matsubara Frequency Sums  

E-print Network

We cannot use directly the results of zero-temperature at finite temperature, for at finite temperature the average is to be carried over all highly degenerate excited states unlike zero-temperature average is only on unique ground state. One of the formal way to take into account the finite temperature into quantum field theory is due to Matsubara, to replace temporal component of eigenvalues $k_{4}$ by $\\omega_{n}=\\frac{2\\pi n}{\\beta}$ $(\\frac{2\\pi (n+{1/2})}{\\beta})$ with summation over all integer values of $n$. The summation is done with the infinite series expansion of $\\coth (\\pi y)$. With the chemical potential $\\mu$, $\\omega_{n}$ will be replaced by $\\omega_{n} - \\mu$ in the eigenvalues and the summation over $n$ cannot be done easily. Various methods exist to evaluate it. We use the infinite series expansion of $\\coth (\\pi y)$ to work operationally for such Matsubara frequency sums.

Alok Kumar

2010-02-25

83

Locating the Extrema of Fungible Regression Weights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors, every set of alternate weights belongs to an infinite class of "fungible weights" (Waller, Psychometrica, "in press") that yields identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. When the R[superscript 2] using the alternate weights is a fixed value, fungible…

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2009-01-01

84

Coulomb sum rule of A=2, 3, and 4 nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?2-weighted sums W(2)L(k) of the longitudinal response of two-, three-, and four-body nuclei are calculated with realistic nuclear forces, and exact (A=2) and variational (A=3 and 4) wave functions. These and the ?-weighted sums WL(k) are used to estimate the unmeasured longitudinal response at ?>Emax. The Coulomb sums obtained by integrating the measured response up to ?=Emax and the estimated response at ?>Emax, are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions in light nuclei. The 3He and 4He data show the presence of proton-proton correlations, although they are not accurate enough to allow for a quantitative determination of the size of the repulsive core in the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

Schiavilla, R.; Pandharipande, V. R.; Fabrocini, A.

1989-09-01

85

Minimizing the sum of weighted completion times in a concurrent ...  

E-print Network

1In a scheduling environment with a set of jobs N and due dates dj for all j 2 N, the ..... Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council ... The work of the third author is supported by the National Science Foundation (

2008-11-11

86

NIST: Weights and Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weights and measures may not be the first thing that most people wake up in the morning thinking about, but such matters are terribly important. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has created this site to provide information to concerned stakeholders about the work of their Office of Weights and Measures. The mission of the Office is to promote "uniformity in U.S. weights and measures laws, regulations, and standards to achieve equity between buyers and sellers in the marketplaces." On the right hand side of the page, visitors can look over a Resources area. Here they will find educational materials, information on the National Conference on Weights and Measures, past newsletters, and a rather fine digital exhibit that traces "the struggle to achieve weights and measures standardization" in the United States. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can learn more about price verification, packaging and labeling, and the metric system.

2012-05-18

87

Weight set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None; )

2005-12-11

88

Digital Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...

Heather

2008-09-29

89

SUMS preliminary design and data analysis development. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.

Hinson, E. W.

1981-01-01

90

Wire Weight  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

91

Generalized constructive tree weights  

SciTech Connect

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

2014-04-15

92

Generalized constructive tree weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

93

Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory  

E-print Network

The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or EDF. But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy FAM based on the QRPA. To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory, the Thouless theorem for the energy-weighted sum rule, and the dielectric theorem for the inverse energy-weighted sum rule. We demonstrate that calculated sum-rule values agree with those obtained from the matrix formulation of the QRPA. We also discuss the applicability of both the Thouless theorem about the energy-weighted sum rule and the dielectric theorem for the inverse energy-weighted sum rule to nuclear density functional theory in cases when the EDF is not based on a Hamiltonian. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. The FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.

Nobuo Hinohara; Markus Kortelainen; Witold Nazarewicz; Erik Olsen

2015-01-28

94

Precision digital pulse phase generator  

DOEpatents

A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

95

Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

Thaheem, A. B.

2005-01-01

96

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss Expectations and Goals share Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss No matter what your weight loss ... Read full story >> share 3 Steps for Setting Physical Activity Goals Think about the "big picture" of your ...

97

Popular weight reduction diets.  

PubMed

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

98

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

99

Digital materials for digital fabrication  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces digital materials by analogy with digital computation and digital communications. Traditional fabrication techniques include pick-and-place, roll-to-roll, molding, patterning and more. Current research ...

Popescu, George A

2007-01-01

100

An efficient sampling technique for sums of bandpass functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A well known sampling theorem states that a bandlimited function can be completely determined by its values at a uniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the highest frequency component of the function (Nyquist rate). A less familiar but important sampling theorem states that a bandlimited narrowband function can be completely determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the passband width. This allows for efficient digital demodulation of narrowband signals, which are common in sonar, radar and radio interferometry, without the side effect of signal group delay from an analog demodulator. This theorem was extended by developing a technique which allows a finite sum of bandlimited narrowband functions to be determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density can be made arbitrarily close to the sum of the passband widths.

Lawton, W. M.

1982-01-01

101

An efficient sampling technique for sums of bandpass functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well known sampling theorem states that a bandlimited function can be completely determined by its values at a uniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the highest frequency component of the function (Nyquist rate). A less familiar but important sampling theorem states that a bandlimited narrowband function can be completely determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the passband width. This allows for efficient digital demodulation of narrowband signals, which are common in sonar, radar and radio interferometry, without the side effect of signal group delay from an analog demodulator. This theorem was extended by developing a technique which allows a finite sum of bandlimited narrowband functions to be determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density can be made arbitrarily close to the sum of the passband widths.

Lawton, W. M.

1982-04-01

102

Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings  

SciTech Connect

In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

Bardakci, Korkut

2006-02-16

103

Repeated Reasoning: Products and Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #8—Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning shows a classroom of fourth grade students exploring the relationships between sums and products of numbers when numbers are added to themselves and when they are multiplied by each other. The sum and product of each number is displayed sequentially in an array on grid paper to detect patterns more readily. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # 7-Look for and make use of structures is evident.

WGHB Boston

2013-01-01

104

Spin Sum Rules and Polarizabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule and related dispersive integrals connect real and virtual Compton scattering to inclusive photo- and electroproduction. Being based on universal principles as causality, unitarity, and gauge invariance, these relations provide a unique testing ground to study the internal degrees of freedom that hold a system together. The present contribution reviews the spin-dependent sum rules and cross sections of the nucleon. At small momentum transfer, the data sample information on the long range phenomena (Goldstone bosons and collective resonances), whereas the primary degrees of freedom (quarks and gluons) become visible at large momentum transfer (short distance). The rich body of new data covers a wide range of phenomena from coherent to incoherent processes, and from the generalized spin polarizabilities on the low-energy side to higher twist effects in deep inelastic scattering.

Drechsel, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

2009-07-27

105

Spin Sum Rules and Polarizabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule and related dispersive integrals connect real and virtual Compton scattering to inclusive photo- and electroproduction. Being based on universal principles as causality, unitarity, and gauge invariance, these relations provide a unique testing ground to study the internal degrees of freedom that hold a system together. The present contribution reviews the spin-dependent sum rules and cross sections of the nucleon. At small momentum transfer, the data sample information on the long range phenomena (Goldstone bosons and collective resonances), whereas the primary degrees of freedom (quarks and gluons) become visible at large momentum transfer (short distance). The rich body of new data covers a wide range of phenomena from coherent to incoherent processes, and from the generalized spin polarizabilities on the low-energy side to higher twist effects in deep inelastic scattering.

Drechsel, D.

2009-07-01

106

Broadband performance of superdirective delay-and-sum beamformers steered to end-fire.  

PubMed

Linear arrays steered to end-fire provide superdirective robust performance if a constraint is imposed on the white-noise gain. Filter-and-sum beamformers achieve the maximum constrained directivity by tuning their complex weights over the frequency. Delay-and-sum beamformers have simpler structures, but their weights are fixed and optimized at a given frequency. This letter investigates the constrained directivity provided over a broad band by different delay-and-sum techniques. Complex weights and analytic signals attain near-optimal broadband performance over four octaves. Oversteered arrays using real weights and signals were found to attain superdirective performance over approximately two octaves. Hearing aids and directional hydrophones are potential applications for the considered arrays. PMID:24907842

Trucco, A; Traverso, F; Crocco, M

2014-06-01

107

Torque-Summing Brushless Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

Vaidya, J. G.

1986-01-01

108

Digital control of a shaker to a specified shock spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital computer based control system was developed for a biaxial electrohydraulic shaker table used for seismic qualification testing of nuclear power plant components. The system drive signals were developed from a weighted linear sum of 1/6-octave psuedo random noise signals. Preliminary drive signal shaping is accomplished through the use of a series of table mounted dummy mass transfer functions obtained from a previously generated data bank. Adjustments to the drive signal are made by direct comparison of the resulting test response spectrum (TRS) to the required response spectrum (RRS). Drive signal shaping sequences for a 2000 lb electrical equipment control cabinet are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system for seismic qualification.

Unruh, J. F.

1982-05-01

109

A note on heavy cycles in weighted digraphs  

E-print Network

A weighted digraph is a digraph such that every arc is assigned a nonnegative number, called the weight of the arc. The weighted outdegree of a vertex $v$ in a weighted digraph $D$ is the sum of the weights of all the arcs with $v$ as their tail, and the weight of a directed cycle $C$ in $D$ is the sum of the weights of the arcs of $C$. In this note, we prove that if every vertex of a weighted digraph $D$ with order $n$ has weighted outdegree at least 1, then there exists a directed cycle in $D$ with weight at least $1/\\log_2 n$. This gives a partial answer to a conjecture of Bollob\\'{a}s and Scott.

Li, Binlong

2011-01-01

110

Zero-Sum Flows in Regular Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an undirected graph G, a zero-sum flow is an assignment of non-zero real numbers to the edges, such that the sum of the values of all edges incident with each vertex\\u000a is zero. It has been conjectured that if a graph G has a zero-sum flow, then it has a zero-sum 6-flow. We prove this conjecture and Bouchet’s Conjecture

S. Akbari; A. Daemi; O. Hatami; A. Javanmard; A. Mehrabian

2010-01-01

111

Sum rules for baryon decuplet magnetic moments  

E-print Network

In chiral models with SU(3) group structure, baryon decuplet and octet magnetic moments are evaluated by constructing their sum rules to yield theoretical predictions. In these sum rules we exploit six experimentally known baryon magnetic moments. Sum rules for flavor components and strange form factors of the octet and decuplet magnetic moments and decuplet-to-octet transition magnetic moments are also investigated.

Soon-Tae Hong

2007-12-03

112

Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

Keeping a healthy weight is crucial. If you are underweight, overweight, or obese, you may have a higher risk of certain health problems. ... U.S. are overweight or obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure ...

113

Weight Watcher!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

Clarke, Doug

1990-01-01

114

A Hybrid Mean Value Involving Dedekind Sums and the General Exponential Sums  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of this paper is using the analytic method, A. Weil's classical work for the upper bound estimate of the general exponential sums, and the properties of Gauss sums to study the hybrid mean value problem involving Dedekind sums and the general exponential sums and give a sharp asymptotic formula for it. PMID:25180213

Li, Jianghua; Wang, Tingting

2014-01-01

115

Digital neural networks for high-speed divisions and root extractions.  

PubMed

The instruction set of digital integer-valued VLSIs implementing neural networks is typically restricted to weighted sums, threshold activation functions and weight assignments. However, neural networks also need divisions (for data normalizations) and root extractions (for distance or vector norm computations). This paper presents neural networks which perform the latter operations by using only the above basic instructions. These networks thus provide "macros" to the overall network which calls them. This yields a homogeneous environment. Moreover, a "virtual base" is introduced to exploit the available parallelism. It is freely chosen so as to achieve the desired trade-off between the speed and complexity of the proposed networks (with a minimum of only two neurons). This high-speed capability also makes these structures attractive independently from neural applications. PMID:8049792

Deville, Y

1993-03-01

116

Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating each component weight during the nonlinear propagation stage an approximation of the true pdf can be successfully reconstructed. Particle filtering (PF) methods have gained popularity recently for solving nonlinear estimation problems due to their straightforward approach and the processing capabilities mentioned above. The basic concept behind PF is to represent any pdf as a set of random samples. As the number of samples increases, they will theoretically converge to the exact, equivalent representation of the desired pdf. When the estimated qth moment is needed, the samples are used for its construction allowing further analysis of the pdf characteristics. However, filter performance deteriorates as the dimension of the state vector increases. To overcome this problem Ref. [5] applies a marginalization technique for PF methods, decreasing complexity of the system to one linear and another nonlinear state estimation problem. The marginalization theory was originally developed by Rao and Blackwell independently. According to Ref. [6] it improves any given estimator under every convex loss function. The improvement comes from calculating a conditional expected value, often involving integrating out a supportive statistic. In other words, Rao-Blackwellization allows for smaller but separate computations to be carried out while reaching the main objective of the estimator. In the case of improving an estimator's variance, any supporting statistic can be removed and its variance determined. Next, any other information that dependents on the supporting statistic is found along with its respective variance. A new approach is developed here by utilizing the strengths of the adaptive Gaussian sum propagation in Ref. [2] and a marginalization approach used for PF methods found in Ref. [7]. In the following sections a modified filtering approach is presented based on a special state-space model within nonlinear systems to reduce the dimensionality of the optimization problem in Ref. [2]. First, the adaptive Gaussian sum propagation is explained and then the new marginali

Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet

2015-01-01

117

Color Demosaicking Using Directional Weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital cameras usually use color filter array (CFA) to sample red, green, and blue colors, only capturing a color sample at a pixel location. The full resolution image is obtained by interpolating or demosaicking the subsampled colors. In this paper, a new demosaicking algorithm is proposed using the directional weighting technique. Our algorithm can effectively suppress the common zipper-effect and

Zhou Dengwen; Shen Xiaoliu

2009-01-01

118

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule  

E-print Network

In the confinement regime at Q^2=0 the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) Sum Rule connects static properties of the nucleon with the difference of spin dependent doubly polarized total absorption cross sections of real photons. Now, for the first time this fundamental sum rule is verified by the GDH-Collaboration with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons at the two accelerators ELSA and MAMI. The integral (sum) of the GDH Sum Rule can be generalized to the case of virtual photons. This allows to establish a Q^2 dependency and to study the transition to the perturbative regime of QCD. Ultimately, the GDH Sum Rule can be related to the Bjorken and the Ellis-Jaffe Sum Rule. This contribution covers the status of theory concerning the GDH Sum Rule as well as the experimental approaches and their results for the absorption of real and virtual photons. We point out that the so-called No-Subtraction hypothesis, often considered the weakest part of the derivation of the GDH Sum Rule, in fact follows from unitarity and does not impair the fundamental character of the GDH Sum Rule. The shown experimental data verify the GDH Sum Rule for the proton at the level of 8% including the systematic uncertainties from extrapolations to unmeasured energy regions. For the GDH Sum Rule on the neutron and the isovector case we find unexpected contributions at photon energies above 1 GeV.

Klaus Helbing

2006-03-29

119

Minimizing the Sum of Completion Times with Resource Dependant Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the classical minimization sum of completion times problem to the case where the processing times are controllable by allocating a nonrenewable resource. The quality of a solution is measured by two different criteria. The first criterion is the sum of completion times and the second is the total weighted resource consumption. We consider four different problem variations for treating the two criteria. We prove that this problem is NP-hard for three of the four variations even if all resource consumption weights are equal. However, somewhat surprisingly, the variation of minimizing the integrated objective function is solvable in polynomial time. Although the sum of completion times is arguably the most important scheduling criteria, the complexity of this problem, up to this paper, was an open question for three of the four variations. The results of this research have various implementations, including efficient battery usage on mobile devices such as mobile computer, phones and GPS devices in order to prolong their battery duration.

Yedidsion, Liron; Shabtay, Dvir; Kaspi, Moshe

2008-10-01

120

Super-high-efficiency approximate calculation of series sum and discrete Fourier transform  

E-print Network

We present a super-high-efficiency approximate computing scheme for series sum and discrete Fourier transform. The summation of a series sum or a discrete Fourier transform is approximated by summing over part of the terms multiplied by corresponding weights. The calculation is valid for the function under the transform being piecewise smooth in the continuum variable. The scheme reduces significantly the requirement for computer memory storage and enhances the numerical computation efficiency without losing accuracy. By comparing with the known results of examples, we show the accuracy and the efficiency of the scheme. The efficiency can be higher than $10^6$ for the examples.

Xin-Zhong Yan

2013-11-18

121

Neyman-Pearson biometric score fusion as an extension of the sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define the biometric performance invariance under strictly monotonic functions on match scores as normalization symmetry. We use this symmetry to clarify the essential difference between the standard score-level fusion approaches of sum rule and Neyman-Pearson. We then express Neyman-Pearson fusion assuming match scores defined using false acceptance rates on a logarithmic scale. We show that by stating Neyman-Pearson in this form, it reduces to sum rule fusion for ROC curves with logarithmic slope. We also introduce a one parameter model of biometric performance and use it to express Neyman-Pearson fusion as a weighted sum rule.

Hube, Jens Peter

2007-04-01

122

Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

Lynch, Clifford

2002-01-01

123

Digital redaction  

E-print Network

and commonly used techniques employed in the editing of documents are presented. Digital redaction tools that allow users to edit textual image documents have great potential in the context of digital archives. This thesis describes CIRT, a Collaborative Image...

Coquelin, Valerie

1997-01-01

124

Weight simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

125

Digital Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

2014-01-01

126

The use of exp(iS[x]) in the sum over histories  

E-print Network

The use of $\\sum \\exp(iS[x])$ as the generic form for a sum over histories in configuration space is discussed critically and placed in its proper context. The standard derivation of the sum over paths by discretizing the paths is reviewed, and it is shown that the form $\\sum \\exp(iS[x])$ is justified only for Schrodinger-type systems which are at most second order in the momenta. Extending this derivation to the relativistic free particle, the causal Green's function is expressed as a sum over timelike paths, and the Feynman Green's function is expressed both as a sum over paths which only go one way in time and as a sum over paths which move forward and backward in time. The weighting of the paths is shown not to be $\\exp(iS[x])$ in any of these cases. The role of the inner product and the operator ordering of the wave equation in defining the sum over histories is discussed.

Arlen Anderson

1993-08-17

127

Simultaneous nulling for monopulse array with partially adaptive weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new simple method is described for synthesizing low-sidelobe sum and difference patterns with partially adaptive weights. By partially adaptive, we mean that only part of the weights are adapted for simultaneous nulling. These adaptive weights are shared by the sum and difference channels, leading to a significant reduction in the number of variable attenuators/phase shifters used, as compared to the fully adaptive implementation. An objective function is derived that yields different configurations of the shared adaptive weights. Numerical examples are presented to ascertain the efficacy of the new method for both point and extended interference.

Lee, Ta-Sung

1994-07-01

128

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

129

Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kozak; M. Wiesel

1984-01-01

130

Parity Violating Analogue of GDH Sum Rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sum rule of superconvergence type for parity violating amplitudes (p.v. analogue of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule) is discussed. The parity violating polarized photon-induced processes for the proton target are considered in the framework of effective low energy theories and phenomenological models based on p.v. nucleon-meson effective interactions. It is argued that the verification of the sum rule in future high intensity polarized photon beam experiments is feasible.

?ukaszuk, L.; Kurek, K.

2005-06-01

131

Two novel methods in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Two novel methods in extracting the spectral information of hadrons in the QCD sum rule technique. The first one is to combine two sum rules so that the pole dominance is achieved and the resonance information is effectively obtained. This method is applied to the pentaquark {Theta}{sup +} and its quantum numbers are predicted. The second method is to use the Bayesian inference theory to obtain the most probable form of the spectral function from the sum rule. We have checked the method to work in the case of the rho meson sum rule.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto [Dept. of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2010-12-28

132

The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov Sum Rule  

E-print Network

The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule relates the helicity structure of the photoabsorption cross section to the anomalous magnetic moment of the nucleon. It is based on Lorentz and gauge invariance, crossing symmetry, causality and unitarity. A generalized DHG sum rule my be derived for virtual photons. At low momentum transfer this generalized sum rule is saturated by the resonance region, at high momentum transfer it may be expressed by the parton spin distributions measured in deep inelastic scattering. The longitudinal-transverse interference determines the Cottingham sum rule, which is related to the electric and magnetic form factors over the whole range of momentum transfer.

D. Drechsel

1994-11-29

133

Digital optical spark chambers  

SciTech Connect

The authors have constructed and tested a prototype digital readout system for optical spark chambers using a linear, solid state (CCD) detector array. Position resolution of 0.013 mm (sigma) over a 25 centimeter field of view has been demonstrated. This technique should permit the construction of economical, light weight and low power trajectory hodoscopes for use in cosmic ray instrumentation on balloons and in spacecraft.

Evenson, P.; Tuska, E.

1989-02-01

134

Measuring food intake with digital photography.  

PubMed

The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

2014-01-01

135

Weight Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... loss strategy that works best for you and start feeling better now. Assess Your Lifestyle Use our tools in this section to assess your current lifestyle. From there, you can decide which steps to take toward a healthier weight. Getting Started ...

136

The Generalised GDH Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule was originally derived for real photon absorption (corresponding to Q{sup 2}=0) and has been generalized to finite Q{sup 2}. The goals of Jefferson Lab experiment E97-110 are to perform a precise measurement of the generalized GDH integral and the moments of the neutron spin structure functions in order to study their Q{sup 2} dependence between 0.02 and 0.3 (GeV/c){sup 2}. This Q{sup 2} range will allow us to extrapolate to the real photon point for {sup 3}He and the neutron. Furthermore the low Q{sup 2} predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory and its limits of applicability can be tested. The measurements will provide new constraints on understanding the {sup 3}He and neutron spin structure and contribute to the understanding of the nucleon resonances. The acquisition of data was completed in August of 2003 using the Jefferson Lab high polarization continuous-wave electron beam, the Hall A polarized {sup 3}He target, and the new Hall A septum magnet, which allows measurements at forward angles of 6 and 9 degrees. The status and prospects of the data analysis will be discussed.

Sulkosky, Vincent

2004-08-30

137

Digital metamaterials.  

PubMed

Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061

Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

2014-12-01

138

Digital metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1’, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call ‘metamaterial bits’, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental ‘metamaterial bytes’ with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.

Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

2014-12-01

139

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2012-07-01

140

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2011-07-01

141

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2014-07-01

143

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2013-07-01

144

On the General Dedekind Sums and Two-Term Exponential Sums  

PubMed Central

We use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind hybrid mean value involving the general Dedekind sums and the two-term exponential sums, and give an interesting computational formula for it. PMID:25374933

Zhang, Junli

2014-01-01

145

A study in sums of products.  

PubMed

We give a general version of cancellation in exponential sums that arise as sums of products of trace functions satisfying a suitable independence condition related to the Goursat-Kolchin-Ribet criterion, in a form that is easily applicable in analytic number theory. PMID:25802414

Fouvry, Étienne; Kowalski, Emmanuel; Michel, Philippe

2015-04-28

146

On the Telescoping Sum. Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The telescoping sum constitutes a powerful technique for summing series. In this note, this technique is illustrated by a series of problems starting off with some simple ones in arithmetic, then some in trigonometry, famous families of numbers, Apery-like formulas, and finally ending with a class of problems that are solved by computer.

Chen, Hongwei

2004-01-01

147

QCD glueball sum rules and vacuum topology  

E-print Network

Several key problems of QCD sum rules in the spin-0 glueball channels are resolved by implementing nonperturbative short-distance physics from direct instantons and topological charge screening. A lattice-based instanton size distribution and the IR renormalization of the nonperturbative Wilson coefficients are also introduced. Results of a comprehensive quantitative sum rule analysis are reviewed and their implications discussed.

Hilmar Forkel

2006-08-23

148

Character sums to smooth moduli are small  

E-print Network

Recently, Granville and Soundararajan have made fundamental breakthroughs in the study of character sums. Building on their work and using estimates on short character sums developed by Graham-Ringrose and Iwaniec, we improve the Polya-Vinogradov inequality for characters with smooth conductor.

Goldmakher, Leo

2007-01-01

149

On Unit Sum Numbers of Rational Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unit sum numbers of rational groups are investigated: the importance of the prime 2 being an automorphism of the rational group is discussed and other results are achieved by considering the number and distribution of rational primes which are, or are not, automorphisms of the group. Proof is given of the existence of rational groups with unit sum numbers

Brendan Goldsmith; C. Meehan; S. L. Wallutis

2002-01-01

150

Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms  

SciTech Connect

We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

2008-01-25

151

Sum Rules for Parity Violating Compton Amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After discussion of legitimacy of the dispersive approach in the Standard Model sum rules (s.r.) for parity violating (p.v.) amplitudes are presented. These are s.r. for polarizabilities and p.v. analogue of the Gerasimov--Drell--Hearn sum rule. Phenomenological implications are reviewed.

Lukaszuk, L.; Kurek, K.

2006-03-01

152

CATEGORY OF sp (2n)-MODULES WITH BOUNDED WEIGHT MULTIPLICITIES  

E-print Network

is equivalent to the category of weight modules over the Weyl algebra An (see Lemma 3.1 and Corollary 5.3). WeCATEGORY OF sp (2n)-MODULES WITH BOUNDED WEIGHT MULTIPLICITIES DIMITAR GRANTCHAROV AND VERA bounded weight g-modules, i.e. those which are direct sum of their weight spaces and have uniformly

Serganova, Vera

153

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings  

SciTech Connect

We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N?1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2013-11-15

154

Digital Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…

Blansett, Jim

2008-01-01

155

Digital TMI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

Rios, Joseph

2012-01-01

156

Digital Ratiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, low-cost comparator with 24-bit-precision yields ratio signal from pair of analog or digital input signals. Arithmetic logic chips (bit-slice) sample two 24-bit analog-to-digital converters approximately once every millisecond and accumulate them in two 24-bit registers. Approach readily modified to arbitrary precision.

Beer, R.

1985-01-01

157

The Gerasimov Drell Hearn sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

? Sum rules measurements involving the spin structure of the nucleon like those due to Bjorken, Ellis and Jaffe and the one due to Gerasimov, Drell and Hearn allow us to study the structure of strong interactions. At long distance scales in the confinement regime the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule (Eq. (1)) connects static properties of the nucleon-like the anomalous magnetic moment and the nucleon mass-with the difference of spin dependent doubly polarized total absorption cross sections of real photons. Hence, the full spin-dependent excitation spectrum of the nucleon is being related to its static properties. The sum rule has not been investigated experimentally until recently. Now, for the first time this fundamental sum rule is verified by the GDH-Collaboration with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons at the two accelerators ELSA and MAMI. The investigation of the response of the proton as well as of the neutron allows us to perform an isospin decomposition. Further investigations with real photons are scheduled at SLAC, JLAB, SPRING-8, LEGS and GRAAL. The integral (sum) of the GDH sum rule can be generalized to the case of virtual photons. This allows us to establish a Q2 dependency and to study the transition to the perturbative regime of QCD. Ultimately, the GDH sum rule can be related to the Bjorken and the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. This transition is the subject of several experiments e.g. at JLAB for the resonance region and of the HERMES experiment at DESY for higher Q2. This contribution covers the status of theory concerning the GDH sum rule as well as the experimental approaches and their results for the absorption of real and virtual photons. We point out that the so-called No-Subtraction hypothesis, often considered the weakest part of the derivation of the GDH sum rule, in fact follows from unitarity and does not impair the fundamental character of the GDH sum rule. The experimental data verify the GDH sum rule for the proton at the level of 8% including the systematic uncertainties from extrapolations to unmeasured energy regions. For the GDH sum rule on the neutron and the isovector case we find unexpected contributions at photon energies above 1 GeV.

Helbing, Klaus

2006-10-01

158

Kostant's weight multiplicity formula and the Fibonacci numbers  

E-print Network

It is well known that the dimension of a weight space for a finite dimensional representation of a simple Lie algebra is given by Kostant's weight multiplicity formula. We address the question of how many terms in the alternation contribute to the multiplicity of the zero weight for certain, very special, highest weights. Specifically, we consider the case where the highest weight is equal to the sum of all simple roots. This weight is dominant only in Lie types $A$ and $B$. We prove that in all such cases the number of contributing terms is a Fibonacci number. Combinatorial consequences of this fact are provided.

Harris, Pamela

2011-01-01

159

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule  

E-print Network

At long distance scales in the confinement regime the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) Sum Rule connects static properties of the nucleon with the difference of spin dependent doubly polarized total absorption cross sections of real photons. Now, for the first time this fundamental sum rule is verified by the GDH-Collaboration with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons at the two accelerators ELSA and MAMI. The integral (sum) of the GDH Sum Rule can be generalized to the case of virtual photons. This allows to establish a Q^2 dependency and to study the transition to the perturbative regime of QCD. Ultimately, the GDH Sum Rule can be related to the Bjorken and the Ellis-Jaffe Sum Rule. This contribution covers the status of theory concerning the GDH Sum Rule as well as the experimental approaches and their results for the absorption of real and virtual photons. We point out that the so-called No-Subtraction hypothesis, often considered the weakest part of the derivation of the GDH...

Helbing, K

2006-01-01

160

Digital demodulator-correlator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for demodulation and correlation of a code modulated 10 MHz signal is presented. The apparatus is comprised of a sample and hold analog-to-digital converter synchronized by a frequency coherent 40 MHz pulse to obtain four evenly spaced samples of each of the signal. Each sample is added or subtracted to or from one of four accumulators to or from the separate sums. The correlation functions are then computed. As a further feature of the invention, multipliers are each multiplied by a squarewave chopper signal having a period that is long relative to the period of the received signal to foreclose contamination of the received signal by leakage from either of the other two terms of the multipliers.

Layland, J. W.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Goldstein, R. M.; Hubbard, W. P. (inventors)

1978-01-01

161

Common set of weights in data envelopment analysis: a linear programming problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the relative efficiency of Decision Making Units as the ratio of weighted sum\\u000a of outputs by weighted sum of inputs. To accomplish the purpose, a DEA model calculates the weights of inputs and outputs\\u000a of each DMU individually so that the highest efficiency can be estimated. Thus, the present study suggests an innovative

A. Davoodi; H. Zhiani Rezai

162

Geophysical weight loss diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

Schatten, Kenneth

1984-04-01

163

Rounding sum-of-squares relaxations  

E-print Network

We present a general approach to rounding semidefinite programming relaxations obtained by the Sum-of-Squares method (Lasserre hierarchy). Our approach is based on using the connection between these relaxations and the ...

Barak, Boaz

164

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums  

SciTech Connect

We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of inhomogeneous drums. •We discuss the extension to higher dimensions. •We discuss the special case of an inhomogeneity only along one direction.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2013-09-15

165

The generalized GDH sum for He-3  

SciTech Connect

The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q^2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a He-3 target at low Q^2.

Karl Slifer

2004-06-02

166

Digital diorama  

E-print Network

Digital Diorama may be briefly presented as: a historical exploration of the vision devices, performances, and installations of the nineteenth century, and their influences on the project. These histories of the magic ...

Spikol, Daniel

1992-01-01

167

Digital Millenials  

Microsoft Academic Search

If you haven’t noticed yet, our incoming freshmen are no longer experiencing the same K12 that most of us probably did. They are digital natives, a generation fostered in a world that is dominated by technology. They subsist perpetually coupled to a digital persona manifested by I-Phones, cell phones and Blackberries. Each is making an unspoken statement, one that we

Paul DeVries

2009-01-01

168

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

169

Digital clubbing  

PubMed Central

Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350

Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa

2012-01-01

170

Digital Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Morphology library is a dynamic archive of information on digital morphology and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography of biological specimens. Plants and animals, both recent and fossil, are included. Skulls and skeletons of vertebrates, exoskeletons of invertebrates and hard parts of plants are all represented. Browse through the site and see spectacular imagery, animations and details on the morphology of over 200 representatives of the Earth's biota.

Timothy Rowe

171

Digital Light Projector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Quicktime animation of a Digital Light Projector. A digital light projector provides the capability to display a video or computer monitor signal on a projection screen. Such a projector stands out by its small size, low weight and rather unique use of MEMS. The internal light path starts with a bright halogen source, which is guided through the color wheel, reflects off the MEMS chip and is projected through the projector lens. A close-up of the color wheel and MEMS chip reveals the internal lens and beamsplitter. The micromirror chip is mounted in a package with a transparent window onto the printed circuit board. An even closer view shows the active element: a large array of little mirrors. Millions of these mirrors, each smaller than 20 micron, are packed onto the micromirror chip.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

172

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital History website is a project of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, designed to educate scholars and the public about the new and fast-growing academic discipline that is digital history. The home page features a semi-globe with links to the different sections atop the globe. The goal of the site is to provide access to presentations of scholars, interviews with scholars, relevant current events and news items, as well as a bibliography of digital history resources. In the "Tool Reviews" link, a visitor can read a thorough review of two tools, a timeline, and an exhibit tool from MIT's SIMILE project on open source tools. In the "Public Lectures" link, accessible from the homepage, the visitor can view portions of ten different presentations by digital history scholars, with subject matter ranging from Malcolm X to the Civil War to the Humanities and the Digital Age. Clicking on the presenter's name will lead the visitor to the portions of the presentation available for viewing, as well as a biography of the presenter, and a "live-blogged entry" about the presentation. The "Project Reviews" link, accessible on the homepage, contains reviews written by graduate students about digital history projects. Academics with projects they'd like to see reviewed, are given a contact e-mail at University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

173

Design, Fabrication, Digital Between digital design and digital fabrication  

E-print Network

Design, Fabrication, Digital Between digital design and digital fabrication Shaghayegh Shadkhou1 manufacturing. CFD (conception, fabrication, digitale) is a one week workshop with graduate (master recherche form generation interweaving geometry, aspects of construction and fabrication technologies. Key words

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

A 3-Bit Current Mode Quantizer for Continuous Time Delta Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters  

E-print Network

The summing amplifier and the quantizer form two of the most critical blocks in a continuous time delta sigma (CT ??) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Most of the conventional CT ?? ADC designs incorporate a voltage summing amplifier and a voltage...

Sundar, Arun

2012-02-14

175

Programmable Digital Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

Wassick, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

176

Randomly stopped sums: models and psychological applications  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as “life distributions” such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets. PMID:25426090

Smithson, Michael; Shou, Yiyun

2014-01-01

177

APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING TO MINIMIZE THE SUM OF DIAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of partitioning the nodes of a complete edge weighted graph into {kappa} clusters so as to minimize the sum of the diameters of the clusters. Since the problem is NP-complete, our focus is on the development of good approximation algorithms. When edge weights satisfy the triangle inequality, we present the first approximation algorithm for the problem. The approximation algorithm yields a solution that has no more than 10k clusters such the total diameter of these clusters is within a factor O(log (n/{kappa})) of the optimal value fork clusters, where n is the number of nodes in the complete graph. For any fixed {kappa}, we present an approximation algorithm that produces {kappa} clusters whose total diameter is at most twice the optimal value. When the distances are not required to satisfy the triangle inequality, we show that, unless P = NP, for any {rho} {ge} 1, there is no polynomial time approximation algorithm that can provide a performance guarantee of {rho} even when the number of clusters is fixed at 3. Other results obtained include a polynomial time algorithm for the problem when the underlying graph is a tree with edge weights.

Kopp, S.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, S.M.

2000-02-01

178

Digital Divide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS viewers can preview this upcoming two-part series through the accompanying Website of the same name. The Digital Divide examines the digital revolution and how the spread of computer technology is affecting young people in the United States. The Website is arranged into four main sections: Classrooms, Gender, Race, and At Work. In each section, there is an interactive lesson on the issue (Interact), interviews with experts (Voices), and list of annotated Internet resources on the issue (Links). The first part of the Digital Divide will air nationally on PBS stations on January 28, 2000. A note to users: as the site uses a dark background with colored text, some text, including URLs listed in white, will not print from some browsers without making necessary adjustments to settings or preferences.

179

Digital Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Maryland Digital Cultural Heritage website is quite inviting, as it combines images of the commonwealthâ??s distinctive flag with historic images of racing horses, a reference to one of the regionâ??s most well-known pastimes. Drawing on archival collections from such local institutions as the Montgomery County Historical Society, the Enoch Pratt Free Library, along with many others, there are over a dozen fine digital collections here for the curious and historically minded. These well-thought out collections include personal letters and images from the Edgar Allen Poe collection, a clutch of digitized items (including letters and photographs) from the acerbic writer H.L. Mencken, and items from the life of that most feared lefty, pitcher Lefty Grove. Finally, visitors also have the option of searching all of these collections by using a user-friendly search option that resides in the upper-right hand corner of each screen.

180

Digital Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Digital Bridges Web site consists of a collection of thirty representative 19th century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections." The archive provides an interesting retrospective into the beginnings of major bridge projects; the material is complete with high-resolution photographs and text scanned from original books. In addition to historical literature, Digital Bridges also features brief accounts of notable people and companies that influenced bridge construction across the country. A glossary of terms commonly used in the documents is also provided.

2002-01-01

181

Digital Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For electrical or computer engineering students or anyone with a passing interest, this site presents a very good overview of digital logic. The basics of both combinational and sequential logic are discussed, and the design of specific components such as counters and shift registers are also illustrated. A particularly interesting section is devoted to the inner workings of logic gates, which is important to fully understand digital design. This looks beyond the gate level into the transistors and other basic elements. Even though the material is very informative overall, one possible downside to this site is that some of the circuit diagrams are a little too closely spaced.

Bigelow, Ken.

182

Weight Loss Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

183

What are these Sum Rules Good For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersive sum rules, of which the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is a special example, are a consequence of rather general principles. On the one hand, they can be used to make tests of these fundamental principles, allowing to probe deep mysteries of nature. On the other hand, they can be used to access experimental observables that are otherwise impossible to measure, and thus providing excellent opportunities to learn about the physics of strongly interacting systems, such as nucleons and nuclei. I will use examples to illustrate these points.

Ji, Xiangdong

2005-02-01

184

Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.  

PubMed

Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

Glenn, Nicole M

2013-03-01

185

DIGITAL.CSIC CSIC Digital.CSIC  

E-print Network

DIGITAL.CSIC digital. CSIC Digital.CSIC Repositorio Institucional del Consejo Superior de "La ecología de los repositorios institucionales" Gijón, Universidad Laboral, 14 diciembre 2007 #12 · Páginas web personales y departamentales · Repositorios temáticos [colaboración de las bibliotecas en su

186

Wideband digital filter using FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

2000-07-01

187

Digital Mammography  

Cancer.gov

Conventional mammography uses X-rays to look for tumors or suspicious areas in the breasts. Digital mammography also uses X-rays, but the data is collected on computer instead of on a piece of film. This means that the image can be computer-enhanced,

188

Digital Badges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, they…

Frederiksen, Linda

2013-01-01

189

Digital Tidbits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe

2011-01-01

190

Digital manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications for Rapid Prototyping have broadened to the point where the name no longer fits the industry. The name Digital Manufacturing is proposed for the creation of solid articles from computer data without part-specific tooling and minimal geometric restrictions. The current state of the industry is reviewed and applications are classified by material strength and process accuracy. Today designers

James F. Bredt

2000-01-01

191

Digital Storytelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, schools are actively looking for new ways to enable their students to develop storytelling skills. These skills should empower children and young adults to practice collaborative learning on many levels, from reading and writing to painting and project management. In this framework, digital painting provides educators with innovative…

Iacchia, Flora

2005-01-01

192

Digital Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's a digital story? The folks at the Digital Storytelling initiative at The Ohio State University define it thusly: "a short (3-5 minute) movie which uses images, voice, and music to tell a story." The initiative is a great idea and this website offers visitors the chance to get acquainted with the digital stories that are being created at the school. Visitors should start their journey here by navigating over to the Stories area. Here they will find examples of these narratives, including "Howling at the Moon," "Clover Angst," "Our Sacred Circles," and "What's This Say?" Moving on, the Resources area includes information for those who would like to create their own digital stories. The links here lead to copyright-free audio and video sources, along with low-cost or free images. Also, this section includes helpful handouts that are used in the storytelling workshops at the OSU campus. No doubt this website will be a source of motivation and inspiration for those people who might like to create their own narratives.

2012-08-31

193

New QCD sum rules based on canonical commutation relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New derivation of QCD sum rules by canonical commutators is developed. It is the simple and straightforward generalization of Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule on the basis of Kugo-Ojima operator formalism of a non-abelian gauge theory and a suitable subtraction of UV divergences. By applying the method to the vector and axial vector current in QCD, the exact Weinberg’s sum rules are examined. Vector current sum rules and new fractional power sum rules are also discussed.

Hayata, Tomoya

2012-04-01

194

Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.

Spivey, Michael

2006-01-01

195

CUMULATIVE SUM TECHNIQUES IN ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

calls. Effective ATM traffic management requires knowl­ edge of when traffic conditions change. For traffic management, sequential algorithms have the potential to give quicker detection of changes. NonCUMULATIVE SUM TECHNIQUES IN ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT R. A. Vesilo School of MPCE, Macquarie

Vesilo, Rein

196

Parallel algorithms for finding trigonometric sums  

SciTech Connect

Parallel versions of Goertzel and Reinsch algorithms for finding trigonometric sums are introduced as a special case of effcient parallel algorithms for solving linear recurrence systems. The results of the experiments performed on a 20-processors Sequent Symmetry are presented and discussed.

Stpiczynski, P. [Marie Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland); Paprzycki, M. [Univ. of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

197

Riemann Sums: A Symbolic and Graphical Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo uses a computer algebra system to investigate various approximations to the definite integral. Right hand endpoint, left hand endpoint and midpoint Riemann sums as well as trapezoidal and Simpson's rules are expressed in closed form as functions of the change in x.

Roberts, Lila F.

198

On generalized sum rules for Jacobi matrices  

E-print Network

This work is in a stream initiated by a paper of Killip and Simon [Ann. of Math. (2003)]. Using methods of Functional Analysis and the classical Szeg\\"o Theorem we prove sum rule identities in a very general form. Then, we apply the result to obtain new asymptotics for orthonormal polynomials.

F. Nazarov; F. Peherstorfer; A. Volberg; P. Yuditskii

2004-02-04

199

Scaling of average receiving time and average weighted shortest path on weighted Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present weighted Koch networks based on classic Koch networks. A new method is used to determine the average receiving time (ART), whose key step is to write the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes to absorption at the trap located at a hub node as a recursive relation. We show that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information. Moreover, average weighted shortest path (AWSP) is calculated. In the infinite network order limit, the AWSP depends on the scaling factor. The weighted Koch network grows unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded.

Dai, Meifeng; Chen, Dandan; Dong, Yujuan; Liu, Jie

2012-12-01

200

A method to compute periodic sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a number of problems in computational physics, a finite sum of kernel functions centered at N particle locations located in a box in three dimensions must be extended by imposing periodic boundary conditions on box boundaries. Even though the finite sum can be efficiently computed via fast summation algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), the periodized extension is usually treated via a different algorithm, Ewald summation, accelerated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). A different approach to compute this periodized sum just using a blackbox finite fast summation algorithm is presented in this paper. The method splits the periodized sum into two parts. The first, comprising the contribution of all points outside a large sphere enclosing the box, and some of its neighbors, is approximated inside the box by a collection of kernel functions (“sources”) placed on the surface of the sphere or using an expansion in terms of spectrally convergent local basis functions. The second part, comprising the part inside the sphere, and including the box and its immediate neighborhood, is treated via available summation algorithms. The coefficients of the sources are determined by least squares collocation of the periodicity condition of the total potential, imposed on a circumspherical surface for the box. While the method is presented in general, details are worked out for the case of evaluating electrostatic potentials and forces. Results show that when used with the FMM, the periodized sum can be computed to any specified accuracy, at an additional cost of the order of the free-space FMM. Several technical details and efficient algorithms for auxiliary computations are provided, as are numerical comparisons.

Gumerov, Nail A.; Duraiswami, Ramani

2014-09-01

201

Isospin-Breaking Vector Meson Decay Constants From Continuous Families of Finite Energy Sum Rules  

E-print Network

The isospin-breaking vector meson decay constants are determined from a QCD sum rule analysis of the vector current correlator $$, using a recently proposed implementation of the finite energy sum rule approach. The analysis employs the three-loop version of the OPE, and two different families of weight functions. It is shown that the requirement of consistency between results obtained using these two different weight families leads to a rather good determination of the parameter describing the deviation of the D=6 condensate term in the OPE from its vacuum saturation value, and that the ability to determine this value has non-trivial numerical consequences to the analysis. The phenomenological relevance of the results to the extraction of the strange quark mass and the determination of the $6^{th}$ order chiral low energy constant, $Q$, is also briefly discussed.

Kim Maltman; Carl E. Wolfe

1998-10-21

202

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing digital and online technologies to teach different disciplines continues to be quite popular, and the Digital History website will be a most welcome find for teachers (and students) of American history. Developed in collaboration with the University of Houston, the Chicago Historical Society, the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston and several other entities the site includes an online American history textbook, an interactive timeline, a multimedia section, and a very rich selection of primary source materials. The multimedia section is a real find, as it contains several well-thought out lectures with titles like "The History of Domestic Violence", "The Cultural Civil War of the 1960s", and "America Today and America Past". Students will also appreciate the writing guide area, as it contains several short essays on how to write in a history class and how to compose a critical book review.

203

Digital UMass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Massachusetts, Amherst has created the Digital UMass website in order to document the history of their campus, and their predecessor institutions, which include the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Currently, this digital archive contains an oral history of the institution's administrators, reflections on student life, and materials related to women's experiences at the school. Visitors to the site will notice the diverse holdings here, which include annual reports from 1864 to 1932, the archives of the "College Monthly" (an early student newspaper), and transcripts and audio files of oral histories with female students who attended the school in the 1920s and 1930s. That's far from all, as visitors can also look at student handbooks, faculty papers, and several student research papers, such as "Undergraduate Women and the Post-War College: The University of Massachusetts".

204

Digital tachometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tachometer with digital indication was built for measuring the speed of automobile engines with only two digits in the rpm readout. It consists of a Schmitt trigger for shaping input pulses, a pulse counter, a cycle time setting multivibrator and a readout time setting multivibrator, a stabilizer, a flicker suppressor, and a capacitive transducer. The instrument operates from a 12 V battery and draws 180 mA. The transducer includes a 30 to 50 turns coil of PEL 0.5 wire wound around the conductor which connects the ignition coil to the engine distributor and its transistor is mounted on a fin-type heat sink. Tuneup of the tachometer involves matching the transducer capacitor for maximum voltage at minimum current and trimming the readout time setting multivibrator with its adjustable resistor for a 1.5 readout with a 50 Hz input signal.

Shirokov, B.

1984-03-01

205

Digital Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

206

Digital Arts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Arts website was designed to offer "inspiration for digital creative." It does a fairly standup job of that, offering news updates, tutorials, reviews, features, portfolios, and information about upcoming competitions that will be of interest to those working in a range of industries. First-time visitors would do well to look at the Short Cuts area to learn about new design websites, watch artists work on compelling large format projects, and pick up scuttlebutt from experts in their fields. Moving on, the Tutorials area offers helpful guides such as "How to stop photo noise," "Add texture to retro styled artworks," and "Create X-ray vector art." Finally, the Guides area contains helpful overviews of key fields and programs like Adobe Creative Suite 6, animation, graphic design, and interactive design.

2013-01-01

207

Clozapine, norclozapine plasma levels, their sum and ratio in 50 psychotic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state plasma concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine, its major metabolite, as well as their sum and ratio (norclozapine\\/clozapine), were evaluated in 50 in- and outpatients taking clozapine and naturalistically recruited. Drug plasma concentrations were measured by means of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) method with an ultraviolet detection. Daily doses (milligrams per kilogram of body weight) of clozapine correlated

Lionella Palego; Luciano Biondi; Gino Giannaccini; Nannina Sarno; Simona Elmi; Antonio Ciapparelli; Giovanni Battista Cassano; Antonio Lucacchini; Claudia Martini; Liliana Dell'Osso

2002-01-01

208

Digital psychiatry.  

PubMed

The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

Tang, S; Helmeste, D

2000-02-01

209

Going Digital  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Not since the age of Gutenberg has an information upheaval so thoroughly disrupted the processes of scholarly knowledge creation,\\u000a management and preservation as the digital revolution currently under way. Academic libraries have traditionally been structured\\u000a to facilitate the access, use and storage of mostly static, print-based research collections. In the midst of sweeping change\\u000a university libraries are attempting to re-imagine

Isaac Hunter Dunlap

210

Digital Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wiki page provides a link to the recording of a webinar by Jessica Fries-Gaither. Jessica discusses digital storytelling and how can it be adapted for the middle school science classroom? Join her for an overview of this exciting multimedia art form and leave with basic how-to knowledge, ideas for science-specific projects, and resources to guide your implementation. Other links to the resources discussed in this webinar are also provided.

2009-08-12

211

Digital Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

de La Beaujardiere, J.

2001-05-01

212

Digital Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Land of Lincoln is certainly not lacking in organizations who seek to document the rich history of the area, whether it be the many innovations in farm technology that have arisen out of the creative minds of local inventors or the gritty urban landscapes of the Second Cityâ??s nooks and crannies. Fortunately for those with a penchant for these subjects, there is the Digital Past website, which began in 1998 with a partnership with the North Suburban Library System in Wheeling, Illinois. Currently, the digital archive contains over 35,000 items (such as postcards, architectural plans, and personal letters) culled from close to 30 institutions in the area. Visitors may want to take a look at some of their thematic collections of digitized objects and related materials, such as those devoted to the architecture of the North Shore community of Glencoe or a history of the city of Park Ridge. Of course, visitors should feel most welcome to search the complete archive of materials here, which they may do by looking through a list of cities, organizations, and proper names.

2005-01-01

213

Closing Digital Divides, Increasing Digital Literacy  

E-print Network

people s media ecology #12;2. MOBILE SHIFT #12;#12;THE MOBILE PARADOX #12;Are all digital media Closing Digital Divides, Increasing Digital Literacy S. Craig Watkins The University of Texas at Austin #12;4Shifts #12;1. Digital divides & Participation gaps (Jenkins 2006; Watkins 2012) #12;Young

Acton, Scott

214

Effect of clothing weight on body weight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

215

Summing NaI(Tl) detector (SuN) for radioactive beam experiments relevant for the p-process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P-process refers to (?,p), (?,?) and (?,n) reactions producing nuclei on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability that cannot be reached by s- and r-processes. This process can be investigated via inversed reactions, i.e. proton or alpha capture with gamma emission. Gamma spectra resulting from capture reactions, may be complicated in structure and as such difficult to analyze. However, this difficulty may be omitted by implementing a summing technique, for which all gamma rays emitted during the decay cascade are summed into one peak, so called ``sum peak.'' Thus, in ideal case, the resulting spectrum will comprise of one peak of the energy E=Ecm+Q. This technique has already been successfully tested during stable beam experiments. In order to apply this technique to radioactive beam experiments a new Summing NaI(Tl) (SuN) detector was designed at NSCL. It is a 16x16 inch cylindrical barrel divided into eight optically separated segments, each of them read by three photomultipliers. Each of the PMTs is read independently by a digital data acquisition system (DDAS) and the final sum spectrum is obtained by software summing of the individual spectra. Here, first results obtained with the SuN detector as well as its possible future applications will be presented.

Simon, Anna; Beskin, Ilya; Liddick, Sean; Padmanabhan, Karthik; Peace, Jessica; Quinn, Stephen; Spyrou, Artemis; Stefanek, Benjamin

2011-10-01

216

Somatotypes of weight lifters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath?Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters

Eva Orvanová

1990-01-01

217

Training neural networks to be insensitive to weight random variations.  

PubMed

Neural network weights are subject to errors caused by technological tolerances when implemented in digital or analog hardware. Since these random variations are unavoidable and unpredictable, they can seriously affect the expected performances. This work proposes a learning algorithm that takes weight tolerances into account and guarantees a low sensitivity to them. Some experimental results show the validity of the suggested approach. PMID:10935464

Conti, M; Orcioni, S; Turchetti, C

2000-01-01

218

Optical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is a fundamental consequence of the position-momentum commutation relation for an atomic electron and it provides an important constraint on the transition matrix elements for an atom. Analogously, the commutation relations for the electromagnetic field operators in a magnetodielectric medium constrain the properties of the dispersion relations for the medium through four sum rules for the allowed phase and group velocities for polaritons propagating through the medium. These rules apply to all bulk media including the metamaterials designed to provide negative refractive indices. An immediate consequence of this is that it is not possible to construct a medium in which all the polariton modes for a given wavelength lie in the negative-index region.

Barnett, Stephen M.; Loudon, Rodney

2012-01-01

219

Nonperturbative black hole entropy and Kloosterman sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-perturbative quantum corrections to supersymmetric black hole entropy often involve nontrivial number-theoretic phases called Kloosterman sums. We show how these sums can be obtained naturally from the functional integral of supergravity in asymptotically AdS 2 space for a class of black holes. They are essentially topological in origin and correspond to charge-dependent phases arising from the various gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms and boundary Wilson lines evaluated on Dehn-filled solid 2-torus. These corrections are essential to obtain an integer from supergravity in agreement with the quantum degeneracies, and reveal an intriguing connection between topology, number theory, and quantum gravity. We give an assessment of the current understanding of quantum entropy of black holes.

Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, Joăo; Murthy, Sameer

2015-03-01

220

Rectangles as Sums of Squares. Mark Walters  

E-print Network

Rectangles as Sums of Squares. Mark Walters Peterhouse, Cambridge, CB2 1RD Abstract In this paper. In this case we can remove a square from one end of the rectangle and reduce to an mĂ?(n-m) rectangle; i seen that this takes #(log n) squares. f n f n-1 f n f n+1 The second case is an n Ă? (n + 2) rectangle

Banaji,. Murad

221

Rectangles as Sums of Squares. Mark Walters  

E-print Network

Rectangles as Sums of Squares. Mark Walters Peterhouse, Cambridge, CB2 1RD Abstract In this paper. In this case we can remove a square from one end of the rectangle and reduce to an mĂ?(n-m) rectangle; i seen that this takes (log n) squares. fn fn-1 fn fn+1 The second case is an n Ă? (n + 2) rectangle

Banaji,. Murad

222

Uncertainty Principles and Sum Complexes Roy Meshulam  

E-print Network

Uncertainty Principles and Sum Complexes Roy Meshulam March 28, 2014 Abstract Let p be a prime@math.technion.ac.il . Supported by an ISF grant. 1 #12;of the Heisenberg quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle: If f L2 (R of the uncertainty principle. Let G be a finite abelian group and let F[G] be the group algebra of G over the field F

Meshulam, Roy

223

Twisted connected sums and special Riemannian holonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a new, connected-sum-like construction of Riemannian metrics with\\u000aspecial holonomy G_2 on compact 7-manifolds. The construction is based on a\\u000agluing theorem for appropriate elliptic partial differential equations. As a\\u000aprerequisite, we also obtain asymptotically cylindrical Riemannian manifolds\\u000awith holonomy SU(3) building up on the work of Tian and Yau. Examples of new\\u000atopological types of compact 7-manifolds

Alexei Kovalev

2003-01-01

224

Weight Loss Programs  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions > Obesity > Weight Loss Programs Health Issues Listen Weight Loss Programs Article Body Commercial weight-loss programs ... and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based ...

225

A Linear Algorithm for the Pos\\/Neg-Weighted 1Median Problem on a Cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1-median problem on a network asks for a vertex minimizing the sum of the weighted shortest path distances from itself\\u000a to all other vertices, each associated with a certain positive weight. We allow fornegative weights as well and devise an exact algorithm for the resulting ‘pos\\/neg-weighted’ problem defined on a cactus. The algorithm\\u000a visits every vertex just once and

Rainer E. Burkard; Jakob Krarup

1998-01-01

226

Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2009-12-15

227

Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

Schaefer, D. H.

1965-01-01

228

Robinson's radiation damping sum rule: Reaffirmation and extension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robinson's radiation damping sum rule is one of the classic theorems of accelerator physics. Recently Orlov has claimed to find serious flaws in Robinson's proof of his sum rule. In view of the importance of the subject, I have independently examined the derivation of the Robinson radiation damping sum rule. Orlov's criticisms are without merit: I work through Robinson's derivation and demonstrate that Orlov's criticisms violate well-established mathematical theorems and are hence not valid. I also show that Robinson's derivation, and his damping sum rule, is valid in a larger domain than that treated by Robinson himself: Robinson derived his sum rule under the approximation of a small damping rate, but I show that Robinson's sum rule applies to arbitrary damping rates. I also display more concise derivations of the sum rule using matrix differential equations. I also show that Robinson's sum rule is valid in the vicinity of a parametric resonance.

Mane, S. R.

2011-06-01

229

Digital Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on Digital Forensics is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). At the end of the course, students will understand the procedures for "tracking, analyzing, and patching security holes after an incident has occurred." This includes "seizure of equipment, analysis of confiscated materials, and follow up procedures relating to the incident." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

230

Scanning for Digitization Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians and archivists find themselves facing the prospect of digitization. Everyone is doing it, everyone needs it. Discussions rage nationally and internationally concerning what to digitize and the best means to present and retain digital objects. Digitization is the act of making something digital, expressing a physical object "in numerical…

Wentzel, Larry

2007-01-01

231

Theoretical analysis on the sampling criteria for time-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converter (TIPADC) is a promising candidate to process ultra-wideband signals. In a TIPADC, quantization is electrical in order to obtain large effective number of bits (ENOB). In this paper, we study the issues on the signal sampling and reconstruction in the TIPADC from the systematic point of view. The sampling output and frequency response of the system are derived using a model that includes the photonic sampling, demultiplexing, photo detecting, electronic quantizing and digital processing. The signal sampling and reconstruction mechanism of TIPADC with a uniform system sampling rate and matched channels are illuminated with the spectrum of signal in each processing step. The effect of the sampling pulse and back-end electronics on the system frequency response is analyzed in detail. The feasible regions of the system for alias-free sampling in terms of system frequency response, and a set of sampling criteria on bandwidth of the sampling pulse and back-end electronics are presented for the TIPADC. We find that the analog bandwidth of TIPADC can be much higher than the bandwidth of back-end electronics due to the weighted summing introduced by the multichannel time-interleaved photonic sampling. The proposed model and sampling criteria are validated by simulations under different parameter configurations.

Chen, Jianping; Su, Feiran; Wu, Guiling

2014-11-01

232

Minkowski Sums of Rotating Convex Polyhedra Jyh-Ming Lien  

E-print Network

Minkowski Sums of Rotating Convex Polyhedra Jyh-Ming Lien Dept. of Computer Science, George Mason, polytope, kinematic algorithm. 1. INTRODUCTION The Minkowski sum of two polyhedra P and Q is: P Q = {p + q the Minkowski sum of convex polyhedra efficiently. In this work, we developed a method that efficiently com

Lien, Jyh-Ming

233

Interpreting the Four Types of Sums of Squares in SPSS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes three possible research designs using each of the four types of sums of squares in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). When the design is balanced (i.e., each cell has the same number of observations), all of the SPSS types of sums of squares yield equivalent results (testable hypotheses and sums of squares)…

Tanguma, Jesus; Speed, F. M.

234

Digital Scriptorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another Berkeley Sunsite, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Digital Scriptorium is a collaborative venture from the Bancroft Library (UC Berkeley) and the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University. Currently containing over 2,000 manuscripts and documents from the eighth through the fifteenth century, the Scriptorium plans to continue adding medieval and early Renaissance manuscripts from the two libraries and also Barnard College, Teachers College, Union Theological Seminary, UC Berkeley's Music Library, the Robbins Collection, and eventually, other institutions in the US and Europe. The current database will be made available when the SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) manuscript description standard is created. At present, users can search the test database. First-time visitors and less Internet-savvy researchers may find the accompanying documentation quite technical and a bit overwhelming, and they will want to devote some extra time to get acquainted with the various searchable fields. Nonetheless, the image quality is excellent and the amount of metadata is impressive. The Digital Scriptorium promises to be an invaluable resource for medieval and renaissance scholars.

235

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk  

PubMed Central

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

236

An energy optimal power supply for digital circuits  

E-print Network

The energy efficiency of digital circuits continues to be a major factor in determining the size and weight of battery-operated electronics. Integration of more functionality in a single system has made battery longevity ...

Ramadass, Yogesh Kumar

2006-01-01

237

NCI Digital Media Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

NCI Digital Media Guidelines The NCI Digital Media Guidelines provide developers and content managers guidance on the visual and content standards, as well as policies and procedures, in effect for National Cancer Institute (NCI) digital media – including

238

Strawkets and Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

239

Gradient Weight in Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

240

On WLS-Chebyshev IIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for approximating infinite-duration impulse response (IIR) digital filters is given. The method is able to compromise maximum stopband attenuation and minimum stopband energy requirements. The proposed approach performs a series of weighted-least-squares (WLS) iterations, with a weight function which is made constant within a given frequency interval at each iteration. The highly nonlinear problem characteristic of IIR filter

Sergio L. Netto; Paulo S. R. Diniz

1999-01-01

241

SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.

Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.

1993-01-01

242

Orlov, Tarasov, and the Robinson Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

A paper proving a result now commonly known as 'Robinson sum rule' was published by Orlov and Tarasov [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 34 651 (1958) Sov. Phys. JETP 34 339 (1958)] at about the same time that Robinson himself published the result [Phys. Rev. 111 373 (1958)]. We assigned ourselves the task of reviewing this work, as narrowly as possible, in hopes of understanding how it should be considered in view of the existing attribution. The chronology of the work is reviewed and the degree to which the two works were independent and have qualitatively different content is considered.

Talman, Richard; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

2011-12-01

243

Pentaquark decay width in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

In a diquark-diquark-antiquark picture of the pentaquark we study the decay {theta}{yields}K{sup +}n within the framework of QCD sum rules. After evaluation of the relevant three-point function, we extract the coupling g{sub {theta}}{sub nK} which is directly related to the pentaquark width. Restricting the decay diagrams to those with color exchange between the mesonlike and baryonlike clusters reduces the coupling constant by a factor of 4. Whereas a small decay width might be possible for a positive parity pentaquark, it seems difficult to explain the measured width for a pentaquark with negative parity.

Eidemueller, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.; Rodrigues da Silva, R. Rodrigues [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2005-08-01

244

Simplifying additivity problems using direct sum constructions  

E-print Network

We study the additivity problems for the classical capacity of quantum channels, the minimal output entropy and its convex closure. We show for each of them that additivity for arbitrary pairs of channels holds iff it holds for arbitrary equal pairs, which in turn can be taken to be unital. In a similar sense, weak additivity is shown to imply strong additivity for any convex entanglement monotone. The implications are obtained by considering direct sums of channels (or states) for which we show how to obtain several information theoretic quantities from their values on the summands. This provides a simple and general tool for lifting additivity results.

Motohisa Fukuda; Michael M. Wolf

2007-08-21

245

Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory  

E-print Network

The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or EDF. But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy FAM based on the QRPA. To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory...

Hinohara, Nobuo; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

2015-01-01

246

Evaluating Matrix Functions by Resummations on Graphs: the Method of Path-Sums  

E-print Network

We introduce the method of path-sums which is a tool for exactly evaluating a function of a discrete matrix with possibly non-commuting entries, based on the closed-form resummation of infinite families of terms in the corresponding Taylor series. If the matrix is finite, our approach yields the exact result in a finite number of steps. We achieve this by combining a mapping between matrix powers and walks on a weighted directed graph with a universal graph-theoretic result on the structure of such walks. We present path-sum expressions for a matrix raised to a complex power, the matrix exponential, matrix inverse, and matrix logarithm. We show that the quasideterminants of a matrix can be naturally formulated in terms of a path-sum, and present examples of the application of the path-sum method. We show that obtaining the inversion height of a matrix inverse and of quasideterminants is an NP-complete problem.

P. -L. Giscard; S. J. Thwaite; D. Jaksch

2012-02-27

247

Digital Durham  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Durham, North Carolina has been the subject of many scholarly works, and its particular location and context makes it a compelling place for persons interested in examining urbanization, immigration, industrialization, and emancipation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Created by Duke University and the North Carolina State Library, this digital archive presents a cornucopia of primary sources, including personal letters, entries from a prominent general store in the region, maps, and census data. Visitors should feel free to browse through these documents, or they can also perform a detailed search. Other features of the site include a brief geographic overview of the Piedmont region and a glossary of terms used in the 1880 census. Educators will enjoy looking over the "Teachers' Corner", which includes lesson plans that utilize some of the primary documents in the archive.

248

Digital Faces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will "digitize" photographs of human faces using various grid sizes and shades of gray. Through this activity, they gain an understanding of image resolution and how much information is needed to answer various questions.This introductory activity introduces skills that are used to recognize and interpret remotely sensed images, such as aerial photos and satellite images. To complete the activity, educators reproduce 8"x10" head shots of students (or use magazine images), and need to create transparencies with grid squares of different sizes to overlay the photographs. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

2012-08-03

249

Digital Horizons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

250

Digital Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.

Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

2002-01-01

251

Data rate reduction using a digital anti-aliasing filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital antialiasing filtering techniques in a PCM data acquisition system are presented which allow reduction of the sampling rate with minimum increases in size, weight, and power of the hardware. Using a finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter, the sampling rate can be reduced to about 2.5 times the signal bandwidth. The digital antiimage filter or interpolation filter is useful in the reproduction process if an analog output is to be recreated.

Lee, Kyong H.; Maschhoff, Robert H.

252

PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

253

Metrical analysis of dromedary digital bones.  

PubMed

Dromedary camels are large even-toed ungulates which are well adapted to life in large deserts. Examinations of their feet have revealed many structural peculiarities. We have measured the digital bones of the dromedary in order to determine whether there are morphometric variations in the digital bones between the lateral and medial sides in individual limbs and/or in the right and left thoracic and pelvic limbs, with the aim to clarify whether there are anatomical differences in the digital bones of dromedary as a suborder of the order Artiodactyla. Measurements were made of 240 lateral and medial proximal, middle, and distal phalanges in the left and right thoracic and pelvic limbs of ten healthy adult male dromedaries, ranging in age from 6 to 10 years. A total of 17 linear dimensions were measured using a caliper. The results indicate that there are no significant differences between corresponding measurements of digital bones of the lateral and medial in the same limb, nor between measurements of the right and left sides. The lengths and widths of the proximal and middle, and distal phalanges in the thoracic limb were found to be greater than those of the pelvic limb. The sum of the total lengths of the three phalanges of the thoracic limbs was 15 mm greater than that of the phalanges of the pelvic limbs due to a longer proximal phalanx (76 %) and middle phalanx of the former (24 %). The perspectives obtained by our morphometric study of dromedary digital bones not only provide a tool to distinguish the osteological remains of the dromedary from those of the Bactrian camel or other artiodactyls in archaeological sites, but they also suggest a possible influence of digital structure on digit functions and digital disorders. PMID:24908273

Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Ahi, Mohammad Reza

2015-03-01

254

On The Analysis of Spatially-Coupled GLDPC Codes and The Weighted Min-Sum Algorithm  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.6.2 Extrinsic Message Passing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.6.3 Low-Complexity EMP Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.7 Numerical Results and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.8 Conclusion... Page 2.1 A (C;m) GLDPC ensemble, where is a random permutation. . . . . 13 2.2 An example of (C;m; L; w) spatially-coupled GLDPC ensemble, where w = 3, and ( i; 0i) are random permutations at position i for bit nodes and constraint nodes...

Jian, Yung-Yih

2013-08-07

255

Combinatorial Algorithms for Minimizing the Weighted Sum of Completion Times on a Single Machine  

E-print Network

James M. Davis1 Department of Operations Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850. Rajiv Gandhi@camden.rutgers.edu (Rajiv Gandhi), Vijay.H.Kothari@dartmouth.edu (Vijay Kothari) 1Corresponding author. from three different

Gandhi, Rajiv C.

256

Sum frequency generation-compressive sensing microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sum frequency generation imaging microscope using a novel sampling theory, compressive sensing (CS), has been developed for surface studies. CS differentiates itself from the conventional sampling methods by collecting fewer measurements than the traditional methods to reconstruct a high quality image. Pseudorandom patterns were applied to a light modulator and reflected the sum frequency (SF) signal generated from the sample into a photomultiplier tube detector. The image of the sample was reconstructed using sparsity preserving algorithms from the SF signal. The influences of the number of CS testing patterns applied and the number of SF pulses acquired for each pattern on the quality of the images was investigated and a comparison of the image quality with the traditional raster scan was made at varying resolutions for a gold patterned Si surface. Our results demonstrate the CS technique achieved 16 times the pixel density beyond the resolution where the raster scan strategy lost its ability to image the sample due to the dilution of the SF signal below the detection limit of the detector.

Cai, Xiaojun; Hu, Bian; Sun, Ting; Kelly, Kevin F.; Baldelli, Steven

2011-11-01

257

Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

Ahumada, Albert J Jr

2002-01-01

258

Trapping on Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks with Small-World Property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present weighted tetrahedron Koch networks depending on a weight factor. According to their self-similar construction, we obtain the analytical expressions of the weighted clustering coefficient and average weighted shortest path (AWSP). The obtained solutions show that the weighted tetrahedron Koch networks exhibits small-world property. Then, we calculate the average receiving time (ART) on weighted-dependent walks, which is the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at the trap located at a hub node. We find that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order.

Dai, Meifeng; Xie, Qi; Xi, Lifeng

2013-04-01

259

Weta Digital  

E-print Network

Figure 1: Rendering a human face using a single-layer skin model. The classical dipole model (a) is frequency-limited and results in a waxy-looking appearance, particularly on the lips. A multipole model can create very realistic results, but requires additional material parameters which are difficult to measure and unintuitive to edit. Our quantized-diffusion model (b) produces accurate all-frequency subsurface scattering, achieves much of the realism of multilayer models and allows easy appearance editing. We present a new BSSRDF for rendering images of translucent materials. Previous diffusion BSSRDFs are limited by the accuracy of classical diffusion theory. We introduce a modified diffusion theory that is more accurate for highly absorbing materials and near the point of illumination. The new diffusion solution accurately decouples single and multiple scattering. We then derive a novel, analytic, extended-source solution to the multilayer searchlight problem by quantizing the diffusion Green’s function. This allows the application of the diffusion multipole model to material layers several orders of magnitude thinner than previously possible and creates accurate results under high-frequency illumination. Quantized diffusion provides both a new physical foundation and a variable-accuracy construction method for sum-of-Gaussians BSS-RDFs, which have many useful properties for efficient rendering and appearance capture. Our BSSRDF maps directly to previous real-time rendering algorithms. For film production rendering, we propose several improvements to previous hierarchical point cloud algorithms by introducing a new radial-binning data structure and a doubly-adaptive traversal strategy. Links: DL PDF WEB 1

Eugene D’eon Geoffrey Irving; B Quantized-diffusion

260

WEIGHTED Lp -BOUNDEDNESS OF FOURIER SERIES  

E-print Network

Jacobi weight on the interval [-1, 1] and, for each function f, let Snf denote the n-th partial sum with respect to dµ. The study of the boundedness Snf Lp(updµ) C f Lp(vpdµ), (1) where u(x) = (1 - x)a (1 + x, . . . , N) (3) and A a, B b, Gi gi (4) hold, then C > 0 such that Snf Lp(updµ) C f Lp(vpdµ) f Lp (vp dµ

PĂ©rez, Mario

261

Two equivalent measures on weighted hypergraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let H=(N,E,w) be a hypergraph with a node set N={0,1,…,n-1}, a hyperedge set E?2N, and real edge-weights w(e) for e?E. Given a convex n-gon P in the plane with vertices x0,x1,…,xn-1 which are arranged in this order clockwisely, let each node i?N correspond to the vertex xi and define the area AP(H) of H on P by the sum of

Hiro Ito; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2006-01-01

262

Educational Applications for Digital Cameras.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses uses of digital cameras in education. Highlights include advantages and disadvantages, digital photography assignments and activities, camera features and operation, applications for digital images, accessory equipment, and comparisons between digital cameras and other digitizers. (AEF)

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1997-01-01

263

Assessment of delay-and-sum algorithms for damage detection in aluminium and composite plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric sensors are increasingly being used in active structural health monitoring, due to their durability, light weight and low power consumption. In the present work damage detection and characterization methodologies based on Lamb waves have been evaluated for aircraft panels. The applicability of various proposed delay-and-sum algorithms on isotropic and composite stiffened panels have been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model for ultrasonic wave propagation in composite laminates is proposed and compared to signals recorded from experiments. A modified delay-and-sum algorithm is then proposed for detecting impact damage in composite plates with and without a stiffener which is shown to capture and localize damage with only four transducers.

Sharif-Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

2014-07-01

264

Light-by-light scattering sum rules constraining meson transition form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relating the forward light-by-light scattering to energy weighted integrals of the ?*? fusion cross sections, with one real photon (?) and one virtual photon (?*), we find two new exact superconvergence relations. They complement the known superconvergence relation based on the extension of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule to the light-light system. We also find a set of sum rules for the low-energy photon-photon interaction. All of the new relations are verified here exactly at leading order in scalar and spinor QED. The superconvergence relations, applied to the ?*? production of mesons, lead to intricate relations between the ?? decay widths or the ?*? transition form factors for (pseudo)scalar, axial-vector, and tensor mesons. We discuss the phenomenological implications of these results for mesons in both the light-quark sector and the charm-quark sector.

Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Pauk, Vladyslav; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

2012-06-01

265

Digital photorefraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.

Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.

1998-01-01

266

Digital photorefraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.

Costa, Manuel F.; Jorge, Jorge M.

1997-12-01

267

Bach Digital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that Johann Sebastian Bach was a gifted and prodigious composer would be like saying that Shakespeare merely wrote a few plays. This Web site is a loving tribute to his work, undertaken by the main repositories of Bach's compositions, including the Bach-Archiv in Leipzig and the University of Leipzig. New visitors to the site will want to take the well-produced guided tour that helps orient users to the wide variety of materials contained on the site. Perhaps one of the main highlights of the site is the original Bach autographs that have been digitized for public perusal. Autographs are musical manuscripts that have been written by the composer himself, and in the case of Bach, offer intimate insight into the composition process. Along with essays on the preservation of these important documents, viewers can view selected compositions, among them the "Prelude and Fugue in G Major" and the "Christmas Oratorio." Additionally, visitors can hear sound samples and view photographs of musical instruments built during his lifetime, including a lute, the legendary organ from Hilbersdorf, and echo flutes. Overall, it's a fine tribute to Bach, and more broadly, musicology.

268

EMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION  

E-print Network

: Communication and Digital Media 2. Data Context and Digital Personas 3. Personal Data: Use, ReuseEMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION Symposium Summary Stanford University, Summer 2012 #12;#12;EMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION Symposium, Stanford University, CA Summer, 2012 210 Panama Street

Das, Rhiju

269

H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

Prensky, Marc

2009-01-01

270

Losing Baby Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... your pre-pregnancy weight. Healthy eating It's no secret that a key part of losing weight is ... information they need to have healthy pregnancies and families. march of dimes More than 6000 people used ...

271

Proven Weight Loss Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... still feel full. FACT SHEET Proven Weight loss Methods the diabetes prevention program (dpp) In this large ... 2 diabetes. www.hormone.org proven Weight loss methods fact sheet What other strategies can help you ...

272

Weighted and controlled frames  

E-print Network

Weighted and controlled frames have been introduced recently to improve the numerical efficiency of iterative algorithms for inverting the frame operator. In this paper we develop systematically these notions, including their mutual relationship. We will show that controlled frames are equivalent to standard frames and so this concept gives a generalized way to check the frame condition, while offering a numerical advantage in the sense of preconditioning. Next, we investigate weighted frames, in particular their relation to controlled frames. We consider the special case of semi-normalized weights, where the concepts of weighted frames and standard frames are interchangeable. We also make the connection with frame multipliers. Finally we analyze weighted frames numerically. First we investigate three possibilities for finding weights in order to tighten a given frame, i.e., decrease the frame bound ratio. Then we examine Gabor frames and how well the canonical dual of a weighted frame is approximated by the inversely weighted dual frame.

Peter Balazs; Jean-Pierre Antoine; Anna Grybos

2009-02-12

273

Maintaining a Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... probably gain weight. That’s because metabolism (how you burn the calories you eat) can slow down with ... as you eat and drink. ? To lose weight, burn more calories than you eat and drink. ? To ...

274

Preventing Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... a diet, it's a lifestyle! Share Compartir Preventing Weight Gain If you're currently at a healthy ... of cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful ...

275

Weight Gain during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Weight gain during pregnancy When you’re pregnant, you ... in sight! Be careful about the amount of weight you gain during your pregnancy. Gaining too much ...

276

Holography and ARPES sum-rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study correlation functions of elementary fermions in strongly interacting field theories using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence generically associates bulk fields to composite operators in field theory. We modify the holographic prescription in order to obtain correlators that correspond to fermonic single-particle excitations by introducing a dynamical fermionic source localized on a UV brane in a holographic background. We work out the conditions when these correlators obey the zeroth frequency sum-rule satisfied by angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) and are thus directly relevant to the AdS/CMT correspondence. To illustrate our techniques, we study field theories at zero chemical potential with an arbitrary dynamical exponent z, i.e., the Lifshitz invariant conformal field theories, including the usual relativistic case z = 1.

Gürsoy, Umut; Plauschinn, Erik; Stoof, Henk; Vandoren, Stefan

2012-05-01

277

Orlov, Tarasov, and the Robinson sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paper proving a result now commonly known as “Robinson sum rule” was published by Orlov and Tarasov {J. Exp. Theor. Phys.JTPHES1063-7761 34, 651 (1958) [Sov. Phys. JETPSPHJAR0038-5646 34, 339 (1958)]} at about the same time that Robinson himself published the result [Phys. Rev. 111, 373 (1958)PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.111.373]. We assigned ourselves the task of reviewing this work, as narrowly as possible, in hopes of understanding how it should be considered in view of the existing attribution. The chronology of the work is reviewed and the degree to which the two works were independent and have qualitatively different content is considered.

Talman, Richard; Chao, Alexander W.

2009-08-01

278

Qualitative solution of QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

We show how such important features of QCD as chiral symmetry breaking or the formation of a mass-gap can be directly traced from QCD sum rules for two point functions assuming, in the large number of colors limit, exact duality between the operator product expansion and the spectrum described by linearly (or nearly linear) rising Regge trajectories as predicted by string theory. We see how the presence of chiral symmetry breaking is intimately related to confinement in this scenario, as expected from general arguments, and how Regge trajectories change when chiral symmetry is broken. As a result the whole meson mass spectrum can be parametrized with a good accuracy by the constant $f_{\\pi}$ only, thus realizing the program proposed by Migdal some time ago.

S. S. Afonin; D. Espriu

2006-10-02

279

Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration  

SciTech Connect

How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-06

280

Experimental Status of the Gdh Sum Rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental program to investigate the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule on protons and neutrons has been carried out by the GDH collaboration at MAMI (Mainz) and ELSA (Bonn), using circularly polarized photons and the Bonn-Bochum longitudinally polarized frozen-spin target together with two different detector setups. For the proton, results in the photon energy range 200 - 2985 MeV are published. Preliminary data from JLab extend the energy range to 5.2 GeV. For E? < 800 MeV the helicity structure of partial reaction channels has been studied in detail at MAMI. Data from polarized deuterons have also been taken at photon energies 200 - 800 MeV (MAMI) and 815 - 1825 MeV (ELSA). Preliminary results and future perspectives are presented and discussed.

Arends, H.

2005-08-01

281

Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.

Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.

1997-01-01

282

Digital Sensor Technology  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

2013-07-01

283

Weight Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weight Control System, a set of linked computer programs which provides weight and balance reports from magnetic tape files, provides weight control and reporting on launch vehicle programs. With minor format modifications the program is applicable to aerospace, marine, automotive and other land transportation industries.

Dyer, A., Jr.; Ferrara, P. W.; Luke, H. P.

1969-01-01

284

Calculating Molecular Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

285

Body weight and mortality.  

PubMed

Over the years ideal or desirable weights have been associated with the lowest mortality and defined in a number of ways. The widely used height-weight tables of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, developed in the 1940s, have been supplanted in the last decade by new weight standards based on findings of several population-based studies that compared body weight to mortality. The Quetelet or body mass index (BMI), now used as the de facto criterion for defining a desirable weight index, indicates relative fatness and is only minimally correlated with height. However, the optimal BMI or weight for longevity remains to be defined for a number of methodological reasons. This article reviews the strength of the evidence for increased mortality in adults who are overweight or underweight based on standard BMI ranges and in those who reported a change in body weight. Epidemiological studies show that excess body weight is associated with increased mortality, depending on fat patterning, gender, and age. A similar increase is shown for subjects with body weight below the relative weight range, although here associated life-style factors are greater contributors. Preliminary data suggest that change in body weight may also be associated with increased mortality. Overall, carefully measured weight and height remain the most easily performed and useful determinants of nutritional status and predictors of mortality for the general population. PMID:8332284

Kushner, R F

1993-05-01

286

Osteoarthritis and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most common type of arthritis, and is a significant source of pain and disability. Osteoarthritis has multiple risk factors, including some that are potentially modifiable, such as body weight. Increased body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Relatively minor weight loss can effectively decrease the risk of the onset of

Patrick M. Foye; Todd P. Stitik; Boqing Chen; Scott F. Nadler

2000-01-01

287

Digital Measures screen changes 1 Digital Measures screen changes 2  

E-print Network

Digital Measures screen changes 1 #12; Digital Measures screen changes 2 #12; Digital Measures screen changes 3 #12; Digital Measures screen changes 4 #12; Digital Measures screen changes 5 #12; Digital Measures screen changes 6 #12; Digital Measures screen changes 7 #12

Barrash, Warren

288

Incompatibility of multipole predictions for the nucleon spin-polarizability and Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Energy-weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photoreaction cross sections ([sigma][sub 1/2]-[sigma][sub 3/2]) provide information on the nucleon's spin-dependent polarizability ([gamma]), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. Estimates from current [pi]-photoproduction multipole analyses, particularly for the [ital proton]-[ital neutron] [ital difference], are in good agreement with relativistic-one-loop chiral calculations for [gamma] but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) [ital both] the two-loop corrections to the spin-polarizability are large [ital and] the existing multipoles are wrong, [ital or] (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon.

Sandorfi, A.M. (Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Whisnant, C.S. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)); Khandaker, M. (Physics Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute SU, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States) Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

1994-12-01

289

Saturation of the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule reexamined  

SciTech Connect

The isospin decomposed Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is examined. The single-pion photoproduction contribution is integrated out to 1.7 GeV in the laboratory photon energy. We obtain an improved estimate of the contribution of this process to the isovector and isovector-isoscalar sum rules. The qualitative features of Karliner's results remain valid. The isoscalar sum rule shows no indication of convergence.

Workman, R.L.; Arndt, R.A. (Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virgnia 24061 (United States))

1992-03-01

290

Weights and measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual museum presents the role of the United States government in the development and standardization of weights and measures. Produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the exhibit displays objects in eight virtual rooms: America Before Standard Weights and Measures; Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler; The Office of Weights and Measures in the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1836-1901; The Mendenhall Order; The Founding of the National Bureau of Standards in 1901; From Artifacts to Physical Constants; The Dissemination of Standard Weights and Measures; and A Social History of Weights and Measures. Text as well as images relate the history.

Lisa Greenhouse

2001-01-01

291

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

292

An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory  

PubMed Central

Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in three short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants’ tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed similarity model to individual subject data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PMID:22963189

van Vugt, M. K.; Sekuler, R.; Wilson, H. R.; Kahana, M. J.

2012-01-01

293

Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the ?=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the ?=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

2011-12-01

294

The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov Sum-Rule in QCD  

E-print Network

Photoproduction spin sum-rules offer a new window on the spin structure of the nucleon that complements the information we can learn from polarised deep inelastic scattering experiments. We review the theory and present status of the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum-rule in QCD, emphasising the possible relation between the present ``discrepancy'' in this sum-rule and the nucleon's strangeness magnetic moment. In the case of an elementary electron or photon target (say at the NLC) the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum-rule provides a test for physics beyond the minimal Standard Model.

S. D. Bass

1997-04-30

295

Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.

Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

2013-11-01

296

Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations  

E-print Network

Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.

Krasnov, Kirill

2013-01-01

297

Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations  

E-print Network

Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.

Kirill Krasnov; Carlos Scarinci

2013-10-02

298

Maximum permissible load weight of a Taishuh pony at a trot.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the loading capacity of a trotting Taishuh pony by gait analysis using a motion analysis system. Seven Taishuh Ponies (5 mares and 2 geldings) and their rider were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) and recorded by 2 high-resolution digital DVD cameras (at a sampling frequency of 60 Hz) as they were trotting along a straight course. Each horse performed 7 tests: 1 test with a loaded weight of 70 kg, 5 tests with random loaded weights between 80 kg and 120 kg, and a final test with a loaded weight of 70 kg again. Three-dimensional movements of each marker were analyzed using motion capture system. The time series of the vertical displacements of the marker was subjected to spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first 2 peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity of the gait, and the sum of symmetry and regularity was defined as stability. The cross-spectrum analysis (Blackman-Tukey method) also was performed to analyze the time lag and cross-correlation coefficient between the time series of both pony and rider. Among ponies, symmetry in the 120 kg test (0.54) was significantly lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.75, P < 0.05) and stabilities in the 100 kg (1.17) and 120 kg (1.17) tests were significantly less than that in the first 70 kg (1.46, P < 0.05). Regarding the rider, there were no significant differences in symmetry, regularity, and stability between loaded weights. The time lag between the time series of horse and rider in the 120 kg test (47.6 ms) was significantly greater than that in the first 70 kg (14.3 ms, P < 0.05) test. These results suggests that the maximum permissible load weight of the Taishuh pony trotting at 3.0 m/s over a short distance was less than 100 kg, which is 43% of the BW. PMID:23736046

Matsuura, A; Sakuma, S; Irimajiri, M; Hodate, K

2013-08-01

299

National Center for Digital Government National Center for Digital Government  

E-print Network

National Center for Digital Government National Center for Digital Government University Center for Digital Government welcomed a delegation of government and technology business leaders from Kazakhstan on Wednesday, September 26, 2007. Amherst, MA­ The National Center for Digital Government (NCDG

Schweik, Charles M.

300

Sum Capacity of Multiuser MIMO Broadcast Channels with Block Diagonalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sum capacity of a Gaussian broadcast MIMO channel can be achieved with dirty paper coding (DPC). However, algorithms that approach the DPC sum capacity do not appear viable in the forseeable future, which motivates lower complexity interference suppression techniques. Block diagonalization (BD) is a linear precoding technique for downlink multiuser MIMO systems. With perfect channel knowledge at the transmitter,

Zukang Shen; Runhua Chen; Jeffrey G. Andrews; Robert W. Heath Jr.; Brian L. Evans

2007-01-01

301

Chain hexagonal cacti with the extremal eccentric distance sum.  

PubMed

Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti. PMID:24741365

Qu, Hui; Yu, Guihai

2014-01-01

302

Well-boundedness of sums and products of operators  

E-print Network

Well-boundedness of sums and products of operators condition under which the sum, product, and indeed any polynomial combination of a well-bounded operator and a commuting real scalar-type spectral operator is well-bounded. This generalizes

Doust, Ian

303

Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

2012-01-01

304

Adaptive Embedded Subgraph Algorithms using Walk-Sum Analysis  

E-print Network

Adaptive Embedded Subgraph Algorithms using Walk-Sum Analysis Venkat Chandrasekaran, Jason K problem in Gaussian graphical models with arbitrary structure. We analyze the Embedded Trees algorithm-sum interpretation of Gaussian estimation. We show that non-stationary it- erations of the Embedded Trees algorithm

305

Gauss Optics and Gauss Sum on an Optical Phenomena  

E-print Network

In the previous article (Found Phys. Lett. {\\bf{16}} 325-341), we showed that a reciprocity of the Gauss sums is connected with the wave and particle complementary. In this article, we revise the previous investigation by considering a relation between the Gauss optics and the Gauss sum based upon the recent studies of the Weil representation for a finite group.

Shigeki Matsutani

2008-07-12

306

Probability Inequalities for the Sum of Independent Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proves a number of inequalities which improve on existing upper limits to the probability distribution of the sum of independent random variables. The inequalities presented require knowledge only of the variance of the sum and the means and bounds of the component random variables. They are applicable when the number of component random variables is small and\\/or have

George Bennett

1962-01-01

307

Strong-Interaction Sum Rules for Pion-Hadron Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Regge high-energy behavior, the chiral algebra of charges, and pion pole dominance of the divergence of the axial-vector current, all the strong-interaction sum rules which hold for elastic pion-hadron scattering amplitudes at t=0 are derived. These include charge-algebra sum rules as well as superconvergence relations. We distinguish between \\

Frederick J. Gilman; Haim Harari

1968-01-01

308

k-sums in abelian groups Benjamin Girard  

E-print Network

k-sums in abelian groups Benjamin Girard Simon Griffiths Yahya ould Hamidoune Abstract Given a finite subset A of an abelian group G, we study the set k A of all sums of k distinct elements of A. In this paper, we prove that |k A| |A| for all k {2, . . . , |A| - 2}, unless k {2, |A| - 2} and A is a coset

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

k-sums in abelian groups Benjamin Girard  

E-print Network

k-sums in abelian groups Benjamin Girard Simon Griffiths Yahya ould Hamidoune Abstract Given a finite subset A of an abelian group G, we study the set k A of all sums of k distinct elements of A. In this paper, we prove that |k A| |A| for all k {2, . . . , |A| - 2}, unless k {2, |A| - 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…

Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.

2012-01-01

311

An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth…

van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

2013-01-01

312

Physical Bounds and Sum Rules for High-Impedance Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-impedance surfaces are artificial surfaces syn- thesized from periodic structures. The high impedance is useful as it does not short circuit electric currents and reflects electric fields without phase shift. Here, a sum rule is presented that re- lates frequency intervalshaving high impedance with the thickness of the structure. The sum rule is used to derive physical bounds on the

Mats Gustafsson; Daniel Sjoberg

2011-01-01

313

Digital filter design for radar image formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel weighted-least-squares approaches to the design of digital filters for SAR applications are presented. The filters belong to three different categories according to their combinations of minimax passband, least-squares stopband, minimax stopband, and maximally-flat passband. For real-time applications, it is important to design the sets of digital filter coefficient tables in an offline environment; the appropriate precomputed filter is then selected for each SAR signal-processing function, as a function of both mode and mapping geometry during real-time processing.

Adams, John W.; Nelson, Jeffrey E.; Banh, N. D.; Moncada, John J.; Bayma, Robert W.

1989-08-01

314

Improved design procedure for multiplierless FIR digital filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for optimizing the design of multiplierless finite impulse response digital filters is described. In the procedure, real filter coefficients are first obtained by a standard method, are truncated, and finally are represented by either single powers of 2 or sums or differences of two powers of two. It is shown that, compared with both the conventional design methods and to other multiplierless design algorithms, the technique yields simpler realizations.

Shaffeu, H.; Jones, M. M.; Griffiths, H. D.; Taylor, J. T.

1991-06-01

315

An Efficient Algorithm for Maximizing Range Sum Queries in a Road Network  

PubMed Central

Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25152915

Jung, HaRim; Kim, Ung-Mo

2014-01-01

316

Digital Library Curriculum collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Library Curriculum collection contains modules that form the basis for one or a several courses on digital libraries - thus constituting a unified curriculum for the field. They also can be used in computer science, library science, information science, and other programs for other types of courses or as supplements to an existing course. Core topics include digital objects, collection development, knowledge organization, architecture, user behavior and interactions, servics, preservation, management and evaluation and digital library education and research.

2011-01-04

317

A digital frequency synthesizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital frequency synthesizer has been designed and constructed based on generating digital samples ofexp [j(2^{pi}nk\\/N)]at timenT. The real and imaginary parts of this exponential form samples of quadrature sinusoids where the frequency indexkis allowed to vary(-N\\/4) leq K < (N\\/4). The digital samples drive digital to analog converters followed by low-pass interpolating filters to produce analog sinusoids. The method

JOSEPH TIERNEY; CHARLES M. RADER; B. Gold

1971-01-01

318

Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF  

E-print Network

of social software, and a July 2009 Prescient digital media survey revealed that 47% of respondents wereCenter for Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF Volume XIII Number 1 May 2011 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business, A. McAfee Shattering the Myths About Enterprise 2.0 Andrew P. McAfee, Associate Director

319

Changing State Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

320

Secure Digital Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a biometric solution to solve some of the significant problems associated with use of digital camera images as evidence in a court of law. We present a lossless watermarking solution to the problems associated with digital image integrity and the relationship to its chain of custody. The integrity of digital images as evidence rests on

Paul Blythe; Jessica Fridrich

321

Journal of Digital Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Digital Information is an electronic-only, peer-reviewed journal covering topics related to digital libraries, hypertext and hypermedia systems, and the issues of digital information. The journal's main page features links to articles in the current issue; previous issues are browseable by issue number, author, title, or theme. They may also be searched by keywords in title or text.

322

Bridging the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner…

Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny

2008-01-01

323

Digital Planetaria: Building Bridges  

E-print Network

for collaboration between NASA, digital planetarium experts, formal and informal science education facilities and educational digital planetarium presentations. Over the course of the two-day Focus Group and subsequent into the digital planetarium and related products? Interactive software was demonstrated and discussed, including

Collar, Juan I.

324

Digital cardiac imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: The analysis of left ventricular function with digital subtraction angiography; Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve; Clinical application of cardiac CT; Digital two-dimensional echocardiography; and Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart.

Buda, A.J.; Delp, E.J.

1985-01-01

325

Digital Language Death  

PubMed Central

Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

Kornai, András

2013-01-01

326

Weight control in the management of hypertension. World Hypertension League.  

PubMed Central

This article, which includes a brief description of the mechanisms and some epidemiological findings in obesity and high blood pressure, sums up present knowledge on a complex subject and provides guidance to medical practitioners on the management of obese hypertensive patients. Weight reduction, together with drug therapy in severe and moderate hypertension, and other non-pharmacological methods and continuing observation in mild hypertension are the essential measures to be applied. In addition to the lowering of blood pressure, weight loss offers several other metabolic and haemodynamic benefits. PMID:2670295

1989-01-01

327

Wire Weight with Housing  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

328

Birth Weight Statistical Models  

E-print Network

and birth defect rates are very high for low birth weight babies. A woman's behavior during pregnancy of carrying the baby to term and, consequently, of delivering a baby of normal weight. The goal of this study) dummy or design variables for a polytomous variable with k categories. Each dummy variable equals 1

329

Remarks on Grammatical Weight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "end-weight," long, complex phrases that tend to come at the end of clauses. Corpus data on heavy noun phrase shift, the dative alternation, and particle movement indicate that there are several structural measures of weight highly correlated with constituent ordering. (38 references) (Author/CK)

Wasow, Thomas

1997-01-01

330

Anthocyanins and weight loss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

331

Nutrition During Weight Gain  

E-print Network

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

332

Mathematics in Weighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

Francis, Richard L.

1992-01-01

333

Marijuana and Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

334

Weight discrimination and bullying.  

PubMed

Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

2013-04-01

335

Loop-weighted Walk  

E-print Network

Loop-weighted walk with parameter $\\lambda\\geq 0$ is a non-Markovian model of random walks that is related to the loop $O(N)$ model of statistical mechanics. A walk receives weight $\\lambda^{k}$ if it contains $k$ loops; whether this is a reward or punishment for containing loops depends on the value of $\\lambda$. A challenging feature of loop-weighted walk is that it is not purely repulsive, meaning the weight of the future of a walk may either increase or decrease if the past is forgotten. Repulsion is typically an essential property for lace expansion arguments. This article circumvents the lack of repulsion and proves, via the lace expansion, that for any $\\lambda\\geq 0$ loop-weighted walk is diffusive in high dimensions.

Tyler Helmuth

2014-10-12

336

Using Triangularly Weighted Interpolation to Get 13Bit PCM from a Sigma-Delta Modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyze a method of interpolation that improves the amplitude resolution of an analog-to-digital converter. The technique requires feedback around a quantizer that operates at high speed and digital accumulation of its quantized values to provide a PCM output. We show that use of appropriate weights in the accumulation has important advantages for providing finer resoution, less spectral

JAMES C. CANDY; Y. Ching; D. Alexander

1976-01-01

337

Factorizing numbers with the Gauss sum technique: NMR implementations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several physics-based algorithms for factorizing large numbers were recently presented. A notable recent algorthm by Schleich uses Gauss sums for distinguishing between factors and nonfactors. We demonstrate two NMR techniques that evaluate Gauss sums and thus implement their algorithm. The first one is based on differential excitation of a single spin magnetization by a cascade of rf pulses. The second method is based on spatial averaging and selective refocusing of magnetization for Gauss sums corresponding to factors. All factors of 16 637 and 52 882 363 are successfully obtained.

Mahesh, T. S.; Rajendran, Nageswaran; Peng, Xinhua; Suter, Dieter

2007-06-01

338

Nucleon axial coupling constants and QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

QCD sum rules are used to obtain the isovector and ``isoscalar`` axial vector coupling constants, g{sub A} and g{sub A}{sup S}. We find g{sub A} = 1.26 {plus_minus} 0.08, g{sub A}{sup S} = 0.13 {plus_minus} 0.08 with sum results for g{sub A}{minus}1 and g{sub A} + g{sub A}{sup S}. These sum rules also show that in the limit of chiral symmetry restoration, g{sub A} {yields} 1 and g{sub A}{sup S} {yields} {minus}1.

Henley, E.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Hwang, W.Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Physics; Kisslinger, L.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1991-12-31

339

Nucleon axial coupling constants and QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

QCD sum rules are used to obtain the isovector and isoscalar'' axial vector coupling constants, g{sub A} and g{sub A}{sup S}. We find g{sub A} = 1.26 {plus minus} 0.08, g{sub A}{sup S} = 0.13 {plus minus} 0.08 with sum results for g{sub A}{minus}1 and g{sub A} + g{sub A}{sup S}. These sum rules also show that in the limit of chiral symmetry restoration, g{sub A} {yields} 1 and g{sub A}{sup S} {yields} {minus}1.

Henley, E.M. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Hwang, W.Y.P. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Physics); Kisslinger, L.S. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1991-01-01

340

Factorizing numbers with the Gauss sum technique: NMR implementations  

SciTech Connect

Several physics-based algorithms for factorizing large numbers were recently presented. A notable recent algorthm by Schleich et al. uses Gauss sums for distinguishing between factors and nonfactors. We demonstrate two NMR techniques that evaluate Gauss sums and thus implement their algorithm. The first one is based on differential excitation of a single spin magnetization by a cascade of rf pulses. The second method is based on spatial averaging and selective refocusing of magnetization for Gauss sums corresponding to factors. All factors of 16 637 and 52 882 363 are successfully obtained.0.

Mahesh, T. S.; Rajendran, Nageswaran; Peng Xinhua; Suter, Dieter [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2007-06-15

341

Casimir effect as a sum over modes in dissipative systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to show that within the open-system framework the sum-over-modes approach of Casimir leads to the Lifshitz formula for the Casimir free energy. A general result applicable to arbitrary geometries is obtained through the use of Ford, Lewis, and O’Connell's remarkable formula. Additionally, we address the possibility of obtaining the Casimir energy as a sum over complex “modes.” We show in this case that the standard sum-over-modes formula must be suitably generalized to avert unphysical complex energies. Finally, we apply our results to several standard examples.

Intravaia, Francesco; Behunin, Ryan

2012-12-01

342

Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

Lynch, Clifford

2002-01-01

343

An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.  

PubMed

This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983

Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K

2009-10-24

344

Light-weight plastination.  

PubMed

Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

2008-11-20

345

Realizing the Ubiquitous STS Collaborative Learning Environment: Using Mobile Devices with Digital Ink and RSS Interactive Instructional Weblog  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we used wireless network and handheld devices to build a ubiquitous interactive learning environment. Based on the digital learning platform constructed by open source code software, we developed an e-portfolio to record the digital-ink data and digital contents in the network, and use Folksonomy taxonomy to process the weighted categories classification for the use of data index

Ruey-ming Chao; Ta-sheng Lan; Jen-tu Huang; Joy Iong-zong Cheng

2006-01-01

346

Digital Archive Policies and Trusted Digital Repositories  

E-print Network

The MIT Libraries, the San Diego Supercomputer Center, and the University of California San Diego Libraries are conducting the PLEDGE Project to determine the set of policies that affect operational digital preservation ...

Smith, MacKenzie

347

Accurate and efficient computation of nonlocal potentials based on Gaussian-sum approximation  

E-print Network

We introduce an accurate and efficient method for a class of nonlocal potential evaluations with free boundary condition, including the 3D/2D Coulomb, 2D Poisson and 3D dipolar potentials. Our method is based on a Gaussian-sum approximation of the singular convolution kernel and Taylor expansion of the density. Starting from the convolution formulation, for smooth and fast decaying densities, we make a full use of the Fourier pseudospectral (plane wave) approximation of the density and a separable Gaussian-sum approximation of the kernel in an interval where the singularity (the origin) is excluded. Hence, the potential is separated into a regular integral and a near-field singular correction integral, where the first integral is computed with the Fourier pseudospectral method and the latter singular one can be well resolved utilizing a low-order Taylor expansion of the density. Both evaluations can be accelerated by fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The new method is accurate (14-16 digits), efficient ($O(N \\lo...

Exl, Lukas; Zhang, Yong

2015-01-01

348

Area Between Two Curves as Limits of Riemann Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo incorporates combines the visualization of approximating rectangles together with a graph of the approximate areas as a function of the number of rectangles. Thus, the limiting behavior of the approximating sums can be observed on the graph.

Roberts, Lila F.

2000-05-13

349

7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

2014-01-01

350

7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

2011-01-01

351

7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

2013-01-01

352

7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

2010-01-01

353

7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

2012-01-01

354

Generic implementations of parallel prefix sums and its applications  

E-print Network

synchronization as the number of processors increases. As part of the applications for parallel prefix sums, parallel radix sort and four parallel tree applications are built on top of the implementation. These applications are also fundamental parallel algorithms...

Huang, Tao

2009-05-15

355

p-ADIC ANALYSIS AND COMBINATORICS OF TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL SUMS  

E-print Network

p-ADIC ANALYSIS AND COMBINATORICS OF TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL SUMS TEWODROS AMDEBERHAN, DAVID CALLAN, rooted trees. 1 #12;2 T. AMDEBERHAN, D. CALLAN, AND V. MOLL and in particular, for p = 2, this yields (1

Moll, Victor H.

356

Friedel sum rule for relativistic spin- 1/2 systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Friedel sum rule is generalized to relativistic systems of spin- (1)/(2) particles. Its relation with the relativistic Levinson theorem is presented. Density oscillations in such systems are discussed.

Lin, De-Hone

2005-07-01

357

Surface vibrational spectroscopy by infrared-visible sum frequency generation  

SciTech Connect

We report the first observation of a vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of molecular adsorbates by infrared-visible sum frequency generation. The results pave the way for future dynamic studies of surface phonons and molecular vibrations.

Zhu, X.D.; Suhr, H.; Shen, Y.R.

1987-02-15

358

Machine Learning ! ! ! ! ! Srihari Max-Sum Inference Algorithm  

E-print Network

Machine Learning ! ! ! ! ! Srihari 11 Max-Sum Inference Algorithm Sargur Srihari srihari@cedar, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still

359

Compton Scattering and Photo-absorption Sum Rules on Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new ``constituent quark model'' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition we extract the J=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high energy proton data we find that the J=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman. We discuss phenomenological implications of this new result.

Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

2012-03-01

360

Pregnancy and Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... based on current recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Nearly a third gained weight within the guidelines ...

361

Prizes for weight loss.  

PubMed Central

A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

Englberger, L.

1999-01-01

362

Weights and Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson in multiple parts designed to explain the importance of standardized weights and measures and to demonstrate how governmental activities have changed standards and influenced commerce. (JDH)

Blum, Ann

1987-01-01

363

Weight Loss for Life  

MedlinePLUS

... kick boxing, dancing) ? energetic house or yard work (gardening, raking, mopping, vacuuming) 5 What types of weight- ... English H. Gonzalez, M.D., M.P.H., Community Medicine and Curriculum Development Coordinator, St. Vincent’s East ...

364

Weight Loss Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... sick, but in time they can regain weight. "Dumping syndrome" is another common problem that happens mainly ... nausea, weakness, sweating, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. Because dumping can be made worse by eating high-sugar ...

365

Weight and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... obesity lowers the success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In some studies, there has also been ... other possible infertility factors and then make a recommendation about whether you should try to lose weight ...

366

Pregnancy and Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research ... the News Spotlights Media Resources Selected Profiles & Interviews Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media ...

367

Your Child's Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese. Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

368

Weight and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar levels under control. Continue Weight and Type 2 Diabetes Most people are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . Being overweight or obese increases a person's risk ...

369

Knowledge Service Models of Digital Library in Distance Education Environment & Their Realization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital library (DL) follows four principles to provide knowledge service, i.e. user-driving principle, specialization principle, personalization principle, dynamic principle and integration principle. These principles make it possible to solve the actual problems in distance education. In this paper, the knowledge service models of DL in distance education environment are summed up into specialized service model based on subject knowledge base,

Mingjie Li; Mingjuan Li

2009-01-01

370

Automatic Selection of Mask and Arterial Phase Images for Temporally Resolved MR Digital  

E-print Network

X-ray angiography, where image postprocessing has been used frequently to improve vasculatureAutomatic Selection of Mask and Arterial Phase Images for Temporally Resolved MR Digital for selecting arterial phase images and mask images to generate an optimal sum- mary arteriogram. A paired

Zabih, Ramin

371

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

372

QCD sum rule for nucleon in nuclear matter  

E-print Network

We consider the two-point function of nucleon current in nuclear matter and write a QCD sum rule to analyse the residue of the nucleon pole as a function of nuclear density. The nucleon self-energy needed for the sum rule is taken as input from calculations using phenomenological NN potential. Our result shows a decrease in the residue with increasing nuclear density, as is known to be the case with similar quantities.

S. Mallik; Sourav Sarkar

2009-10-20

373

Fermionic sum representations for conformal field theory characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present sum representations for all characters of the unitary Virasoro minimal models. They can be viewed as fermionic companions of the Rocha-Caridi sum representations, the latter related to the (bosonic) Feigin-Fuchs-Felder construction. We also give fermionic representations for certain characters of the general (G(1))k × (G(1))l\\/(G(1))k+l coset conformal field theories, the non-unitary minimal models M(p, p+2) and M(p, kp+1),

R. Kedem; T. R. Klassen; B. M. McCoy; E. Melzer

1993-01-01

374

Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = ?s?s?\\/?q?q? with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy Sum Rules

Cesareo A. Dominguez; Nasrallah F. Nasrallah; Karl Schilcher

2008-01-01

375

Energy current density correlation function. I. Frequency sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions for zeroth-, second- and fourth-frequency sum rules of energy current density correlation function have been derived. These exact expressions involve static correlation functions of up to five particles. Because of the non-availability of any information about triplet and higher-particle correlation functions, the authors use a low-order decoupling approximation for these. The resulting expressions for the frequency sum rules, which

K. Tankeshwar; K. N. Pathak; S. Ranganathan

1989-01-01

376

Gauss Optics and Gauss Sum on an Optical Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous article (Found. Phys. Lett. 16:325–341, 2003), we showed that a reciprocity of the Gauss sums is connected with the wave and particle complementary. In this article,\\u000a we revise the previous investigation by considering a relation between the Gauss optics and the Gauss sum based upon the recent\\u000a studies of the Weil representation for a finite group.

Shigeki Matsutani

2008-01-01

377

Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

Bracco, M. E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rod. Presidente Dutra Km 298, Polo Industrial, 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

378

Modified Continuous-Moment Sum Rule and the Pomeranchon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified form of the continuous-moment sum rule is employed to investigate whether or not the Pomeranchon intercept alphaP, deviates from its maximal value of unity in the forward direction. This sum rule contains a continuously varying power of the amplitude, in addition to the usual continuously-varying moment. Two particular cases, corresponding to the first and the second powers of

L. K. Chavda

1969-01-01

379

Q2 Dependence of Generalized Baldin Sum Rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized Baldin sum rule for virtual photon, an unpolarized analog of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule, provides an unique way to investigate the transition between the perturbative QCD and hadronic descriptions of nucleon structure. We report on new measurements in Hall C at Jefferson Lab of the generalized Baldin integral for the proton at Q2 of 0.3-4.0 GeV2.

Liang, Yongguang

2005-02-01

380

Q^2 dependence of generalized Baldin sum rule  

SciTech Connect

The generalized Baldin sum rule for virtual photon, an unpolarized analog of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule, provides an unique way to investigate the transition between the perturbative QCD and hadronic descriptions of nucleon structure. We report on new measurements in Hall C at Jefferson Lab of the generalized Baldin integral for the proton at Q^2 of 0.3-4.0 GeV^2.

Y. Liang

2005-02-01

381

The black hole interior and a curious sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the Euclidean geometry near non-extremal NS5-branes in string theory, including regions beyond the horizon and beyond the singularity of the black brane. The various regions have an exact description in string theory, in terms of cigar, trumpet and negative level minimal model conformal field theories. We study the worldsheet elliptic genera of these three superconformal theories, and show that their sum vanishes. We speculate on the significance of this curious sum rule for black hole physics.

Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Troost, Jan

2014-03-01

382

The Choosing Healthy Options of Starches (CHOOS) diet and dietary intake self-monitoring for weight loss among adolescent females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown dietary intake self-monitoring, and culturally tailored weight loss interventions to be effective tools for weight loss. Technology can be used to tailor weight loss interventions to better suit adolescents. There is a lack of research to date on the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) to self-monitor dietary intake among adolescents. The objective of this study

Mary Ellen Herndon

2010-01-01

383

Digital work-flow  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective. The project presents a clinical case in which the digital work-flow procedure was applied for a prosthetic rehabilitation in natural teeth and implants. Materials. Digital work-flow uses patient’s photo for the aesthetic’s planning, digital smile technology for the simulation of the final restoration and real time scanning to register the two arches. Than the scanning are sent to the laboratory that proceed with CAD-CAM production. Results. Digital work-flow offers the opportunities to easily speak with laboratory and patients, gives better clinical results and demonstrated to be a less invasiveness method for the patient. Conclusion. Intra-oral scanner, digital smile design, preview using digital wax-up, CAD-CAM production, are new predictable opportunities for prosthetic team. This work-flow, compared with traditional methods, is faster, more precise and predictable. PMID:25694797

MARSANGO, V.; BOLLERO, R.; D’OVIDIO, N.; MIRANDA, M.; BOLLERO, P.; BARLATTANI, A.

2014-01-01

384

Baldwin Library of Children's Literature, Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Baldwin Library Digital Collection at the University of Florida includes over 2500 fully digitized children's books, published in the United States and Great Britain between 1850 and 1900 (selected from more than more than 100,000 in the Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature, dating from the mid-1600s through 2007). Although baby-boomers may be disappointed in not finding their childhood favorites, it is nonetheless amazing to page through an illustrated edition of Little Red Riding Hood, published in 1895 by Raphael Tuck & Sons. Browsing through the list of recently added items also reveals the digital version of "Bill an' me": sum ov our adventers in de "Midway Plaisance", a souvenir book documenting two boys' adventures at the World's Columbian Exposition, the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893. Books in the collection reflect the mores of the times in which they were published; for example, although the protagonists seem on the youthful side to 21st century eyes, Bill an me's adventures include the drinking of alcoholic beverages.

385

Informedia Digital Video Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Informedia Digital Video Library Project is developing new technologies for creating full-content search and retrieval digital video libraries. Working in collaboration with WQED Pittsburgh, the project is creating a testbed that will enable K-12 students to access, explore, and retrieve science and mathematics materials from the digital video library. The library will initially contain 1,000 hours of video from

Michael G. Christel; Takeo Kanade; M. Mauldin; Raj Reddy; Marvin A. Sirbu; Scott M. Stevens; Howard D. Wactlar

1995-01-01

386

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing Digital Movies AutomaticallyS. Pfeioeer, R. Lienhart, S. Fischer und W. EoeelsbergUniversit#t MannheimPraktische Informatik IVL 15, 16D-68131 MannheimAbstracting Digital Movies AutomaticallySilvia Pfeioeer, Rainer Lienhart, Stephan Fischer andWolfgang EoeelsbergPraktische Informatik IVUniversity of MannheimD-68131 Mannheimpfeiffer@pi4.informatik.uni-mannheim.deAbstractLarge video on demand databases consisting of thousands of digital moviesare not easy to handle: the...

Reihe Informatik S. Pfeioeer; R. Lienhart; S. Fischer Und W. Eoeelsberg

1996-01-01

387

Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital images had less spatial and contrast resolution. With the equipment improvements discussed in the thesis, digital tomography may have an important role in radiology.

Rimkus, Daniel Steven

1985-12-01

388

Birth weight: nature or nurture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relative role of environmental and genetic factors in the determination of birth weight following ovum donation. Methods: Data from 62 cases of ovum donation were used to examine the relative influence of donor and recipient on birth weight. Results: The only discernible factors that significantly influenced birth weight were gestational age and recipient's weight. Donor weight,

A. A. Brooks; M. R. Johnson; P. J. Steer; M. E. Pawson; H. I. Abdalla

1995-01-01

389

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

390

A weighting/threshold approach to sensor fusion  

SciTech Connect

A weighting/threshold-based sensor fusion algorithm to decrease the false alarm rate (FAR) while maintaining a high probability of detection (PD) is being tested in the Remote Security Station (RSS). The RSS is being developed to provide temporary intrusion-detection capability on short notice. It consists of a portable, multisensor pod connected by cable to a manned control console. The pod is set up outdoors in the location that security is needed; the console and operator are located in a command bunker up to a kilometer away. The RSS software filters out alarms from low-believability sensors and also filters out alarms in low-priority areas. Each sensor's believability is proportionally enclosed as a weighing, which is continually updated as a function of the environmental conditions affecting that sensor. Area priority is proportionally encoded as a threshold value for each pie-wedge area around the pod. When an event in an area triggers one or more sensors, their weightings are summed and then compared to the area threshold value. The operator is informed of the event only if the summed weighting exceeds the threshold. Extensive field testing has not yet been done, but some results show the current sensor fusion algorithm decreases the FAR at the expense of lowering the PD. To increase the PD while retaining a low FAR, the weighting/threshold algorithm will be modified to use temporal data and pattern recognition. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Amai, W.A.

1988-01-01

391

Design of Optimal Digital Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four methods for designing digital filters optimal in the Chebyshev sense are developed. The properties of these filters are investigated and compared. An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters as well as lowpass and highpass filters can be designed by this method. The design procedure, related formulae and examples are presented. An improved method of designing optimal minimum phase FIR filters by directly finding zeros is proposed. The zeros off the unit circle are found by an efficient special purpose root-finding algorithm without deflation. The proposed algorithm utilizes the passband minimum ripple frequencies to establish the initial points, and employs a modified Newton's iteration to find the accurate initial points for a standard Newton's iteration. The proposed algorithm can be used to design very long filters (L = 325) with very high stopband attenuations. The design of FIR digital filters in the complex domain is investigated. The complex approximation problem is converted into a near equivalent real approximation problem. A standard linear programming algorithm is used to solve the real approximation problem. Additional constraints are introduced which allow weighting of the phase and/or group delay of the approximation. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The desired constant group delay which gives the minimum Chebyshev error is found to be smaller than that of a linear phase filter of the same length. These filters, in addition to having a smaller, approximately constant group delay, have better magnitude characteristics than exactly linear phase filters with the same length. The filters have nearly equiripple magnitude and group delay. The problem of IIR digital filter design in the complex domain is formulated such that the existence of best approximation is guaranteed. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the design is proposed. The methods to establish a good initial point are investigated. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The magnitudes of the filter poles near the passband edge are larger than of those far from the passband edge. A delay overshooting may occur in the transition band (don't care region), and it can be reduced by decreasing the maximum allowed pole magnitude of the design problem at the expense of increasing the approximation error.

Chen, Xiangkun

392

Method of improving a digital image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of improving a digital image is provided. The image is initially represented by digital data indexed to represent positions on a display. The digital data is indicative of an intensity value I.sub.i (x,y) for each position (x,y) in each i-th spectral band. The intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is adjusted to generate an adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band in accordance with ##EQU1## where S is the number of unique spectral bands included in said digital data, W.sub.n is a weighting factor and * denotes the convolution operator. Each surround function F.sub.n (x,y) is uniquely scaled to improve an aspect of the digital image, e.g., dynamic range compression, color constancy, and lightness rendition. The adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is filtered with a common function and then presented to a display device. For color images, a novel color restoration step is added to give the image true-to-life color that closely matches human observation.

Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

393

Digital security technology simplified.  

PubMed

Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609

Scaglione, Bernard J

2007-01-01

394

Digitization Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

395

Digital Imaging Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how digital technology can be used as a tool for teaching students the skills of observation, questioning, information gathering, classifying, predicting, and hypothesis testing. (Author/SOE)

Keith, Ronald L.; Saunders, David K.; Yanik, Elizabeth G.

2003-01-01

396

Digital Commerce Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Digital Commerce Center is to help "businesses compete in the new world of digital commerce through an understanding and application of digital technology, information and media." Created and maintained by EC2, a start-up incubator based at the University of Southern California, the Digital Commerce Center offers an extensive collection of resources and information. The resources are divided into seven sections including Internet Advertising, Media Convergence, and Small Business Advisor, and all sections and subsections are thoughtfully annotated.

397

A full digital approach to the TDCR method.  

PubMed

Current state of the art solutions based on the Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio method are generally large size, heavy-weight and not transportable systems. This is due, on one side, to large detectors and scintillation chambers and, on the other, to bulky analog electronics for data acquisition. CAEN developed a new, full digital approach to TDCR technique based on a portable, stand-alone, high-speed multichannel digitizer, on-board Digital Pulse Processing and dedicated DAQ software that emulates the well-known MAC3 analog board. PMID:24345521

Mini, Giuliano; Pepe, Francesco; Tintori, Carlo; Capogni, Marco

2014-05-01

398

Digital In, Digital Out: Digital Editing with Firewire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews linear and nonlinear digital video (DV) editing equipment and software, using the IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connector. Includes a chart listing specifications and rating eight DV editing systems, reviews two DV still-photo cameras, and previews beta DV products. (PEN)

Doyle, Bob; Sauer, Jeff

1997-01-01

399

Developments in Digital Cinema Projection  

E-print Network

Developments in Digital Cinema Projection Barry Silverstein Projection Technology Manager and color, the switch to Digital Technology. The Digital Cinema conversion process is just beginning. It has. Digital Cinema is directly tied to the digital content revolution, with HD TV, Portable Media Players

Zanibbi, Richard

400

Genetic Algorithms to Learn Feature Weights for the Nearest Neighbor Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use genetic algorithms to learn feature weights for the NearestNeighbor classification algorithm. We represent feature weights as real values in [0..1]and their sum is 1. A new crossover operation, called continuous uniform crossover,is introduced where the legality of chromosomes is preserved after the crossoveroperation. This new crossover operation is compared with three other crossoveroperations---one-point crossover, two-point

Gülsen Demiroz; H. Altay Güvenir

1996-01-01

401

Light weight phosphate cements  

DOEpatents

A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)

2010-03-09

402

The weight of air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

2014-11-01

403

Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

404

Weight knowledge and weight magnitude: impact on lumbosacral loading.  

PubMed

Several factors can impact lumbosacral loads during lifting, including weight knowledge and weight magnitude. However, interaction between them has never been tested. This study investigated the interaction effect of these variables on lumbosacral forces and moments. Participants performed symmetrical lifts using three different weights. Weight knowledge involved known and unknown weight conditions. A biologically assisted dynamic model was used to calculate spinal loading parameters. Weight impacted all variables, while knowledge impacted only compression, by a moderate amount (5%), and spinal moments. Lifting a lightweight resulted in a difference of 16% and 7.2% between knowledge conditions for compression and anterior-posterior shear forces, respectively, compared with a negligible difference of < 1% when lifting a heavy weight. Increased spinal loading with light unknown weight can be attributed to increased muscular co-contraction. Weight knowledge is important to consider at low weight levels as it can increase tissue loading to values equivalent to lifting a heavier weight. PMID:25329859

Farrag, Ahmed T; Elsayed, Walaa H; El-Sayyad, Mohsen M; Marras, William S

2015-02-01

405

Bogus Weight Loss Claims  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

Battles, Carol

406

Reagents, Compositions, Weight Loss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short experimental study of what happens to aluminum hydroxide, silicic acid, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate (or reagents of instructors choice) when they are heated to 110 and 1200 degrees. Students determine the formula and calculate the mole percent and weight percent of each element and oxide in each reagent. They heat the samples and calculate percentage weight loss or gain. Finally, they write a lab report summarizing their results. Be sure to have students save their samples for later use in a lab that introduces X-ray diffraction.

Dexter Perkins

407

One-parameter scaling and exponential-sum fitting for water vapor and CO2 infrared transmission functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A medium-sized band model for water vapor and CO2 absorption is developed using the one-parameter scaling approximation. The infrared spectrum is divided into 10 bands. The Planck-weighted diffuse transmittance is reduced to a function dependent only upon the scaled absorber amount and fit by an exponential sum. By selecting specific sets of absorption coefficients for exponential-sum fitting, computations of fluxes and cooling rate are made very fast. Compared to a broadband model, the accuracy, speed, and versatility are all enhanced. With absorption due to water vapor line, continuum, CO2 as well as O3 included, the parameterization introduces an error of less than 1.5 W/sq m in fluxes and less than 0.15 C/day in the tropospheric and lower stratospheric cooling rates.

Chou, Ming-Dah; Ridgway, William L.; Yan, Michael M.-H.

1993-01-01

408

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: The quantum Knizhnik Zamolodchikov equation, generalized Razumov Stroganov sum rules and extended Joseph polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove higher rank analogues of the Razumov Stroganov sum rule for the ground state of the O(1) loop model on a semi-infinite cylinder: we show that a weighted sum of components of the ground state of the Ak-1 IRF model yields integers that generalize the numbers of alternating sign matrices. This is done by constructing minimal polynomial solutions of the level 1 U_q(\\widehat{\\frak{sl}(k)}) quantum Knizhnik Zamolodchikov equations, which may also be interpreted as quantum incompressible q-deformations of quantum Hall effect wavefunctions at filling fraction ? = k. In addition to the generalized Razumov Stroganov point q = -ei?/k+1, another combinatorially interesting point is reached in the rational limit q ? -1, where we identify the solution with extended Joseph polynomials associated with the geometry of upper triangular matrices with vanishing kth power.

Di Francesco, P.; Zinn-Justin, P.

2005-12-01

409

Digital ischaemia in the digital age  

PubMed Central

After the accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit, various techniques to try and reverse the ensuing ischaemia were unsuccessful. To identify a further treatment strategy and as members of the admitting team were unfamiliar with digital injection of epinephrine a Google search was performed. Previous cases were described and separate sources indicated appropriate management protocols utilising phentolamine. After administration, an almost immediate reversal of ischaemic symptoms occurred. This highlights the role of the internet as an adjunct in managing unfamiliar situations and practising evidence based medicine. PMID:24950401

Elmussareh, M; Hart, CA; Khanna, A; Nasim, A

2011-01-01

410

Random walks on non-homogenous weighted Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce new models of non-homogenous weighted Koch networks on real traffic systems depending on the three scaling factors r1,r2,r3?(0,1). Inspired by the definition of the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), we define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT). Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its neighbors, we show that in large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by ?(r1,r2,r3)=log4(1+r1+r2+r3). Moreover, the AWSP, in the infinite network order limit, only depends on the sum of scaling factors r1,r2,r3.

Dai, Meifeng; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Lifeng

2013-09-01

411

SUSY-Yukawa Sum Rule at the LHC  

E-print Network

We propose the "supersymmetric (SUSY) Yukawa sum rule", a relationship between physical masses and mixing angles of the third-generation quarks and squarks. The sum rule follows directly from a relation between quark and squark couplings to the Higgs, enforced by SUSY. It is exactly this relation that ensures the cancellation of the one-loop quadratic divergence in the Higgs mass from the top sector. Testing the sum rule experimentally would thus provide a powerful consistency check on SUSY as the solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. While such a test will most likely have to await a future next-generation lepton collider, the LHC experiments may be able to make significant progress towards this goal. If some of the terms entering the sum rule are measured at the LHC, the sum rule can be used (within SUSY framework) to put interesting constraints on the other terms, such as the mixing angles among third-generation squarks. We outline how the required mass measurements could be performed, and estimate the accuracy that can be achieved at the LHC.

Monika Blanke; David Curtin; Maxim Perelstein

2010-08-03

412

Digital Media and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012

2012-01-01

413

Fundamentals of Digital Logic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

Noell, Monica L.

414

Digital Image Access & Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent technological advances in computing and digital imaging technology have had immediate and permanent consequences for visual resource collections. Libraries are involved in organizing and managing large visual resource collections. The central challenges in working with digital image collections mirror those that libraries have sought to…

Heidorn, P. Bryan, Ed.; Sandore, Beth, Ed.

415

Preserving digital local news  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much local news -- important documentation of local history -- is being lost. The fact that a lot of news media is now available digitally, presents new opportunities but also new challenges for such preservation. We explore issues and approaches for collection and management of born digital local news. Purpose Design\\/methodology\\/approach\\/findings We examine several specific bottlenecks for implementing this project.

Robert B. Allen; Kirsten A. Johnson

2008-01-01

416

Digital Pinhole Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

2014-01-01

417

Geothermics and Digital Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermics is of significant importance for digital Earth. Based on 862 heat flow data and data base, a new version of heat flow map for continental area of China has been compiled. Furthermore, geothermics is closely correlated to resources and environmental problems worldwide and especially in China. Finally, the relationship between geothermics and the digital Earth is discussed in the

Jiyang Wang; Shengbiao Hu; Lijuan He

418

The Digital Absurd  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I believe that the concept of the absurd, as described in philosophy and reflected in works of drama and literature, provides an unusual and helpful perspective from which to view the emerging field of digital media. In my opinion, absurd principles can help us understand the mixed feelings we may have when engaging with digital media: joy and…

Hodges, Steve

2010-01-01

419

Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF  

E-print Network

for Digital Business, S. Bhansali and E. Brynjolfsson Measuring the Impact of Electronic Data ManagementCenter for Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF Volume X Number 2 January 2008 © 2008 MIT Center-experiment: the phased introduction of Electronic Document Management (EDM) across multiple offices at different dates

420

Optimization of digital designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application specific integrated circuit is optimized by translating a first representation of its digital design to a second representation. The second representation includes multiple syntactic expressions that admit a representation of a higher-order function of base Boolean values. The syntactic expressions are manipulated to form a third representation of the digital design.

Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

421

Cresting the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catawba Valley Community College has introduced digital storytelling (DS), an innovative instructional method that has produced extraordinary results. Digital storytelling uses affordable software to craft powerful multimedia presentations of student writing. Students create 3-to-4-minute movies with images, voiceovers, and music. This project…

Gregory, Kay; Steelman, Joyce

2008-01-01

422

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large video-on-demand databases consisting of thousands of digital movies are not easy to handle: the user must have an attractive means of retrieving his movie of choice. For analog video, movie trailers are produced to allow a quick preview and perhaps stimulate possible buyers. This paper presents techniques for automatically producing such movie abstracts of digital videos.

Silvia Pfeiffer; Rainer Lienhart; Stephan Fischer; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1996-01-01

423

Digital Knowledge Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. Networking and computing technologies have now become sufficiently advanced to support the design and deployment of large digital libraries which are capable of supporting the conventional end-user functions. Digital libraries are a natural extension of the evolution in which libraries have…

Pandian, M. Paul

2008-01-01

424

Towards a Digital Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A month ago, a French court ruled that internet access is a basic human right. Gordon Brown has said it is as crucial for people as electricity and water. Yet, 17 million Britons are still excluded from digital technology and an estimated 13 per cent of the population--some six million people--are both socially and digitally excluded. There are…

Thomson, Rachel

2009-01-01

425

Everglades Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Everglades Digital Library (EDL) is a comprehensive portal to high-quality digital resources relating to the south Florida environment. These resources include online texts, articles, reports, photographs, maps, datasets, educational materials, and historical records, as well as links to organizational web sites and agency home pages. These materials come from libraries, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and other sources.

426

The Digital Silk Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and proposed mechanisms for digital money all require large overhead to transfer money between parties. This overhead makes them unsuitable for extremely low cost activities, such as delivering and routing packets. The digital silk road is a proposed money system with extremely low transaction cost built into the communication protocols. The money introduced by this system is much more

Norman Hardy; Eric Dean Tribble

1993-01-01

427

Digital Signature Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

1999-01-01

428

Digital communications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

Boorstyn, R. R.

1973-01-01

429

Introduction Digital Flight Control  

E-print Network

Introduction Digital Flight Control Research Using Microprocessor Technology ROBERT F. STENGEL Princetoin University Abstract The Flight Research Laboratory at Princeton University is en- gaged in an experimental program to investigate a variety of approaches to digital control by actual flight test. Experimen

Stengel, Robert F.

430

Writing and Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a…

van Waes, Luuk, Ed.; Leijten, Marielle, Ed.; Neuwirth, Chris, Ed.

2006-01-01

431

Conservation, Preservation, and Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies should be considered a method of preservation for library materials. Current conservation strategies of restoration, deacidification, and microfilming are expensive, and they limit access. Digitization offers improved access while preserving materials and reflects a change in the library role from depository of printed…

Lynch, Clifford A.; Brownrigg, Edwin B.

1986-01-01

432

Geomatics and Digital Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the conception of Geo-Spatial Information Science (Geomatics) and Digital Earth are introduced. The former is created along with the information revaluation. Vice president of America Al Gore presents the latter. The formation, basic theory and technical system of Geomatics are discussed. And the key techniques and applications of Digital Earth are also discussed. After the relationship between

Deren Li; Qingquan Li

433

The Dartmouth Digital Library Program  

E-print Network

Resources Anthony Helm, Head of Digital Media and Library Technologies WessThe Dartmouth Digital Library Program A Report from the Digital Projects and Infrastructure Group (DPIG) 12 September 2011 #12;The

Myers, Lawrence C.

434

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

435

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

436

The Digital Archaeological Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as "A Service of Digital Antiquity," the Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) is an international digital repository for the digital records of archaeological investigations. This remarkable archive is overseen by a board of directors with expertise in a range of professional fields, along with experts from the University of Arkansas, Arizona State University, and the University of York. A good place to start might be the sections that orient visitors to the work here. They include Access & Use, Contribute, Preservation, and Who Uses tDAR? The Featured Content area offers users a glimpse of the most useful archaeological records contained within the archive. Near the bottom of the homepage, visitors can peruse the What's New at tDAR" area to get a feel for digital images recently added to the collection, along with field reports. [KMG

2013-01-01

437

Weight 1. Leadership  

E-print Network

Weight 0 1 2 3 1. Leadership 33% Has not demonstrated impact through a leadership role Has held a leadership role in one or more organizations and demonstrated impact Has held an organization-wide leadership role in one or more

Prodiæ, Aleksandar

438

Mass/Weight Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will recognize that the mass of an object is a measure that is independent of gravity. If they can effectively complete the guided inquiry activity as well as the short writing summary to reinforce what they learned, they will gain a foundation for understanding the difference between mass and weight.

Lance King

2011-07-26

439

Losing Pregnancy Weight  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... prevent weight retention and the potential long-term health risks to women. I'm Dr. Cindy Haines of HealthDay TV, with the news that your doctors are reading, health news that matters to you. Mobile version Get ...

440

Weight For It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

COSI

2009-01-01

441

Weighted Multiplex Networks  

PubMed Central

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

442

Applications of digital signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of digital signal processing in telecommunications are considered, taking into account the characteristics of telecommunications systems, aspects of digital transmission, digital switching, digital signal processing in pulse-code modulated transmission terminals, digital signal processing in frequency-division multiplex transmission terminals, the detection of signaling tones, aliased harmonic distortion as a nonlinear phenomenon, echo control, design considerations for digital signal-processing hardware elements,

Alan V. Oppenheim

1978-01-01

443

Digitized two-parameter spectrometer for neutron-gamma mixed field  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows the results of digital processing of output pulses from combined photon-neutron detector using a commercially available digitizer ACQUIRIS DP 210. The advantage of digital processing is reduction of the apparatus in weight and size, acceleration of measurement, and increased resistance to pile-up of pulses. The neutron and photon spectrum of radionuclide source {sup 252}Cf is presented. (authors)

Matej, Z. [Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk Univ., Botanicka 68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Cvachovec, J.; Prenosil, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Cvachovec, F. [Univ. of Defence, Brno (Czech Republic); Zaritski, S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-07-01

444

QCD sum rule study of the d*(2380 )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We systematically construct I (JP) =0 (3+) six-quark local interpolating currents without derivative operators. We discuss the best choice of operator and select three ? -? -like operators to perform QCD sum rule analyses to calculate the mass of the d*(2380 ) . The mass extracted from this analysis is Md*=2.4 ±0.2 GeV, consistent with the d*(2380 ) mass observed by the WASA detector at COSY. We also obtain a sum rule lower mass bound Md*>2.25 GeV. We also consider the effect of mixing of singlet dibaryon fields with the same quantum numbers, and perform the QCD sum rule analysis of the mixed interpolating current and extract the mass of the d*(2380 ) and its lower mass bound. With optimized mixing parameters, we find that the mixed current does not change the numerical result significantly.

Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang; Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

2015-02-01

445

QCD Sum Rule Analysis of Heavy Quarkonium Hybrids  

E-print Network

We have studied the charmonium and bottomonium hybrid states with various $J^{PC}$ quantum numbers in QCD sum rules. At leading order in $\\alpha_s$, the two-point correlation functions have been calculated up to dimension six including the tri-gluon condensate and four-quark condensate. After performing the QCD sum rule analysis, we have confirmed that the dimension six condensates can stabilize the hybrid sum rules and allow the reliable mass predictions. We have updated the mass spectra of the charmonium and bottomonium hybrid states and identified that the negative-parity states with $J^{PC}=(0, 1, 2)^{-+}, 1^{--}$ form the lightest hybrid supermultiplet while the positive-parity states with $J^{PC}=(0, 1)^{+-}, (0, 1, 2)^{++}$ belong to a heavier hybrid supermultiplet.

Chen, Wei; Steele, T G; Bulthuis, B; Harnett, D; Ho, J; Richards, T; Zhu, Shi-Lin

2013-01-01

446

QCD Sum Rule Analysis of Heavy Quarkonium Hybrids  

E-print Network

We have studied the charmonium and bottomonium hybrid states with various $J^{PC}$ quantum numbers in QCD sum rules. At leading order in $\\alpha_s$, the two-point correlation functions have been calculated up to dimension six including the tri-gluon condensate and four-quark condensate. After performing the QCD sum rule analysis, we have confirmed that the dimension six condensates can stabilize the hybrid sum rules and allow the reliable mass predictions. We have updated the mass spectra of the charmonium and bottomonium hybrid states and identified that the negative-parity states with $J^{PC}=(0, 1, 2)^{-+}, 1^{--}$ form the lightest hybrid supermultiplet while the positive-parity states with $J^{PC}=(0, 1)^{+-}, (0, 1, 2)^{++}$ belong to a heavier hybrid supermultiplet.

Wei Chen; R. T. Kleiv; T. G. Steele; B. Bulthuis; D. Harnett; J. Ho; T. Richards; Shi-Lin Zhu

2013-10-04

447

Factorization of numbers with truncated Gauss sums at rational arguments  

E-print Network

Factorization of numbers with the help of Gauss sums relies on an intimate relationship between the maxima of these functions and the factors. Indeed, when we restrict ourselves to integer arguments of the Gauss sum we profit from a one-to-one relationship. As a result the identification of factors by the maxima is unique. However, for non-integer arguments such as rational numbers this powerful instrument to find factors breaks down. We develop new strategies for factoring numbers using Gauss sums at rational arguments. This approach may find application in a recent suggestion to factor numbers using an light interferometer [V. Tamma et al., J. Mod. Opt. in this volume] discussed in this issue.

S. Wölk; C. Feiler; W. P. Schleich

2012-10-24

448

Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of said second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.

Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

449

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2013-04-01

450

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2013-04-01

451

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2012-04-01

452

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2010-04-01

453

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2014-04-01

454

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2010-04-01

455

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2011-04-01

456

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2011-04-01

457

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2012-04-01

458

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2014-04-01

459

MIMO radar waveform design with peak and sum power constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal power allocation for multiple-input multiple-output radar waveform design subject to combined peak and sum power constraints using two different criteria is addressed in this paper. The first one is by maximizing the mutual information between the random target impulse response and the reflected waveforms, and the second one is by minimizing the mean square error in estimating the target impulse response. It is assumed that the radar transmitter has knowledge of the target's second-order statistics. Conventionally, the power is allocated to transmit antennas based on the sum power constraint at the transmitter. However, the wide power variations across the transmit antenna pose a severe constraint on the dynamic range and peak power of the power amplifier at each antenna. In practice, each antenna has the same absolute peak power limitation. So it is desirable to consider the peak power constraint on the transmit antennas. A generalized constraint that jointly meets both the peak power constraint and the average sum power constraint to bound the dynamic range of the power amplifier at each transmit antenna is proposed recently. The optimal power allocation using the concept of waterfilling, based on the sum power constraint, is the special case of p = 1. The optimal solution for maximizing the mutual information and minimizing the mean square error is obtained through the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) approach, and the numerical solutions are found through a nested Newton-type algorithm. The simulation results show that the detection performance of the system with both sum and peak power constraints gives better detection performance than considering only the sum power constraint at low signal-to-noise ratio.

Arulraj, Merline; Jeyaraman, Thiruvengadam S.

2013-12-01

460

Total variation asymptotics for sums of independent integer random variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $W_n := \\\\sum_{j=1}^n Z_j$ be a sum of independent\\u000ainteger-valued random variables. In this paper, we derive an asymptotic\\u000aexpansion for the probability $\\\\mathbb{P}[W_n \\\\in A]$ of an arbitrary subset $A\\u000a\\\\in \\\\mathbb{Z}$. Our approximation improves upon the classical expansions by\\u000aincluding an explicit, uniform error estimate, involving only easily computable\\u000aproperties of the distributions of the $Z_j:$ an

A. D. Barbour; V. ?ekanavi?ius

2002-01-01

461

Sum rules of four-neutrino mixing in matter  

E-print Network

Assuming the existence of one light sterile neutrino, we investigate the neutrino flavor mixing matrix in matter. Sum rules between the mixing parameters in vacuum and their counterparts in matter are derived. By using these new sum rules, we obtain the simple but exact expressions of the effective flavor mixing matrix in matter in terms of neutrino masses and the mixing parameters in vacuum. The rephasing invariants, sides of unitarity quadrangles and oscillation probabilities in matter are also achieved. Our model-independent results will be very helpful for analyzing flavor mixing and CP violation in the future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

He Zhang

2006-06-04

462

Friedel sum rule and Levinson theorem for massless Weyl fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Friedel sum rule for massless Weyl fermions is given. Due to the parity violation of Weyl fermions it is shown that the global phases of spinors are important in determining the accurate sum rule, and the Levinson theorem is proved to be determined only by the number of discrete zero modes. For potential barriers that do not allow any zero modes it is revealed that a particular duality relation exists between the phase shifts at the Fermi surface and the critical point of zero momentum.

Lin, De-Hone

2006-05-01

463

A fresh look on three-loop sum-integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to prepare the ground for evaluating classes of three-loop sum-integrals that are presently needed for thermodynamic observables, we take a fresh and systematic look on the few known cases, and review their evaluation in a unified way using coherent notation. We do this for three important cases of massless bosonic three-loop vacuum sum-integrals that have been frequently used in the literature, and aim for a streamlined exposition as compared to the original evaluations. In passing, we speculate on options for generalization of the computational techniques that have been employed.

Schröder, York

2012-08-01

464

A Derivative of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

We derive a sum rule which establishes a linear relation between a particle's anomalous magnetic moment and a quantity connected to the photoabsorption cross-section. This quantity cannot be measured directly. However, it can be computed within a given theory. As an example, we demonstrate validity of the sum rule in QED at tree level---the renowned Schwinger's correction to the anomalous magnetic moment is readily reproduced. In the case of the strong interactions, we also consider the calculation of the nucleon magnetic moment within chiral theories.

Vladimir Pascalutsa; Barry Holstein; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2004-08-01

465

A derivative of the Gerasimov Drell Hearn sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a sum rule which establishes a linear relation between a particle's anomalous magnetic moment and a quantity connected to the photoabsorption cross section. This quantity cannot be measured directly. However, it can be computed within a given theory. As an example, we demonstrate validity of the sum rule in QED at tree level-the renowned Schwinger's correction to the anomalous magnetic moment is readily reproduced. In the case of the strong interactions, we also consider the calculation of the nucleon magnetic moment within chiral theories.

Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Holstein, Barry R.; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

2004-10-01

466

Gravitons and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov Sum Rule  

E-print Network

One-loop diagrams containing a graviton provide a finite contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment $\\al$ of a lepton, whether or not the graviton propagates in $n$ large extra compact dimensions. In the present work, the tree graph photoproduction of a graviton, integrated up to an arbitrary cutoff, is shown to violate the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule for $\\al^2$. The possibility of resurrecting the sum rule from high energy contributions originating in string excitations is discussed in a qualitative manner, and various problems associated with such a program are pointed out.

Haim Goldberg

2000-01-19

467

A Derivative of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule  

E-print Network

We derive a sum rule which establishes a linear relation between a particle's anomalous magnetic moment and a quantity connected to the photoabsorption cross-section. This quantity cannot be measured directly. However, it can be computed within a given theory. As an example, we demonstrate validity of the sum rule in QED at tree level--the renowned Schwinger's correction to the anomalous magnetic moment is readily reproduced. In the case of the strong interactions, we also consider the calculation of the nucleon magnetic moment within chiral theories.

Vladimir Pascalutsa; Barry R. Holstein; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2004-09-11

468

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO  

E-print Network

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy E is the number of the common preys of x and y

469

Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2010-01-01

470

Spine head calcium as a measure of summed postsynaptic activity for driving synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

We use a computational model of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell to demonstrate that spine head calcium provides an instantaneous readout at each synapse of the postsynaptic weighted sum of all presynaptic activity impinging on the cell. The form of the readout is equivalent to the functions of weighted, summed inputs used in neural network learning rules. Within a dendritic layer, peak spine head calcium levels are either a linear or sigmoidal function of the number of coactive synapses, with nonlinearity depending on the ability of voltage spread in the dendrites to reach calcium spike threshold. This is strongly controlled by the potassium A-type current, with calcium spikes and the consequent sigmoidal increase in peak spine head calcium present only when the A-channel density is low. Other membrane characteristics influence the gain of the relationship between peak calcium and the number of active synapses. In particular, increasing spine neck resistance increases the gain due to increased voltage responses to synaptic input in spine heads. Colocation of stimulated synapses on a single dendritic branch also increases the gain of the response. Input pathways cooperate: CA3 inputs to the proximal apical dendrites can strongly amplify peak calcium levels due to weak EC input to the distal dendrites, but not so strongly vice versa. CA3 inputs to the basal dendrites can boost calcium levels in the proximal apical dendrites, but the relative electrical compactness of the basal dendrites results in the reverse effect being less significant. These results give pointers as to how to better describe the contributions of pre- and postsynaptic activity in the learning "rules" that apply in these cells. The calcium signal is closer in form to the activity measures used in traditional neural network learning rules than to the spike times used in spike-timing-dependent plasticity. PMID:25058697

Graham, Bruce P; Saudargiene, Ausra; Cobb, Stuart

2014-10-01

471

Predicting total weight of retail-ready lamb cuts from bioelectrical impedance measurements taken at the processing plant.  

PubMed

Data of sixty finished, crossbred lambs were used to develop prediction equations of total weight of retail-ready cuts (SUM). These cuts were the leg, sirloin, loin, rack, shoulder, neck, riblets, shank, and lean trim (85/15). Measurements were taken on live lambs and on both hot and cold carcasses. A four-terminal bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) was used to measure resistance (Rs, ohms) and reactance (Xc, ohms). Distances between detector terminals (L, centimeters) were recorded. Carcass temperatures (T, degrees C) at time of BIA readings were also recorded. The equation predicting SUM from cold carcass measurements (n = 53, R2 = .97) was .093 + .621 x weight-.0219 x Rs + .0248 x Xc + .182 x L-.338 x T. Resistance accounted for variability in SUM over and above weight and L (P = .0016). The above equation was used to rank cold carcasses in descending order of predicted SUM. An analogous ranking was obtained from a prediction equation that used weight only (R2 = .88). These rankings were divided into five categories: top 25%, middle 50%, bottom 25%, top 50%, and bottom 50%. Within-category differences in average fat cover, yield grade, and SUM as a percentage of cold carcass weight of carcasses not placed in the same category by both prediction equations were quantified with independent t-tests. These differences were statistically significant for all categories except middle 50%. This shows that BIA located those lambs that could more efficiently contribute to SUM because a higher portion of their weight was lean. PMID:8071171

Slanger, W D; Marchello, M J; Busboom, J R; Meyer, H H; Mitchell, L A; Hendrix, W F; Mills, R R; Warnock, W D

1994-06-01

472

Weighted guided image filtering.  

PubMed

It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

2015-01-01

473

Digital rights management & protecting the digital media value chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital media that is readily & illegally distributed over the Internet and related digital networks has posed major problems for the members of the digital media value chain. Ubiquitous mobile communication devices such as media capable handsets and PDAs have made the problem even larger.Technical approaches to controlling illegal distribution--- commonly known as Digital Rights Management (DRM)---have been varied and

Marvin L. Smith

2004-01-01

474

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

Ohler, Jason

2012-01-01

475

Digital Video, Digital TV IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e  

E-print Network

Tech Trends Multiple Video Sources Video Analysis Local Processing Interaction Multiple Threads 121 Digital Video, Digital TV and Beyond Luiz Velho IMPA - Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada 2 Outline Video in the Digital Age Deployment of Digital Video Enabling Technologies Research @ VISGRAF

476

Digital Library and Digital Reference Service: Integration and Mutual Complementarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the digital library and the digital reference service were invented and have been developed under the networked environment. Among their intersections, the fundamental thing is their symbiotic interest--serving the user in a more efficient way. The article starts by discussing the digital library and its service and the digital reference…

Liu, Jia

2008-01-01

477

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

478

Fast transient digitizer  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display.

Villa, Francesco (Palo Alto, CA)

1982-01-01

479

Digital sonar system  

DOEpatents

A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

Young, Kenneth K. (Seattle, WA); Wilkes, R. Jeffrey (Seattle, WA)

1995-01-01

480

Digital Photography Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both newer and more experienced digital camera owners should find plenty of interest at this new site from CNET. Like most of CNET's consumer-oriented sites, the Digital Photography Center offers several pages of instructive tips and how-to essays (Find the Right Digital Camera, Perfect Your Images, Take Great Pictures, Print & Share Photos). Product reviews, prices, and help are also provided, along with a collection of related downloads and a link to auctions. In addition, this site offers a weekly column and some Video Spotlights in RealPlayer or Windows Media Player formats.

481

Digital Libraries Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eight US institutions are sponsoring this recently-announced initiative including the National Science Foundation, the Library of Congress, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Phase 2 of the Digital Libraries Initiative is designed to extend research, accelerate development, and create new capabilities for digital libraries, as well as investigate the study of the interaction between people and digital libraries in various contexts. The initiative is divided into the areas of research, and testbeds & applications. Further information, along with proposal due dates and award amounts are available at the site.

482

Europe's Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European website is dedicated to addressing digital preservation problems so that those involved can better plan for future research and development. A key concern is that digital information, and specifically "cultural heritage and scientific objects," will remain accessible and usable for future generations. Although Epranet does not conduct research and development, "it will create a coherent platform for proactive co-operation, collaboration, exchange and dissemination of research results and experience in the preservation of digital objects." Information available online includes best practice guides, workshop materials, reports, and other resources.

483

6.SP Puppy Weights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below are the 25 birth weights, in ounces, of all the Labrador Retriever puppies born at Kingston Kennels in the last six months. 131415151616161617171...

484

Does Weight Matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the same method for measuring friction that was used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction), students design and conduct experiments to determine if weight added incrementally to objects affects the amount of friction encountered when they slide across flat surfaces. After graphing the data from their experiments, students calculate the coefficients of friction between the objects and the surfaces they moved upon, for both static and kinetic friction.

2014-09-18

485

First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

Shi, Yun Q.

486

Digital Fillet Flaps: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Digital fillet flaps have a consistent vascular supply and provide durable soft-tissue coverage. Despite their readily available nature, their use in the foot remains limited. This systematic review was undertaken to determine the size defect that could be covered, the potential postoperative complications, and the durability of a digital fillet flap. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they involved use of the entire digit for soft-tissue coverage of defects of any etiology, reported complications, and had any length of follow-up time. A total of 9 studies met all the inclusion criteria, for a total of 34 patients with a combined mean age of 47.1 years and a combined mean follow-up time of 9.3 months. Complications consisted of continued infection and partial or total necrosis of the flap. Digital fillet flaps were able to cover defects up to a combined mean size of 15.6 cm(2). Coverage was found to be best for forefoot ulcerations. The flaps had limited donor site morbidity and provided full coverage of exposed vital and osseous structures that was able to withstand forces applied during weight bearing, The procedure is simple and straightforward, reducing operating time and the need for more complex soft-tissue reconstructive procedures. PMID:25428181

Schade, Valerie L

2014-11-26

487

Instantaneous frequency estimation using adaptive linear predictor weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computationally efficient scheme for estimating the digital instantaneous frequencies of narrowband inputs is introduced. The frequency estimates are obtained by searching for minima of the inverse input power spectrum. This spectrum is estimated at each input sample from the weights of an adaptive linear predictor which uses the LMS (least mean square) algorithm to update its weights. The related minima are sought via an iterative search algorithm, referred to as the iterative frequency estimator. This algorithm is computationally more efficient than available methods, and also provides a higher resolution. Simulation results are included; these include tracking of random message sequences in FM signals, and the formant frequency estimation of speech.

Hush, D.; Ahmed, N.; David, R.

1986-07-01

488

A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

2009-01-01

489

Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…

Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.

2005-01-01

490

Commutation properties of the form sum of positive, symmetric operators  

E-print Network

will be a selfadjoint operator. The so called form sum extension handles this problem if domA 1 2 #domB 1 2 is dense q A+qB is a closed form on domA 1 2 #domB 1 2 , therefore the representation theorem provides us

Matolcsi, Máté

491

The Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multi-target tracking algorithm, termed as the Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density (GSCPHD) filter, is proposed. The filter is calculated by a bank of convolution filters with Gaussian approximations to the predicted and posterior densities. It is shown that the ability to deal with complex observation model, non or small observation noise of the GSCPHD over the Gaussian

Jian Jun Yin; Jian Qiu Zhang; Ze Sen Zhuang

2008-01-01

492

Sums of squares in function fields of hyperelliptic curves  

E-print Network

. Important field invari­ ants in this context are the pythagoras number and the u­invariant. In the case, have also highlighted some outstanding open problems. The pythagoras number is the least upper bound orderings as a sum of squares. Assume that there is a common finite upper bound for the pythagoras number

493

ON SUMS OF SQUARES IN LOCAL RINGS CLAUS SCHEIDERER  

E-print Network

. On the quantitative side, we obtain explicit (finite) upper bounds for the Pythagoras number, for various classes, a regular 2- dimensional local ring has finite Pythagoras number if and only if its quotient field does words and phrases. Sums of squares, semilocal rings, Pythagoras number, quadratic forms, orderings, real

494

ON SUMS OF SQUARES IN LOCAL RINGS CLAUS SCHEIDERER  

E-print Network

. On the quantitative side, we obtain explicit (finite) upper bounds for the Pythagoras number, for various classes, a regular 2­ dimensional local ring has finite Pythagoras number if and only if its quotient field does words and phrases. Sums of squares, semilocal rings, Pythagoras number, quadratic forms, orderings, real

495

Sums of squares in function fields of hyperelliptic curves  

E-print Network

. Important field invari- ants in this context are the pythagoras number and the u-invariant. In the case, have also highlighted some outstanding open problems. The pythagoras number is the least upper bound orderings as a sum of squares. Assume that there is a common finite upper bound for the pythagoras number

496

The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.

Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin

2013-01-01

497

Zero Sums on Unit Square Vertex Sets and Plane Colorings  

E-print Network

Zero Sums on Unit Square Vertex Sets and Plane Colorings Richard Katz, Mike Krebs, and Anthony of every unit square, then it must be the zero function. This fact implies a lower bound in a "coloring be a real-valued function on the plane such that for every square ABCD in the plane, f (A) + f (B) + f (C

Krebs, Mike

498

Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = langlebar ssrangle\\/langlebar qqrangle with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy

Cesareo A. Dominguez; Nasrallah F. Nasrallah; Karl Schilcher

2008-01-01

499

Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M?S? scheme m?b(m?b) ? 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ? 210-220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ? 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m?b(m?b) = 4:247 GeV: (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants—and especially for the ratio fB* / fB—prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.

Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

2014-11-01

500

Parity projection of QCD sum rules for the nucleon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleon and its negative-parity excited states are examined in a maximum entropy method analysis of QCD sum rules. First, we rederive the parity projected sum rules for baryons using “old-fashioned” correlation functions. Doing this, the method is generalized so that higher order operator product expansion terms can be calculated unambiguously. We then apply this approach to the nucleon channel taking into account all known first order ?s corrections to the Wilson coefficients of the operator product expansion. As these corrections have turned out to be large, we suppress them by using a phase-rotated Gaussian kernel. Simultaneously, this phase rotation strongly suppresses the continuum contribution and improves the convergence of the operator product expansion. The resulting sum rule has the interesting feature that it is dominated by the term containing the chiral condensate of dimension 3. Analyzing this sum rule by the maximum entropy method, we are able to extract information of both the positive- and negative-parity states.

Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

2013-02-01