On exponential sums of digital sums related to Gelfond's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okada, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Zenji; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Shiota, Yasunobu
2008-01-01
In this paper, we first give explicit formulas of exponential sums of sum of digits related to Gelfond's theorem. As an application of these formulas, we obtain a simple expression of Newman-Coquet type summation formula related to the number of binary digits in a multiple of a prime number.
A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-01-01
For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…
A solution to weighted sums of squares as a square
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-12-01
For n = 1, 2, … , we give a solution (x 1, … , x n , N) to the Diophantine integer equation ? . Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m 1, m 2, … , m n we give a solution to ? . The weights may be positive or negative and are subject to some restrictions. Choosing weights ±1 gives a solution to the problem of finding integer vectors of the same length.
The energy-weighted sum rule and the nuclear radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Hans Peter
2015-09-01
The energy-weighted integrated cross-section for photon absorption --known as sum rule -- is under certain conditions proportional to the mean square nuclear radius (Levinger, Bethe (Phys. Rev. 78, 115 (1950))). Due to the energy weight factor the low-energy absorption components are emphasized and the dipole transitions in the region of giant resonances contribute enhanced at . Thus, the cross-section of the full interaction can be replaced in good approximation by the dipole cross-section. Under these aspects, we have calculated and the radii of various gg-nuclei. For our purpose, we have chosen a simple shell model where the integrals can be solved analytically, and the contributions of uncorrelated functions and correlation corrections can be shown explicitly. The mean square radius as a function of differs by a factor of 1.5/0.87 from the previous result of Levinger and Kent (Phys. Rev. 95, 418 (1954)) without correlation corrections. Plotting the function of the correlation corrections and the uncorrelated function as a ratio it shows that tends towards a limit. Finally, our results for the radii of gg-nuclei are in good agreement with recent experiments (I. Angeli, K.P. Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)).
Four-Digit Numbers Which Are Squared Sums
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coughlin, Heather; Jue, Brian
2009-01-01
There is a very natural way to divide a four-digit number into 2 two-digit numbers. Applying an algorithm to this pair of numbers, determine how often the original four-digit number reappears. (Contains 3 tables.)
On estimating mean lifetimes by a weighted sum of lifetime measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosper, Harrison Bertrand
1987-10-01
Given N lifetime measurements an estimate of the mean lifetime can be obtained from a weighted sum of these measurements. We derive exact expressions for the probability density function, the moment-generating function, and the cumulative distribution function for the weighted sum. We indicate how these results might be used in the estimation of particle lifetimes. The probability distribution function of Yost for the distribution of lifetime measurements with finite measurement error is our starting point.
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sum of the years-digits method. 1.167(b)-3 Section 1.167(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(b)-3 Sum of the years-digits method....
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sum of the years-digits method. 1.167(b)-3 Section 1.167(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(b)-3 Sum of the years-digits method....
Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dicenzo, A.
1979-01-01
Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tohara, Takashi; Liang, Haichao; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Igarashi, Makoto; Samukawa, Seiji; Endo, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yasuo; Morie, Takashi
2016-03-01
A nanodisk array connected with a fin field-effect transistor is fabricated and analyzed for spiking neural network applications. This nanodevice performs weighted sums in the time domain using rising slopes of responses triggered by input spike pulses. The nanodisk arrays, which act as a resistance of several giga-ohms, are fabricated using a self-assembly bio-nano-template technique. Weighted sums are achieved with an energy dissipation on the order of 1 fJ, where the number of inputs can be more than one hundred. This amount of energy is several orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital processors.
How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, William J.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of…
Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ΔZ = 2 nuclei within the SO(8) model
Štefánik, Dušan; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand
2013-12-30
Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ΔZ = 2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ΔZ = 2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.
Priddy, T.G.; Gregory, D.L.; Coleman, R.G.
1989-01-01
Force identification using a sum of weighted accelerations technique (SWAT) is developed for measurement of externally applied force and moment which dynamically excite a structural system. Mode shape coefficients, from a free-body modal characterization, are used to determine two sets of weighting factors which, when used in the SWAT, eliminate the free-body vibrational response. One set of weighting factors, having the units of mass, are used in the SWAT measurement of the resultant force vector. The second set of weighting factors, having the units of first-moment-of-mass, are calculated to measure the moment acting at the center of mass of the external force with a similar sum of weighted accelerations. The theory for determining the force and moment vectors is developed in this paper. We illustrate the technique through the analysis of a simple beam and a rectangular plate. We then demonstrate the analytical predictions with the laboratory testing of softly suspended structures. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure
Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.
1993-12-31
Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.
1973-01-01
The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.
Pinched weights and duality violation in QCD sum rules: A critical analysis
Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim
2010-07-01
We analyze the so-called pinched weights, that are generally thought to reduce the violation of quark-hadron duality in finite-energy sum rules. After showing how this is not true in general, we explain how to address this question for the left-right correlator and any particular pinched weight, taking advantage of our previous work [1], where the possible high-energy behavior of the left-right spectral function was studied. In particular, we show that the use of pinched weights allows to determine with high accuracy the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator-product expansion, O{sub 6}=(-4.3{sub -0.7}{sup +0.9})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 6} and O{sub 8}=(-7.2{sub -5.3}{sup +4.2})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 8}.
Energy-weighted sum rules and the analysis of vibrational structure in molecular spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, W. L.
2015-10-01
The energy-weighted sum SV = Σn (E‧n - E″m)|<ψ″m|ψ‧n>|2 = <ψ″m|ΔV|ψ″m> for the vibrational potential functions V‧, V″ associated with transitions between two electronic states of diatomic molecular species is investigated and specific formulae are given using Morse functions for V‧ and V″. It is found that these formulae are useful approximations which provide a convenient way to analyse the vibrational structure of real spectra to give estimates of molecular parameters such as the change in internuclear distance accompanying a transition.
Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules
Jolos, R. V.; Brentano, P. von
2009-04-15
Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.
Hendricks, Daniel R; Johnson, William R; Sommerfeldt, Scott D; Blotter, Jonathan D
2014-11-01
A limitation currently facing active structural acoustic control (ASAC) researchers is that an ideal minimization quantity for use in the control algorithms has not been developed. A novel parameter termed the "weighted sum of spatial gradients" (WSSG) was recently developed for use in ASAC and shown to effectively attenuate acoustic radiation from a vibrating flat simply supported plate in computer simulations. This paper extends this research from computer simulations and provides experimental test results. The results presented show that WSSG is a viable control quantity and provides better results than the volume velocity approach. The paper also investigates several of the challenges presented by the use of WSSG. These include determining a method to measure WSSG experimentally, an analysis of the influence of noise on WSSG control results and complications presented when degenerate modes exist. Results are shown and discussed for several experimental configurations. PMID:25373961
Assessment of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Modeling Chemical Mixtures and Cancer Risk
Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C
2015-01-01
In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome. PMID:26005323
Transceiver Design to Maximize the Weighted Sum Secrecy Rate in Full-Duplex SWIPT Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Sun, Ruijin; Wang, Xinshui
2016-06-01
This letter considers secrecy simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in full duplex systems. In such a system, full duplex capable base station (FD-BS) is designed to transmit data to one downlink user and concurrently receive data from one uplink user, while one idle user harvests the radio-frequency (RF) signals energy to extend its lifetime. Moreover, to prevent eavesdropping, artificial noise (AN) is exploited by FD-BS to degrade the channel of the idle user, as well as to provide energy supply to the idle user. To maximize the sum of downlink secrecy rate and uplink secrecy rate, we jointly optimize the information covariance matrix, AN covariance matrix and receiver vector, under the constraints of the sum transmission power of FD-BS and the minimum harvested energy of the idle user. Since the problem is non-convex, the log-exponential reformulation and sequential parametric convex approximation (SPCA) method are used. Extensive simulation results are provided and demonstrate that our proposed full duplex scheme extremely outperforms the half duplex scheme.
Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.
2015-01-01
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT (“face patches”) did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a
Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J
2015-09-30
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT ("face patches") did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. Significance statement: We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a
Brock, Billy C.
2008-03-01
Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.
Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven
2013-01-01
This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…
Porrazzo, Serena; Morgado, Alonso; San Segundo Bello, David; Cannillo, Francesco; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat; van Roermund, Arthur H M; Cantatore, Eugenio
2013-10-01
This paper presents a low-power switched-capacitor ∆Σ modulator for digital hearing-aid applications that features a novel summing successive approximation (SAR). The summing SAR performs multi-bit quantization together with the analog addition required in feed-forward (FF) ∆Σ modulator (∆ΣM) topologies, with no attenuation of the input signals and no need for amplifiers. The prototype is implemented in a 0.18- μ m CMOS technology and its measurements demonstrate a dynamic range of 88 dB in 10 kHz bandwidth while consuming 155 μW from a 1.8 V supply. The combined use of passive addition and SAR quantization reduces the complexity and power consumption of the modulator. The summing SAR ADC quantizer results in a calculated power saving of 40% when compared to a multi-bit FF ∆ΣM using active addition and flash quantization. PMID:24232624
Accuracy of a Digital Weight Scale Relative to the Nintendo Wii in Measuring Limb Load Asymmetry
Kumar, NS Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah
2014-01-01
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry. PMID:25202181
Habecker, Patrick; Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal
2015-01-01
Researchers interested in studying populations that are difficult to reach through traditional survey methods can now draw on a range of methods to access these populations. Yet many of these methods are more expensive and difficult to implement than studies using conventional sampling frames and trusted sampling methods. The network scale-up method (NSUM) provides a middle ground for researchers who wish to estimate the size of a hidden population, but lack the resources to conduct a more specialized hidden population study. Through this method it is possible to generate population estimates for a wide variety of groups that are perhaps unwilling to self-identify as such (for example, users of illegal drugs or other stigmatized populations) via traditional survey tools such as telephone or mail surveys—by asking a representative sample to estimate the number of people they know who are members of such a “hidden” subpopulation. The original estimator is formulated to minimize the weight a single scaling variable can exert upon the estimates. We argue that this introduces hidden and difficult to predict biases, and instead propose a series of methodological advances on the traditional scale-up estimation procedure, including a new estimator. Additionally, we formalize the incorporation of sample weights into the network scale-up estimation process, and propose a recursive process of back estimation “trimming” to identify and remove poorly performing predictors from the estimation process. To demonstrate these suggestions we use data from a network scale-up mail survey conducted in Nebraska during 2014. We find that using the new estimator and recursive trimming process provides more accurate estimates, especially when used in conjunction with sampling weights. PMID:26630261
Park, Jae Young; Lim, Gina; Oh, Ki Won; Ryu, Dong Soo; Park, Seonghun; Jeon, Jong Chul; Cheon, Sang Hyeon; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Park, Sejun
2015-01-01
Purpose Anogential distance (AGD) and the 2:4 digit length ratio appear to provide a reliable guide to fetal androgen exposure. We intended to investigate the current status of penile size and the relationship between penile length and AGD or digit length according to birth weight in Korean newborn infants. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and February 2014, among a total of 78 newborn male infants, 55 infants were prospectively included in this study. Newborn male infants with a gestational age of 38 to 42 weeks and birth weight>2.5 kg were assigned to the NW group (n=24) and those with a gestational age<38 weeks and birth weight<2.5 kg were assigned to the LW group (n=31). Penile size and other variables were compared between the two groups. Results Stretched penile length of the NW group was 3.3±0.2 cm, which did not differ significantly from that reported in 1987. All parameters including height, weight, penile length, testicular size, AGD, and digit length were significantly lower in the LW group than in the NW group. However, there were no significant differences in AGD ratio or 2:4 digit length ratio between the two groups. Conclusions The penile length of newborn infants has not changed over the last quarter century in Korea. With normal penile appearance, the AGD ratio and 2:4 digit length ratio are consistent irrespective of birth weight, whereas AGD, digit length, and penile length are significantly smaller in newborns with low birth weight. PMID:25763130
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monien, H.
2010-04-01
Gaussian quadrature is a well-known technique for numerical integration. Recently Gaussian quadrature with respect to discrete measures corresponding to finite sums has found some new interest. In this paper we apply these ideas to infinite sums in general and give an explicit construction for the weights and abscissae of Gaussian formulas. The abscissae of the Gaussian summation have a very interesting asymptotic distribution function with a kink singularity. We apply the Gaussian summation technique to two problems which have been discussed in the literature. We find that the Gaussian summation has a very rapid convergence rate for the Hardy-Littlewood sum for a large range of parameters.
Mesh skin graft and digital pad transfer to reconstruct the weight-bearing surface in a dog
Rahal, Sheila C.; Mortari, Ana C.; Morishin Filho, Milton M.
2007-01-01
A 2-month-old dog was presented with injuries involving both hind paws. Only the 5th digit and its digital pad were present on the right paw. Following a full-thickness skin graft, the 5th digital pad was transferred distal to the metatarsal bones. The transferred pad permitted weight-bearing on the limb. PMID:18189047
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Huaqiang; Liu, Fengshan; Consalvi, Jean-Louis
2014-08-01
The relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model and the full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) model in isothermal and homogeneous media is investigated in this paper. The SLW transfer equation can be derived from the FSK transfer equation expressed in the k-distribution function without approximation. It confirms that the SLW model is equivalent to the FSK model in the k-distribution function form. The numerical implementation of the SLW relies on a somewhat arbitrary discretization of the absorption cross section whereas the FSK model finds the spectrally integrated intensity by integration over the smoothly varying cumulative-k distribution function using a Gaussian quadrature scheme. The latter is therefore in general more efficient as a fewer number of gray gases is required to achieve a prescribed accuracy. Sample numerical calculations were conducted to demonstrate the different efficiency of these two methods. The FSK model is found more accurate than the SLW model in radiation transfer in H2O; however, the SLW model is more accurate in media containing CO2 as the only radiating gas due to its explicit treatment of ‘clear gas.’
Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981
Gharehkhani, Samira; Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981
Review of innovations in digital health technology to promote weight control.
Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S
2014-01-01
Advances in technology have contributed to the obesity epidemic and worsened health by reducing opportunities for physical activity and by the proliferation of inexpensive calorie-dense foods. However, much of the same technology can be used to counter these troublesome trends by fostering the development and maintenance of healthy eating and physical activity habits. In contrast to intensive face-to-face treatments, technology-based interventions also have the potential to reach large numbers of individuals at low cost. The purpose of this review is to discuss studies in which digital technology has been used for behavioral weight control, report on advances in consumer technology that are widely adopted but insufficiently tested, and explore potential future directions for both. Web-based, mobile (eg, smartphone), virtual reality, and gaming technologies are the focus of discussion. The best evidence exists to support the use of digital technology for self-monitoring of weight-related behaviors and outcomes. However, studies are underway that will provide additional, important information regarding how best to apply digital technology for behavioral weight control. PMID:24664797
Adherent Use of Digital Health Trackers Is Associated with Weight Loss.
Pourzanjani, Arya; Quisel, Tom; Foschini, Luca
2016-01-01
We study the association between weight fluctuation and activity tracking in an on-line population of thousands of individuals using digital health trackers (1,749 ≤ N ≤ 14,411, depending on the activity tracker considered) with millions of recorded activities (119,292 ≤ N ≤ 2,221,382) over the years 2013-2015. In a first between-subject analysis, we found a positive association between activity tracking frequency and weight loss. Users who log food with moderate frequency lost an additional 0.63% (CI [0.55, 0.72]; p < .001) of their body weight per month relative to low frequency loggers. Frequent workout loggers lost an additional 0.38% (CI [0.20, 0.56]; p < .001) and frequent weight loggers lost an additional 0.40% (CI [0.33, 0.47]; p < .001) as compared to infrequent loggers. In a subsequent within-subject analysis on a subset of the population (799 ≤ N ≤ 6,052) with sufficient longitudinal data, we used fixed effect models to explore the temporal relationship between a change in tracking adherence and weight change. We found that for the same individual, weight loss is significantly higher during periods of high adherence to tracking vs. periods of low adherence: +2.74% of body weight lost per month (CI [2.68, 2.81]; p < .001) during adherent weight tracking, +1.35% per month (CI [1.26, 1.43]; p < .001) during adherent food tracking, and +0.60% per month (CI [0.44, 0.76]; p < .001) during adherent workout tracking. The findings suggest that adherence to activity tracking can be utilized as a convenient real-time predictor of weight fluctuations, enabling large-scale, personalized intervention strategies. PMID:27049859
Adherent Use of Digital Health Trackers Is Associated with Weight Loss
Pourzanjani, Arya; Quisel, Tom; Foschini, Luca
2016-01-01
We study the association between weight fluctuation and activity tracking in an on-line population of thousands of individuals using digital health trackers (1,749 ≤ N ≤ 14,411, depending on the activity tracker considered) with millions of recorded activities (119,292 ≤ N ≤ 2,221,382) over the years 2013–2015. In a first between-subject analysis, we found a positive association between activity tracking frequency and weight loss. Users who log food with moderate frequency lost an additional 0.63% (CI [0.55, 0.72]; p < .001) of their body weight per month relative to low frequency loggers. Frequent workout loggers lost an additional 0.38% (CI [0.20, 0.56]; p < .001) and frequent weight loggers lost an additional 0.40% (CI [0.33, 0.47]; p < .001) as compared to infrequent loggers. In a subsequent within-subject analysis on a subset of the population (799 ≤ N ≤ 6,052) with sufficient longitudinal data, we used fixed effect models to explore the temporal relationship between a change in tracking adherence and weight change. We found that for the same individual, weight loss is significantly higher during periods of high adherence to tracking vs. periods of low adherence: +2.74% of body weight lost per month (CI [2.68, 2.81]; p < .001) during adherent weight tracking, +1.35% per month (CI [1.26, 1.43]; p < .001) during adherent food tracking, and +0.60% per month (CI [0.44, 0.76]; p < .001) during adherent workout tracking. The findings suggest that adherence to activity tracking can be utilized as a convenient real-time predictor of weight fluctuations, enabling large-scale, personalized intervention strategies. PMID:27049859
3D view weighted cone-beam backprojection reconstruction for digital tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baojun; Avinash, Gopal; Claus, Bernhard; Metz, Stephen
2007-03-01
Cone-beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) is one of the major reconstruction algorithms for digital tomosynthesis. In conventional FBP, the photon fluxes in projections are evenly distributed along the X-ray beam. Due to the limited view angles and finite detector dimensions, this uniform weighting causes non-uniformity in the recon images and leads to cone-beam artifact. In this paper, we propose a 3-D view weighting technique in combination with FBP to combat this artifact. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was placed at supine position to enable the imaging of chest PA view. During a linear sweep of X-ray source, 41 X-ray images at different projection angles were acquired with the following protocol: 120kVp, 160mA, and 0.64mAs/exposure. To create the worst scenario for testing, we chose 60 degrees as the sweep angle in this exam. The data set was reconstructed with conventional CB-FBP and proposed algorithm under the same parameters: FOV = 40x40 cm^2, and slice thickness = 4mm. 3 recon slices were randomly selected for review with slice height = 10.5/14.5/17.5cm. Results were assessed qualitatively by human observers and quantitatively through ROI measurement. In each slice, three pre-defined ROIs (50x50 pixels)--ROI A and B are in artifact more pronounced area, and ROI C is in relatively artifact-free area--are extracted and measured. The non-uniformity error was defined as the ratio of MEAN(AVG(C-A), AVG(C-B)) / AVG(C). The average non-uniformity error over the three test images was 0.428 for without view weighting and only 0.041 for with view weighting.
Digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction using spatially weighted non-convex regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jiabei; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Chan, Heang-Ping
2016-03-01
Regularization is an effective strategy for reducing noise in tomographic reconstruction. This paper proposes a spatially weighted non-convex (SWNC) regularization method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image reconstruction. With a non-convex cost function, this method can suppress noise without blurring microcalcifications (MC) and spiculations of masses. To minimize the non-convex cost function, we apply a majorize-minimize separable quadratic surrogate algorithm (MM-SQS) that is further accelerated by ordered subsets (OS). We applied the new method to a heterogeneous breast phantom and to human subject DBT data, and observed improved image quality in both situations. A quantitative study also showed that the SWNC method can significantly enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio of MCs. By properly selecting its parameters, the SWNC regularizer can preserve the appearance of the mass margins and breast parenchyma.
Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim
2014-01-01
In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an NP-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem. PMID:25844012
Integrated-Circuit Active Digital Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathan, R.
1986-01-01
Pipeline architecture with parallel multipliers and adders speeds calculation of weighted sums. Picture-element values and partial sums flow through delay-adder modules. After each cycle or time unit of calculation, each value in filter moves one position right. Digital integrated-circuit chips with pipeline architecture rapidly move 35 X 35 two-dimensional convolutions. Need for such circuits in image enhancement, data filtering, correlation, pattern extraction, and synthetic-aperture-radar image processing: all require repeated calculations of weighted sums of values from images or two-dimensional arrays of data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gang, Jin; Yiqi, Zhuang; Yue, Yin; Miao, Cui
2015-03-01
A novel digitally controlled automatic gain control (AGC) loop circuitry for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver chip is presented. The entire AGC loop contains a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an AGC circuit and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is implemented in a 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and measured. A binary-weighted approach is proposed in the PGA to achieve wide dB-linear gain control with small gain error. With binary-weighted cascaded amplifiers for coarse gain control, and parallel binary-weighted trans-conductance amplifier array for fine gain control, the PGA can provide a 64 dB dynamic range from -4 to 60 dB in 1.14 dB gain steps with a less than 0.15 dB gain error. Based on the Gaussian noise statistic characteristic of the GNSS signal, a digital AGC circuit is also proposed with low area and fast settling. The feed-backward AGC loop occupies an area of 0.27 mm2 and settles within less than 165 μs while consuming an average current of 1.92 mA at 1.8 V.
Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S
2015-01-01
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333
RIMELL, Andrew N.; MANSFIELD, Neil J.; PADDAN, Gurmail S.
2014-01-01
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker’s noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human’s response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pong, Wai Yan
2007-01-01
We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shi, Yixun
2010-01-01
Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-03-01
In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.
Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G
2016-01-01
In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy. PMID:27043756
Schneider, Iris K; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L
2014-01-01
Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942
Schneider, Iris K.; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.
2015-01-01
Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.
1994-01-01
An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.
Digital combining-weight estimation for broadband sources using maximum-likelihood estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodemich, E. R.; Vilnrotter, V. A.
1994-01-01
An algorithm described for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system is compared with the maximum-likelihood estimate. This provides some improvement in performance, with an increase in computational complexity. However, the maximum-likelihood algorithm is simple enough to allow implementation on a PC-based combining system.
A new state reconstructor for digital controls systems using weighted-average measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polites, Michael E.
1989-01-01
A state reconstructor is presented for a linear continuous-time plant driven by a zero-order-hold. It takes a continuous-time output vector from the plant and convolutes it with a weighting-function matrix whose elements are time dependent. This result is integrated over T second intervals to generate weighted-averaged measurements, every T seconds, that are used in the state reconstruction process. If the plant is noise-free and can be modeled precisely, the output of this state reconstructor exactly equals the true state of the plant and accomplishes this without knowledge of the plant's initial state. If noise or modeling errors are a problem, it can be catenated with a state observer or a Kalman filter for a synergistic effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaoming; Mei, Ming; Liu, Jun; Hu, Wei
2015-12-01
Clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in mammograms are an important early sign of breast cancer in women. Their accurate detection is important in computer-aided detection (CADe). In this paper, we integrated the possibilistic fuzzy c-means (PFCM) clustering algorithm and weighted support vector machine (WSVM) for the detection of MC clusters in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). For each image, suspicious MC regions are extracted with region growing and active contour segmentation. Then geometry and texture features are extracted for each suspicious MC, a mutual information-based supervised criterion is used to select important features, and PFCM is applied to cluster the samples into two clusters. Weights of the samples are calculated based on possibilities and typicality values from the PFCM, and the ground truth labels. A weighted nonlinear SVM is trained. During the test process, when an unknown image is presented, suspicious regions are located with the segmentation step, selected features are extracted, and the suspicious MC regions are classified as containing MC or not by the trained weighted nonlinear SVM. Finally, the MC regions are analyzed with spatial information to locate MC clusters. The proposed method is evaluated using a database of 410 clinical mammograms and compared with a standard unweighted support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The detection performance is evaluated using response receiver operating (ROC) curves and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves. The proposed method obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.8676, while the standard SVM obtained an area of 0.8268 for MC detection. For MC cluster detection, the proposed method obtained a high sensitivity of 92 % with a false-positive rate of 2.3 clusters/image, and it is also better than standard SVM with 4.7 false-positive clusters/image at the same sensitivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.
2012-06-01
The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.
Summing pressure compensation control
Myers, H.A.
1988-04-26
This patent describes a summing pressure compensator control for hydraulic loads with at least one of the hydraulic loads being a variable displacement motor having servo means for controlling the displacement thereof, first hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to the variable displacement motor to provide a first pressure signal, second hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to a second hydraulic load to provide a second pressure signal, summing means for receiving the first and second pressure signals and providing a control signal proportional to the sum of the first and second pressure signals, the control signal being applied to the servo means to increase the displacement of the variable displacement motor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinrath, Martin
2016-06-01
There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, G.
1982-01-01
Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-06-01
Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-11-01
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
Counting Triangles to Sum Squares
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMaio, Joe
2012-01-01
Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeTemple, Duane
2010-01-01
Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…
Iterated binomial sums and their associated iterated integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; Raab, C. G.; Schneider, C.
2014-11-01
We consider finite iterated generalized harmonic sums weighted by the binomial binom{2k}{k} in numerators and denominators. A large class of these functions emerges in the calculation of massive Feynman diagrams with local operator insertions starting at 3-loop order in the coupling constant and extends the classes of the nested harmonic, generalized harmonic, and cyclotomic sums. The binomially weighted sums are associated by the Mellin transform to iterated integrals over square-root valued alphabets. The values of the sums for N → ∞ and the iterated integrals at x = 1 lead to new constants, extending the set of special numbers given by the multiple zeta values, the cyclotomic zeta values and special constants which emerge in the limit N → ∞ of generalized harmonic sums. We develop algorithms to obtain the Mellin representations of these sums in a systematic way. They are of importance for the derivation of the asymptotic expansion of these sums and their analytic continuation to N in {C}. The associated convolution relations are derived for real parameters and can therefore be used in a wider context, as, e.g., for multi-scale processes. We also derive algorithms to transform iterated integrals over root-valued alphabets into binomial sums. Using generating functions we study a few aspects of infinite (inverse) binomial sums.
Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter
Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.
1992-12-31
A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one of two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages change the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.
Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.
2011-01-01
This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.
Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.
2016-07-01
Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.
A 2-categorical state sum model
Baratin, Aristide; Freidel, Laurent
2015-01-15
It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027–2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov’s invariant of 4-manifolds.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,more » violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).« less
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
Weighted Uncertainty Relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-03-01
Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation.
Weighted Uncertainty Relations
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-01-01
Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablinger, Jakob; Blümlein, Johannes; Schneider, Carsten
2013-08-01
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; Blümlein, Johannes
2013-08-15
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
QCD sum rules on the complex Borel plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, Ken-Ji; Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2014-07-01
Borel-transformed QCD sum rules conventionally use a real-valued parameter (the Borel mass) for specifying the exponential weight over which hadronic spectral functions are averaged. In this paper, it is shown that the Borel mass can be generalized to have complex values and that new classes of sum rules can be derived from the resulting averages over the spectral functions. The real and imaginary parts of these novel sum rules turn out to have damped oscillating kernels and potentially contain a larger amount of information on the hadronic spectrum than the real-valued QCD sum rules. As a first practical test, we have formulated complex Borel sum rules for the φ -meson channel and have analyzed them using the maximum entropy method, by which we can extract the most probable spectral function from the sum rules without strong assumptions on its functional form. As a result, it is demonstrated that, compared to earlier studies, the complex-valued sum rules allow us to extract the spectral function with a significantly improved resolution and thus to study more detailed structures of the hadronic spectrum than previously possible.
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2013-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thaheem, A. B.
2005-01-01
Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
1997-01-01
Presents an exercise suitable for beginning calculus students that may give insight into series representations and allow students to see some elementary application of these representations. The Fourier series is used to approximate by taking sums of trigonometric functions of the form sin(ns) and cos(nx) for n is greater than or = zero. (PVD)
Robust adiabatic sum frequency conversion.
Suchowski, Haim; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2009-07-20
We discuss theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the robustness of the adiabatic sum frequency conversion method. This technique, borrowed from an analogous scheme of robust population transfer in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance, enables the achievement of nearly full frequency conversion in a sum frequency generation process for a bandwidth up to two orders of magnitude wider than in conventional conversion schemes. We show that this scheme is robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and of the incoming light. These include the crystal temperature, the frequency of the incoming field, the pump intensity, the crystal length and the angle of incidence. Also, we show that this extremely broad bandwidth can be tuned to higher or lower central wavelengths by changing either the pump frequency or the crystal temperature. The detailed study of the properties of this converter is done using the Landau-Zener theory dealing with the adiabatic transitions in two level systems. PMID:19654679
Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings
Bardakci, Korkut
2006-02-16
In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.
Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, Niels G.
2008-01-01
Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinson, E. W.
1981-01-01
The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.
Optimal generalized multistep integration formulae for real-time digital simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moerder, D. D.; Halyo, N.
1985-01-01
The problem of discretizing a dynamical system for real-time digital simulation is considered. Treating the system and its simulation as stochastic processes leads to a statistical characterization of simulator fidelity. A plant discretization procedure based on an efficient matrix generalization of explicit linear multistep discrete integration formulae is introduced, which minimizes a weighted sum of the mean squared steady-state and transient error between the system and simulator outputs.
Unit-Weighted Scales Imply Models that Should Be Tested!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beauducel, Andre; Leue, Anja
2013-01-01
In several studies unit-weighted sum scales based on the unweighted sum of items are derived from the pattern of salient loadings in confirmatory factor analysis. The problem of this procedure is that the unit-weighted sum scales imply a model other than the initially tested confirmatory factor model. In consequence, it remains generally unknown…
The Robust Weighted Multi-Objective Game
2015-01-01
This paper studies a class of multi-objective n-person non-zero sum games through a robust weighted approach where each player has more than one competing objective. This robust weighted multi-objective game model assumes that each player attaches a set of weights to its objectives instead of accessing accurate weights. Each player wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objective where the maximization is pointing to the set of weights. To address this new model, a new equilibrium concept-robust weighted Nash equilibrium is obtained. The existence of this new concept is proven on suitable assumptions about the multi-objective payoffs. PMID:26406986
An efficient sampling technique for sums of bandpass functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, W. M.
1982-01-01
A well known sampling theorem states that a bandlimited function can be completely determined by its values at a uniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the highest frequency component of the function (Nyquist rate). A less familiar but important sampling theorem states that a bandlimited narrowband function can be completely determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the passband width. This allows for efficient digital demodulation of narrowband signals, which are common in sonar, radar and radio interferometry, without the side effect of signal group delay from an analog demodulator. This theorem was extended by developing a technique which allows a finite sum of bandlimited narrowband functions to be determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density can be made arbitrarily close to the sum of the passband widths.
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating
Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Timothy R.
2013-01-01
One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…
Fundamentals of Sum-Frequency Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Y. R.
2016-02-01
1. Historical perspective; 2. Basics of nonlinear optics; 3. Basic theory for surface sum-frequency generation; 4. Experimental considerations; 5. Characterization of bulk materials; 6. Molecular adsorbates at interfaces; 7. Structures and properties of solid surfaces; 8. Interfacial liquid structures; 9. Interfaces of polymers and organic materials; 10. Biomolecules and biological interfaces; 11. Sum-frequency chiral spectroscopy; 12. Miscellaneous topics.
Where Does Latin "Sum" Come From?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyman, Martti A.
1977-01-01
The derivation of Latin "sum,""es(s),""est" from Indo-European "esmi,""est,""esti" involves methodological problems. It is claimed here that the development of "sum" from "esmi" is related to the origin of the variation "est-st" (less than"esti"). The study is primarily concerned with this process, but chronological suggestions are also made. (CHK)
Fouvry, Étienne; Kowalski, Emmanuel; Michel, Philippe
2015-01-01
We give a general version of cancellation in exponential sums that arise as sums of products of trace functions satisfying a suitable independence condition related to the Goursat–Kolchin–Ribet criterion, in a form that is easily applicable in analytic number theory. PMID:25802414
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings
Amore, Paolo
2013-11-15
We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N−1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.
Sums-of-Products and Subproblem Independence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stearns, Richard E.; Hunt, Harry B.
Sums-of-products provide a basis for describing certain computational problems, particularly problems related to constraint satisfaction including SAT, MAX SAT, and #SAT. They also can be used to describe many problems arising from graph theory. By modeling a problem as a sum-of-products problem, the concept of “subproblem independence” takes on a clear meaning. Subproblem independence has immediate computational implications since it can be used to create programs with reduced levels of nesting and programs which exploit memoization. The concept of subproblem independence also extends to quantified sums.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-10-06
This code is a set of global sums to support the paper "Computational Reproducibility for Production Physics Applications" submitted to the Numerical Reproducibility at Exascale (NRE 2015) workshop at the 2015 Supercomputing conference, Nov. 20, 2015
Generalized Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule
Zhou Binglu; Zhu Jiongming; Yan Zongchao
2006-01-15
The generalized Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is established for any Coulombic system with arbitrary masses and charges of its constituent particles. Numerical examples are given for the hydrogen molecular ions.
Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Willie
1992-01-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubler, Alfred
2009-03-01
The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/
Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance
Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.
1993-06-01
The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, {nu}{sub x} + 2{nu}{sub z} = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 {mu}s was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J{sub x} and J{sub z}, was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region.
A class of optimum digital phase locked loops for the DSN advanced receiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.
1985-01-01
A class of optimum digital filters for digital phase locked loop of the deep space network advanced receiver is discussed. The filter minimizes a weighted combination of the variance of the random component of the phase error and the sum square of the deterministic dynamic component of phase error at the output of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO). By varying the weighting coefficient over a suitable range of values, a wide set of filters are obtained such that, for any specified value of the equivalent loop-noise bandwidth, there corresponds a unique filter in this class. This filter thus has the property of having the best transient response over all possible filters of the same bandwidth and type. The optimum filters are also evaluated in terms of their gain margin for stability and their steady-state error performance.
Thermal operator representation for Matsubara sums
Espinosa, Olivier
2005-03-15
We prove in full generality the thermal operator representation for Matsubara sums in a relativistic field theory of scalar and fermionic particles. It states that the full result of performing the Matsubara sum associated to any given Feynman graph, in the imaginary-time formalism of finite-temperature field theory, can be directly obtained from its corresponding zero-temperature energy integral, by means of a simple linear operator, which is independent of the external Euclidean energies and whose form depends solely on the topology of the graph.
Z-Sum approach to loop integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottmann, Paulo A.
We study the applicability of the Z-Sum approach to multi-loop calculations with massive particles in perturbative quantum field theory. We systematically analyze the case of one-loop scalar integrals, which represent the building blocks of any higher-loop calculation. We focus in particular on triangle one-loop integrals and identify strengths and limitations of the Z-Sum approach, extending our results to the case of one-loop box integrals when appropriate. We conclude with the calculation of a specific physical example: the calculation of heavy flavor corrections to the renormalized scattering amplitude for deep inelastic scattering.
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... i -1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... i -1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
The Visual Interactive Computer-Aided Approach to Teaching Zero-Sum/Nonzero-Sum Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shim, J. P.
1988-01-01
Discusses the use of the microcomputer as an instructional tool in the domain of competitive decision making. Describes how visual interactive zero-sum/nonzero-sum games can be useful in teaching this subject. Compares student performances based on the visual interactive approach to those of traditional approaches. (GEA)
Tate, Deborah
2011-01-01
Background Previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcasts to deliver a behavioral weight-loss intervention. Objective The objective of our study was to examine whether a combination of podcasting, mobile support communication, and mobile diet monitoring can assist people in weight loss. Methods In this 6-month, minimal contact intervention, overweight (n = 96, body mass index 32.6 kg/m2) adults were recruited through television advertisements and email listservs and randomly assigned to Podcast-only or Podcast+Mobile groups. Both groups received 2 podcasts per week for 3 months and 2 minipodcasts per week for months 3–6. In addition to the podcasts, the Podcast+Mobile group was also instructed to use a diet and physical activity monitoring application (app) on their mobile device and to interact with study counselors and other participants on Twitter. Results Weight loss did not differ by group at 6 months: mean –2.7% (SD 5.6%) Podcast+Mobile, n = 47; mean –2.7% (SD 5.1%) Podcast, n = 49; P = .98. Days/week of reported diet monitoring did not differ between Podcast+Mobile (mean 2.3, SD 1.9 days/week) and Podcast groups (mean 1.9, SD 1.7 days/week; P = .28) but method of monitoring did differ. Podcast+Mobile participants were 3.5 times more likely than the Podcast group to use an app to monitor diet (P = .01), whereas the majority of Podcast participants reported using the Web (14/41, 34%) or paper (12/41, 29%). There were more downloads per episode in the Podcast+Mobile group (1.4/person) than in the Podcast group (1.1/person; P < .001). The number of podcasts participants reported downloading over the 6-month period was significantly moderately correlated with weight loss in both the Podcast+Mobile (r = –.46, P = .001) and the Podcast (r = –.53, P < .001) groups. Podcast+Mobile participants felt more user control at 3 months (P = .02), but not at 6 months, and there was a trend (P = .06) toward greater elaboration among
Generalized constructive tree weights
Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org
2014-04-15
The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.
Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spivey, Michael
2006-01-01
We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.
Generalized Sum Rules of the Nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam
2008-10-01
We consider doubly virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon with the photon virtualities q1^2=q2^2=-Q^2 and formulate the low energy theorem (LET) for this process. We show that the LET can only be defined at finite momentum transfer t=-2Q^2 which is at variance with existing studies in the literature. Combining LET with dispersion relations for the forward VVCS amplitude, we obtain the new, correct version of the generalized sum rules of the nucleon that state a correspondence between the low energy constants of VVCS and the moments of the DIS structure functions. We notice that the t-channel unitarity is necessary to translate the forward dispersion relations to the low energy limit. This approach leads to a substantial modification of the generalized GDH sum rule at finite Q^2 that undergoes extensive studies at JLab. For the spin-independent VVCS amplitude, the new sum rule for the generalized magnetic susceptibility β(Q^2) is obtained. Our approach provides a consistent, Lorentz invariant formulation of LET for the most general VVCS process that removes inconsistencies that stain the previous studies of the generalized polarizabilities of virtual Compton scattering and the generalized sum rules of the nucleon.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums
Amore, Paolo
2013-09-15
We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of inhomogeneous drums. •We discuss the extension to higher dimensions. •We discuss the special case of an inhomogeneity only along one direction.
Delivering both sum and difference beam distributions to a planar monopulse antenna array
Strassner, II, Bernd H.
2015-12-22
A planar monopulse radar apparatus includes a planar distribution matrix coupled to a planar antenna array having a linear configuration of antenna elements. The planar distribution matrix is responsive to first and second pluralities of weights applied thereto for providing both sum and difference beam distributions across the antenna array.
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)
1979-01-01
The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.
1990-01-01
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.
Sum Product Networks for Activity Recognition.
Amer, Mohamed R; Todorovic, Sinisa
2016-04-01
This paper addresses detection and localization of human activities in videos. We focus on activities that may have variable spatiotemporal arrangements of parts, and numbers of actors. Such activities are represented by a sum-product network (SPN). A product node in SPN represents a particular arrangement of parts, and a sum node represents alternative arrangements. The sums and products are hierarchically organized, and grounded onto space-time windows covering the video. The windows provide evidence about the activity classes based on the Counting Grid (CG) model of visual words. This evidence is propagated bottom-up and top-down to parse the SPN graph for the explanation of the video. The node connectivity and model parameters of SPN and CG are jointly learned under two settings, weakly supervised, and supervised. For evaluation, we use our new Volleyball dataset, along with the benchmark datasets VIRAT, UT-Interactions, KTH, and TRECVID MED 2011. Our video classification and activity localization are superior to those of the state of the art on these datasets. PMID:26390445
Digital Demodulator For Advanced Receiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadr, Ramin; Hurd, William J.
1990-01-01
Complexity and cost reduced by new design for half-band filters. Digital demodulator designed for use in reception of phase- and amplitude-modulated digital signals of bandwidths up to 15 MHz on microwave carriers. System performs coherent demodulation in phase and in quadrature with carrier locked in phase to intermediate frequency of 10 MHz. Design suitable for fabrication in very-large-scale integrated circuitry. Principal innovative feature of demodulator is design of half-band digital low-pass filters that remove sum-frequency components.
Precision digital pulse phase generator
McEwan, T.E.
1996-10-08
A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.
Precision digital pulse phase generator
McEwan, Thomas E.
1996-01-01
A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.
Real time pipelined system for forming the sum of products in the processing of video data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A 3-by-3 convolver utilizes 9 binary arithmetic units connected in cascade for multiplying 12-bit binary pixel values P sub i which are positive or two's complement binary numbers by 5-bit magnitide (plus sign) weights W sub i which may be positive or negative. The weights are stored in registers including the sign bits. For a negative weight, the one's complement of the pixel value to be multiplied is formed at each unit by a bank of 17 exclusive or gates G sub i under control of the sign of the corresponding weight W sub i, and a correction is made by adding the sum of the absolute values of all the negative weights for each 3-by-3 kernel. Since this correction value remains constant as long as the weights are constant, it can be precomputed and stored in a register as a value to be added to the product PW of the first arithmetic unit.
Gain weighted eigenspace assignment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II
1994-01-01
This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.
Popular weight reduction diets.
Volpe, Stella Lucia
2006-01-01
The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735
... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...
... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.
... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.
SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.
1993-01-01
Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.
SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.
1993-04-01
Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.
Coulomb sum rule for {sup 4}He
J. Carlson; J. Jourdan; R. Schiavilla; I. Sick
2002-10-01
We determine the Coulomb sum for {sup 4}He using world data on {sup 4}He(e, e') and compare the results to calculations based on realistic interactions and including two-body components in the nuclear charge operator. We find good agreement between theory and experiment using free-nucleon form factors. The apparent reduction of the in-medium G{sub ep} implied by IA-interpretation of the L/T-ratios measured in {sup 4}He(e,e'p) and {sup 4}He([vec]e, e'p) is not confirmed.
Fast bilateral filtering using recursive moving sum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Masaki; Ikebe, Masayuki; Shimoyama, Sohsuke; Motohisa, Junichi
We propose a constant-time algorithm for a bilateral filter. Bilateral filter can be converted into the operation of three-dimensional (3D) convolution. By using recursive moving sum, we can reduce the number of calculations needed to construct a pseudo-Gaussian filter. Applying one-dimensional Gaussian filter to the 3D convolution, we achieved a constant-time bilateral filter. We used a 3-GHz CPU without SIMD instructions, or multi-thread operations. We confirmed our proposed bilateral filter to be processed in constant time. In practical conditions, high PSNR values over 40 dB are obtained.
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
A cluster version of the GGT sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hencken, Kai; Baur, Gerhard; Trautmann, Dirk
2004-03-01
We discuss the derivation of a "cluster sum rule" from the Gellmann-Goldberger-Thirring (GGT) sum rule as an alternative to the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule, which was used as the basis up to now. We compare differences in the assumptions and approximations. Some applications of the sum rule for halo nuclei, as well as, nuclei with a pronounced cluster structure are discussed.
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.
2002-01-01
Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmore » efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.« less
Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements
Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig
2009-12-15
Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.
Simplified 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit based on polarization multiplexing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fangzheng; Gao, Bindong; Ge, Xiaozhong; Pan, Shilong
2016-03-01
A 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit is proposed and demonstrated based on polarization multiplexing. The proposed 2-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) unit is realized by optical intensity weighting and summing, and its complexity is greatly reduced compared with the traditional 2-bit photonic DACs. Performance of the proposed 2-bit DAC unit is experimentally investigated. The established 2-bit DAC unit achieves a good linear transfer function, and the effective number of bits is calculated to be 1.3. Based on the proposed 2-bit DAC unit, two DAC structures with higher (>2) bit resolutions are proposed and discussed, and the system complexity is expected to be reduced by half by using the proposed technique.
Digital control of a shaker to a specified shock spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unruh, J. F.
1982-05-01
A digital computer based control system was developed for a biaxial electrohydraulic shaker table used for seismic qualification testing of nuclear power plant components. The system drive signals were developed from a weighted linear sum of 1/6-octave psuedo random noise signals. Preliminary drive signal shaping is accomplished through the use of a series of table mounted dummy mass transfer functions obtained from a previously generated data bank. Adjustments to the drive signal are made by direct comparison of the resulting test response spectrum (TRS) to the required response spectrum (RRS). Drive signal shaping sequences for a 2000 lb electrical equipment control cabinet are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system for seismic qualification.
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wojcik, E. A.; Ni, D.; Lam, T. M.; Le Coz, Y. L.
2015-07-01
We have created the first stochastic SoP (Sum-over-Paths) algorithm to extract third-order impulse-response (IR) moment within RC IC interconnects. It employs a newly discovered Feynman SoP Postulate. Importantly, our algorithm maintains computational efficiency and full parallelism. Our approach begins with generation of s-domain nodal-voltage equations. We then perform a Taylor-series expansion of the circuit transfer function. These expansions yield transition diagrams involving mathematical coupling constants, or weight factors, in integral powers of complex frequency s. Our SoP Postulate enables stochastic evaluation of path sums within the circuit transition diagram to order s3-corresponding to the order of IR moment (m3) we seek here. We furnish, for the first time, an informal algebraic proof independently validating our SoP Postulate and algorithm. We list, as well, detailed procedural steps, suitable for coding, that define an efficient stochastic algorithm for m3 IR extraction. Origins of the algorithm's statistical "capacitor-number cubed" correction and "double-counting" weight factors are explained, for completeness. Our algorithm was coded and successfully tested against exact analytical solutions for 3-, 5-, and 10-stage RC lines. We achieved better than 0.65% 1-σ error convergence, after only 10K statistical samples, in less than 1 s of 2-GHz Pentium® execution time. These results continue to suggest that stochastic SoP algorithms may find useful application in circuit analysis of massively coupled networks, such as those encountered in high-end digital IC-interconnect CAD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wermes, N.
2011-09-01
The Pixel 2010 conference focused on semiconductor pixel detectors for particle tracking/vertexing as well as for imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs. The big LHC hybrid pixel detectors have impressively started showing their capabilities. X-ray imaging detectors, also using the hybrid pixel technology, have greatly advanced the experimental possibilities for diffraction experiments. Monolithic or semi-monolithic devices like CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels have now reached a state such that complete vertex detectors for RHIC and superKEKB are being built with these technologies. Finally, new advances towards fully monolithic active pixel detectors, featuring full CMOS electronics merged with efficient signal charge collection, exploiting standard CMOS technologies, SOI and/or 3D integration, show the path for the future. This résumé attempts to extract the main statements of the results and developments presented at this conference.
Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration
Lehman, S K
2011-07-06
How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and
Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.
1997-01-01
The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.
... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yakel, Elizabeth
2001-01-01
Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…
5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.222 How does OPM use the expenditure weights to... products, and divides by the sum of the weights used in the calculation. This produces a price index...
Summing NaI(Tl) detector (SuN) for radioactive beam experiments relevant for the p-process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Anna; Beskin, Ilya; Liddick, Sean; Padmanabhan, Karthik; Peace, Jessica; Quinn, Stephen; Spyrou, Artemis; Stefanek, Benjamin
2011-10-01
P-process refers to (γ,p), (γ, α) and (γ,n) reactions producing nuclei on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability that cannot be reached by s- and r-processes. This process can be investigated via inversed reactions, i.e. proton or alpha capture with gamma emission. Gamma spectra resulting from capture reactions, may be complicated in structure and as such difficult to analyze. However, this difficulty may be omitted by implementing a summing technique, for which all gamma rays emitted during the decay cascade are summed into one peak, so called ``sum peak.'' Thus, in ideal case, the resulting spectrum will comprise of one peak of the energy E = Ecm+Q. This technique has already been successfully tested during stable beam experiments. In order to apply this technique to radioactive beam experiments a new Summing NaI(Tl) (SuN) detector was designed at NSCL. It is a 16x16 inch cylindrical barrel divided into eight optically separated segments, each of them read by three photomultipliers. Each of the PMTs is read independently by a digital data acquisition system (DDAS) and the final sum spectrum is obtained by software summing of the individual spectra. Here, first results obtained with the SuN detector as well as its possible future applications will be presented.
Multireflection sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.
Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan
2015-08-18
We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with "m" total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ∼m times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of >m(1/2) and
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides.
Carr, Joshua K; Wang, Lu; Roy, Santanu; Skinner, James L
2015-07-23
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called "chiral" SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore's orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides
2015-01-01
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called “chiral” SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore’s orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
Sénéchal, Martin; Slaght, Jana; Bouchard, Danielle R.
2015-01-01
Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strategies were self-reported and weight loss success was defined as reaching a 5% weight loss in the last year. Results. Chosen strategies for weight loss vary across tertiles of CWE. Participants in the highest CWE tertile were about 4 to 20 times more likely to lose at least 5% of body weight in the past year compared to those in the lowest CWE tertile (P < 0.05). Discussion. Strategies used to lose weight and weight loss success using different weight loss strategies vary considerably across cumulative weight exposure. Thus, cumulative weight exposure might be a variable worth considering when intervening with this population. PMID:26161269
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.
1972-01-01
Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.
Analog simulation of flux-summing servo-model, phases 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hriber, E. J.
1984-01-01
The analog simulation was developed for a closed-loop system having an electrohydraulic flux-summing servo valve and actuator with associated inertial load. One-fourth of the system's total forward gain is carried by each of four channels. The present study successfully applied failure mode management techniques to the problem of channel failure. Digital logic circuitry was developed to maintain the overall forward gain of the system at a constant value, in the presence of channel failure. Finally, the stability of the system was verified, and performance characteristics were determined through the use of frequency response methods.
Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?
Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela
2013-01-01
Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. PMID:23969758
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem
2014-01-01
Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …
College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
2012-01-01
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…
An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth…
Charmonium sum rules applied to a holographic model
Hohler, Paul M.
2011-01-15
The heavy-quark QCD sum rules are applied to a model of charmonium based upon the gauge/gravity duality. We find that there is strong agreement between the moments of the polarization function calculated from the holographic model and the experimental data suggesting that the model is consistent with the heavy-quark QCD sum rules at zero temperature.
29 CFR 4044.75 - Other lump sum benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF... sum benefits. The value of a lump sum benefit which is not covered under § 4044.73 or § 4044.74 is equal to— (a) The value under the qualifying bid, if an insurer provides the benefit; or (b) The...
Finding sums for an infinite class of alternating series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-07-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the following form ?
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode
Amore, Paolo
2014-10-15
We show that the formulas for the sum rules for the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in two recent papers are incomplete when the system contains a zero mode. We prove that there are finite contributions of the zero mode to the sum rules and we explicitly calculate the expressions for the sum rules of order one and two. The previous results for systems that do not contain a zero mode are unaffected. - Highlights: • We discuss the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode. • We derive the explicit expressions for sum rules of order one and two. • We perform accurate numerical tests of these results for three examples.
Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Ian Robert
2013-01-01
This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun
2008-01-01
The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…
Design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, R. J.; Griffin, W.
1974-01-01
The design of an infant weight scale is reported that fits into an isolette without disturbing its controlled atmosphere. The scale platform uses strain gages to measure electronically deflections of cantilever beams positioned at its four corners. The weight of the infant is proportional to the sum of the output voltages produced by the gauges on each beam of the scale.
Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources
Meegan, Daniel V.
2010-01-01
Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed. PMID:21833251
Generalized sums over histories for quantum gravity (II). Simplicial conifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.
1993-08-01
This paper examines the issues involved with concretely implementing a sum over conifolds in the formulation of euclidean sums over histories for gravity. The first step in precisely formulating any sum over topological spaces is that one must have an algorithmically implementable method of generating a list of all spaces in the set to be summed over. This requirement causes well known problems in the formulation of sums over manifolds in four or more dimensions; there is no algorithmic method of determining whether or not a topological space is an n-manifold in five or more dimensions and the issue of whether or not such an algorithm exists is open in four. However, as this paper shows, conifolds are algorithmically decidable in four dimensions. Thus the set of 4-conifolds provides a starting point for a concrete implementation of euclidean sums over histories in four dimensions. Explicit algorithms for summing over various sets of 4-conifolds are presented in the context of Regge calculus.
On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs
Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan
2015-01-01
For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader
2014-12-01
Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1’, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call ‘metamaterial bits’, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental ‘metamaterial bytes’ with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.
Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader
2014-12-01
Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061
Digital demodulator-correlator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Layland, J. W.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Goldstein, R. M.; Hubbard, W. P. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
An apparatus for demodulation and correlation of a code modulated 10 MHz signal is presented. The apparatus is comprised of a sample and hold analog-to-digital converter synchronized by a frequency coherent 40 MHz pulse to obtain four evenly spaced samples of each of the signal. Each sample is added or subtracted to or from one of four accumulators to or from the separate sums. The correlation functions are then computed. As a further feature of the invention, multipliers are each multiplied by a squarewave chopper signal having a period that is long relative to the period of the received signal to foreclose contamination of the received signal by leakage from either of the other two terms of the multipliers.
Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2011-12-01
We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.
A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo
2014-08-01
A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
Adiabatic and diabatic process of sum frequency conversion.
Liqing, Ren; Yongfang, Li; Baihong, Li; Lei, Wang; Zhaohua, Wang
2010-09-13
Based on the dressed state formalism, we obtain the adiabatic criterion of the sum frequency conversion. We show that this constraint restricts the energy conversion between the two dressed fields, which are superpositions of the signal field and the sum frequency field. We also show that the evolution of the populations of the dressed fields, which in turn describes the conversion of light photons from the seed frequency to the sum frequency during propagation through the nonlinear crystal. Take the quasiphased matched (QPM) scheme as an example, we calculate the expected bandwidth of the frequency conversion process, and its dependence on the length of the crystal. We demonstrate that the evolutionary patterns of the sum frequency field's energy are similar to the Fresnel diffraction of a light field. We finally show that the expected bandwidth can be also deduced from the evolution of the adiabaticity of the dressed fileds. PMID:20940935
Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle
Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal
2010-02-01
In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.
Q^2 dependence of generalized Baldin sum rule
Y. Liang
2005-02-01
The generalized Baldin sum rule for virtual photon, an unpolarized analog of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule, provides an unique way to investigate the transition between the perturbative QCD and hadronic descriptions of nucleon structure. We report on new measurements in Hall C at Jefferson Lab of the generalized Baldin integral for the proton at Q^2 of 0.3-4.0 GeV^2.
The odd-number sequence: squares and sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2015-11-01
Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.
Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules
Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.
2013-03-25
We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Azzam, Amy M.
2006-01-01
This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rios, Joseph
2012-01-01
Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blansett, Jim
2008-01-01
In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horn, Michael B.
2013-01-01
State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Abby
This paper is a response to discussions of digitization at meetings of the National Humanities Alliance (NHA). NHA asked the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) to evaluate the experiences of cultural institutions with digitization projects to date and to summarize what has been learned about the advantages and disadvantages of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schatten, Kenneth
1984-04-01
Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.
Non-Homogeneous Fractal Hierarchical Weighted Networks
Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan
2015-01-01
A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit. PMID:25849619
An Efficient Algorithm for Maximizing Range Sum Queries in a Road Network
Jung, HaRim; Kim, Ung-Mo
2014-01-01
Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25152915
Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator
... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...
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26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... .0233 84.7 .0233 84.6 .0234 84.5 .0234 84.4 .0234 84.3 .0234 84.2 .0235 84.1 .0235 84.0 .0235 83.9 .0236 83.8 .0236 83.7 .0236 83.6 .0236 83.5 .0237 83.4 .0237 83.3 .0237 83.2 .0238 83.1 .0238 83.0 .0238 82... .0330 59.5 .0331 59.4 .0331 59.3 .0332 59.2 .0332 59.1 .0333 59.0 .0333 58.9 .0334......
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... .0233 84.7 .0233 84.6 .0234 84.5 .0234 84.4 .0234 84.3 .0234 84.2 .0235 84.1 .0235 84.0 .0235 83.9 .0236 83.8 .0236 83.7 .0236 83.6 .0236 83.5 .0237 83.4 .0237 83.3 .0237 83.2 .0238 83.1 .0238 83.0 .0238 82... .0330 59.5 .0331 59.4 .0331 59.3 .0332 59.2 .0332 59.1 .0333 59.0 .0333 58.9 .0334......
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... .0233 84.7 .0233 84.6 .0234 84.5 .0234 84.4 .0234 84.3 .0234 84.2 .0235 84.1 .0235 84.0 .0235 83.9 .0236 83.8 .0236 83.7 .0236 83.6 .0236 83.5 .0237 83.4 .0237 83.3 .0237 83.2 .0238 83.1 .0238 83.0 .0238 82... .0330 59.5 .0331 59.4 .0331 59.3 .0332 59.2 .0332 59.1 .0333 59.0 .0333 58.9 .0334......
Betweenness centrality in a weighted network.
Wang, Huijuan; Hernandez, Javier Martin; Van Mieghem, Piet
2008-04-01
When transport in networks follows the shortest paths, the union of all shortest path trees G union or logical sum SPT can be regarded as the "transport overlay network." Overlay networks such as peer-to-peer networks or virtual private networks can be considered as a subgraph of G union or logical sum SPT. The traffic through the network is examined by the betweenness Bl of links in the overlay G union or logical sum SPT. The strength of disorder can be controlled by, e.g., tuning the extreme value index alpha of the independent and identically distributed polynomial link weights. In the strong disorder limit (alpha-->0), all transport flows over a critical backbone, the minimum spanning tree (MST). We investigate the betweenness distributions of wide classes of trees, such as the MST of those well-known network models and of various real-world complex networks. All these trees with different degree distributions (e.g., uniform, exponential, or power law) are found to possess a power law betweenness distribution Pr[Bl=j] approximately j(-c). The exponent c seems to be positively correlated with the degree variance of the tree and to be insensitive of the size N of a network. In the weak disorder regime, transport in the network traverses many links. We show that a link with smaller link weight tends to carry more traffic. This negative correlation between link weight and betweenness depends on alpha and the structure of the underlying topology. PMID:18517688
An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.
Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K
2009-10-24
This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983
Modifying the sum over topological sectors and constraints on supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiberg, Nathan
2010-07-01
The standard lore about the sum over topological sectors in quantum field theory is that locality and cluster decomposition uniquely determine the sum over such sectors, thus leading to the usual θ-vacua. We show that without changing the local degrees of freedom, a theory can be modified such that the sum over instantons should be restricted; e.g. one should include only instanton numbers which are divisible by some integer p. This conclusion about the configuration space of quantum field theory allows us to carefully reconsider the quantization of parameters in supergravity. In particular, we show that FI-terms and nontrivial Kähler forms are quantized. This analysis also leads to a new derivation of recent results about linearized supergravity.
Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merhav, Neri
2011-09-01
We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.
Additional corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule
Londergan, J. T.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-12-01
We investigate some QCD corrections that contribute to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule but have not been included in previous analyses of it. We first review the techniques by which the xF{sub 3} structure function is extracted from combinations of neutrino and antineutrino cross sections. Next we investigate corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule, with particular attention to contributions arising from strange quark distributions and from charge symmetry violating parton distributions. We find that additional corrections from strange quarks and parton charge symmetry violation are likely to have a small but potentially significant role in decreasing the current discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical estimates of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule.
Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.
2012-09-01
Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro
2012-01-01
Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241
Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa
2012-01-01
Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350
Windsor, J S; Rodway, G W; Middleton, P M; McCarthy, S
2006-01-01
Objective The emergence of a new generation of “point‐and‐shoot” digital cameras offers doctors a compact, portable and user‐friendly solution to the recording of highly detailed digital photographs and video images. This work highlights the use of such technology, and provides information for those who wish to record, store and display their own medical images. Methods Over a 3‐month period, a digital camera was carried by a doctor in a busy, adult emergency department and used to record a range of clinical images that were subsequently transferred to a computer database. Results In total, 493 digital images were recorded, of which 428 were photographs and 65 were video clips. These were successfully used for teaching purposes, publications and patient records. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of informed consent, the selection of a suitable package of digital technology and the role of basic photographic technique in developing a successful digital database in a busy clinical environment. PMID:17068281
Mattoon, J S
2006-01-01
Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994
A Derivative of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule
Vladimir Pascalutsa; Barry Holstein; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2004-08-01
We derive a sum rule which establishes a linear relation between a particle's anomalous magnetic moment and a quantity connected to the photoabsorption cross-section. This quantity cannot be measured directly. However, it can be computed within a given theory. As an example, we demonstrate validity of the sum rule in QED at tree level---the renowned Schwinger's correction to the anomalous magnetic moment is readily reproduced. In the case of the strong interactions, we also consider the calculation of the nucleon magnetic moment within chiral theories.
Spectral sum rules for confining large- N theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherman, Aleksey; McGady, David A.; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-06-01
We consider asymptotically-free four-dimensional large- N gauge theories with massive fermionic and bosonic adjoint matter fields, compactified on squashed three-spheres, and examine their regularized large- N confined-phase spectral sums. The analysis is done in the limit of vanishing 't Hooft coupling, which is justified by taking the size of the compactification manifold to be small compared to the inverse strong scale Λ-1. Our results motivate us to conjecture some universal spectral sum rules for these large N gauge theories.
Geometrical representation of sum frequency generation and adiabatic frequency conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchowski, Haim; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2008-12-01
We present a geometrical representation of the process of sum frequency generation in the undepleted pump approximation, in analogy with the known optical Bloch equations. We use this analogy to propose a technique for achieving both high efficiency and large bandwidth in sum frequency conversion using the adiabatic inversion scheme. The process is analogous with rapid adiabatic passage in NMR, and adiabatic constraints are derived in this context. This adiabatic frequency conversion scheme is realized experimentally using an aperiodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) device, where we achieved high efficiency signal-to-idler conversion over a bandwidth of 140nm .
Nucleon QCD sum rules in the instanton medium
Ryskin, M. G.; Drukarev, E. G. Sadovnikova, V. A.
2015-09-15
We try to find grounds for the standard nucleon QCD sum rules, based on a more detailed description of the QCD vacuum. We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the small-size instantons and some long-wave gluon fluctuations. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rule equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small-size instantons contribution is w{sub s} ≈ 2/3.
Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Clifford
2002-01-01
Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…
5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post... DEC. (b) Step 2. OPM multiplies the price index for each DEC by its expenditure weight, sums the...
5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post... DEC. (b) Step 2. OPM multiplies the price index for each DEC by its expenditure weight, sums the...
5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post... DEC. (b) Step 2. OPM multiplies the price index for each DEC by its expenditure weight, sums the...
Weighted conditional least-squares estimation
Booth, J.G.
1987-01-01
A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.
The origins of quark-hadron duality: How does the square of the sum become the sum of the squares?
Frank E. Close; Nathan Isgur
2001-01-30
Bloom-Gilman duality demonstrates empirically that the electroproduction of N*'s at low momentum transfers averages smoothly around the scaling curve measured at large momentum transfers. The latter is proportional to the sum of the squares of the constituent charges whereas the former involves the coherent excitation of resonances and is driven by the square of summed constituent charges. We determine the minimal necessary conditions for this equality to be realized so that duality can occur and consider the implications for a range of processes that may be studied soon at CEBAF.
Zero-sum two-person games in LCP
Parthasarathy, T.
1994-12-31
In zero-sum two-person games, von Neumann`s minimax theorem and Kaplansky`s theorem on completely mixed games play a significant role. We derive some new and interesting results in Linear complementarity problem using the above mentioned theorems, especially in identifying certain class of Q-matrices.
Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-06-01
We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.
Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zia, Lee
1991-01-01
Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun
1994-01-01
We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.
The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin
2013-01-01
An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.
The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albright, Brian
2012-01-01
We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.
2005-01-01
The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…
Inequalities for frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1986-01-01
The relations between the various frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids, which include even-power moments, are systematically examined by using the Cauchy-Schwarz and Hoelder inequalities. A relation involving the isothermal sound velocity and the kinetic and potential energies is obtained from one of the inequalities in the long-wavelength limit, and is generalized to arbitrary spatial dimensions.
Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2014-11-01
Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M̅S̅ scheme m̅b(m̅b) ≈ 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ≈ 210-220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ≈ 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m̅b(m̅b) = 4:247 GeV: (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants—and especially for the ratio fB* / fB—prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.
Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2016-01-01
We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.
Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-03-01
We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.
Programmable Digital Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wassick, Gregory J.
2012-01-01
An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...