Sample records for weighted digital sums

  1. The subsequence weight distribution of summed maximum length digital sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.; Wallace, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop mathematical formulas to provide the basis for the design of pseudorandom signals intended for applications requiring accurate knowledge of the statistics of the signals. The analysis approach involves calculating the first five central moments of the weight distribution of subsequences of hybrid-sum sequences. The hybrid-sum sequence is formed from the modulo-two sum of k maximum length sequences and is an extension of the sum sequences formed from two maximum length sequences that Gilson (1966) evaluated. The weight distribution of the subsequences serves as an approximation to the filtering process. The basic reason for the analysis of hybrid-sum sequences is to establish a large group of sequences with good statistical properties. It is shown that this can be accomplished much more efficiently using the hybrid-sum approach rather than forming the group strictly from maximum length sequences.

  2. Energy weighted sum rules for spectral functions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Ventura, J. (Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)); Amari, S.; Dickhoff, W.H. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The energy weighted sum rule of single-particle spectral functions in nuclear matter is studied. The spectral functions include the influence of short-range correlations as generated by the Reid potential in the framework of the self-consistent Green's function method. For the range of momenta studied, the sum rule is rather accurately fulfilled numerically (within 5%). It is observed that the high-energy tail of the particle part of the spectral function exhausts most of the sum rule, which confirms the need for the appearance of single-particle strength at very high energies.

  3. Aggregating sustainability indicators: beyond the weighted sum.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Hazel V; Peters, Gregory M; Lundie, Sven; Moore, Stephen J

    2012-11-30

    Sustainability analysts and environmental decision makers often overcome the difficulty of interpreting comprehensive environmental profiles by aggregating the results using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. However, the wide variety of methodological approaches to weighting and aggregation introduces subjectivity and often uncertainty. It is important to select an approach that is consistent with the decision maker's information needs, but scant practical guidance is available to environmental managers on how to do this. In this paper, we aim to clarify the theoretical implications of an analyst's choice of MCDA method. By systematically examining the methodological decisions that must be made by the analyst at each stage of the assessment process, we aim to improve analysts' understanding of the relationship between MCDA theory and practice, and enable them to apply methods that are consistent with a decision maker's needs in any given problem context. PMID:22813856

  4. A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2012-01-01

    For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…

  5. WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, IV BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU

    E-print Network

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, IV BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU Key Words: Circle problem, Bessel functions, Riesz sums, weighted divisor sums, Dirichlet L formulas, each in- volving a finite trigonometric sum and a doubly infinite series of Bessel functions

  6. The sum of digits of polynomial values in arithmetic progressions

    E-print Network

    Stoll, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Let $q, m\\geq 2$ be integers with $(m,q-1)=1$. Denote by $s_q(n)$ the sum of digits of $n$ in the $q$-ary digital expansion. Further let $p(x)\\in mathbb{Z}[x]$ be a polynomial of degree $h\\geq 3$ with $p(\\mathbb{N})\\subset \\mathbb{N}$. We show that there exist $C=C(q,m,p)>0$ and $N_0=N_0(q,m,p)\\geq 1$, such that for all $g\\in\\mathbb{Z}$ and all $N\\geq N_0$, $$#\\{0\\leq n< N: \\quad s_q(p(n))\\equiv g \\bmod m\\}\\geq C N^{4/(3h+1)}.$$ This is an improvement over the general lower bound given by Dartyge and Tenenbaum (2006), which is $C N^{2/h!}$.

  7. Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ?Z = 2 nuclei within the SO(8) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefánik, Dušan; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand

    2013-12-01

    Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ?Z = 2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ?Z = 2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.

  8. Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ?Z?=?2 nuclei within the SO(8) model

    SciTech Connect

    Štefánik, Dušan [Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava (Slovenia); Šimkovic, Fedor [IEAP CTU, CZ-128 00 Prague, Czech Republic and BLTP, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Faessler, Amand [Inst. of Theor. Phys., University of Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2013-12-30

    Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ?Z?=?2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ?Z?=?2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.

  9. WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, III BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU

    E-print Network

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, III BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU involving finite trigonometric sums and doubly infinite series of Bessel functions. The two identities-0901621. Key Words and Phrases: circle problem; divisor problem; Bessel function series; weighted divisor

  10. A functional MOS transistor featuring gate-level weighted sum and threshold operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Shibata; Tadahiro Ohmi

    1992-01-01

    A functional MOS transistor is proposed which works more intelligently than a mere switching device. The functional transistor calculates the weighted sum of all input signals at the gate level, and controls the `on' and `off' of the transistor based on the result of such a weighted sum operation. Since the function is quite analogous to that of biological neurons,

  11. WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, II BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU

    E-print Network

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, II BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU involving finite trigonometric sums and doubly infinite series of Bessel functions. In each case identities involv- ing doubly infinite series of Bessel functions. The first involves the ordinary Bessel

  12. USING WEIGHTED SUM METHOD FOR THE CHOICE OF THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES BATTERY POWER SUPPLY

    E-print Network

    Mustakerov, Ivan

    USING WEIGHTED SUM METHOD FOR THE CHOICE OF THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES BATTERY POWER SUPPLY Daniela into account device working range, weight and price and also electrical battery power supply lifetime, temperature working range and its mechanics. The multicriteria optimization choice of the electrical battery

  13. Multidimensional Divide-and-Conquer and Weighted Digital Sums

    E-print Network

    Flajolet, Philippe

    and TM (n) (with d = M - 1) have solutions of the form Td(n) = n lgd-1 n + d-2 m=0 n lgm nAm(lg n) + cd) to derive exact solutions, which will be in the form (1.1) Td(n) = n lgd-1 n + d-2 m=0 n lgm nAm(lg n) + cd

  14. Spectral line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model for arbitrary RTE solvers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Denison; B. W. Webb

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for generating weighted-sum-of-gray gases (WSGG) models directly from the line-by-line spectra of H[sub 2]O. Emphasis is placed on obtaining detailed spectral division among the gray gases. Thus, for a given model spectrum, the gray gas weights are determined as blackbody fractional functions for specific subline spectral regions at all temperatures. The model allows the absorption

  15. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing Erik A. van polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems: birth-death process with killing, orthogonal polynomials, quasi- stationary distribution 2000

  16. A new airfuel WSGGM (weighted sum of gray gas model) for better utility

    E-print Network

    Yin, Chungen

    1 A new airfuel WSGGM (weighted sum of gray gas model) for better utility boiler simulation Intro: Why is WSGGM important Why need a new model The new airfuel WSGGM Demo: Implementation · WSGGM: N i LPk gi i eTa 0 , 1)( J j j gjii TbTa 1 1 ,,, )( A multiple gray gas model ­ Good

  17. A Groupwise Association Test for Rare Mutations Using a Weighted Sum Statistic

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Bo Eskerod; Browning, Sharon R.

    2009-01-01

    Resequencing is an emerging tool for identification of rare disease-associated mutations. Rare mutations are difficult to tag with SNP genotyping, as genotyping studies are designed to detect common variants. However, studies have shown that genetic heterogeneity is a probable scenario for common diseases, in which multiple rare mutations together explain a large proportion of the genetic basis for the disease. Thus, we propose a weighted-sum method to jointly analyse a group of mutations in order to test for groupwise association with disease status. For example, such a group of mutations may result from resequencing a gene. We compare the proposed weighted-sum method to alternative methods and show that it is powerful for identifying disease-associated genes, both on simulated and Encode data. Using the weighted-sum method, a resequencing study can identify a disease-associated gene with an overall population attributable risk (PAR) of 2%, even when each individual mutation has much lower PAR, using 1,000 to 7,000 affected and unaffected individuals, depending on the underlying genetic model. This study thus demonstrates that resequencing studies can identify important genetic associations, provided that specialised analysis methods, such as the weighted-sum method, are used. PMID:19214210

  18. EFFICIENT WEIGHTED-SUM-RATE MAXIMIZATION FOR A CLASS OF HALF-DUPLEX COOPERATIVE SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Tim

    allocation. Index Terms-- joint power and resource allocation; cooperative communication; convex optimization the jointly optimal power and channel re- source allocation that maximizes a weighted sum of the achievable; quasi-convexity 1. INTRODUCTION Cooperative communication systems seek to improve the quality of service

  19. WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, V BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU

    E-print Network

    Berndt, Bruce C.

    WEIGHTED DIVISOR SUMS AND BESSEL FUNCTION SERIES, V BRUCE C. BERNDT, SUN KIM, AND ALEXANDRU double series of Bessel functions that are intimately connected, respectively, with the classical the ordinary Bessel function of order , let Y(x) denote the second solution of Bessel's differential equation

  20. The Energy-Weighted and Non Energy-Weighted Gamow-Teller Sum Rules in Relativistic Random Phase Approximation

    E-print Network

    Haruki Kurasawa; Toshio Suzuki

    2003-09-25

    The non energy-weighted Gamow-Teller(GT) sum rule is satisfied in relativistic models, when all nuclear density-dependent terms, including Pauli blocking terms from nucleon-antinucleon excitations, are taken into account in the RPA correlation function. The no-sea approximation is equivalent to this approximation for the giant GT resonance state and satisfies the sum rule, but each of the total $\\beta_-$ and $\\beta_+$ strengths is different in the two approximations. It is also shown that the energy-weighted sum of the GT strengths for the $\\beta_-$ and $\\beta_+$ transitions in RPA is equal to the expectation value of the double commutator of the nuclear Hamiltonian with the GT operator, when the expectation value is calculated with the ground state in the mean field approximation. Since the present RPA neglects renormalization of the divergence, however, the energy-weighted strengths outside of the giant GT resonance region become negative. These facts are shown by calculating in an analytic way the GT strengths of nuclear matter.

  1. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 4, 2000, 001010 Sums of Digits, Overlaps, and Palindromes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , and Palindromes Jean-Paul Allouche and Jeffrey Shallit ¡£¢ ¤ CNRS, Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, B 010 where 0 is nonempty), and contains arbitrarily long palindromes if and only if 3VU7" . Keywords: sum of digits, overlap-free sequence, palindrome 1 Introduction At the beginning of the 20th century

  2. Representation of the Fourier transform as a weighted sum of the complex error functions

    E-print Network

    S. M. Abrarov; B. M. Quine

    2015-07-05

    In this paper we show that a methodology based on a sampling with the Gaussian function of kind $h\\,{e^{ - {{\\left( {t/c} \\right)}^2}}}/\\left( {{c}\\sqrt \\pi } \\right)$, where ${c}$ and $h$ are some constants, leads to the Fourier transform that can be represented as a weighted sum of the complex error functions. Due to availability of the rapid and highly accurate rational approximations for the complex error function, the numerical computation of the forward and inverse Fourier transforms is advantageous in practical applications. The weighted sum of the complex error functions sustains accuracy despite increasing oscillatory behavior that occurs due to presence of the exponential multiplier $e^{\\pm 2\\pi i \

  3. Measurement of time-dependent external moments and forces by the sum of weighted accelerations technique

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, T.G.; Gregory, D.L.; Coleman, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Force identification using a sum of weighted accelerations technique (SWAT) is developed for measurement of externally applied force and moment which dynamically excite a structural system. Mode shape coefficients, from a free-body modal characterization, are used to determine two sets of weighting factors which, when used in the SWAT, eliminate the free-body vibrational response. One set of weighting factors, having the units of mass, are used in the SWAT measurement of the resultant force vector. The second set of weighting factors, having the units of first-moment-of-mass, are calculated to measure the moment acting at the center of mass of the external force with a similar sum of weighted accelerations. The theory for determining the force and moment vectors is developed in this paper. We illustrate the technique through the analysis of a simple beam and a rectangular plate. We then demonstrate the analytical predictions with the laboratory testing of softly suspended structures. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.

  5. Orbital M1 versus E2 strength in deformed nuclei: A new energy weighted sum rule

    E-print Network

    E. Moya de Guerra; L. Zamick

    1993-03-16

    Within the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson we derive the following linear energy weighted sum rule for low energy orbital 1$^+$ excitations in even-even deformed nuclei $$S_{\\rm LE}^{\\rm lew} (M_1^{\\rm orb}) \\cong (6/5) \\epsilon (B(E2; 0^+_1 \\rightarrow 2_1^+ K=0)/Z e^2^2) \\mu^2_N$$ with B(E2) the E2 strength for the transition from the ground state to the first excited state in the ground state rotational band, $$ the charge r.m.s. radius squared and $\\epsilon$ the binding energy per nucleon in the nuclear ground state. It is shown that this energy weighted sum rule is in good agreement with available experimental data. The sum rule is derived using a simple ansatz for the intrinsic ground state wave function that predicts also high energy 1$^+$ strength at 2$\\hbar \\omega$ carrying 50\\% of the total $m_1$ moment of the orbital M1 operator.

  6. Statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences formed from the sum of maximum-length sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.

  7. Spectral line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model in nonisothermal nonhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, M.K.; Webb, B.W. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1995-05-01

    An approach is developed to extend the previously developed spectral-line weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model to nonisothermal, nonhomogeneous media. The distinguishing feature of the SLW gas property model is that it has been developed for use in arbitrary solution methods of the radiative transfer equation (RTE). A spatial dependence of the gray gas absorption cross sections on local temperature, pressure, and mole fraction is introduced through the absorption-line blackbody distribution function. Incorporating this spatial dependence results in significant improvement over the use of spatially uniform gray gas absorption cross sections in comparisons with line-by-line benchmarks. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Spectral line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model for arbitrary RTE solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, M.K.; Webb, B.W. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents an approach for generating weighted-sum-of-gray gases (WSGG) models directly from the line-by-line spectra of H[sub 2]O. Emphasis is placed on obtaining detailed spectral division among the gray gases. Thus, for a given model spectrum, the gray gas weights are determined as blackbody fractional functions for specific subline spectral regions at all temperatures. The model allows the absorption coefficient to be the basic radiative property rather than a transmissivity or band absorptance, etc., and can be used with any arbitrary solution method for the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). A single absorption cross section spectrum is assumed over the entire spatial domain in order to fix the subline spectral regions associated with a single spectral calculation. The error associated with this assumption is evaluated by comparison with line-by-line benchmarks for problems of nonisothermal and nonhomogeneous media. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  9. A Closer Look at Drawbacks of Minimizing Weighted Sums of Objectives for Pareto Set Generation in Multicriteria Optimization Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indraneel Das; John Dennis

    1996-01-01

    A standard technique for generating the Pareto set in multicriteria optimizationproblems is to minimize (convex) weighted sums of the different objectives for variousdifferent settings of the weights. However, it is well-known that this method succeedsin getting points from all parts of the Pareto set only when the Pareto curve is convex.This article provides a geometrical argument as to why this

  10. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (subm.), by the authors, 1--rev Sums of Digits, Overlaps, and Palindromes

    E-print Network

    Allouche, Jean-Paul

    of Digits, Overlaps, and Palindromes Jean­Paul Allouche 1 and Jeffrey Shallit 2y 1 CNRS, Laboratoire de where x is nonempty), and contains arbitrarily long palindromes if and only if m Ÿ 2. Keywords: sum of digits, overlap­free sequence, palindrome Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Some useful lemmas 2 3 Proof

  11. Distributed weighted sum-rate maximization with multi-cell uplink-downlink throughput duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeming; Zhu, Yuanping; Xu, Jing; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The weighted sum-rate maximization (WSRMax) problem is important for the radio resource allocation in wireless networks. In this paper, we focus on solving the WSRMax optimization problem in a Home eNodeB (HeNB) wireless network for the multiple input single output (MISO) downlink transmission. Based on an ameliorated max-min multi-cell uplink-downlink throughput duality, we design a distributed algorithm which contains Loop1 and Loop2 associating with the max-min procedure, respectively. Especially, in Loop2 procedure, we propose a new distributed iteration scheme with the complete proof. During the implementation of the proposed algorithm, randomly deployed HeNBs only need to share information with their neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that the two processes can converge to a stable state, and the network capacity is dramatically improved with the coordination among HeNBs.

  12. Weighted sum-rate based power allocation for the uplink of nonregenerative cooperative multi-user MIMO communication system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Heliot; Reza Hoshyar; Rahim Tafazolli

    2010-01-01

    Amplify-and-forward (AF) is one of the most popular and simple approaches to transmit information over a cooperative multi-input multi-output (MIMO) relay channel. In this paper, we propose a novel power allocation method for the uplink of multi-user MIMO AF cooperative system, which is designed to optimise the weighted sum-rate of the cooperative system. This method provides similar sum-rate performance than

  13. Assessment of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Modeling Chemical Mixtures and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C

    2015-01-01

    In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome. PMID:26005323

  14. Body Weight Prediction Using Digital Image Analysis for Slaughtered Beef Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Bozkurt; S. Aktan; S. Ozkaya

    2007-01-01

    Bozkurt, Y., Aktan, S. and Ozkaya, S. 2007. Body weight prediction using digital image analysis for slaughtered beef cattle. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 195–198.To predict body weight of beef cattle using traditional methods and digital image analysis system, 140 animals were used and prediction models were developed. The R values of prediction equations were 52.1, 63.6, 53.2, 47.1, 43.1

  15. ON THE MOMENTS OF THE SUM-OF-DIGITS FUNCTION P.J . Grabnert, P . Kirschenhofer, H . Prodinger and R.F . Tichyt

    E-print Network

    Prodinger, Helmut

    in the binary number system, the q-ary case can be settled by similar but more elaborate computations] dealt with the second moment of the sum-of-digits function in the decimal number system, explicitly v(n) represent the total number of 1-digits in the binary representation of the integer n. It is

  16. Penile length, digit length, and anogenital distance according to birth weight in newborn male infants

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Young; Lim, Gina; Oh, Ki Won; Ryu, Dong Soo; Park, Seonghun; Jeon, Jong Chul; Cheon, Sang Hyeon; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Park, Sejun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anogential distance (AGD) and the 2:4 digit length ratio appear to provide a reliable guide to fetal androgen exposure. We intended to investigate the current status of penile size and the relationship between penile length and AGD or digit length according to birth weight in Korean newborn infants. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and February 2014, among a total of 78 newborn male infants, 55 infants were prospectively included in this study. Newborn male infants with a gestational age of 38 to 42 weeks and birth weight>2.5 kg were assigned to the NW group (n=24) and those with a gestational age<38 weeks and birth weight<2.5 kg were assigned to the LW group (n=31). Penile size and other variables were compared between the two groups. Results Stretched penile length of the NW group was 3.3±0.2 cm, which did not differ significantly from that reported in 1987. All parameters including height, weight, penile length, testicular size, AGD, and digit length were significantly lower in the LW group than in the NW group. However, there were no significant differences in AGD ratio or 2:4 digit length ratio between the two groups. Conclusions The penile length of newborn infants has not changed over the last quarter century in Korea. With normal penile appearance, the AGD ratio and 2:4 digit length ratio are consistent irrespective of birth weight, whereas AGD, digit length, and penile length are significantly smaller in newborns with low birth weight. PMID:25763130

  17. The spectral-line weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model for H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2} mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, M.K.; Webb, B.W. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model, first introduced by Hottel and Sarofim for expressing total gas emissivities and in the context of the zone method, has recently been extended to the general form of the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The fundamental radiative property of the model is the locally defined absorption coefficient, which permits the use of arbitrary solution methods of the RTE. Denison and Webb developed a spectral line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model by constructing a histogram representation of the high-resolution spectra of H{sub 2}O. Subsequently, a novel absorption-line black body distribution function was developed that easily allows the black body weights a{sub j} of any desired number of gray gases to be determined by simple differencing rather than accessing detailed spectral line information. The distribution function also provides the means of incorporating a spatial dependence of the gray gas absorption cross sections on temperature, pressure, and species mole in nonisothermal, nonhomogeneous problems. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. LEO range-sum data simulation method and multi-LEO combined orbit determination modeling with its weighting algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deyong Zhao; Hongmei Yu

    2010-01-01

    For multi-LEO orbit determination based on Bi-satellite Positioning System (BPS), trajectory error of positioning satellites becomes bottle-neck which improves orbit determination precision of LEOs, so we can take combined orbit determination strategy of BPS and user satellites (LEOs) to ameliorate precision. This paper constructs a basic method of range sum observation data simulation for single Low Earth Orbit (LEO) precise

  19. The relationship of parameters of body measures and body weight by using digital image analysis in pre-slaughter cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERKAN OZKAYA; YALCIN BOZKURT

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to predict body weight (BW) of pre-slaughtering beef cattle using digital image analysis. Data used in this study were collected from slaughterhouses in Isparta and nearby provinces from 140 animals. Selected body measurements such as body weight (BW), wither height (WH), body length (BL), chest depth (CD), hip width (HW), hip height (HH) and

  20. Optimization of energy resolution in the Digital Hadron Calorimeter using longitudinal weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob Russell

    Particle physics seeks to describe matter in its most elementary structure. With lepton colliders; couplings of gauge bosons and heavy quarks, physics beyond the Standard Model, and properties of a recently discovered Higgs boson can be studied with very high precision. Particle Flow Algorithms (PFA), able to achieve necessary jet-energy and di-jet mass resolutions, require fine transverse and longitudinal segmentation from calorimeters. To validate digital imaging calorimetry in this context, a Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) with single-bit (digital) readout on imbedded electronics from 1x1 cm2 pads throughout its volume has been constructed and exposed to particle beams as a large prototype with 54 layers of Resistive Plate Chambers and nearly 500k readout channels. With this data, I report on a sophisticated statistical technique to improve the single particle energy resolution using weights that take advantage of correlations of the energy deposit between layers. Limitations to resolution improvement are identified and possible modifications are discussed. Simulation is used to verify particle identification techniques applied to the data.

  1. Weighted two-valued digit-set encodings: unifying efficient hardware representation schemes for redundant number systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghassem Jaberipur; Behrooz Parhami; Mohammad Ghodsi

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notion of two-valued digit (twit) as a binary variable that can assume one of two different integer values. Posibits, or simply bits, in {0,1} and negabits in {-1,0}, commonly used in two's-complement representations and (n,p) encoding of binary signed digits, are special cases of twits. A weighted bit-set (WBS) encoding, which generalizes the two's-complement encoding by allowing

  2. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Adaptation of Multi-Digit Forces to Object Weight for Whole-Hand Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A.; Ross, Mark A.; Smith, Anthony A.; Coakley, Brandon J.; Gleason, Elizabeth A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The delicate tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by a number of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. One such condition is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that causes sensory and motor deficits in a subset of digits in the hand. Whereas the effects of CTS on median nerve physiology are well understood, the extent to which it affects whole-hand manipulation remains to be addressed. CTS affects only the lateral three and a half digits, which raises the question of how the central nervous system integrates sensory feedback from affected and unaffected digits to plan and execute whole-hand object manipulation. We addressed this question by asking CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold a grip device (445, 545, or 745 g) for several consecutive trials. We found that CTS patients were able to successfully adapt grip force to object weight. However, multi-digit force coordination in patients was characterized by lower discrimination of force modulation to lighter object weights, higher across-trial digit force variability, the consistent use of excessively large digit forces across consecutive trials, and a lower ability to minimize net moments on the object. Importantly, the mechanical requirement of attaining equilibrium of forces and torques caused CTS patients to exert excessive forces at both CTS-affected digits and digits with intact sensorimotor capabilities. These findings suggest that CTS-induced deficits in tactile sensitivity interfere with the formation of accurate sensorimotor memories of previous manipulations. Consequently, CTS patients use compensatory strategies to maximize grasp stability at the expense of exerting consistently larger multi-digit forces than controls. These behavioral deficits might be particularly detrimental for tasks that require fine regulation of fingertip forces for manipulating light or fragile objects. PMID:22110738

  3. Determination of body measurements on the Holstein cows using digital image analysis and estimation of live weight with regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakir Tasdemir; Abdullah Urkmez; Seref Inal

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the body measurements (BMs) of Holstein cows were determined using digital image analysis (IA) and these were used to estimate the live weight (LW) of each cow. For this purpose, an image capture arrangement was established in a dairy cattle farm. BMs including wither height (WH), hip height (HH), body length (BL), hip width (HW), plus the

  4. A hybrid wide-band correlated-k weighted-sum-of-gray-gas model for radiative transfer in non-homogeneous gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, M.K.; Fiveland, W.A.

    1997-07-01

    A hybrid model is presented which draws on the strengths of the correlated k-distribution (c-k) method and the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) model. A simple function for the reordered wave number within wide bands is used which closely approximates the widely used four-region expression. The model handles mixtures of three or more species by the use of a composite wide band spectrum of the gas mixture requiring only a single quadrature of radiative solutions regardless of the number of species. Overlapping wide bands of differing species are combined and treated as single equivalent wide bands. The model is first evaluated by comparing total emissivities of gas mixtures with those of wide band block calculations. The model predictions are then compared with c-k calculations in problems of non-isothermal media. The model predicts higher intensities than those of the band-by-band c-k method in spatial regions of high temperature gradients. The model is quite efficient compared to the c-k method, requiring only three or four solutions of the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

  5. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S

    2015-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333

  6. Sum Search

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-04

    In this math lesson, learners practice addition facts (with sums of 5, 6, 7, and 8) in a concentration-game format using dominoes. Then, learners generate sums of given numbers using a calculator, record the sums on a hundreds chart and look for patterns. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

  7. Projection-based energy weighting on photon-counting X-ray images in digital subtraction mammography: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-03-01

    In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS, VOL. X, NO. Y, 2006 1 Table-top Computed Lighting for Practical Digital

    E-print Network

    Grimm, Cindy

    sketching, selects a small set of these photos whose weighted sum best matches the user-defined target image into a backpack. Index Terms-- Enclosure Lighting, Handheld Lighting, Con- trollable Lighting, Digital Photography

  9. A Multiple-Weight-and-Neuron-Fault Tolerant Digital Multilayer Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadayoshi Horita; Takurou Murata; Itsuo Takanami

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an implementation method of multiple weight as well as neuron fault-tolerant multilayer neural networks. Their fault-tolerance is derived from our extended back propagation learning algorithm called the deep learning method. The method can realize a desired weight as well as neuron fault-tolerance in multilayer neural networks where weight values are floating-point and the sigmoid function is used

  10. Computing and Mapping Thiessen Weighting Factors from Digitized District Boundaries and Climatological Station Latitudes and Longitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Hayhoe; G. D. V. Williams

    1982-01-01

    A set of procedures, including computer software, which derive weighting factors for reducing point weather data to an areal district basis, are described and demonstrated. Areal estimates obtained by applying such weighting factors can be used, for example, in the development or application of large-area crop weather yield models. The system incorporates a computerized grid mesh technique for determining the

  11. Computing and Mapping Thiessen Weighting Factors from Digitized District Boundaries and Climatological Station Latitudes and Longitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, H. N.; Williams, G. D. V.

    1982-10-01

    A set of procedures, including computer software, which derive weighting factors for reducing point weather data to an areal district basis, are described and demonstrated. Areal estimates obtained by applying such weighting factors can be used, for example, in the development or application of large-area crop weather yield models. The system incorporates a computerized grid mesh technique for determining the Thiessen weighting factors. The source data requirements are described as well as the computer software. The techniques are demonstrated numerically and graphically through the use of the SYMAP computer mapping program for June 1978 rainfall for crop reporting districts in the province of Saskatchewan.

  12. Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata. And an Application to Digital Image Encoding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Bader; Steffen Hölldobler; Alexandre Scalzitti

    2004-01-01

    In their seminal paper (1) McCulloch and Pitts have shown the strong relationship between nite automata and so-called McCulloch- Pitts networks. Our goal is to extend this result to weighted automata. In other words, we want to integrate articial neural networks and weighted automata. For this task, we introduce semiring articial neural networks, that is, articial neural networks which implement

  13. Multiple (inverse) binomial sums of arbitrary weight and depth and the all-order ?-expansion of generalized hypergeometric functions with one half-integer value of parameter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bennie F. L. Ward; Scott A. Yost

    2007-01-01

    We continue the study of the construction of analytical coefficients of the ?-expansion of hypergeometric functions and their connection with Feynman diagrams. In this paper, we show the following results: Theorem A: The multiple (inverse) binomial sums \\\\sum_{j=1}^\\\\infty\\\\frac{1}{\\\\binom{2j}{j}^k}\\\\frac{z^j}{j^c} S_{a_1}(j-1) \\\\cdots S_{a_p}(j-1) , where k = ±1, Sa(j) is a harmonic series, Sa(j) = ?jk = 1 1\\/ka, and c is

  14. Chromatic sums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Tutte

    This is an expository article without proofs. The detailed theory of chromatic sums is explained in five papers in the Canadian\\u000a Journal of Mathematics ([6]). Here we abbreviate the title of each of these as \\

  15. A digital combining-weight estimation algorithm for broadband sources with the array feed compensation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.

  16. Diagonal Sums

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem demonstrates the power of the 100 square (Hundred Chart) in helping children to recognize number properties and in beginning to reason carefully and form conjectures. Students look at sums of numbers located in a certain configuration within squares of the grid. There is a link to a printable hundred chart.

  17. A feasibility study of projection-based energy weighting based on a photon-counting detector in contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-06-01

    Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  18. Nyquist-Rate Current-Steering Digital-to-Analog Converters With Random Multiple Data-Weighted Averaging Technique and Rotated Walk Switching Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Huei Lee; Yu-Hong Lin; Tai-Haur Kuo

    2006-01-01

    In this brief, Nyquist-rate current-steering digital-to-analog converters (DACs) applying the random multiple data-weighted averaging (RMDWA) technique and the QN rotated walk switching scheme are proposed such that high spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and small maximum output error can be achieved without calibrations, which are area and power consuming. RMDWA suppresses the harmonics caused by element mismatches to gain high SFDR

  19. The digit parallel method for fast RNS to weighted number system conversion for specific moduli (2k-1,2k,2k +1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Gallaher; Frederick E. Petry; Padmini Srinivasan

    1997-01-01

    Residue number systems have computational advantages for addition and multiplication since operations on residue digits are performed independently and so these processes can be performed in parallel. However other operations such as input\\/output conversions are significantly more difficult. A method for conversion from a specific residue number system with moduli of the form (2k-1,2k ,2k+1) to a weighted number system

  20. A sum rule for charged elementary particles

    E-print Network

    Gerd Leuchs; Luis L. Sanchez-Soto

    2013-01-15

    There may be a link between the quantum properties of the vacuum and the parameters describing the properties of light propagation, culminating in a sum over all types of elementary particles existing in Nature weighted only by their squared charges and independent of their masses. The estimate for that sum is of the order of 100.

  1. Arithmetic-Progression-Weighted Subsequence Sums

    E-print Network

    Grynkiewicz, David J; Ponomarenko, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    Let $G$ be an abelian group, let $S$ be a sequence of terms $s_1,s_2,...,s_{n}\\in G$ not all contained in a coset of a proper subgroup of $G$, and let $W$ be a sequence of $n$ consecutive integers. Let

  2. Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

    2012-06-01

    The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

  3. Sum-Difference Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  4. Minimal invariant sets in a vertex-weighted graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco M. Malvestuto; Mauro Mezzini; Marina Moscarini

    2006-01-01

    A weighting of vertices of a graph is admissible if there exists an edge weighting such that the weight of each vertex equals the sum of weights of its incident edges. Given an admissible vertex weighting of a graph, an invariant set is an edge set such that the sum of the weights of its edges is the same for

  5. Reliability of the measures of weight-bearing distribution obtained during quiet stance by digital scales in subjects with and without hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    de Araujo-Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; Costa, Abraão Souza; Couto Paz, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson

    2015-05-01

    Described as an alternative way of assessing weight-bearing asymmetries, the measures obtained from digital scales have been used as an index to classify weight-bearing distribution. This study aimed to describe the intra-test and the test/retest reliability of measures in subjects with and without hemiparesis during quiet stance. The percentage of body weight borne by one limb was calculated for a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and for a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-test reliability. This analysis was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. The intra-test analysis showed significant differences, only observed in the hemiparesis group, between the measures obtained by single and triple trials. Excellent and moderate ICC values (0.69-0.84) between test and retest were observed in the hemiparesis group, while for control groups ICC values (0.41-0.74) were classified as moderate, progressing from almost poor for measures obtained by a single trial to almost excellent for those obtained by triple trials. In conclusion, good reliability ranging from moderate to excellent classifications was found for participants with and without hemiparesis. Moreover, an improvement of the repeatability was observed with fewer trials for participants with hemiparesis, and with more trials for participants without hemiparesis. PMID:25541319

  6. Viscosity sum rules at large scattering lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Khandker, Zuhair U.

    2012-01-01

    We use the operator product expansion (OPE) and dispersion relations to obtain model-independent “Borel-resummed” sum rules for both shear and bulk viscosity of many-body systems of spin-1/2 fermions with predominantly short-range S-wave interactions. These sum rules relate Gaussian weights of the frequency-dependent viscosities to the Tan contact parameter C(a). Our results are valid for arbitrary values of the scattering length a, but receive small corrections from operators of dimension ?>5 in the OPE and can be used to study transport properties in the vicinity of the a?? fixed point. In particular, we find that the exact dependence of the shear viscosity sum rule on scattering length is controlled by the function C(a). The sum rules that we obtain depend on a frequency scale ?0 that can be optimized to maximize their overlap with low-energy data.

  7. On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi; Fatemeh Raee B

    2009-01-01

    An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge. A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graph if it has a unique independent set with maximum sum of weights. Although, in this paper

  8. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  9. Summing Consecutive Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem offers a simple context to begin an exploration of the properties of numbers and to make conjectures about those properties. Learners explore the sums of consecutive numbers and whether all positive numbers from 1-30 can be written as the sum of two or more consecutive numbers. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  10. The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

    2013-03-01

    At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

  11. DMT of weighted Parallel Channels: Application to Broadcast Channel

    E-print Network

    Mroueh, Lina; Othman, Ghaya Rekaya-Ben; Belfiore, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    In a broadcast channel with random packet arrival and transmission queues, the stability of the system is achieved by maximizing a weighted sum rate capacity with suitable weights that depend on the queue size. The weighted sum rate capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) and Zero Forcing (ZF) is asymptotically equivalent to the weighted sum capacity over parallel single-channels. In this paper, we study the Diversity Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the fading broadcast channel under a fixed weighted sum rate capacity constraint. The DMT of both identical and different parallel weighted MISO channels is first derived. Finally, we deduce the DMT of a broadcast channel using DPC and ZF precoders.

  12. Unit-Weighted Scales Imply Models that Should Be Tested!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauducel, Andre; Leue, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In several studies unit-weighted sum scales based on the unweighted sum of items are derived from the pattern of salient loadings in confirmatory factor analysis. The problem of this procedure is that the unit-weighted sum scales imply a model other than the initially tested confirmatory factor model. In consequence, it remains generally unknown…

  13. Summing free unitary random matrices.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Andrzej

    2011-07-01

    I use quaternion free probability calculus--an extension of free probability to non-Hermitian matrices (which is introduced in a succinct but self-contained way)--to derive in the large-size limit the mean densities of the eigenvalues and singular values of sums of independent unitary random matrices, weighted by complex numbers. In the case of circular unitary ensemble summands, I write them in terms of two "master equations," which I then solve and numerically test in four specific cases. I conjecture a finite-size extension of these results, exploiting the complementary error function. I prove a central limit theorem, and its first subleading correction, for independent identically distributed zero-drift unitary random matrices. PMID:21867151

  14. On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi

    2009-01-01

    An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge (no two of which share an edge). A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graphif it has a unique independent set with maximum sum

  15. Summing pressure compensation control

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, H.A.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes a summing pressure compensator control for hydraulic loads with at least one of the hydraulic loads being a variable displacement motor having servo means for controlling the displacement thereof, first hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to the variable displacement motor to provide a first pressure signal, second hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to a second hydraulic load to provide a second pressure signal, summing means for receiving the first and second pressure signals and providing a control signal proportional to the sum of the first and second pressure signals, the control signal being applied to the servo means to increase the displacement of the variable displacement motor.

  16. Adler sum rule

    E-print Network

    Stephen L. Adler

    2009-06-01

    The Adler sum rule states that the integral over energy of a difference of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon structure functions is a constant, independent of the four-momentum transfer squared. This constancy is a consequence of the local commutation relations of the time components of the hadronic weak current, which follow from the underlying quark structure of the standard model.

  17. PDA+: A Personal Digital Assistant for Obesity Treatment - An RCT testing the use of technology to enhance weight loss treatment for veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M Duncan; E Amy Janke; Andrea T Kozak; Megan Roehrig; Stephanie W Russell; H Gene McFadden; Andrew Demott; Alex Pictor; Don Hedeker; Bonnie Spring

    2011-01-01

    Background  Obese adults struggle to make the changes necessary to achieve even modest weight loss, though a decrease in weight by as\\u000a little as 10% can have significant health benefits. Failure to meet weight loss goals may in part be associated with barriers\\u000a to obesity treatment. Wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based obesity treatment faces multiple challenges including cost,\\u000a access, and implementing the

  18. SumAll

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-02-13

    Interested in learning about your social media reach? You may want to check out SumAll which is a rather nice way to do just that. After signing up for the free version, visitors will receive a daily digest of their social media influence on over a dozen platforms, including LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+ and others. It's a powerful tool that is compatible with all operating systems.

  19. Number Cube Sums

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-06-09

    In this calculator activity students complete an experiment on the frequency of sums by rolling two dice fifty times and recording their data. Students record their data in a table using tallies, fractions, decimals, and percent form. Individual data is then compiled into a class chart to identify patterns in data when more trials are conducted. This activity is designed to be completed using the TI-15 Explorer calculator. A PDF of the lesson plan and student sheet is included.

  20. Sums of Infinite Series

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lai, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The spiral is a curve traced by moving either outward or inward about a fixed point called the pole. A Baravelle Spiral is generated by connecting the midpoints of the successive sides of a regular polygon. Triangles will be formed. The process of identifying and repeatedly connecting the midpoints is called iteration. Mathematically, the Baravelle Spiral is a geometric illustration of a concept basic to the Calculus: The sum of an infinite geometric series - an unbounded set of numbers where each term is related by a common ratio, or multiplier, of "r" - converges to a finite number called a limit when 0 < r < 1. Much time in the Calculus curriculum, and its applications in the sciences, focuses on whether a particular mathematical expression has a limit and thus be highly useful. Historically, one of our oldest mathematical documents, the Rhind Papyrus (ca. 1650 BC), offers a set of data thought to represent a geometric series and possibly an understanding of the formula for finding its sum. In this case, the common ratio of r = 7 is obviously NOT less than 1 and leads to 71+72 +73 + 74 + 75 = 19,607. While not a converging series, as in the case of Baravelle Spirals, we appreciate the early Egyptian fascination with sums of series.

  1. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  2. Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Peter J; Steiner, Wolfgang

    2011-10-21

    Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer n as a sum n=?k?kUk, where the digits ?k are taken from a finite alphabet ? and (Uk)k is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with U0=1. The most prominent example of a base sequence (Uk)k is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight ?k|?k| are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices. PMID:22163376

  3. Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Peter J.; Steiner, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer n as a sum n=?k?kUk, where the digits ?k are taken from a finite alphabet ? and (Uk)k is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with U0=1. The most prominent example of a base sequence (Uk)k is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight ?k|?k| are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices. PMID:22163376

  4. Using Squares to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…

  5. Thin sums matroids and duality

    E-print Network

    Afzali, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Thin sums matroids were introduced to extend the notion of representability to non-finitary matroids. We give a new criterion for testing when the thin sums construction gives a matroid. We show that thin sums matroids over thin families are precisely the duals of representable matroids (those arising from vector spaces). We also show that the class of tame thin sums matroids is closed under duality and under taking minors, by giving a new characterisation of the matroids in this class. Finally, we show that all the matroids naturally associated to an infinite graph are tame thin sums matroids.

  6. Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms

    SciTech Connect

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria)] [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria); Blümlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

  7. Fluctuations in classical sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, John R.; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  8. Locating the Extrema of Fungible Regression Weights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2009-01-01

    In a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors, every set of alternate weights belongs to an infinite class of "fungible weights" (Waller, Psychometrica, "in press") that yields identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. When the R[superscript 2] using the alternate weights is a fixed value, fungible…

  9. On Character Sums and Exponential Sums over Generalized Arithmetic Progressions

    E-print Network

    Shao, Xuancheng

    2012-01-01

    We study upper bounds for sums of Dirichlet characters. We prove a uniform upper bound of the character sum over all proper generalized arithmetic progressions, which generalizes the classical Polya and Vinogradov inequality. Our argument is based on getting an upper bound for the l1 norm of the Fourier coefficients of a generalized arithmetic progression. Our method also applies to give upper bounds for polynomial exponential sums.

  10. Matsubara Frequency Sums

    E-print Network

    Alok Kumar

    2010-02-25

    We cannot use directly the results of zero-temperature at finite temperature, for at finite temperature the average is to be carried over all highly degenerate excited states unlike zero-temperature average is only on unique ground state. One of the formal way to take into account the finite temperature into quantum field theory is due to Matsubara, to replace temporal component of eigenvalues $k_{4}$ by $\\omega_{n}=\\frac{2\\pi n}{\\beta}$ $(\\frac{2\\pi (n+{1/2})}{\\beta})$ with summation over all integer values of $n$. The summation is done with the infinite series expansion of $\\coth (\\pi y)$. With the chemical potential $\\mu$, $\\omega_{n}$ will be replaced by $\\omega_{n} - \\mu$ in the eigenvalues and the summation over $n$ cannot be done easily. Various methods exist to evaluate it. We use the infinite series expansion of $\\coth (\\pi y)$ to work operationally for such Matsubara frequency sums.

  11. Sum-Max Graph Partitioning Problem R. Watrigant, M. Bougeret, R. Giroudeau, and J.-C. Knig

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    knowledge sum-max graph partitioning has still not been studied directly. Among all of the previous problemsSum-Max Graph Partitioning Problem R. Watrigant, M. Bougeret, R. Giroudeau, and J.-C. König LIRMM combinatorial optimization graph parti- tioning problem, with Sum-Max as objective function. Given a weighted

  12. Recurrence Formulas for Fibonacci Sums

    E-print Network

    Adilson J. V. Brandao; Joao L. Martins

    2008-05-18

    In this article we present a new recurrence formula for a finite sum involving the Fibonacci sequence. Furthermore, we state an algorithm to compute the sum of a power series related to Fibonacci series, without the use of term-by-term differentiation theorem

  13. Weight set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-12-11

    Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

  14. Propagation characteristics of x ?? x 1 and Kloosterman sums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Charpin; Tor Helleseth; Victor Zinoviev

    Abstract We study the inverse permutation ? : x ?? x, by means,of their com- ponent functions f?. We prove that the weights of derivatives of f? can be expressed in terms of Kloosterman sums. We are then able to compute,some,indicators of the propagation characteristics of ? . We can claim that ? , which is considered as a good

  15. Preemptive and Non-Preemptive Generalized Min Sum Set Cover

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Preemptive and Non-Preemptive Generalized Min Sum Set Cover Sungjin Im1 , Maxim Sviridenko2 Cover Problem, we are given n ground elements and a collection of sets S = {S1, S2, ..., Sm} where each elements to minimize the total (weighted) cover time of all sets. The cover time of a set Si is defined

  16. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  17. Generalized constructive tree weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  18. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada)] [LPT, CNRS UMR 8627, Univ. Paris 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Tanasa, Adrian, E-mail: vincent.rivasseau@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)] [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément LIPN, Institut Galilée, CNRS UMR 7030, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France and Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  19. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of debt, the...each weighted by its proportion in the capital structure of the telephone companies....

  20. Influence criterions of quality to the weight windo ws selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artur Wollek

    Weight filtration is performed in time domain through multiplying values of appropriate samples b y a weighting function and summing the yielded products along the entire window length. The number of weight windows is unlimited. In his paper author is trying to define the filtra- tion quality and its influence to the weight window selec- tion..

  1. Maximum Vertex-weighted Matching in Strongly Chordal Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoel B. Campêlo; Sulamita Klein

    1998-01-01

    Given a graph G = (V, E) and a real weight for each vertex of G, the vertex-weight of a matching is defined to be the sum of the weights of the vertices covered by the matching. In this paper we present a linear time algorithm for finding a maximum vertex-weighted matching in a strongly chordal graph, given a strong

  2. MAXIMUM WEIGHT PARTIAL COLORINGS ON SPARSE RANDOM GRAPHS*

    E-print Network

    Tatikonda, Sekhar

    ­106]. They showed that if vertex weights were sampled independently from a nonatomic distribution weight. The weight of the partial coloring is then the sum of the respective vertex-color pairsMAXIMUM WEIGHT PARTIAL COLORINGS ON SPARSE RANDOM GRAPHS* STEVEN JASLAR AND SEKHAR TATIKONDA

  3. Summing tree graphs at threshold

    E-print Network

    Lowell S. Brown

    1992-09-01

    The solution of the classical field equation generates the sum of all tree graphs. We show that the classical equation reduces to an easily solved ordinary differential equation for certain multiparticle threshold amplitudes and compute these amplitudes.

  4. A direct design of two-dimensional asymmetric half-plane recursive digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinamoto, Takao; Muneyasu, Mitsuji; Kukita, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Sadao

    A direct procedure is developed for the design of two-dimensional asymmetric half-plane recursive digital filters. The desired specification consists of both magnitude and linear phase (i.e. constant group delay). The performance index is specified as a weighted sum of the squared distance on the complex plane between the desired and actual transfer functions at discrete points of the frequency plane. The minimization is performed iteratively using the Davidon-Fletcher and Powell method in which the initial estimate is analytically found by solving a set of linear equations. Three examples are given to illustrate the utility of the proposed procedure.

  5. Incisions do not simply sum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thane Blinman

    2010-01-01

    Background  Critics of minimally invasive methods sometimes argue that the summed lengths of all trocar sites have a morbidity similar\\u000a to that for an open incision of equal length. This argument assumes correctly that pain and scarring are proportional to the\\u000a total tension normal to a linear incision. But the argument also assumes that total tension sums linearly with incision length.

  6. Digital Libraries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heather

    2008-09-29

    This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...

  7. Weight Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods Eating smaller portions Drinking water instead of sugary drinks Being physically active Eating ...

  8. Digital Demodulator For Advanced Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Hurd, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Complexity and cost reduced by new design for half-band filters. Digital demodulator designed for use in reception of phase- and amplitude-modulated digital signals of bandwidths up to 15 MHz on microwave carriers. System performs coherent demodulation in phase and in quadrature with carrier locked in phase to intermediate frequency of 10 MHz. Design suitable for fabrication in very-large-scale integrated circuitry. Principal innovative feature of demodulator is design of half-band digital low-pass filters that remove sum-frequency components.

  9. Tabletop Computed Lighting for Practical Digital Photography

    E-print Network

    by interactive user sketching, selects a small set of these photos whose weighted sum best matches the user equipment that fits into a backpack. Index Terms--Image-based lighting, enclosure lighting, handheld

  10. Precision digital pulse phase generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-10-08

    A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.

  11. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...be performed. CumSum statistic calculations must...corresponding CumSum analysis for the set of engines...sample size and CumSum statistic calculations for the...performed. The CumSum statistic recalculation must...corresponding CumSum analysis for the set of...

  12. Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaheem, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

  13. Approximating Min Sum Set Cover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uriel Feige; László Lovász; Prasad Tetali

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The input to the min sum set cover problem is a collection of n sets that jointly cover m elements. The output is a linear order on the sets, namely, in every time step from 1 to n exactly one set is chosen. For every element, this induces a rst time step by which it is covered. The objective

  14. Progressions and Sums Putnam Practice

    E-print Network

    Albert, John

    Progressions and Sums Putnam Practice October 6, 2004 An arithmetic progression is a sequence progression. 6. Show that if a, b, c are positive numbers such that a2, b2, c2 are in arithmetic progression, then 1 b + c , 1 c + a , 1 a + b are in arithmetic progression. 2 #12;

  15. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Mads T. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Masina, Isabella [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universita di Ferrara and INFN Sez. di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Sannino, Francesco [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  16. Results on the min-sum vertex cover Ralucca Gera

    E-print Network

    Gera, Ralucca

    Results on the min-sum vertex cover problem Ralucca Gera Steve Horton Craig Rasmussen Pantelimon.horton@usma.edu October 27, 2006 Abstract Let G be a graph with the vertex set V (G), edge set E(G). A vertex labeling is a bijection f : V (G) {1, 2, . . . , |V (G)|}, and the weight of an edge e E(G) is given by g(e) = min

  17. Broadband performance of superdirective delay-and-sum beamformers steered to end-fire.

    PubMed

    Trucco, A; Traverso, F; Crocco, M

    2014-06-01

    Linear arrays steered to end-fire provide superdirective robust performance if a constraint is imposed on the white-noise gain. Filter-and-sum beamformers achieve the maximum constrained directivity by tuning their complex weights over the frequency. Delay-and-sum beamformers have simpler structures, but their weights are fixed and optimized at a given frequency. This letter investigates the constrained directivity provided over a broad band by different delay-and-sum techniques. Complex weights and analytic signals attain near-optimal broadband performance over four octaves. Oversteered arrays using real weights and signals were found to attain superdirective performance over approximately two octaves. Hearing aids and directional hydrophones are potential applications for the considered arrays. PMID:24907842

  18. Simplifying Neural Networks by Soft Weight-Sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Nowlan; Geoffrey E. Hinton

    1992-01-01

    One way of simplifying neural networks so they generalize better is to add an extra term to the error function that will penalize complexity. Simple versions of this approach include penalizing the sum of the squares of the weights or penalizing the number of nonzero weights. We propose a more complicated penalty term in which the distribution of weight values

  19. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  20. Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardakci, Korkut

    2006-02-16

    In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

  1. Closed Divisibility of Integer Sequences under Summation of Digits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nassar H. S. Haidar

    We report on integer sequences that preserve, under division by basic decimal numbers, the sum of digits in their terms.The terms are shown to generate an infinite commutative semigroup under multiplication.

  2. Digital generator for adjustment and testing of electrical prospecting equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Dravich, P.P.

    1994-05-01

    The block diagram is described of a circuit that generates a digital signal representing a sum of exponents with initial values and attenuation constants against the background of sinusoidal noise of a given frequency and amplitude.

  3. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Background: The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, the correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and the properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or the nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. Purpose: To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Methods: To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory, the Thouless theorem for the energy-weighted sum rule, and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule. Results: We derive the sum-rule expressions from the contour integration of the complex-energy FAM. We demonstrate that calculated sum-rule values agree with those obtained from the matrix formulation of the QRPA. We also discuss the applicability of both the Thouless theorem about the energy-weighted sum rule and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule to nuclear density functional theory in cases when the EDF is not based on a Hamiltonian. Conclusions: The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. The FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and the external field cannot be used.

  4. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Martin; Slaght, Jana; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25?kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strategies were self-reported and weight loss success was defined as reaching a 5% weight loss in the last year. Results. Chosen strategies for weight loss vary across tertiles of CWE. Participants in the highest CWE tertile were about 4 to 20 times more likely to lose at least 5% of body weight in the past year compared to those in the lowest CWE tertile (P < 0.05).??Discussion. Strategies used to lose weight and weight loss success using different weight loss strategies vary considerably across cumulative weight exposure. Thus, cumulative weight exposure might be a variable worth considering when intervening with this population.

  5. Instrumented drop weight impact tester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Tao; J. Laitila; O. Saarela

    1991-01-01

    Test equipment for determining the contact force and dynamic response of a composite laminate under impact is described. The equipment is based on the falling weight setup. The measurement system consists of a dynamic force transducer placed in the front part of an impactor, a charge amplifier, strain gauges, DC measuring amplifiers, and a digital storage oscilloscope which is connected

  6. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  7. QCD sum rules vs. chiral perturbation theory

    E-print Network

    Griegel, D K; David K Griegel; Thomas D Cohen

    1994-01-01

    QCD sum rules are useful tools for studying the spectral properties of hadrons; however, assumptions underlying standard sum-rule analyses can lead to inconsistencies with known results of chiral perturbation theory. This possibility is demonstrated with QCD sum-rule extractions of the nucleon mass and \\sigma term. In both cases, inconsistent chiral behavior leads to an uncertainty in the sum-rule predictions of \\sim 100\\,\\text{MeV}.

  8. Weighting Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Wettschereck I; David W. Aha

    1995-01-01

    . Many case-based reasoning algorithms retrieve cases using aderivative of the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, whose similarityfunction is sensitive to irrelevant, interacting, and noisy features. Manyproposed methods for reducing this sensitivity parameterize k-NN's similarityfunction with feature weights. We focus on methods that automaticallyassign weight settings using little or no domain-specific knowledge.Our goal is to predict the relative capabilities of these

  9. Digital Sustainability and Digital Repositories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Bradley

    The tasks associated with managing and backing up digital data are well known to IT managers, but the mere presence of the data stream is not the only criterion for preserving and maintaining digital content. Digital sustainability recognises that the continuity of digital information goes well beyond basic storing and managing of data and is integrated into the lifecycle of

  10. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule

    E-print Network

    Klaus Helbing

    2006-03-29

    In the confinement regime at Q^2=0 the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) Sum Rule connects static properties of the nucleon with the difference of spin dependent doubly polarized total absorption cross sections of real photons. Now, for the first time this fundamental sum rule is verified by the GDH-Collaboration with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons at the two accelerators ELSA and MAMI. The integral (sum) of the GDH Sum Rule can be generalized to the case of virtual photons. This allows to establish a Q^2 dependency and to study the transition to the perturbative regime of QCD. Ultimately, the GDH Sum Rule can be related to the Bjorken and the Ellis-Jaffe Sum Rule. This contribution covers the status of theory concerning the GDH Sum Rule as well as the experimental approaches and their results for the absorption of real and virtual photons. We point out that the so-called No-Subtraction hypothesis, often considered the weakest part of the derivation of the GDH Sum Rule, in fact follows from unitarity and does not impair the fundamental character of the GDH Sum Rule. The shown experimental data verify the GDH Sum Rule for the proton at the level of 8% including the systematic uncertainties from extrapolations to unmeasured energy regions. For the GDH Sum Rule on the neutron and the isovector case we find unexpected contributions at photon energies above 1 GeV.

  11. Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata

    E-print Network

    Hoelldobler, Steffen

    Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata And an Application to Digital Image neural networks and weighted automata. For this task, we introduce semiring artificial neural networks, that is, artificial neural networks which implement the addition and the multiplication of semirings. We

  12. Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kozak; M. Wiesel

    1984-01-01

    A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

  13. Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kazak

    1988-01-01

    A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

  14. Edge Coloring and Decompositions of Weighted Graphs Uriel Feige

    E-print Network

    coloring if the sum of the weights of the edges incident to a vertex of any color is at most one. We give coloring using at most 2.25n colors where n is the maximum total weight incident at any vertex of the weights of the edges incident to a vertex of any color is at most one. If all the edges have weight one

  15. Green Weight 

    E-print Network

    Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.

    2010-01-01

    Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement its lighting needs with natural sunlight. David Fisher has proposed an ingenious method to harness the wind...

  16. Digital redaction 

    E-print Network

    Coquelin, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    in the digitization of historical collections is finding appropriate ways to handle rare inanuscripts, glass plate negatives, bound books and other fragile originals. One of the principal anxieties about digital infor- mation is the fear that obsolescent hardware..., and increasing access possibilities? What shape will the digital libraries of tomorrow take? The terminology "digital library" is in- deed challenged by the vast range of realities it may cover. Libraries are more than just book warehouses. They are social...

  17. Digital Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  18. CATEGORY OF sp (2n)-MODULES WITH BOUNDED WEIGHT MULTIPLICITIES

    E-print Network

    Serganova, Vera

    is equivalent to the category of weight modules over the Weyl algebra An (see Lemma 3.1 and Corollary 5.3). WeCATEGORY OF sp (2n)-MODULES WITH BOUNDED WEIGHT MULTIPLICITIES DIMITAR GRANTCHAROV AND VERA bounded weight g-modules, i.e. those which are direct sum of their weight spaces and have uniformly

  19. Signed magnification sums for general spherical lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Harada, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the sum of signed magnifications is invariant for mass lens systems. In this paper, we discuss the signed magnification sums of general spherical lens models, including the singular isothermal sphere, the Schwarzschild lens, and the Ellis wormhole, the last of which is an example of the traversable wormholes of the Morris-Thorne class. We show that the signed magnification sums are a very useful tool to distinguish exotic lens objects. For example, we show that one can distinguish the Ellis wormholes from the Schwarzschild lens with the signed magnification sums.

  20. Clemson University Request for Lump Sum Payment

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Clemson University Request for Lump Sum Payment Award Bonus Name: Dept/Pos.#: Emplid: Position: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ To be Completed by the Classification, Compensation & Recruitment Unit Approved: Approved $: Effective Date

  1. Is the Coulomb sum rule violated in nuclei?

    E-print Network

    J. Morgenstern; Z. E. Meziani

    2001-06-26

    Guided by the experimental confirmation of the validity of the Effective Momentum Approximation (EMA) in quasi-elastic scattering off nuclei, we have re-examined the extraction of the longitudinal and transverse response functions in medium-weight and heavy nuclei. In the EMA we have performed a Rosenbluth separation of the available world data on $^{40}$Ca, $^{48}$Ca, $^{56}$Fe, $^{197}$Au, $^{208}$Pb and $^{238}$U. We find that the longitudinal response function for these nuclei is "quenched" and that the Coulomb sum is not saturated, at odds with claims in the literature.

  2. Kostant's weight multiplicity formula and the Fibonacci numbers

    E-print Network

    Harris, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the dimension of a weight space for a finite dimensional representation of a simple Lie algebra is given by Kostant's weight multiplicity formula. We address the question of how many terms in the alternation contribute to the multiplicity of the zero weight for certain, very special, highest weights. Specifically, we consider the case where the highest weight is equal to the sum of all simple roots. This weight is dominant only in Lie types $A$ and $B$. We prove that in all such cases the number of contributing terms is a Fibonacci number. Combinatorial consequences of this fact are provided.

  3. 6.1 The Basics of Counting 1. two basic principles of counting are the sum rule and the product rule. We present them

    E-print Network

    Gera, Ralucca

    alpha characters and decimal digits, and must contain at least one digit. Solution: By the sum rule|. This applies to every element in A B, so we must subtract |A B| to correct the overcount. 8. the division the total number of ways to do something by the number of duplications (it is the multiplication principle

  4. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

  5. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

  6. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

  7. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

  8. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

  9. Long arithmetic progressions in sum-sets and the number of x-sum-free sets

    E-print Network

    Vu, Van H.

    Long arithmetic progressions in sum-sets and the number of x-sum-free sets E. Szemer´edi V. H. Vu. 1 Introduction In this paper, we study the existence of long arithmetic progressions in sum different) elements of A. Finding a long arithmetic progression in lA is a well- known topic in additive

  10. Common set of weights in data envelopment analysis: a linear programming problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Davoodi; H. Zhiani Rezai

    Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the relative efficiency of Decision Making Units as the ratio of weighted sum\\u000a of outputs by weighted sum of inputs. To accomplish the purpose, a DEA model calculates the weights of inputs and outputs\\u000a of each DMU individually so that the highest efficiency can be estimated. Thus, the present study suggests an innovative

  11. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-01-25

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

  12. Mellin Transforms and Asymptotics: Harmonic Sums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Flajolet; Xavier Gourdon; Philippe Dumas

    1995-01-01

    This survey presents a unified and essentially self-contained approach to the asymptotic analysis of a large class of sums that arise in combinatorial mathematics, discrete probabilistic models, and the average-case analysis of algorithms. It relies on the Mellin transform, a close relative of the integral transforms of Laplace and Fourier. The method applies to harmonic sums that are superpositions of

  13. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie Wright

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes

  14. Green Weight

    E-print Network

    Al-Haji, A.; Al-Omair, A.

    2010-01-01

    GREEN WIEGHT Ahmed KH. Al-Haji Ahmed A. Al-Omair Trainee Schlumberger U.A.E. Abu Dhabi ABSTRACT Green-weight is a novel system designed to supply a high-rise building with all its needs of electricity using wind energy and to supplement... to acknowledge all of Dr. Ahmed BoShehri for being our supervisor in this project, Dr. Abdul-Aziz AlRashed for teaching us about the fiber optics, Dr.Mohammad BoShehri for helping us in the design of the blades, Eng. Ahmed ALSafi for giving us the wind...

  15. Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

    2013-11-15

    We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N?1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.

  16. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  17. Digital Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital Women strives to be a full-service portal for working women in all varieties of business. The site offers a huge collection of resources, including informative articles, manuals, free software, Web tools, and advice, as well as ten free newsletters and mailing lists. Digital Women also provides a place for business women to network, including information about the Digital Women 2000 Annual International Net-Together, which will take place on Vancouver Island September 29-October 1, 2000.

  18. Digital metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1’, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call ‘metamaterial bits’, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental ‘metamaterial bytes’ with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.

  19. Digital metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061

  20. Digital audio watermarking in the cepstrum domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Kwang Lee; Yo-Sung Ho

    2000-01-01

    We propose a digital audio watermarking technique in the cepstrum domain. We insert a digital watermark into the cepstral components of the audio signal using a technique analogous to spread spectrum communications, hiding a narrow band signal in a wideband channel. In our method, we use pseudo-random sequences to watermark the audio signal. The watermark is then weighted in the

  1. Why Digitize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Abby

    This paper is a response to discussions of digitization at meetings of the National Humanities Alliance (NHA). NHA asked the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) to evaluate the experiences of cultural institutions with digitization projects to date and to summarize what has been learned about the advantages and disadvantages of…

  2. Digital Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blansett, Jim

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…

  3. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    technology: "the digital revolution". Digital Forensics "the application of proven scientific methodsCOE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences

  4. Modeling of quantization noise in linear analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švihlík, Jan; Fliegel, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Quantization noise is present in all the current digital imaging systems, therefore its understanding and modeling is crucial for optimization of image reconstruction techniques. Hence, this paper deals with modeling of the quantization noise. We exploit the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) for signal representation. We assume that the quantization noise in the spatial domain can be seen as additive, white and uniformly distributed. Hence, the UWT causes the transform of noise distribution due to weighted sum of noise samples and filter coefficients. From the known quantization step we are able to estimate suitable moments of noise uniform probability density function (PDF). These moments then could be directly evaluated in the undecimated wavelet domain using the derived equations. The presented algorithm gives the a priori information about the quantization noise and can be used for the suppression of it.

  5. A sum-over-paths algorithm for third-order impulse-response moment extraction within RC IC-interconnect networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, E. A.; Ni, D.; Lam, T. M.; Le Coz, Y. L.

    2015-07-01

    We have created the first stochastic SoP (Sum-over-Paths) algorithm to extract third-order impulse-response (IR) moment within RC IC interconnects. It employs a newly discovered Feynman SoP Postulate. Importantly, our algorithm maintains computational efficiency and full parallelism. Our approach begins with generation of s-domain nodal-voltage equations. We then perform a Taylor-series expansion of the circuit transfer function. These expansions yield transition diagrams involving mathematical coupling constants, or weight factors, in integral powers of complex frequency s. Our SoP Postulate enables stochastic evaluation of path sums within the circuit transition diagram to order s3-corresponding to the order of IR moment (m3) we seek here. We furnish, for the first time, an informal algebraic proof independently validating our SoP Postulate and algorithm. We list, as well, detailed procedural steps, suitable for coding, that define an efficient stochastic algorithm for m3 IR extraction. Origins of the algorithm's statistical "capacitor-number cubed" correction and "double-counting" weight factors are explained, for completeness. Our algorithm was coded and successfully tested against exact analytical solutions for 3-, 5-, and 10-stage RC lines. We achieved better than 0.65% 1-? error convergence, after only 10K statistical samples, in less than 1 s of 2-GHz Pentium® execution time. These results continue to suggest that stochastic SoP algorithms may find useful application in circuit analysis of massively coupled networks, such as those encountered in high-end digital IC-interconnect CAD.

  6. The generalized GDH sum for He-3

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Slifer

    2004-06-02

    The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q^2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a He-3 target at low Q^2.

  7. Approximating 3D Minkowski Sum Boundary

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    ;Applications · Dilation/Offset kidscube application outside robotics #12;Applications · Sweep volume pigline points from the surface of P and Q ­ Compute the Minkowski sum of the points ­ Extract boundary points

  8. Privacy Preserving k Secure Sum Protocol

    E-print Network

    Sheikh, Rashid; Mishra, Durgesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC) allows parties to know the result of cooperative computation while preserving privacy of individual data. Secure sum computation is an important application of SMC. In our proposed protocols parties are allowed to compute the sum while keeping their individual data secret with increased computation complexity for hacking individual data. In this paper the data of individual party is broken into a fixed number of segments. For increasing the complexity we have used the randomization technique with segmentation

  9. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  10. Online Vertex-Weighted Bipartite Matching and Single-bid Budgeted Allocations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gagan Aggarwal; Gagan Goel; Chinmay Karande; Aranyak Mehta

    2011-01-01

    We study the following vertex-weighted online bipartite matching problem: G(U, V, E) is a bipartite graph. The vertices in U have weights and are known ahead of time, while the vertices in V arrive online in an arbitrary order and have to be matched upon arrival. The goal is to maximize the sum of weights of the matched vertices in

  11. WEIGHTED Lp -BOUNDEDNESS OF FOURIER SERIES

    E-print Network

    Pérez, Mario

    Jacobi weight on the interval [-1, 1] and, for each function f, let Snf denote the n-th partial sum with respect to dµ. The study of the boundedness Snf Lp(updµ) C f Lp(vpdµ), (1) where u(x) = (1 - x)a (1 + x, . . . , N) (3) and A a, B b, Gi gi (4) hold, then C > 0 such that Snf Lp(updµ) C f Lp(vpdµ) f Lp (vp dµ

  12. Digital diorama

    E-print Network

    Spikol, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Digital Diorama may be briefly presented as: a historical exploration of the vision devices, performances, and installations of the nineteenth century, and their influences on the project. These histories of the magic ...

  13. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

  14. Digital clubbing

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa

    2012-01-01

    Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350

  15. Digital History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Digital History website is a project of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, designed to educate scholars and the public about the new and fast-growing academic discipline that is digital history. The home page features a semi-globe with links to the different sections atop the globe. The goal of the site is to provide access to presentations of scholars, interviews with scholars, relevant current events and news items, as well as a bibliography of digital history resources. In the "Tool Reviews" link, a visitor can read a thorough review of two tools, a timeline, and an exhibit tool from MIT's SIMILE project on open source tools. In the "Public Lectures" link, accessible from the homepage, the visitor can view portions of ten different presentations by digital history scholars, with subject matter ranging from Malcolm X to the Civil War to the Humanities and the Digital Age. Clicking on the presenter's name will lead the visitor to the portions of the presentation available for viewing, as well as a biography of the presenter, and a "live-blogged entry" about the presentation. The "Project Reviews" link, accessible on the homepage, contains reviews written by graduate students about digital history projects. Academics with projects they'd like to see reviewed, are given a contact e-mail at University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  16. Digital video.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike

    2004-04-01

    The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed. PMID:15123920

  17. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, M. M.

    1980-06-01

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data processing equipment to provide near real time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance.

  18. Programmable Digital Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassick, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

  19. Weighted Integrate-And-Dump Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin

    1989-01-01

    Digital weighted integrate-and-dump filter (WIDF) proposed for detection of weak rectangular-pulse signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Received signal first low-pass prefiltered, and samples taken at multiple of symbol frequency. Improved performance means lower sampling and processing rates used for given symbol rate, reducing cost of system.

  20. Randomly stopped sums: models and psychological applications

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael; Shou, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as “life distributions” such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets. PMID:25426090

  1. Digital materials for digital printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Popescu

    Abstract Conventional,three-dimensional ,printing ,processes ,are material-dependent, and are irreversible. We present an alternative approach,based,on three -dimensional assembly,of mass-produced two-dimensional,components,of digital material. This significantly enlarges the available material set, allows reversible disassembly, and imposes constraints that reduce the accumulation,of local positioning errors in construct ing a global shape. Experimental work on material properties and dimensional scaling of the digital material will

  2. Sum-Product Networks: A New Deep Architecture

    E-print Network

    Poon, Hoifung

    2012-01-01

    The key limiting factor in graphical model inference and learning is the complexity of the partition function. We thus ask the question: what are general conditions under which the partition function is tractable? The answer leads to a new kind of deep architecture, which we call sum-product networks (SPNs). SPNs are directed acyclic graphs with variables as leaves, sums and products as internal nodes, and weighted edges. We show that if an SPN is complete and consistent it represents the partition function and all marginals of some graphical model, and give semantics to its nodes. Essentially all tractable graphical models can be cast as SPNs, but SPNs are also strictly more general. We then propose learning algorithms for SPNs, based on backpropagation and EM. Experiments show that inference and learning with SPNs can be both faster and more accurate than with standard deep networks. For example, SPNs perform image completion better than state-of-the-art deep networks for this task. SPNs also have intriguin...

  3. Multidimensional Gaussian sums arising from the distribution of Birkhoff sums in zero entropy dynamical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bernardo; M. Courbage; T. T. Truong

    2004-01-01

    A duality formula, of the Hardy and Littlewood type for multidimensional Gaussian sums, is proved in order to estimate the asymptotic long-time behaviour of the distribution of the Birkhoff sums Sn of a sequence generated by a skew product dynamical system on the {\\\\bb T}^2 torus, with zero Lyapounov exponents. The sequence, taking the values ±1, is a pairwise independent

  4. SUMS OF SQUARES AND SUMS OF TRIANGULAR NUMBERS INDUCED BY PARTITIONS OF 8

    E-print Network

    Hirschhorn, Mike

    SUMS OF SQUARES AND SUMS OF TRIANGULAR NUMBERS INDUCED BY PARTITIONS OF 8 NAYANDEEP DEKA BARUAH. Addresses: Nayandeep Deka Baruah Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tezpur University Napaam-784028 Classification. Primary--11E25; Secondary--05A19, 11D85, 33D15. Nayandeep Deka Baruah is partially supported

  5. Exponential sums as discrete Fourier with invariant phase functions

    E-print Network

    Provence Aix-Marseille I, Université de

    discuss the link between exponential sums and bent functions. 1 Introduction Exponential sums play the results on quadratic phases, and in section 9 we connect exponential sums to the theory of bent functionsExponential sums as discrete Fourier transform with invariant phase functions Gilles Lachaud

  6. Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums

    E-print Network

    Paolo Amore

    2013-02-18

    We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the a homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  7. Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, {nu}{sub x} + 2{nu}{sub z} = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 {mu}s was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J{sub x} and J{sub z}, was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region.

  8. Coincidence summing corrections applied to volume sources.

    PubMed

    Lépy, Marie-Christine; Ferreux, Laurent; Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    The numerical calculation of coincidence summing corrections requires both the total and full-energy peak efficiencies to be included in the corrective factors. Moreover, in the case of volume sources, the coincidence probability depends on the position of the photon emission inside the radioactive sample, thus it is necessary to calculate the coincidence summing corrective factors by integrating the elemental contributions for the entire volume. The software ETNA calculates coincidence summing corrective factors according to a deterministic method, for volume sources, two approaches are included in the software: the "simplified" calculation uses directly the efficiency of the volume source like in the case of point source, and the "complete" calculation performs the volume integration. To assess the difference between these, different geometrical cases are tested for several radionuclides using both methods. PMID:22410298

  9. Wiener Number of Vertex-weighted Graphs and a Chemical Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandi Klavzar; Ivan Gutman

    1997-01-01

    The Wiener number W(G) of a graph G is the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of G. If (G, w) is a vertex-weighted graph, then the Wiener number W(G, w) of (G, w) is the sum, over all pairs of vertices, of products of weights of the vertices and their distance. For G being a partial binary

  10. Digital-Ticket-Controlled Digital Ticket Circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ko Fujimura; Hiroshi Kuno; Masayuki Terada; Kazuo Matsuyama; Yasunao Mizuno; Jun Sekine

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new digital-ticket circulating scheme and trust management scheme for a digital ticket. A digital ticket is a digital medium that guar- antees certain rights of the owner and it includes soft- ware licenses, resource access tickets, event tickets, and plane tickets. The circulation of digital tickets comprises three types of principal transactions: issuance, transfer, and re-

  11. Characterization of semidirect sum Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Ioannis E.; Misra, Baidyanath

    1991-04-01

    Semidirect sum Lie algebras A?X may be characterized by the type of the representation the invariant subalgebra X provides for the Lie algebra A. The method is of particular interest when the invariant subalgebra X is infinite dimensional and allows one to compare such algebras provided the representations of the algebra A are known. In this way two infinite semidirect sum Lie algebras of the Lorentz algebra, namely the relativistic internal time algebra and the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs algebra, are characterized. Furthermore some minor errors of the commutation relations of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs algebra have been corrected.

  12. Wideband digital filter using FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

    2000-07-01

    A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

  13. Relation between Birth Weight and Placenta Weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Helena Sanin; Sandra Reza López; Edith Tufiño Olivares; Martha Corral Terrazas; Miguel Angel Robles Silva; Margarita Levario Carrillo

    2001-01-01

    With the goal to establish a model that relates birth weight to placenta weight, adjusted for the most documented predictors of birth weight, 300 live newborns were studied, all were products of single gestation. Inclusion criteria were newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or older according to the date of last menstruation, whose mothers did not have diabetes mellitus,

  14. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  15. Digital Logic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bigelow, Ken.

    For electrical or computer engineering students or anyone with a passing interest, this site presents a very good overview of digital logic. The basics of both combinational and sequential logic are discussed, and the design of specific components such as counters and shift registers are also illustrated. A particularly interesting section is devoted to the inner workings of logic gates, which is important to fully understand digital design. This looks beyond the gate level into the transistors and other basic elements. Even though the material is very informative overall, one possible downside to this site is that some of the circuit diagrams are a little too closely spaced.

  16. On the sum of generalized Fibonacci sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Chin-Yoon; Ho, C. K.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the generalized Fibonacci sequence {Un defined by U0 = 0, U1 = 1, and Un+2 = pUn+1+qUn for all n?Z0+ and p, q?Z+. In this paper, we derived various sums of the generalized Fibonacci sequence from their recursive relations.

  17. Riemann Sums: A Symbolic and Graphical Approach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    This demo uses a computer algebra system to investigate various approximations to the definite integral. Right hand endpoint, left hand endpoint and midpoint Riemann sums as well as trapezoidal and Simpson's rules are expressed in closed form as functions of the change in x.

  18. COMPUTING DEDEKIND SUMS USING THE EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM

    E-print Network

    Buckley, Anita

    COMPUTING DEDEKIND SUMS USING THE EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM Anita Buckley University of Ljubljana the Euclidean algorithm and algebraic properties of i. In Theorem 2.2 an explicit relation between a polynomial with rational coefficients, which is obtained by the Euclidean algorithm, and 0, 1, . . . , r-1

  19. Parallel algorithms for finding trigonometric sums

    SciTech Connect

    Stpiczynski, P. [Marie Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland); Paprzycki, M. [Univ. of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Parallel versions of Goertzel and Reinsch algorithms for finding trigonometric sums are introduced as a special case of effcient parallel algorithms for solving linear recurrence systems. The results of the experiments performed on a 20-processors Sequent Symmetry are presented and discussed.

  20. Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.

  1. Vacuum energy and spectral function sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenshchik, Alexander Y.; Tronconi, Alessandro; Vacca, Gian Paolo; Venturi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin Street 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    We reformulate the problem of the cancellation of the ultraviolet divergencies of the vacuum energy, particularly important at the cosmological level, in terms of a saturation of spectral function sum rules which leads to a set of conditions on the spectrum of the fundamental theory. We specialize the approach to both Minkowski and de Sitter space-times and investigate some examples.

  2. Approximating Min-sum Set Cover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uriel Feige; László Lovász; Prasad Tetali

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The input to the min sum set cover problem is a collection of n sets that jointly cover m elements. The output is a linear order on the sets, namely, in every time step from 1 to n exactly one set is chosen. For every element, this induces a rst time step by which it is covered. The objective

  3. Hyperbent Functions, Kloosterman Sums, and Dickson Polynomials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Charpin; Guang Gong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper is devoted to the classification of hyperbent functions, i.e., bent functions which are bent up to a primitive root change. We first exhibit an infinite class of monomial functions which are not hyperbent. This result means that Kloosterman sums at point 1 on F2, cannot be zero, unless m = 4. For the functions with multiple trace

  4. Digital Globe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to the Digital Globe have a front seat view of Lisbon, Portugal and the Phillipine Trench. The site offers two MPEG videos which animate topographic seafloor images. The video clips were created by David Sandwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Also available are nine images of seafloor topography from around the globe. Note that the videos are very large files.

  5. Digital Tidbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

  6. Digital Storytelling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-31

    What's a digital story? The folks at the Digital Storytelling initiative at The Ohio State University define it thusly: "a short (3-5 minute) movie which uses images, voice, and music to tell a story." The initiative is a great idea and this website offers visitors the chance to get acquainted with the digital stories that are being created at the school. Visitors should start their journey here by navigating over to the Stories area. Here they will find examples of these narratives, including "Howling at the Moon," "Clover Angst," "Our Sacred Circles," and "What's This Say?" Moving on, the Resources area includes information for those who would like to create their own digital stories. The links here lead to copyright-free audio and video sources, along with low-cost or free images. Also, this section includes helpful handouts that are used in the storytelling workshops at the OSU campus. No doubt this website will be a source of motivation and inspiration for those people who might like to create their own narratives.

  7. Digital books.

    PubMed

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books. PMID:22024672

  8. Digital Mammography

    Cancer.gov

    Conventional mammography uses X-rays to look for tumors or suspicious areas in the breasts. Digital mammography also uses X-rays, but the data is collected on computer instead of on a piece of film. This means that the image can be computer-enhanced,

  9. 40 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 46, NO. 1, JANUARY 1999 Low-Pass Filters Realizable as All-Pass

    E-print Network

    Selesnick, Ivan

    . 1, JANUARY 1999 Low-Pass Filters Realizable as All-Pass Sums: Design via a New Flat Delay Filter-pass recursive digital filters. The filters are realizable as a parallel sum of two all-pass filters, a structure. INTRODUCTION THE design of digital all-pass filters has received much attention in recent years, for it has

  10. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

  11. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

  12. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

  13. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

  14. Inference by Minimizing Size, Divergence, or their Sum Sebastian Riedel David A. Smith Andrew McCallum

    E-print Network

    Smith, David A.

    the KL divergence under a bound on factor count; and minimizing the weighted sum of KL divergence be calculated in terms of marginals computed on a sim- ple seed graph. Applied to synthetic im- age denoising faster than loopy BP, with graph sizes reduced up to 98%--at comparable error in marginals and parsing

  15. Optical Sum Rules that Relate to the Potential Energy of Strongly Correlated Systems J. K. Freericks,1

    E-print Network

    Freericks, Jim

    excitations in different regions of the Brillouin zone. We determine the sum rule for the Falicov- grated spectral weight associated with electrons in the lowest band is related to the average kinetic for measuring dynamical properties. We show here that the nonresonant inelastic light scattering response has

  16. sum of cubes 11/13/2007 1 Sum of Cubes

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    sum of cubes 11/13/2007 1 Sum of Cubes Jo was supposed to be studying for her grade 12 physics test down the cubes of the list you've just made." She knew just what to do. She listed the cubes (using her is wonderful when you get a reaction like that. Table for n = 24 Divisors of 24 # of divisors cubes of col 2 1

  17. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  18. Digital Morphology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-23

    Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

  19. Digital Arts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Arts website was designed to offer "inspiration for digital creative." It does a fairly standup job of that, offering news updates, tutorials, reviews, features, portfolios, and information about upcoming competitions that will be of interest to those working in a range of industries. First-time visitors would do well to look at the Short Cuts area to learn about new design websites, watch artists work on compelling large format projects, and pick up scuttlebutt from experts in their fields. Moving on, the Tutorials area offers helpful guides such as "How to stop photo noise," "Add texture to retro styled artworks," and "Create X-ray vector art." Finally, the Guides area contains helpful overviews of key fields and programs like Adobe Creative Suite 6, animation, graphic design, and interactive design.

  20. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science DMTCS vol. 14:1, 2012, 120 Vertex-colouring edge-weightings with two

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Canada received 24th July 2010, accepted 24th November 2011. An edge-weighting vertex colouring vertex colouring. If such an assignment from a set S exists, we say the graph is S-weight colourable degree of a vertex v, denoted w(v), is the sum of weights of the edges incident with v. An S-edge-weighting

  1. Weighted Competition Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOSHIO SANO

    We introduce a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph of a digraph D = (V, A), denoted by Cw(D), is an edge-weighted graph (G, w) such that G = (V, E) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy ? E is the number of

  2. Strawkets and Weight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

  3. Nonperturbative black hole entropy and Kloosterman sums

    E-print Network

    Atish Dabholkar; Joao Gomes; Sameer Murthy

    2015-04-14

    Non-perturbative quantum corrections to supersymmetric black hole entropy often involve nontrivial number-theoretic phases called Kloosterman sums. We show how these sums can be obtained naturally from the functional integral of supergravity in asymptotically AdS_2 space for a class of black holes. They are essentially topological in origin and correspond to charge-dependent phases arising from the various gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms and boundary Wilson lines evaluated on Dehn-filled solid 2-torus. These corrections are essential to obtain an integer from supergravity in agreement with the quantum degeneracies, and reveal an intriguing connection between topology, number theory, and quantum gravity. We give an assessment of the current understanding of quantum entropy of black holes.

  4. Nonperturbative black hole entropy and Kloosterman sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João; Murthy, Sameer

    2015-03-01

    Non-perturbative quantum corrections to supersymmetric black hole entropy often involve nontrivial number-theoretic phases called Kloosterman sums. We show how these sums can be obtained naturally from the functional integral of supergravity in asymptotically AdS 2 space for a class of black holes. They are essentially topological in origin and correspond to charge-dependent phases arising from the various gauge and gravitational Chern-Simons terms and boundary Wilson lines evaluated on Dehn-filled solid 2-torus. These corrections are essential to obtain an integer from supergravity in agreement with the quantum degeneracies, and reveal an intriguing connection between topology, number theory, and quantum gravity. We give an assessment of the current understanding of quantum entropy of black holes.

  5. k-Sums in abelian groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Girard; Simon Griffiths; Yahya Ould Hamidoune

    2011-01-01

    Given a finite subset $A$ of an abelian group $G$, we study the set $k \\\\wedge A$ of all sums of $k$ distinct elements of $A$. In this paper, we prove that $|k \\\\wedge A| \\\\geq |A|$ for all $k \\\\in {2,...,|A|-2}$, unless $k \\\\in {2,|A|-2}$ and $A$ is a coset of an elementary 2-subgroup of $G$. Furthermore, we characterise

  6. Sums of divisors, perfect numbers, and factoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bach; Gary Miller; Jejffrey Shallit

    1984-01-01

    Let N be a positive integer, and let &sgr;(N) denote the sum of the positive integral divisors of N. We show computing &sgr;(N) is equivalent to factoring N in the following sense: there is a random polynomial time algorithm that, given &sgr;(N), produces the prime factorization of N, and &sgr;(N) can be easily computed given the factorization of N. We

  7. Advances in QCD sum rule calculations

    E-print Network

    Melikhov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    We review the recent progress in the applications of QCD sum rules to hadron properties with the emphasis on the following selected problems: (i) development of new algorithms for the extraction of ground-state parameters from two-point correlators; (ii) form factors at large momentum transfers from three-point vacuum correlation functions; (iii) properties of exotic tetraquark hadrons from correlation functions of four-quark currents.

  8. 4.NF Comparing Sums of Unit Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-22

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Use to compare the following sums: $\\frac12 + \\frac14$ ________ $\\frac13 + \\frac15$ $\\frac13 + \\frac12$ ________ $\\frac13 + \\frac14$...

  9. Sums of squares on real algebraic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Scheiderer

    2006-01-01

    Consider real polynomials g1, . . . , gr in n variables, and assume that the subset K = {g1?0, . . . , gr?0} of ?n is compact. We show that a polynomial f has a representation\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a in which the se are sums of squares, if and only if the same is true in every localization of the polynomial

  10. Monitoring in torque-summed electromechanical actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawaz Annaz

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to address cross-monitoring techniques (lumped and hardware) in a single-type torque-summed architecture. In the lumped cross-monitoring technique, all lanes will be represented by their lumped models, while in hardware cross-monitoring, three-phase equivalents will model each motor. The analysis is based on a 4-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with

  11. Monitoring in smart torque-summed actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawaz Y. Annaz

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses fault detection and fault isolation in single-type torque-summed architecture. The analysis is based around a 4-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with 2 lanes failed) of an aileron control surface similar to that of the Sea Harrier. The paper describes the lanes and the dedicated embed microprocessor\\/s that performs the control and monitoring

  12. Sequences, Bent Functions and Jacobsthal sums

    E-print Network

    Helleseth, Tor

    2010-01-01

    The $p$-ary function $f(x)$ mapping $\\mathrm{GF}(p^{4k})$ to $\\mathrm{GF}(p)$ and given by $f(x)={\\rm Tr}_{4k}\\big(ax^d+bx^2\\big)$ with $a,b\\in\\mathrm{GF}(p^{4k})$ and $d=p^{3k}+p^{2k}-p^k+1$ is studied with the respect to its exponential sum. In the case when either $a^{p^k(p^k+1)}\

  13. Coincidence summing corrections for a clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Danu, L. S.; Gathibandhe, M.; Goswami, A.; Biswas, D. C.

    2014-11-01

    The true coincidence summing effect on the full energy peak efficiency calibration of a clover HPGe detector for point sources has been determined as a function of sample-to-detector distance using mono-energetic and multi-energetic gamma ray sources. The coincidence summing effect has been observed to increase at closer distances with the correction factors as high as 1.25 at closest distance studied. The correction factors for the total and the photopeak efficiencies have been obtained using the analytical method. The clover detector response has been simulated using MCNP code, taking care of the bevels and the flat surfaces of the clover detector. The geometry of the clover detector has been optimized to match the experimental and the theoretical efficiencies. The true coincidence summing correction factors (kTCS) have also been experimentally obtained by taking the ratio of corresponding mono-energetic extrapolated efficiencies to multi-energetic efficiencies. The kTCS obtained from analytical method has been found to match with the experimental kTCS with the simulated values within 1-5%.

  14. Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

  15. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  16. Analog simulation of flux-summing servo-model, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hriber, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The analog simulation was developed for a closed-loop system having an electrohydraulic flux-summing servo valve and actuator with associated inertial load. One-fourth of the system's total forward gain is carried by each of four channels. The present study successfully applied failure mode management techniques to the problem of channel failure. Digital logic circuitry was developed to maintain the overall forward gain of the system at a constant value, in the presence of channel failure. Finally, the stability of the system was verified, and performance characteristics were determined through the use of frequency response methods.

  17. The developmental evolution of avian digit homology: an update.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Günter P

    2005-11-01

    The identity of avian digits has been unresolved since the beginning of evolutionary morphology in the mid-19th century, i.e. as soon as questions of phylogenetic homology have been raised. The main source of concern is the persistent discrepancy between anatomical/paleontological and embryological evidence over the identity of avian digits. In this paper, recent evidence pertaining to the question of avian digit homology is reviewed and the various ideas of how to resolve the disagreement among developmental and phylogenetic evidence are evaluated. Paleontological evidence unequivocally supports the hypothesis that the fully formed digits of maniraptoran theropods are digits DI, DII, and DIII, because the phylogenetic position of Herrerasaurus is resolved, even when hand characters are excluded from the analysis. Regarding the developmental origin of the three digits of the avian hand the discovery of an anterior digit condensation in the limb bud of chickens and ostriches conclusively shows that these three digits are developing from condensations CII, CIII, and CIV. The existence of this additional anterior condensation has been confirmed in four different labs, using four different methods: Alcian blue staining, PNA affinity histochemistry, micro-capillary regression and Sox9 expression. Finally, recent evidence shows that the digit developing from condensation CII has a Hox gene expression pattern that is found in digit DI of mice forelimb and chick hind limbs. The sum of these data supports the idea that digit identity has shifted relative to the location of condensations, known as Frame Shift Hypothesis, such that condensation CII develops into digit DI and condensation CIII develops into digit DII, etc. A review of the literature on the digit identity of the Italian Three-toed Skink or Luscengola (Chalcides chalcides), shows that digit identity frame shifts may not be limited to the bird hand but may be characteristic of "adaptive" digit reduction in amniotes (sensu Steiner, H., Anders, G., 1946. Zur Frage der Entstehung von Rudimenten. Die Reduktion der Gliedmassen von Chalcides tridactylus Laur. Rev. Suisse Zool. 53, 537-546) in general. In this mode of evolution two digits are lost, in the course of the adaptation of the three anterior digits to a function that does not require the two posterior digits. This evidence suggests that the evolution of digits in tetrapods can proceed at least on two distinct levels of integration, the level of digit condensations and that of adult digits. PMID:17046354

  18. Interpreting the Four Types of Sums of Squares in SPSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanguma, Jesus; Speed, F. M.

    This paper analyzes three possible research designs using each of the four types of sums of squares in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). When the design is balanced (i.e., each cell has the same number of observations), all of the SPSS types of sums of squares yield equivalent results (testable hypotheses and sums of squares)…

  19. Minkowski Sums of Rotating Convex Polyhedra Jyh-Ming Lien

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    Minkowski Sums of Rotating Convex Polyhedra Jyh-Ming Lien Dept. of Computer Science, George Mason, polytope, kinematic algorithm. 1. INTRODUCTION The Minkowski sum of two polyhedra P and Q is: P Q = {p + q the Minkowski sum of convex polyhedra efficiently. In this work, we developed a method that efficiently com

  20. A New Two-Sided Cumulative Sum Quality Control Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald B. Crosier

    1986-01-01

    A new two-sided cumulative sum quality control scheme is proposed. The new scheme was developed specifically to be generalized to a multivariate cumulative sum quality control scheme. The multivariate version will be examined in a subsequent paper; this article evaluates the univariate version. A comparison of the conventional two-sided cumulative sum scheme and the proposed scheme indicates that the new

  1. On the Average Value of Divisor Sums in Arithmetic Progressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Banks; Igor E. Shparlinski

    We consider very short sums of the divisor function in arithmetic progressions prime to a flxed modulus and show that, on average, such sums are close to the expected value. We also give some applications of our result to sums of the divisor function twisted with characters (both additive and multiplicative) taken on the values of various functions, such as

  2. Classical Kloosterman sums: Representation theory, magic squares, and Ramanujan multigraphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick S. Fleming; Stephan Ramon Garcia; Gizem Karaali

    2011-01-01

    We consider a certain finite group for which Kloosterman sums appear as character values. This leads us to consider a concrete family of commuting hermitian matrices which have Kloosterman sums as eigenvalues. These matrices satisfy a number of “magical” combinatorial properties and they encode various arithmetic properties of Kloosterman sums. These matrices can also be regarded as adjacency matrices for

  3. Clustering to Minimize the Sum of Cluster Diameters Moses Charikar #

    E-print Network

    Charikar, Moses

    Clustering to Minimize the Sum of Cluster Diameters Moses Charikar # Princeton University Rina Panigrahy + Cisco Systems October 8, 2001 Abstract We study the problem of clustering points in a metric space so as to minimize the sum of cluster diameters or the sum of cluster radii. Significantly

  4. SERIE B | INFORMATIK Computing Sums of Radicals in

    E-print Network

    SERIE B | INFORMATIK Computing Sums of Radicals in Polynomial Time Johannes Blomer* B 93{13 August 1993 Abstract For sums of radicals Pk i=1 i di p i, where i; i are elements of some real algebraic's. The algorithm can be extended to sums of complex radicals over certain complex algebraic number elds

  5. Investigating a space-variant weighted salience account of visual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin T. Vincent; Tom Troscianko; Iain D. Gilchrist

    2007-01-01

    Weighted salience models are a popular framework for image-driven visual attentional processes. These models operate by: sampling the visual environment; calculating feature maps; combining them in a weighted sum and using this to determine where the eye will fixate next. We examine these stages in turn. We find that a biologically plausible non-uniform retinal sampling causes feature coding unreliability. The

  6. Two equivalent measures on weighted hypergraphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiro Ito; Hiroshi Nagamochi

    2006-01-01

    Let H=(N,E,w) be a hypergraph with a node set N={0,1,…,n-1}, a hyperedge set E?2N, and real edge-weights w(e) for e?E. Given a convex n-gon P in the plane with vertices x0,x1,…,xn-1 which are arranged in this order clockwisely, let each node i?N correspond to the vertex xi and define the area AP(H) of H on P by the sum of

  7. Scanning for Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Librarians and archivists find themselves facing the prospect of digitization. Everyone is doing it, everyone needs it. Discussions rage nationally and internationally concerning what to digitize and the best means to present and retain digital objects. Digitization is the act of making something digital, expressing a physical object "in numerical…

  8. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    E-print Network

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or EDF. But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy FAM based on the QRPA. To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory...

  9. Shtukas and Jacobi sums. Thakur, Dinesh S.

    E-print Network

    Thakur, Dinesh S.

    access to digitized documents strictly for noncommercial educational, research and private purposes for or donated to other repositories, nor may be further reproduced without written permission from Universitätsbibliothek Digitalisierungszentrum 37070 Goettingen Germany Email: gdz@www.sub.uni-goettingen.de Purchase

  10. On Multiple Sums of Products of Lucas Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Jaroslav; Trojovský, Pavel

    2007-04-01

    This paper studies some sums of products of the Lucas numbers. They are a generalization of the sums of the Lucas numbers, which were studied another authors. These sums are related to the denominator of the generating function of the kth powers of the Fibonacci numbers. We considered a special case for an even positive integer k in the previous paper and now we generalize this result to an arbitrary positive integer k. These sums are expressed as the sum of the binomial and Fibonomial coefficients. The proofs of the main theorems are based on special inverse formulas.

  11. Digital Scriptorium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Another Berkeley Sunsite, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Digital Scriptorium is a collaborative venture from the Bancroft Library (UC Berkeley) and the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University. Currently containing over 2,000 manuscripts and documents from the eighth through the fifteenth century, the Scriptorium plans to continue adding medieval and early Renaissance manuscripts from the two libraries and also Barnard College, Teachers College, Union Theological Seminary, UC Berkeley's Music Library, the Robbins Collection, and eventually, other institutions in the US and Europe. The current database will be made available when the SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) manuscript description standard is created. At present, users can search the test database. First-time visitors and less Internet-savvy researchers may find the accompanying documentation quite technical and a bit overwhelming, and they will want to devote some extra time to get acquainted with the various searchable fields. Nonetheless, the image quality is excellent and the amount of metadata is impressive. The Digital Scriptorium promises to be an invaluable resource for medieval and renaissance scholars.

  12. Sums of length t in Abelian groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George T. Diderrich

    1973-01-01

    LetG be an Abelian group written additively,B a finite subset ofG, and lett be a positive integer. Fort?|B|, letB\\u000a t denote the set of sums oft distinct elements overB. Furthermore, letK be a subgroup ofG and let ? denote the canonical homomorphism ?:G?G\\/K. WriteB\\u000a t (modB\\u000a t) forB\\u000a t? and writeB\\u000a t (modK) forB?. The following addition theorem in groups

  13. k-Sums in abelian groups

    E-print Network

    Girard, Benjamin; Hamidoune, Yahya Ould

    2011-01-01

    Given a finite subset $A$ of an abelian group $G$, we study the set $k \\wedge A$ of all sums of $k$ distinct elements of $A$. In this paper, we prove that $|k \\wedge A| \\geq |A|$ for all $k \\in {2,...,|A|-2}$, unless $k \\in {2,|A|-2}$ and $A$ is a coset of an elementary 2-subgroup of $G$. Furthermore, we characterise those finite sets $A {\\ss}q G$ for which $|k \\wedge A|=|A|$ for some $k \\in {2,...,|A|-2}$. This result answers a question of Diderrich. Our proof relies on an elementary property of proper edge-colourings of the complete graph.

  14. QCD Sum Rules on the Lattice

    E-print Network

    Chris R. Allton; Stefano Capitani

    1997-09-16

    We study the work of Leinweber by applying the Continuum Model of QCD Sum Rules (QCDSR) to the analysis of (quenched) lattice correlation functions. We expand upon his work in several areas and find that, while the QCDSR Continuum Model very adequately fits lattice data, it does so only for non-physical values of its parameters. The non-relativistic model is found to predict essentially the same form for the correlation functions as the QCDSR Continuum Model but without the latter's restrictions. By fitting lattice data to a general form which includes the non-relativistic quark model as a special case, we confirm it as the model of choice.

  15. Orlov, Tarasov, and the Robinson Sum Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Talman, Richard; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A paper proving a result now commonly known as 'Robinson sum rule' was published by Orlov and Tarasov [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 34 651 (1958) Sov. Phys. JETP 34 339 (1958)] at about the same time that Robinson himself published the result [Phys. Rev. 111 373 (1958)]. We assigned ourselves the task of reviewing this work, as narrowly as possible, in hopes of understanding how it should be considered in view of the existing attribution. The chronology of the work is reviewed and the degree to which the two works were independent and have qualitatively different content is considered.

  16. Series Problems 1. Sum the infinite series

    E-print Network

    Clair, Bryan

    Series Problems 1. Sum the infinite series 12 0! + 22 1! + 32 2! + 42 3! + · · · Solution. 5e. Let f(x) = xex = x 0! + x2 1! + x3 2! + x4 3! + · · · Then xf (x) = xex + x2 ex = x 0! + 2x2 1! + 3x3 2! + 4x4 3! + · · · So (xf (x)) = ex + 3xex + x2 ex = 1 0! + 22 x 1! + 32 x2 2! + 42 x3 3

  17. (Not) summing over Kaluza-Klein states

    SciTech Connect

    Hirn, Johannes [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sanz, Veronica [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Models in extra dimensions have unique features. Many of their surprising properties simply result from the underlying 5D structure. This structure shows up as 'sum rules' involving the whole tower of Kaluza-Klein factors. In this paper, we present a holographic shortcut and derive these results without solving the eigenvalue problem: we express 4D physical quantities directly in terms of the 5D metric. In warped space, one can go further and isolate the effect of the new physics sector. This method can be used for any 5D model, and we apply it here to the case of holographic QCD and holographic technicolor.

  18. Sums and products of interval algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulis, D. J.; Greechie, R. J.; Bennett, M. K.

    1994-11-01

    An interval algebra is an interval from zero to some positive element in a partially ordered Abelian group, which, under the restriction of the group operation to the interval, is a partial algebra. In this paper we study interval algebras from a categorical point of view, and show that Cartesian products and horizontal sums are effective as categorical products and coproducts, respectively. We show that the category of interval algebras admits a tensor product, and introduce a new class of interval algebras, which are in fact orthoalgebras, called ?-algebras.

  19. On The Analysis of Spatially-Coupled GLDPC Codes and The Weighted Min-Sum Algorithm 

    E-print Network

    Jian, Yung-Yih

    2013-08-07

    (?) ; (2.4) 17 where f^n(x) , n 1X i=t n 1 i xi 1 x n i 1 : (2.5) Let the noise threshold of the iterative HDD with ideal component decoders be de ned by p^ n , sup n p 2 (0; 1] pf^n(x) < x for x 2 (0; p] o : Similar to DE... on LDPC Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Irregular LDPC Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.2 GLDPC Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1.3 Spatially-Coupled Codes...

  20. Weighted Sums of Random Kitchen Sinks: Replacing minimization with randomization in learning

    E-print Network

    Recht, Ben

    In the earliest days of artificial intelligence, the bottom-most layer of neural networks consisted of randomly neural networks are immortalized in this well-known AI Koan: In the days when Sussman was a novice training a randomly wired neural net to play tic-tac-toe," Sussman replied. "Why is the net wired ran

  1. Selection of long oligonucleotides for gene expression microarrays using weighted rank-sum strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangan Hu; Manuel Llinás; Jingguang Li; Peter Rainer Preiser; Zbynek Bozdech

    2007-01-01

    Background: The design of long oligonucleotides for spotted DNA microarrays requires detailed attention to ensure their optimal performance in the hybridization process. The main challenge is to select an optimal oligonucleotide element that represents each genetic locus\\/gene in the genome and is unique, devoid of internal structures and repetitive sequences and its Tm is uniform with all other elements on

  2. On The Analysis of Spatially-Coupled GLDPC Codes and The Weighted Min-Sum Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Jian, Yung-Yih

    2013-08-07

    is constructed by connecting S(b)i;j to S(c)i+j;w j 1 (i.e., by mapping the mn w edges between the two groups). An example of the (C;m; L; w) spatially-coupled GLDPC ensemble with w = 3 is shown in Figure 2.2. Remark 3. Since extra constraint nodes... error probability of the input hard-decision messages to the code-constraint nodes at the position i 2 f1; 2; : : : ; L+ w 1g by y(?+1)i = 1 w minfi 1;w 1gX j=maxfi L;0g x(?+1)i j = 1 w minfi 1;w 1gX j=maxfi L;0g p 1 w w 1X k=0 f...

  3. A PTAS for minimizing the weighted sum of job completion times on parallel machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Skutella; GERHARD J. WOEGlNGERt

    1999-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a set of n jobs on midentical parallel machines so as to minimize the weightedsum of job completion times. This problem is NP-hard inthe strong sense. The best approximation result known sofar was a12 (1+p2)--approximation algorithm that has beenderived by Kawaguchi and Kyan back in 1986.The contribution of this paper is a polynomial time

  4. Losing Baby Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after baby > Losing baby weight Your body after baby Your body changes a lot after having a ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Losing baby weight You've carried your baby for several ...

  5. Maintaining a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... probably gain weight. That’s because metabolism (how you burn the calories you eat) can slow down with ... as you eat and drink. ? To lose weight, burn more calories than you eat and drink. ? To ...

  6. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spotlights Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links ... that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for ...

  7. Metrical analysis of dromedary digital bones.

    PubMed

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Ahi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Dromedary camels are large even-toed ungulates which are well adapted to life in large deserts. Examinations of their feet have revealed many structural peculiarities. We have measured the digital bones of the dromedary in order to determine whether there are morphometric variations in the digital bones between the lateral and medial sides in individual limbs and/or in the right and left thoracic and pelvic limbs, with the aim to clarify whether there are anatomical differences in the digital bones of dromedary as a suborder of the order Artiodactyla. Measurements were made of 240 lateral and medial proximal, middle, and distal phalanges in the left and right thoracic and pelvic limbs of ten healthy adult male dromedaries, ranging in age from 6 to 10 years. A total of 17 linear dimensions were measured using a caliper. The results indicate that there are no significant differences between corresponding measurements of digital bones of the lateral and medial in the same limb, nor between measurements of the right and left sides. The lengths and widths of the proximal and middle, and distal phalanges in the thoracic limb were found to be greater than those of the pelvic limb. The sum of the total lengths of the three phalanges of the thoracic limbs was 15 mm greater than that of the phalanges of the pelvic limbs due to a longer proximal phalanx (76 %) and middle phalanx of the former (24 %). The perspectives obtained by our morphometric study of dromedary digital bones not only provide a tool to distinguish the osteological remains of the dromedary from those of the Bactrian camel or other artiodactyls in archaeological sites, but they also suggest a possible influence of digital structure on digit functions and digital disorders. PMID:24908273

  8. Assessment of delay-and-sum algorithms for damage detection in aluminium and composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif-Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2014-07-01

    Piezoelectric sensors are increasingly being used in active structural health monitoring, due to their durability, light weight and low power consumption. In the present work damage detection and characterization methodologies based on Lamb waves have been evaluated for aircraft panels. The applicability of various proposed delay-and-sum algorithms on isotropic and composite stiffened panels have been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model for ultrasonic wave propagation in composite laminates is proposed and compared to signals recorded from experiments. A modified delay-and-sum algorithm is then proposed for detecting impact damage in composite plates with and without a stiffener which is shown to capture and localize damage with only four transducers.

  9. Digital Horizons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

  10. Digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    The identification of predefined mutations expected to be present in a minor fraction of a cell population is important for a variety of basic research and clinical applications. Here, we describe an approach for transforming the exponential, analog nature of the PCR into a linear, digital signal suitable for this purpose. Single molecules are isolated by dilution and individually amplified by PCR; each product is then analyzed separately for the presence of mutations by using fluorescent probes. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through the detection of a mutant ras oncogene in the stool of patients with colorectal cancer. The process provides a reliable and quantitative measure of the proportion of variant sequences within a DNA sample. PMID:10430926

  11. Digital Durham

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Durham, North Carolina has been the subject of many scholarly works, and its particular location and context makes it a compelling place for persons interested in examining urbanization, immigration, industrialization, and emancipation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Created by Duke University and the North Carolina State Library, this digital archive presents a cornucopia of primary sources, including personal letters, entries from a prominent general store in the region, maps, and census data. Visitors should feel free to browse through these documents, or they can also perform a detailed search. Other features of the site include a brief geographic overview of the Piedmont region and a glossary of terms used in the 1880 census. Educators will enjoy looking over the "Teachers' Corner", which includes lesson plans that utilize some of the primary documents in the archive.

  12. Digital Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.

  13. Digital Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Digital Avionics activities played an important role in the advancements made in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. This document profiles advances made in each of these areas by the aerospace industry, NASA centers, and the U.S. military. Emerging communication technologies covered in this document include Internet connectivity onboard aircraft, wireless broadband communication for aircraft, and a mobile router for aircraft to communicate in multiple communication networks over the course of a flight. Military technologies covered in this document include avionics for unmanned combat air vehicles and microsatellites, and head-up displays. Other technologies covered in this document include an electronic flight bag for the Boeing 777, and surveillance systems for managing airport operations.

  14. Digital demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, T. A. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A digital demodulator for converting pulse code modulated data from phase shift key (PSK) to non return to zero (NRZ) and to biphase data is described. The demodulator is composed of standard integrated logic circuits. The key to the demodulation function is a pair of cross coupled one shot multivibrators and which with a flip-flop produce the NRZ-L is all that is required, the circuitry is greatly simplified and the 2(v) times bit rate contraint can be removed from the carrier. A flip-flop, an OR gate, and AND gate and a binary counter generate the bit rate clock (BTCK) for the NRZ-L. The remainder of the circuitry is for converting the NRZ-L and BTCK into biphase data. The device was designed for use in the space shuttle bay environment measurements.

  15. Digital Fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, R. S.; Rotolo, L. S.; Golab, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Angiography is the process of injecting contrast material directly into the arterial system by means of a catheter placed near the organ or body part of interest. The result is looked at by means of an X-ray fluoroscope, in which the X-ray image is formed on the screen of an image-intensifier tube and then picked up by a television camera for display on a television monitor. An alternative approach, called Digital Fluoroscopy, is that of looking at the “difference” picture, between the X-ray before and after injection of contrast material. In such a case, the sensitivity of the difference picture to the contrast material is so great that only an intravenous drip of the contrast material is required, thus eliminating the necessity for injection directly into the arterial system, as in the angiographic process. We have designed, constructed, and installed such a device in the Georgetown University Radiology Clinic.

  16. Digital photography: a technique to optimize reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Light, Timothy D; Jeng, James C; Gunzel, Christopher S; Jordan, Marion H

    2008-01-01

    Insurance companies may reject claims because of inadequate documentation. Dictated notes or an electronic medical record provide an accurate and complete documentation of services. In a paper-based medical record system, significant amounts of professional fees are lost because the insurance companies reject claims without copies of the note. It is onerous to provide copies of the daily progress notes and bedside procedure notes to the billing service. Retrospective review of billing records for a 12-month period was performed. One partner took daily digital photos of all progress notes and made these available to be submitted with the claim. The other partner did not use this technique. Both partners dictated procedure notes which were available to the billing service for submission. The Wilcoxon's rank-sum test compared the reimbursement rates which were stratified for dictated procedures vs daily notes and insurance type between the two partners. More than 5000 billing submissions were analyzed. The reimbursement rate for procedures was similar for each surgeon (mean 18-19%). The reimbursement rate for daily progress notes was significantly higher for the surgeon using digital photography (mean 38% vs 29%, P < .05 by Wilcoxon's rank-sum test). Digital photography provides an easy means of documenting services. This provides proof of service to insurance companies and improves reimbursement. The same result could be provided by an electronic medical record, or by onsite billing personnel copying the medical record. PMID:18182913

  17. Weighted quartets phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Avni, Eliran; Cohen, Reuven; Snir, Sagi

    2015-03-01

    Despite impressive technical and theoretical developments, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for enormous quantities of molecular data is still a challenging task. A key tool in analyses of large data sets has been the construction of separate trees for subsets (e.g., quartets) of sequences, and subsequent combination of these subtrees into a single tree for the full set (i.e., supertree analysis). Unfortunately, even amalgamating quartets into a supertree remains a computationally daunting task. Assigning weights to quartets to indicate importance or reliability was proposed more than a decade ago, but handling weighted quartets is even more challenging and has scarcely been attempted in the past. In this work, we focus on weighted quartet-based approaches. We propose a scheme to assign weights to quartets coming from weighted trees and devise a tree similarity measure for weighted trees based on weighted quartets. We also extend the quartet MaxCut (QMC algorithm) to handle weighted quartets. We evaluate these tools on simulated and real data. Our simulated data analysis highlights the additional information that is conveyed when using the new weighted tree similarity measure, and shows that extending QMC to a weighted setting improves the quality of tree reconstruction. Our analyses of a cyanobacterial data set with weighted QMC reinforce previous results achieved with other tools. PMID:25414175

  18. Weighted Hurwitz numbers and hypergeometric $?$-functions: an overview

    E-print Network

    J. Harnad

    2015-05-11

    This is an overview of recent results on the use of 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for multiparametric families of weighted Hurwitz numbers. The Bose-Fermi equivalence composed with the characteristic map provides an isomorphism between the zero charge sector of the Fermionic Fock space and the direct sum of the centers of the group algebra of the symmetric groups $S_n$. Specializing the fermionic formula to the case of diagonal group elements gives $\\tau$-functions of hypergeometric type, for which the expansion over products of Schur functions is diagonal, with coefficients of {\\em content product} type. The corresponding abelian group action on the centre of the $S_n$ group algebra is determined by forming symmetric functions multiplicatively from a weight generating function $G(z)$ and evaluating on the Jucys-Murphy elements of the group algebra. The resulting central elements act diagonally on the basis of orthogonal idempotents and the eigenvalues $r^{G(z)}_\\lambda$ are the {\\em content product} coefficients appearing in the double Schur function expansion. Both the geometrical meaning of weighted Hurwitz numbers, as weighted sums over $n$-sheeted branched coverings, and the combinatorial one, as weighted enumeration of paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by transpositions follow from expansion of the Cauchy-Littlewood generating functions over dual pairs of bases of the algebra of symmetric functions. The coefficients in the resulting $\\tau$-function expansion over products of power sum symmetric functions are the weighted Hurwitz numbers. Replacement of the Cauchy-Littlewood generating function by that for Macdonald polynomials provides $(q,t)$-deformations that yield generating functions for quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers.

  19. Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.

  20. Exponentially Tempered Lévy Sums in Random Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppu, Ravitej; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2015-05-01

    Lévy fluctuations have associated infinities due to diverging moments, a problem that is circumvented by putting restrictions on the magnitude of the fluctuations, realizing a process called the truncated Lévy flight. We show that a perfect manifestation of this exotic process occurs in coherent random lasers, and it turns out to be the single underlying explanation for the complete statistical behavior of nonresonant random lasers. A rigorous parameter estimation of the number of summand variables, the truncation parameter, and the power-law exponent is carried out over a wide range of randomness, inversion, and system size. Random laser intensity is modeled on a unique platform of exponentially tempered Lévy sums. The computed behavior exhibits an excellent agreement with the experimentally observed fluctuation behavior.

  1. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

  2. Exponentially tempered lévy sums in random lasers.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Ravitej; Mujumdar, Sushil

    2015-05-01

    Lévy fluctuations have associated infinities due to diverging moments, a problem that is circumvented by putting restrictions on the magnitude of the fluctuations, realizing a process called the truncated Lévy flight. We show that a perfect manifestation of this exotic process occurs in coherent random lasers, and it turns out to be the single underlying explanation for the complete statistical behavior of nonresonant random lasers. A rigorous parameter estimation of the number of summand variables, the truncation parameter, and the power-law exponent is carried out over a wide range of randomness, inversion, and system size. Random laser intensity is modeled on a unique platform of exponentially tempered Lévy sums. The computed behavior exhibits an excellent agreement with the experimentally observed fluctuation behavior. PMID:26001004

  3. Symmetries, sum rules and constraints on effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, Brando; Martucci, Luca; Torre, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    Using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry, we derive universal sum rules for scattering amplitudes in theories invariant under an arbitrary symmetry group. The sum rules relate the coefficients of the energy expansion of the scattering amplitudes in the IR to total cross sections integrated all the way up to the UV. Exploiting the group structure of the symmetry, we systematically determine all the independent sum rules and positivity conditions on the expansion coefficients. For effective field theories the amplitudes in the IR are calculable and hence the sum rules set constraints on the parameters of the effective Lagrangian. We clarify the impact of gauging on the sum rules for Goldstone bosons in spontaneously broken gauge theories. We discuss explicit examples that are relevant for WW-scattering, composite Higgs models, and chiral perturbation theory. Certain sum rules based on custodial symmetry and its extensions provide constraints on the Higgs boson coupling to the electroweak gauge bosons.

  4. Symmetries, Sum Rules and Constraints on Effective Field Theories

    E-print Network

    Brando Bellazzini; Luca Martucci; Riccardo Torre

    2014-07-09

    Using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry, we derive universal sum rules for scattering amplitudes in theories invariant under an arbitrary symmetry group. The sum rules relate the coefficients of the energy expansion of the scattering amplitudes in the IR to total cross sections integrated all the way up to the UV. Exploiting the group structure of the symmetry, we systematically determine all the independent sum rules and positivity conditions on the expansion coefficients. For effective field theories the amplitudes in the IR are calculable and hence the sum rules set constraints on the parameters of the effective Lagrangian. We clarify the impact of gauging on the sum rules for Goldstone bosons in spontaneously broken gauge theories. We discuss explicit examples that are relevant for WW-scattering, composite Higgs models, and chiral perturbation theory. Certain sum rules based on custodial symmetry and its extensions provide constraints on the Higgs boson coupling to the electroweak gauge bosons.

  5. H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

  6. Digital Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Frank

    1982-01-01

    Presents the minimum information necessary for the newcomer to digital technology to bluff his way through a conversation. Terminology explained with a minimum of technical detail includes digits, analogs, digital numbers, the effect of noise, sampling, telecommunications, and digitalized information. (MER)

  7. Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants 2001 Marc Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants

    E-print Network

    Knaust, Helmut

    Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants ©2001 Marc Prensky _____________________________________________________________________________ Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants By Marc Prensky From On the Horizon (NCB University Press, Vol. 9 No language of computers, video games and the Internet. So what does that make the rest of us? Those of us who

  8. Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants 2001 Marc Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants

    E-print Network

    Cassell, Justine

    Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants ©2001 Marc Prensky _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants By Marc Prensky From On the Horizon (MCB University Press, Vol language of computers, video games and the Internet. So what does that make the rest of us? Those of us who

  9. Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants 2001 Marc Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, Part II

    E-print Network

    Knaust, Helmut

    growing up. And I submitted that learning via digital games is one good way to reach Digital Natives psychology, and from studies done on children using games for learning. Neuroplasticity Although the vastMarc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants ©2001 Marc Prensky

  10. Factorization of numbers with Gauss sums: III. Algorithms with Entanglement

    E-print Network

    S. Wölk; W. P. Schleich

    2012-10-24

    We propose two algorithms to factor numbers using Gauss sums and entanglement: (i) in a Shor-like algorithm we encode the standard Gauss sum in one of two entangled states and (ii) in an interference algorithm we create a superposition of Gauss sums in the probability amplitudes of two entangled states.These schemes are rather efficient provided that there exists a fast algorithm that can detect a period of a function hidden in its zeros.

  11. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control and Sum of Squares Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Raff; C. Ebenbauer; R. Findeisen; F. Allgöwer

    The paper considers the use of sum of squares techniques in nonlinear model predictive control. To be more precise, sum of\\u000a squares techniques are used to solve at each sampling instant a finite horizon optimal control problem which arises in nonlinear\\u000a model predictive control for discrete time polynomial systems. The combination of nonlinear model predictive control and sum\\u000a of squares

  12. Factorization of numbers with Gauss sums: III. Algorithms with entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölk, S.; Schleich, W. P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose two algorithms to factor numbers using Gauss sums and entanglement: (i) in a Shor-like algorithm we encode the standard Gauss sum in one of two entangled states and (ii) in an interference algorithm we create a superposition of Gauss sums in the probability amplitudes of two entangled states. These schemes are rather efficient provided that there exists a fast algorithm that can detect a period of a function hidden in its zeros.

  13. Classical Kloosterman sums: representation theory, magic squares, and Ramanujan multigraphs

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Patrick S; Karaali, Gizem

    2010-01-01

    We study the representation theory of a certain finite group for which Kloosterman sums appear as character values. This leads us to consider a concrete family of commuting hermitian matrices which have Kloosterman sums as eigenvalues. These matrices satisfy a number of "magical" combinatorial properties and they encode various arithmetic properties of Kloosterman sums. These matrices can also be regarded as adjacency matrices for multigraphs which display Ramanujan-like behavior.

  14. Clemson University Request for Lump Sum Payment-Multiple Lists

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Clemson University Request for Lump Sum Payment-Multiple Lists Bonus: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ To be Completed by the Classification, Compensation & Recruitment Unit Approved: Approved $: Effective Date

  15. Adler Function, DIS sum rules and Crewther Relations

    E-print Network

    P. A. Baikov; K. G. Chetyrkin; J. H. Kühn

    2010-07-03

    The current status of the Adler function and two closely related Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) sum rules, namely, the Bjorken sum rule for polarized DIS and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule are briefly reviewed. A new result is presented: an analytical calculation of the coefficient function of the latter sum rule in a generic gauge theory in order O(alpha_s^4). It is demonstrated that the corresponding Crewther relation allows to fix two of three colour structures in the O(alpha_s^4) contribution to the singlet part of the Adler function.

  16. QCD Sum Rules and Applications to Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    T. D. Cohen; R. J. Furnstahl; D. K. Griegel; Xuemin Jin

    1995-03-13

    Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered.

  17. Digital adaptive flight controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.; Alag, G.; Berry, P.; Kotob, S.

    1974-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Two designs are described for an example aircraft. Each of these designs uses a weighted least squares procedure to identify parameters defining the dynamics of the aircraft. The two designs differ in the way in which control law parameters are determined. One uses the solution of an optimal linear regulator problem to determine these parameters while the other uses a procedure called single stage optimization. Extensive simulation results and analysis leading to the designs are presented.

  18. Consideration of the ICRP 2006 revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choonsik Lee; Choonik Lee; Eun Young Han; Wesley E. Bolch

    2007-01-01

    The effective dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the sum of organ equivalent doses weighted by corresponding tissue weighting factors, wT. ICRP is in the process of revising its 1990 recommendations on the effective dose where new values of organs and tissue weighting factors have been proposed and published in draft form for consultation by

  19. On the total weight of weighted matchings of segment graphs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Given a matching, we put the weight x on each isolated vertex and the weight -1 or -a on each edge {i, iOn the total weight of weighted matchings of segment graphs Thomas Stoll School of Computer Science45, 05A15, 33C45 Abstract We study the total weight of weighted matchings in segment graphs, which

  20. Digital tomography: description and preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Friedenberg, R.M.; Lightfoote, J.B.; Wang, S.P.; Smolin, M.F.

    1985-03-01

    Digital tomography was performed in 30 patients using a new prototype system with a PET-Scope image tube. Twenty-eight exposures are obtained during a single revolution of the x-ray source over the volume of tissue to be imaged. The sum of the radiation produced by the 29 exposures is about equivalent to a single routine exposure of the part imaged. The data accumulated can provide up to 200 tomographic sections at intervals of 5 mm. Algorithms are being developed to allow axial and sagittal reformations. Further work is required to improve spatial resolution and contrast and to develop algorithms to allow subtraction of blurred images above and below the reconstructed site. The authors believe that the digital tomography may eventually replace most routine tomograms.

  1. Nutrition During Weight Gain

    E-print Network

    , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

  2. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  3. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  4. Generation of high-order sum and difference frequencies by adding an intense parallel- and perpendicular-polarized infrared laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Yuichiro; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate both efficient control of polarizations and high tunability of high-order sum and difference frequencies generated by adding an intense parallel- and perpendicular-polarized infrared laser field. When 805 nm pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system and 1300 nm pulses from an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) are combined with perpendicular polarizations, the sum frequencies with two or four OPA photons are generated stronger than those with one or three OPA photons. This observation directly reflects the difference in their polarizations of the generated sum frequencies. Sum frequencies absorbing up to eight OPA photons are also observed for the parallel polarizations. Our observations are successfully reproduced by the theoretical calculations with the Lewenstein model including a weighting factor.

  5. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  6. DIGITAL_HUMANITIES DIGITAL_HUMANITIES

    E-print Network

    #12;DIGITAL_HUMANITIES #12;#12;DIGITAL_HUMANITIES ANNE BURDICK JOHANNA DRUCKER PETER LUNENFELD TODD-in-Publication Data Digital_humanities / Anne Burdick ... [et al.]. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-262-01847-0 (hardcover : alk. Burdick, Anne. AZ195.D54 2012 001.30285--dc23 2012026514 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 #12;PRefACe vii 1

  7. Photonuclear sum rules and interaction effects in the deuteron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmuth Arenhövel; Werner Fabian

    1977-01-01

    The photonuclear sum rules sigmao, sigma-1, and sigma-2 are evaluated for the deuteron by direct integration of the theoretical cross section up to the pi-threshold. Effects of isobar configurations and mesonexchange currents are included. The integrated cross section is also determined from the double commutator of the dipole operator with the Hamiltonian. The usual potentials increase the classical sum rule

  8. Generating matrix and sums of Fibonacci and Pell sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. K.; Woon, H. S.; Chong, Chin-Yoon

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study the Fibonacci sequence and Pell sequence and developed generating matrices for them. First we proved two results on the even sum of the Fibonacci sequence and the Pell sequence, using the generating matrix approach. We then deduce the odd sums, some identities and recursive formulas for these two sequences.

  9. Well-boundedness of sums and products of operators

    E-print Network

    Doust, Ian

    Well-boundedness of sums and products of operators condition under which the sum, product, and indeed any polynomial combination of a well-bounded operator and a commuting real scalar-type spectral operator is well-bounded. This generalizes

  10. Sum Rules and Cutoff Effects in Wilson Lattice QCD

    E-print Network

    Harvey B. Meyer

    2006-09-06

    We use the transfer matrix formalism to derive non-perturbative sum rules in Wilson's lattice QCD with N_f flavours of quarks. The discretization errors on these identities are treated in detail. As an application, it is shown how the sum rules can be exploited to give improved estimates of the continuum spectrum and static potential.

  11. Sum rules for partial waves in production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, John

    1981-12-01

    Using general crossing symmetry a complete set of sum rules for partial waves in production processes is derived. These sum rules are derived explicitly for the case of pion production and are particularly suited to provide constraints on model (e.g., isobar) amplitudes.

  12. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers filing semimonthly tax returns. For brewers filing tax returns and remitting taxes semimonthly...25.164(c)(2), the penal sum of the brewers bond must be equal to 10 percent of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers filing semimonthly tax returns. For brewers filing tax returns and remitting taxes semimonthly...25.164(c)(2), the penal sum of the brewers bond must be equal to 10 percent of...

  14. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers filing semimonthly tax returns. For brewers filing tax returns and remitting taxes semimonthly...25.164(c)(2), the penal sum of the brewers bond must be equal to 10 percent of...

  15. An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth…

  16. College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…

  17. Geometric Clustering to Minimize the Sum of Cluster Sizes

    E-print Network

    Caragiannis, Ioannis

    Geometric Clustering to Minimize the Sum of Cluster Sizes Vittorio Bil`o1 , Ioannis Caragiannis2, Greece Abstract. We study geometric versions of the min-size k-clustering problem, a clustering problem which generalizes clustering to minimize the sum of cluster radii and has important applications. We

  18. Strong-Interaction Sum Rules for Pion-Hadron Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick J. Gilman; Haim Harari

    1968-01-01

    Using Regge high-energy behavior, the chiral algebra of charges, and pion pole dominance of the divergence of the axial-vector current, all the strong-interaction sum rules which hold for elastic pion-hadron scattering amplitudes at t=0 are derived. These include charge-algebra sum rules as well as superconvergence relations. We distinguish between \\

  19. 20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute the regular...explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA is determined in accordance with...if it were social security earnings. The RLS PIA is computed just like the...

  20. 20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute the regular...explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA is determined in accordance with...if it were social security earnings. The RLS PIA is computed just like the...

  1. Sumsets of reciprocals in prime fields and multilinear Kloosterman sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.; Garaev, M. Z.

    2014-08-01

    We obtain new results on the additive properties of the set I-1=\\{x-1\\colon x\\in I\\}, where I is an arbitrary interval in the field of residue classes modulo a large prime p. Combining our results with estimates of multilinear exponential sums, we obtain new results on incomplete multilinear Kloosterman sums.

  2. An Efficient Algorithm for Maximizing Range Sum Queries in a Road Network

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HaRim; Kim, Ung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25152915

  3. Using Triangularly Weighted Interpolation to Get 13Bit PCM from a Sigma-Delta Modulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES C. CANDY; Y. Ching; D. Alexander

    1976-01-01

    We present and analyze a method of interpolation that improves the amplitude resolution of an analog-to-digital converter. The technique requires feedback around a quantizer that operates at high speed and digital accumulation of its quantized values to provide a PCM output. We show that use of appropriate weights in the accumulation has important advantages for providing finer resoution, less spectral

  4. ELEC3028 Digital Transmission MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission ­ MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System · Purpose: communicate: rate, quality spectral bandwidth requirement · Major components: CODEC, MODEM and channel modulation input output CODEC MODEM Medium 1 #12;ELEC3028 Digital Transmission ­ MODEM S Chen Digital

  5. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness, volume 9. Attachment C: Flight STS40 report. Attachment D: SUMS software listing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie Wright

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes

  6. The origins of quark–hadron duality: how does the square of the sum become the sum of the squares?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank E. Close; Nathan Isgur

    2001-01-01

    Bloom–Gilman duality demonstrates empirically that the electroproduction of N?'s at low momentum transfers averages smoothly around the scaling curve measured at large momentum transfers. The latter is proportional to the sum of the squares of the constituent charges whereas the former involves the coherent excitation of resonances and is driven by the square of summed constituent charges. We determine the

  7. The End of Academia?: From "Cogito Ergo Sum" to "Consumo Ergo Sum" Germany and Malaysia in Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun

    2008-01-01

    The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…

  8. MATH 4400, SOLUTIONS TO THE MIDTERM EXAM 1) Find the last two digits of 2101.

    E-print Network

    Savin, Gordan

    that an integer is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9. Solution: 10k 1 (mod 9) for all integers k. If am, . . . , a0 are decimal digits of an integer n, then n = am10m + am-110m-1 is the smallest integer m such that km is a multiple of 9. If k = 3 then m = 3, if k = 2 then m = 9. 5) Let S = {p

  9. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...section. The proper application of this method requires that the estimated...the account, as computed by straight line depreciation...depreciation reserve computed on the straight line method of $9,450, the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...section. The proper application of this method requires that the estimated...the account, as computed by straight line depreciation...depreciation reserve computed on the straight line method of $9,450, the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...section. The proper application of this method requires that the estimated...the account, as computed by straight line depreciation...depreciation reserve computed on the straight line method of $9,450, the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...section. The proper application of this method requires that the estimated...the account, as computed by straight line depreciation...depreciation reserve computed on the straight line method of $9,450, the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...section. The proper application of this method requires that the estimated...the account, as computed by straight line depreciation...depreciation reserve computed on the straight line method of $9,450, the...

  14. Digital Cash For A Digital Age

    E-print Network

    protect the consumer, the merchant and potentially the bank. In order to do this we must have aspect of the protocol. Offline protocol: After the consumer receives their digital cash from the bank distributing entity. · Withdraw: The consumer can withdraw digital cash from the bank. This can either come

  15. VERTEX COLORING EDGE WEIGHTINGS WITH INTEGER WEIGHTS AT MOST 6

    E-print Network

    Pfender, Florian

    VERTEX COLORING EDGE WEIGHTINGS WITH INTEGER WEIGHTS AT MOST 6 MACIEJ KALKOWSKI, MICHAL KARO of a graph G. This weighting is called vertex coloring if the weighted degrees w(v) = uN(v) w]). For any connected graph G with |G| 3, there is an edge weighting f : E(G) {1, 2, 3}, and a vertex

  16. Weights and Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson in multiple parts designed to explain the importance of standardized weights and measures and to demonstrate how governmental activities have changed standards and influenced commerce. (JDH)

  17. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression Some drugs used to treat diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive ...

  18. Healthy Weight during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weight gain is kept within a healthy range. Obesity during pregnancy is risky for both mother and child. Some risks include gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension (high blood pressure), Cesarean delivery, birth defects and ...

  19. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  20. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Planning Meals Cutting Calories Eat More, Weigh Less? Fruits and Vegetables Rethink Your Drink Portion Pitfalls Healthy Recipes Physical Activity for Healthy Weight Getting Started Success Stories Tips for Parents The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity Other Resources Related ...

  1. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ... Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: ( ...

  2. Weighted Temperature Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the differential heat conduction equation together with the boundary conditions can be recast as a sequence consisting of integral identities for the weighted temperature. Weight functions take into account the properties of the heat conduction equation and the boundary conditions. The sequence of identities was constructed on the basis of multiple differentiation or integration operators. Using the search for eigenvalues of the boundary value problem as an example, we have demonstrated the high efficiency of such systems.

  3. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  4. CH Analog/Digital Service CH Analog/Digital Service CH Analog/Digital Service CH Analog/Digital Service 2 Analog CBB 30.1 Digital MTV2 65 Digital NFL HD 100 Digital Hit List

    E-print Network

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    &B Soul 8 Analog WXXA/FOX 32.2 Digital IFC 77 Analog TEST 109 Digital Gospel 8 Digital WXXA (FOX) 33 Digital ESPN U HD 78 Analog MMS 110 Digital Reggai 9 Analog WNYT/NBC 33.1 Digital NBA TV HD (NY) 111 Digital Classic Rock 9 Digital WNYT (NBC) 33.2 Digital G4 HD 112 Digital Retro Rock 10 Analog WMHT/PBS 34

  5. Computation of synthetic mammograms with an edge-weighting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Hanno; Bergner, Frank; Erhard, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The promising increase in cancer detection rates1, 2 makes digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) an interesting alternative to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast cancer screening. However, this benefit comes at the cost of an increased average glandular dose in a combined DBT plus FFDM acquisition protocol. Synthetic mammograms, which are computed from the reconstructed tomosynthesis volume data, have demonstrated to be an alternative to a regular FFDM exposure in a DBT plus synthetic 2D reading mode.3 Besides weighted averaging and modified maximum intensity projection (MIP) methods,4, 5 the integration of CAD techniques for computing a weighting function in the forward projection step of the synthetic mammogram generation has been recently proposed.6, 7 In this work, a novel and computationally efficient method is presented based on an edge-retaining algorithm, which directly computes the weighting function by an edge-detection filter.

  6. Copyright and digital libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Samuelson

    1995-01-01

    This issue of Communications highlights some of the many projects underway for the creation or enhancement of digital libraries. At the moment, no one seems to think there will be only one gargantuan digital library to sate the public's appetite for information. Rather, the expectation is that there will be many digital libraries, most of which will have specialized collections

  7. Architecture Digital Arts

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    FREE Architecture Digital Arts Drama Event and Experience Design Film Fine Art History of Art Music Misek 14 A tale of obsession 15 Student profile ­ Digital Arts 16 Talent spotting 17 Now that's what I Graduate profile ­ Fine Art 30 Digital sculpture 31 Global opportunities 32 On the road 34 Building

  8. Digital Signature Schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Carruthers

    This thesis will attempt to describe in detail the concepts of digital signatures and the related background issues. We will begin with a general introduction to cryptography and digital signatures and follow with an overview of the requisite math involved in cryptographic applications. We will then discuss in detail two digital signature schemes based on the discrete logarithm problem: the

  9. Changing State Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital

  10. Fourier transform digital holography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Apostol; Adrian Sima; Petre C. Logofatu; Florin Garoi; Victor Damian; Victor Nascov; Iuliana Iordache

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a Fourier transform digital holography experimental arrangement is presented. It is actually a hybrid arrangement, half digital half analog. The Fourier hologram was constructed using the analogous means of the so called lensless configuration. The hologram was recorded digitally by a camera with a large CCD array in stead of the recording medium. The recording of the

  11. Digital Ink and Notetaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Tablet PCs and graphics tablets employ digital ink technology. In this paper the author introduces the reader to digital ink technology with the aim of promoting its use in various instructional or training settings, with the goal of improving instructor-learner dialogue and student learning. The potential of digital ink for improved instructional…

  12. Reflowing digital ink annotations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bargeron; Tomer Moscovich

    2003-01-01

    Annotating paper documents with a pen is a familiar and indispensable activity across a wide variety of work and educational settings. Recent developments in pen-based computing promise to bring this experience to digital documents. However, digital documents are more flexible than their paper counterparts. When a digital document is edited, or displayed on different devices, its layout adapts to the

  13. Digital image forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fridrich; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu; Jessica Fridrich

    2009-01-01

    The article explains how photo-response nonuniformity (PRNU) of imaging sensors can be used for a variety of important digital forensic tasks, such as device identification, device linking, recovery of processing history, and detection of digital forgeries. The PRNU is an intrinsic property of all digital imaging sensors due to slight variations among individual pixels in their ability to convert photons

  14. Digital PCR and Quantitation

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    Applied Genetics Digital PCR and Quantitation Ross Haynes Research Biologist, Applied Genetics Group Forensics@NIST 2012 Meeting Gaithersburg, MD November 28, 2012 #12;Applied Genetics Agenda · Why quantitate with qPCR? · How digital PCR Will Help Quantitation · Quantitative PCR versus Digital PCR

  15. Chapter XLIV Digital Preservation

    E-print Network

    Chapter XLIV Digital Preservation Stephan Strodl Vienna University of Technology, Austria when the original software to interpret them has become unavailable. Digital preservation has thus in the field of digital preservation including the OAIS reference model. We give an overview about the projects

  16. EXPANDING READERSHIP DIGITAL REPOSITORIES

    E-print Network

    Argerami, Martin

    EXPANDING READERSHIP THROUGH DIGITAL REPOSITORIES #12;Online archives of universities, colleges to search every item they hold. NEW COmPUTATIONAL RESEARCH TECHNIqUES Digital repositories open the door are available to whoever needs them, whenever needed. LONG-TERm PRESERvATION Digital repositories are managed

  17. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  18. Weighted Domination on Cocomparability Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maw-shang Chang

    1995-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its two variants, the weighted connected domination and weighted total domination problems are NP-complete on cocomparability graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal to a constant c.

  19. A finite-transform sum rule and duality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Chavda

    1972-01-01

    Summary  Explicit relationships are established between the finite-transform sum rules derived previously and the finite-energy sum\\u000a rule. The sine sum rule is applied to the pion-nucleon charge-exchange scattering in the forward direction. The assumption\\u000a that the ? trajectory alone dominates the charge-exchange amplitude leads to conflicts with analyticity even at 6 GeV. In\\u000a the limit of the zero-mass pion the Born

  20. Factorizing Numbers with the Gauss Sum Technique: NMR Implementations

    E-print Network

    T. S. Mahesh; Nageswaran Rajendran; Xinhua Peng; Dieter Suter

    2007-03-16

    Several physics-based algorithms for factorizing large number were recently published. A notable recent one by Schleich et al. uses Gauss sums for distinguishing between factors and non-factors. We demonstrate two NMR techniques that evaluate Gauss sums and thus implement their algorithm. The first one is based on differential excitation of a single spin magnetization by a cascade of RF pulses. The second method is based on spatial averaging and selective refocusing of magnetization for Gauss sums corresponding to factors. All factors of 16637 and 52882363 are successfully obtained.

  1. Minkowski sum of HV-polytopes in Rn

    E-print Network

    Delos, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Minkowski sums cover a wide range of applications in many different fields like algebra, morphing, robotics, mechanical CAD/CAM systems ... This paper deals with sums of polytopes in a n dimensional space provided that both H-representation and V-representation are available i.e. the polytopes are described by both their half-spaces and vertices. The first method uses the polytope normal fans and relies on the ability to intersect dual polyhedral cones. Then we introduce another way of considering Minkowski sums of polytopes based on the primal polyhedral cones attached to each vertex.

  2. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ?(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ?sv(G)=?v?V(G)?(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=?u?V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  3. Parametric representation of anatomical structures of the human body by means of trigonometric interpolating sums

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, J.C.; Biscay, R.; Aubert, E. [Centro de Neurociencias de Cuba, La Habana (Cuba)] [Centro de Neurociencias de Cuba, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    An approach for the parametric representation of anatomical structures of the human body by means of trigonometric interpolating sums (TIS) is introduced. This representation is constructed on the basis of the geometric information provided by medical digital images and an arbitrarily chosen system of curvilinear coordinates. The parameterization defined by these coordinates is approximated through TIS by using a multidimensional extension of the Lancozos`s method for accelerating the convergence of trigonometric approximations for smooth, nonperiodic functions. This allows us to obtain accurate representations for a wide class of anatomical structures, including nonclosed ones. An upper bound of the approximation error is derived in the sense of the supremum norm. The reconstruction of a human face and the surface of a brain cortex are shown as illustrative examples of the parameterization by means of TIS. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Weighted least squares in calibration: the problem with using "quality coefficients" to select weighting formulas.

    PubMed

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2008-09-01

    The quality coefficient (Q) has frequently been used to select weighting formulae in calibration, and especially so in bioanalytical work, where there has been increasing awareness of the importance of data heteroscedasticity in recent years. However, this quantity is statistically flawed and should not be used for this purpose. The quality coefficient is computed from the differences between the apparent and true concentrations of the calibration samples as obtained from the least-squares calibration fit. Q is defined as the sum of either the squares or the absolute values of these differences, taken directly or as percentage (relative) deviations. It is calculated for several different trial weighting formulae, and the lowest Q value is then deemed to identify the best weighting choice. However, these Qs are predisposed to favor data consistent with their definitions-homoscedastic data for tests employing absolute differences, and data having proportional error (constant coefficient of variance) for tests using relative differences--because the Q in each case closely resembles the quantity actually minimized by the least-squares fit of the calibration data. The problem is examined and illustrated through Monte Carlo computations on data having either constant or proportional uncertainty and subjected to both tests. A modified Q based on the results of both the absolute and relative tests is much more reliable than either test alone but is still not recommended as a solution to the weighting problem, as other, statistically sound approaches are available and readily used. PMID:18706869

  5. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  6. Online Vertex-Weighted Bipartite Matching and Single-bid Budgeted Allocations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gagan Aggarwal; Gagan Goel; Chinmay Karande; Aranyak Mehta

    2010-01-01

    We study the following vertex-weighted online bipartite matching problem:\\u000a$G(U, V, E)$ is a bipartite graph. The vertices in $U$ have weights and are\\u000aknown ahead of time, while the vertices in $V$ arrive online in an arbitrary\\u000aorder and have to be matched upon arrival. The goal is to maximize the sum of\\u000aweights of the matched vertices in

  7. Four-point correlators with higher weight superconformal primaries in the AdS\\/CFT correspondence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda I. Uruchurtu

    2009-01-01

    The four-point correlation function of two 1\\/2 BPS primaries of conformal weight Delta = 2 and two 1\\/2-BPS primaries of conformal weight Delta = n is calculated in the large lambda, large N limit. These operators are dual to Kaluza-Klein supergravity fields sk with masses m2 = -4 and m2 = n(n-4). Given that the existing formalism for evaluating sums

  8. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

  9. A new weight factor spectrophotometric computer color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongcao; Wang, Xichang; Gong, Yanjun; Yang, Shangming; Liang, Fangying

    2005-02-01

    On the basis of spectrophotometric color matching, the color difference weight factor is proposed and used in the thesis. The weight factor can be expressed as ?j = {{[(x(?j)]2 + [y(?j)]2 + [z(?j)]2}[S(?j)]2}» and obtained according to the assumption of ?j(?Xj)2+(?Yj)2+(?Zj)2 -> min, i. e., in the range of visible spectrum it is assumed that the square sum of tri-stimulus value deviation produced by spectrum deviation at each wavelength is minimal.Through comparison with spectrophotometric color matching, we find a new weight factor. The new factor multiplied by the variety of reflectivity is the color difference, which is cause by the difference of reflectivity between standard color and matching color. So we name the weight factor: color difference weight factor. The prediction of computer shows the color difference produced by the weight factor is smaller than that produced by the two weight factors which were designed by Schmid and Strockash.

  10. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ?30 kg/m2 or ?27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  11. Digital servo motion control of air motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. PU; P. R. MOORE; R. H. WESTON

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of the operating characteristics of pneumatic systems are given and control methods for pneumatic servo motors are described. Both analytical and experimental approaches are considered. The results show that digital-controlled air motors have the potential of providing an alternative solution to their electric and hydraulic motor counterparts. Air servo motors, through inherent low cost, good power-to-weight ratio and intrinsically

  12. Automatic Selection of Mask and Arterial Phase Images for Temporally Resolved MR Digital

    E-print Network

    Zabih, Ramin

    X-ray angiography, where image postprocessing has been used frequently to improve vasculatureAutomatic Selection of Mask and Arterial Phase Images for Temporally Resolved MR Digital for selecting arterial phase images and mask images to generate an optimal sum- mary arteriogram. A paired

  13. Comparison analysis of agricultural land gradation evaluation based on different weight making methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaobin; Zhang, Honghui; Zhou, Yinkang

    2008-10-01

    Agricultural land gradation links land classification and land appraisal. It indicates the difference in agricultural productivity resulted from differences in land's natural characteristics and/or the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural production at present and in the future. Technically, agricultural land is graded based on the sum of weighted indices and further classified by equal-distance, or axis, or sum frequency curve. It is critical to define the system of weights in this process. In practice, a single or mixed weight system has been widely applied in agricultural land gradation. However, few studies put efforts in comparing outcomes in applying different systems of weights for a specific area. This research applied several popular systems of weights, such as AHP, factor analysis, grey relation analysis, entropy method, and etc., in gradating agricultural land in Jintan, Jiangsu province. Outcomes resulted from different systems of weights were compared. The result did illustrate the obvious differences among these outcomes, which in turn stood for differences among systems of weights. Considering biases inherent in different systems of weights, a system of combined weights is highly recommended for the general practice in agricultural land gradation.

  14. Factorization of numbers with Gauss sums: I. Mathematical background

    E-print Network

    S. Wölk; W. Merkel; W. P. Schleich; I. Sh. Averbukh; B. Girard

    2012-10-24

    We use the periodicity properties of generalized Gauss sums to factor numbers. Moreover, we derive rules for finding the factors and illustrate this factorization scheme for various examples. This algorithm relies solely on interference and scales exponentially.

  15. Gamow-Teller sum rule in relativistic nuclear models

    E-print Network

    Haruki Kurasawa; Toshio Suzuki

    2006-04-06

    Relativistic corrections are investigated to the Gamow-Teller(GT) sum rule with respect to the difference between the $\\beta_-$ and $\\beta_+$ transition strengths in nuclei. Since the sum rule requires the complete set of the nuclear states, the relativistic corrections come from the anti-nucleon degrees of freedom. In the relativistic mean field approximation, the total GT strengths carried by the nucleon sector is quenched by about 12% in nuclear matter, while by about 8% in finite nuclei, compared to the sum rule value. The coupling between the particle-hole states with the nucleon-antinucleon states is also discussed with the relativistic random phase approximation, where the divergence of the response function is renormalized with use of the counter terms in the Lagrangian. It is shown that the approximation to neglect the divergence, like the no-sea approximation extensively used so far, is unphysical, from the sum-rule point of view.

  16. Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg Institut) Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.

  17. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

  18. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

  19. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

  20. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and Inspection Procedures...The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum...

  1. Area Between Two Curves as Limits of Riemann Sums

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2000-05-13

    This demo incorporates combines the visualization of approximating rectangles together with a graph of the approximate areas as a function of the number of rectangles. Thus, the limiting behavior of the approximating sums can be observed on the graph.

  2. ON SUMS OF SQUARES IN LOCAL RINGS CLAUS SCHEIDERER

    E-print Network

    . Sums of squar* *es have become a central topic in the algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fie of orderings. In the 1970's, much of the algebraic theory of quadratic forms has been succe* *ss- fully

  3. Definable zero-sum stochastic games Jrme BOLTE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Definable zero-sum stochastic games Jérôme BOLTE , Stéphane GAUBERT & Guillaume VIGERAL January 9 Capitole), Manufacture des Tabacs, 21 allée de Brienne, 31015 Toulouse cedex 5, France. email: jerome.bolte

  4. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  5. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  6. Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256

  7. Modified Continuous-Moment Sum Rule and the Pomeranchon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Chavda

    1969-01-01

    A modified form of the continuous-moment sum rule is employed to investigate whether or not the Pomeranchon intercept alphaP, deviates from its maximal value of unity in the forward direction. This sum rule contains a continuously varying power of the amplitude, in addition to the usual continuously-varying moment. Two particular cases, corresponding to the first and the second powers of

  8. Minkowski sum of polytopes defined by their vertices

    E-print Network

    Delos, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Minkowski sums are of theoretical interest and have applications in fields related to industrial back-grounds. In this paper we focus on the specific case of summing polytopes as we want to solve the tolerance analysis problem described in [1]. Our approach is based on the use of linear programming and is solvable in polynomial time. The algorithm we developped can be implemented and parallelized in a very easy way.

  9. Heavy-meson form factors from QCD sum rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Neubert

    1992-01-01

    A consistent framework is developed for studying hadronic form factors of heavy mesons using QCD sum rules in the heavy-quark effective theory, including the next-to-leading-order renormalization-group improvement. Sum rules are derived for the asymptotic value of the meson decay constant fP and for the universal Isgur-Wise form factor. It is shown that renormalization-group effects considerably enhance the prediction for fP

  10. Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues

    E-print Network

    Cornean, Horia D

    2010-01-01

    This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid state physics, and they give rise to certain convergence problems widely ignored by physicists. We give a complete answer in the case of smooth potentials and formulate an open problem related to less regular perturbations.

  11. Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues

    E-print Network

    Horia D. Cornean; Gheorghe Nenciu

    2010-05-13

    This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid state physics, and they give rise to certain convergence problems widely ignored by physicists. We give a complete answer in the case of smooth potentials and formulate an open problem related to less regular perturbations.

  12. Evaluation of the Skyrme parameter from QCD sum rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Dosch; S. Narison

    1986-01-01

    The dimensionless parameter of the Skyrme lagrangian is evaluated by two methods. In one a combination of sum rules for the nucleon and the pion is used, in the other only baryonic sum rules. e = 5-8 and e = 5-7 is found, respectively, in agreement with the phenomenological value e = 5.45. To leading order in the operator-product expansion

  13. The symplectic sum formula for Gromov–Witten invariants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Parker

    2004-01-01

    In the symplectic category there is a `connect sum' operation that glues\\u000asymplectic manifolds by identifying neighborhoods of embedded codimension two\\u000asubmanifolds. This paper establishes a formula for the Gromov-Witten invariants\\u000aof a symplectic sum Z=X#Y in terms of the relative GW invariants of X and Y.\\u000aSeveral applications to enumerative geometry are given.

  14. Spectral-function sum rules in supersymmetry breaking models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kurachi, Masafumi; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Yokoi, Naoto

    2012-03-01

    The technique of Weinberg’s spectral-function sum rule is a powerful tool for a study of models in which global symmetry is dynamically broken. It enables us to convert information on the short-distance behavior of a theory to relations among physical quantities which appear in the low-energy picture of the theory. We apply such technique to general supersymmetry breaking models to derive new sum rules.

  15. 5 CFR 591.222 - How does OPM use the expenditure weights to combine price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...sum of the weights used in the calculation. This produces a price index for the level of aggregation (e.g., PEG or sub-PEG) in which the DEC is categorized. (c) Step 3. OPM repeats the process described in Step 2 at each level of...

  16. Large deviations of max-weight scheduling policies on convex rate regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay G. Subramanian

    2008-01-01

    We consider a single server discrete-time system with K users where the server picks operating points from a compact, convex and co-ordinate convex set in R+ K. For this system we analyse the performance of a stablising policy that at any given time picks operating points from the allowed rate region that maximise a weighted sum of rate, where the

  17. Analysis of scale-free networks based on a threshold graph with intrinsic vertex weights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Masuda; Hiroyoshi Miwa; Norio Konno

    2004-01-01

    Many real networks are complex and have power-law vertex degree distribution, short diameter, and high clustering. We analyze the network model based on thresholding of the summed vertex weights, which belongs to the class of networks proposed by Caldarelli [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 258702 (2002)]. Power-law degree distributions, particularly with the dynamically stable scaling exponent 2, realistic clustering, and short

  18. Digital Archive Policies and Trusted Digital Repositories

    E-print Network

    Smith, MacKenzie

    The MIT Libraries, the San Diego Supercomputer Center, and the University of California San Diego Libraries are conducting the PLEDGE Project to determine the set of policies that affect operational digital preservation ...

  19. Bogus Weight Loss Claims

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Battles, Carol

    The Real World Learning Objects Library presents a project that incorporates the real-life experience of false advertising in weight loss miracles and the science behind such claims. Under the guise of helping the FDA police such bogus claims of "quick fix" weight loss pills or secrets, students have the opportunity to apply biology and other earth sciences to consider a claim and disprove it. The activity includes detailed instructions, learning objects, assessment guides, and a list of further resources for more information. The activity is ideal for teachers seeking to develop in class or take home assignments and activities, or for students designing their own projects.

  20. Weighted interlace polynomials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Traldi

    2008-01-01

    The interlace polynomials introduced by Arratia, Bollobas and Sorkin extend to invariants of graphs with vertex weights, and these weighted interlace polynomials have several novel properties. One novel property is a version of the fundamental three-term formula q(G)=q(G-a)+q(G^{ab}-b)+((x-1)^{2}-1)q(G^{ab}-a-b) that lacks the last term. It follows that interlace polynomial computations can be represented by binary trees rather than mixed binary-ternary trees.

  1. Weighted Interlace Polynomials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Traldi

    2010-01-01

    The interlace polynomials introduced by Arratia, Bollobas and Sorkin extend\\u000ato invariants of graphs with vertex weights, and these weighted interlace\\u000apolynomials have several novel properties. One novel property is a version of\\u000athe fundamental three-term formula\\u000aq(G)=q(G-a)+q(G^{ab}-b)+((x-1)^{2}-1)q(G^{ab}-a-b) that lacks the last term. It\\u000afollows that interlace polynomial computations can be represented by binary\\u000atrees rather than mixed binary-ternary trees.

  2. Mobile Device to Digitize the photographic plates: first results Grosheva E.A., Izmailov I.S., Khrutskaya E.V.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -frame Canon EOS 5D Mark II digital camera. The speed of digitization is 60-70 plates per hour. Random error and LCD monitor as a backlight. Digital Camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II has a full-frame CMOS-detector of size with Canon camera. Then the images were converted to 16-bit grayscale by summing the values in the RGB

  3. Closed-form summation of the Dowker and related sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvijovi?, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.

    2007-04-01

    Finite sums of powers of cosecants appear in a wide range of physical problems. We, through a unified approach which uses contour integrals and residues, establish the summation formulas for two general families of such sums. One of them is the family which was first studied and summed in closed form by Dowker [Phys. Rev. D 36, 3095 (1987)], while the other is related to it and has not been studied before. Our summation formulas of the Dowker sums involve only the Stirling numbers of the first kind and the (ordinary) Bernoulli polynomials and numbers, unlike the earlier summation formulas in which either the higher-order Bernoulli numbers and polynomials or the multiple sums involving the Bernoulli numbers and their products, were used. A great deal of other (known or presumably new) closed-form summations follows as straightforward corollaries to these formulas. Among them are two special cases of the celebrated Verlinde's formula and numerous sums encountered in various physical problems by McCoy and Orrick [J. Stat. Phys. 83, 839 (1996)], Gervois and Mehta [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5098 (1995)], and Henkel and Lacki [Phys. Lett. A 138, 105 (1989)].

  4. New QCD Sum Rules for Nucleon Axial Vector Coupling Constants

    E-print Network

    Lee, F X; Jin, X; Lee, Frank X.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Jin, Xuemin

    1996-01-01

    Two new sets of QCD sum rules for the nucleon axial coupling constants are derived using the external-field technique and generalized interpolating fields. An in-depth study of the predicative ability of these sum rules is carried out using a Monte-Carlo based uncertainty analysis. The results show that the standard implementation of the QCD sum rule method has only marginal predicative power for the nucleon axial coupling constants, as the relative errors are large. The errors range from approximately 50 to 100% compared to the nucleon mass obtained from the same method, which has only 10% to 25% error. The origin of the large errors is examined. Previous analyses of these coupling constants are based on sum rules that have poor OPE convergence and large continuum contributions. Preferred sum rules are identified and their predictions are obtained. We also investigate the new sum rules with an alternative treatment of the problematic transitions which are not exponentially suppressed in the standard treatmen...

  5. Sums of Evenly Spaced Binomial Coefficients Arthur T. Benjamin

    E-print Network

    Benjamin, Arthur T.

    = 3, and m = 4 and therefore has weight 12 = 2 since 5 = 1. Equivalently, a walk that begins at vertex j and ends at vertex j + m (mod r) has weight jm . In particular, any closed walk will have weight 0 = 1. Another way to think of the weight of a walk beginning at vertex j is that each stationary step

  6. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  7. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the DPP study lose weight. • Eating a low-carbohydrate diet. • Eating less fat. People in the DPP study cut down on fat. • Choosing more foods that aren’t high in calories and low in nutrients. Eating foods such as non-starchy ...

  8. Weight 1. Leadership

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Weight 0 1 2 3 1. Leadership 33% Has not demonstrated impact through a leadership role Has held a leadership role in one or more organizations and demonstrated impact Has held an organization-wide leadership role in one or more

  9. On weighted Shapley values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kalai; D. Samet

    1987-01-01

    Nonsymmetric Shapley values for coalitional form games with transferable utility are studied. The nonsymmetries are modeled through nonsymmetric weight systems defined on the players of the games. It is shown axiomatically that two families of solutions of this type are possible. These families are strongly related to each other through the duality relationship on games. While the first family lends

  10. Weight For It!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity about weights and balances, learners create their own balance using paper cups. Then, learners explore how to compare the relative mass of objects. In the "Now, explore!" section, to take the experiment one step further, they can make carbon dioxide gas and discover its mass relative to the air around it.

  11. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    technology: "the digital revolution". Digital Forensics "the application of proven scientific methodsCOE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital

  12. Oxaliplatin Induced Digital Ischemia and Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Kubilay; Kadan, Murat; Kaya, Erkan; Durgun, Baris; Arslan, Gokhan; Doganci, Suat; Bolcal, Cengiz; Demirkilic, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Digital ischemia is a rare complication of several chemotherapeutic medications. We aimed to present a patient with digital ischemia, secondary to a new generation chemotherapeutic drug, oxaliplatin. Case Report. 62-year-old woman presented to our department with severe pain, paresthesia, and distal acrocyanosis on her right hand fingertips. Her complaints started five days after the third cycle of a chemotherapy protocol consisting of 5-fluorourasil (5-FU), folinic acid, and oxaliplatin due to advanced colon carcinoma. On physical examination, hemorrhagic and partly ulcerative lesions were detected at her right hand fingertips. Radial and ulnar pulses were absent at affected side. Digital subtraction angiography revealed severe vascular resistance in the affected extremity. Iloprost trometamol treatment was started with the dosage of 1?ng/kg/min. In addition, low-molecule-weight heparin was used for preventing possible microemboli. Symptomatic relief was provided after five days, and patient was discharged on 7th day of treatment. Discussion. The pathogenesis of oxaliplatin induced vascular toxicity remains unclear. Endothelial damage, increased adherence of platelets, deposition of immune complexes as an immunologic effect of oxaliplatin, and hypercoagulable state may be the reason for arterial thrombosis, digital microemboli, possible digital ischemia, and their several consequences. PMID:26064768

  13. Oxaliplatin Induced Digital Ischemia and Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Kubilay; Kadan, Murat; Kaya, Erkan; Durgun, Baris; Arslan, Gokhan; Doganci, Suat; Bolcal, Cengiz; Demirkilic, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Digital ischemia is a rare complication of several chemotherapeutic medications. We aimed to present a patient with digital ischemia, secondary to a new generation chemotherapeutic drug, oxaliplatin. Case Report. 62-year-old woman presented to our department with severe pain, paresthesia, and distal acrocyanosis on her right hand fingertips. Her complaints started five days after the third cycle of a chemotherapy protocol consisting of 5-fluorourasil (5-FU), folinic acid, and oxaliplatin due to advanced colon carcinoma. On physical examination, hemorrhagic and partly ulcerative lesions were detected at her right hand fingertips. Radial and ulnar pulses were absent at affected side. Digital subtraction angiography revealed severe vascular resistance in the affected extremity. Iloprost trometamol treatment was started with the dosage of 1?ng/kg/min. In addition, low-molecule-weight heparin was used for preventing possible microemboli. Symptomatic relief was provided after five days, and patient was discharged on 7th day of treatment. Discussion. The pathogenesis of oxaliplatin induced vascular toxicity remains unclear. Endothelial damage, increased adherence of platelets, deposition of immune complexes as an immunologic effect of oxaliplatin, and hypercoagulable state may be the reason for arterial thrombosis, digital microemboli, possible digital ischemia, and their several consequences.

  14. Method of improving a digital image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of improving a digital image is provided. The image is initially represented by digital data indexed to represent positions on a display. The digital data is indicative of an intensity value I.sub.i (x,y) for each position (x,y) in each i-th spectral band. The intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is adjusted to generate an adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band in accordance with ##EQU1## where S is the number of unique spectral bands included in said digital data, W.sub.n is a weighting factor and * denotes the convolution operator. Each surround function F.sub.n (x,y) is uniquely scaled to improve an aspect of the digital image, e.g., dynamic range compression, color constancy, and lightness rendition. The adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is filtered with a common function and then presented to a display device. For color images, a novel color restoration step is added to give the image true-to-life color that closely matches human observation.

  15. One-parameter scaling and exponential-sum fitting for water vapor and CO2 infrared transmission functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Ridgway, William L.; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    1993-01-01

    A medium-sized band model for water vapor and CO2 absorption is developed using the one-parameter scaling approximation. The infrared spectrum is divided into 10 bands. The Planck-weighted diffuse transmittance is reduced to a function dependent only upon the scaled absorber amount and fit by an exponential sum. By selecting specific sets of absorption coefficients for exponential-sum fitting, computations of fluxes and cooling rate are made very fast. Compared to a broadband model, the accuracy, speed, and versatility are all enhanced. With absorption due to water vapor line, continuum, CO2 as well as O3 included, the parameterization introduces an error of less than 1.5 W/sq m in fluxes and less than 0.15 C/day in the tropospheric and lower stratospheric cooling rates.

  16. My sibling, my weight. How gender, sibling gender, sibling weight and sibling weight level perception influence weight perception accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, V T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of sibling weight level perception and sibling weight on the accuracy of respondent weight level perception dependent on sibling-pair gender composition. Design: A cross-sectional study based on the survey data, which include the children of a nationally representative sample of Danes. Logit regression models were used. Subjects: Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight respondents comprising 397 female sibling pairs, 357 male sibling pairs and 730 opposite-sex sibling pairs. The inclusion of both same-sex siblings and opposite-sex siblings is novel for studies on weight perceptions. Measurements: Weight underestimation and weight overestimation were calculated on the basis of difference between actual weight level and self-perceived weight level. Respondent gender, sibling gender, sibling body mass index (BMI) and the siblings' self-perceived weight level were included as the main controls. Results: Women frequently overestimate their weight level, whereas men often underestimate theirs. Women are more likely to overestimate their weight if their sister does the same but less likely if their brother overestimates his weight. Likewise, women are more likely to underestimate their weight if their sister also underestimates her weight but less likely if their brother underestimates his weight. The higher the BMI of their brother and the lower the BMI of their sister, the more likely men are to underestimate their own weight level. Conclusion: Results underline the importance of social context when looking at body formation and weight perceptions. The weight and weight perceptions of siblings influence own weight perception. Gender is central to studies on weight-related issues, not only respondent gender - equally so the gender of interaction. PMID:24418829

  17. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting

  18. Weighted Domination of Cocomparability Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maw-shang Chang

    1997-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the weighted domination problem and its three variants, the weighted connected domination, total domination, and dominating clique problems are NP-complete on cobipartite graphs when arbitrary integer vertex weights are allowed and all of them can be solved in polynomial time on cocomparability graphs if vertex weights are integers and less than or equal

  19. Software: Digital Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Brunner, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Large digital sky surveys, over a broad range of wavelengths, both from the ground and from space observatories, are becoming a major source of astronomical data. Some examples include the SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY (SDSS) and the Digital Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS) in the visible, the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-infrared, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Faint I...

  20. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital images had less spatial and contrast resolution. With the equipment improvements discussed in the thesis, digital tomography may have an important role in radiology.

  1. Consistent Digital Rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhee Chun; Matias Korman; Martin Nöllenburg; Takeshi Tokuyama

    2009-01-01

    Given a fixed origin o in the d-dimensional grid, we give a novel definition of digital rays dig(op) from o to each grid point p. Each digital ray dig(op) approximates the Euclidean line segment \\u000a \\u000a between o and p. The set of all digital rays satisfies a set of axioms analogous to the Euclidean axioms. We measure the approximation quality\\u000a by the

  2. Informedia Digital Video Library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Christel; Takeo Kanade; M. Mauldin; Raj Reddy; Marvin A. Sirbu; Scott M. Stevens; Howard D. Wactlar

    1995-01-01

    The Informedia Digital Video Library Project is developing new technologies for creating full-content search and retrieval digital video libraries. Working in collaboration with WQED Pittsburgh, the project is creating a testbed that will enable K-12 students to access, explore, and retrieve science and mathematics materials from the digital video library. The library will initially contain 1,000 hours of video from

  3. Heart weight and running ability.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, H M

    1989-01-01

    The weight of the heart as determined by dissection techniques was compared with liveweight and total muscle weight in different types of horses and dogs as adults and during growth. With increasing body size both within and between species, heart weight forms a lesser proportion of liveweight and of total muscle weight. Heart weight forms a greater proportion of liveweight in Thoroughbreds and Greyhounds (breeds noted for high speed running) than in other less fleet members of their species and Greyhounds have greater heart weights relative to total muscle weight than other dogs. PMID:2630537

  4. Digital Commerce Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the Digital Commerce Center is to help "businesses compete in the new world of digital commerce through an understanding and application of digital technology, information and media." Created and maintained by EC2, a start-up incubator based at the University of Southern California, the Digital Commerce Center offers an extensive collection of resources and information. The resources are divided into seven sections including Internet Advertising, Media Convergence, and Small Business Advisor, and all sections and subsections are thoughtfully annotated.

  5. Weighted Scaling in Non-growth Random Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Yang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Xin-Li

    2012-09-01

    We propose a weighted model to explain the self-organizing formation of scale-free phenomenon in non-growth random networks. In this model, we use multiple-edges to represent the connections between vertices and define the weight of a multiple-edge as the total weights of all single-edges within it and the strength of a vertex as the sum of weights for those multiple-edges attached to it. The network evolves according to a vertex strength preferential selection mechanism. During the evolution process, the network always holds its total number of vertices and its total number of single-edges constantly. We show analytically and numerically that a network will form steady scale-free distributions with our model. The results show that a weighted non-growth random network can evolve into scale-free state. It is interesting that the network also obtains the character of an exponential edge weight distribution. Namely, coexistence of scale-free distribution and exponential distribution emerges.

  6. Digital signal processing for the APS transverse and longitudinal damping system

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, D.; Sellyey, W.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory will be a 7-GeV machine. It is anticipated that for beam operations beyond the baseline design of 100 mA stored beam current, a transverse and longitudinal damping system is needed to damp instabilities. A key part of this digital damping system is digital signal processing. This digital system will be used to process samples taken from the beam and determine appropriate correction values to be applied to the beam. The processing will take the form of a transversal digital filter with adaptable filter weights. Sampling will be done at 176 MHz with a possible correction bandwidth of 88 MHz. This paper concentrates on the digital processing involved in this system, and especially on the adaptive algorithms used for determining the digital filter weights.

  7. Developments in Digital Cinema Projection

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    . Digital Cinema is directly tied to the digital content revolution, with HD TV, Portable Media PlayersDevelopments in Digital Cinema Projection Barry Silverstein Projection Technology Manager and color, the switch to Digital Technology. The Digital Cinema conversion process is just beginning. It has

  8. Digital In, Digital Out: Digital Editing with Firewire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Bob; Sauer, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Reviews linear and nonlinear digital video (DV) editing equipment and software, using the IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connector. Includes a chart listing specifications and rating eight DV editing systems, reviews two DV still-photo cameras, and previews beta DV products. (PEN)

  9. Methodological issues in weight cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Cutter; Sachiko Jeor; Robert Brunner; Pam Wolfe; John Foreyt; Alan Dyer; Kelly D. Brownell

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that weight changes may be related to disease risk independent of weight status. A critical\\u000a step in testing this assertion is the measurement of weight change and so-called “weight cycling”. However intuitive the concept\\u000a of weight cycling may appear, research in this area is hampered by complex methodological issues. This article discusses various\\u000a measures of nominal

  10. Digital rights language support for evolving digital cinema requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orri, Xavier; Mas, Joan-Maria; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2003-06-01

    Digital cinema can be defined as the digital electronic distribution and display of theatrical film content or live material to the theatre. However, this simple definition does not reflect the complex mesh of balanced business relationships between the different parties involved in the worldwide cinematic distribution. Its transition from an analogue to a digital business will happen progressively, starting with only content being digitally distributed and going until an all-digital business. From these facts derive strong requirements on digital rights management (DRM) systems for digital cinema and therefore on the digital rights language supporting it. This paper explores the requirements imposed by the cinematic distribution model and by its progressive transition to digital, and the impact these have on digital rights languages. We analyze the support provided by different digital rights languages, identifying weaknesses and exploring solutions in fulfilling the requirements of the digital cinema distribution model.

  11. Quantitative sum rule analysis of low-temperature spectral functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Nathan P. M.; Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    We analyze QCD and Weinberg-type sum rules in a low-temperature pion gas using vector and axial-vector spectral functions following from the model-independent chiral-mixing scheme. Toward this end we employ recently constructed vacuum spectral functions with ground and first-excited states in both channels and a universal perturbative continuum; they quantitatively describe hadronic ?-decay data and satisfy vacuum sum rules. These features facilitate the implementation of chiral mixing without further assumptions, and lead to in-medium spectral functions which exhibit a mutual tendency of compensating resonance and dip structures, suggestive for an approach toward structureless distributions. In the sum rule analysis, we account for pion mass corrections, which turn out to be significant. While the Weinberg sum rules remain satisfied even at high temperatures, the numerical evaluation of the QCD sum rules for vector and axial-vector channels reveals significant deviations setting in for temperatures beyond ˜140MeV, suggestive of additional physics beyond low-energy chiral pion dynamics.

  12. On Weighting Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Nock; Frank Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—Recent,papers,and patents in iterative unsupervised,learning have,emphasized,a new,trend in clustering. It basically consists of penalizing solutions via weights on the instance points, somehow making clustering move toward the hardest points to cluster. The motivations come,principally from an analogy,with powerful,supervised,classification methods,known,as boosting algorithms. However, interest in this analogy has so far been mainly borne out from experimental studies only. This paper is,

  13. End-digits preference for self-reported height depends on language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Bopp; David Faeh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When individuals report figures, they often prefer to round to specific end-digits (e.g. zero). Such preference has been found in reports of body weight, cigarette consumption or blood pressure measurements. Very little is known about self-reported body height. End-digit preference can distort estimates of prevalence and other statistical parameters. This study examines end-digit preference for self-reported height and how

  14. Multiuser Discrete Bit-loading for Digital Subscriber Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Yu; Kibeom Seong; John M. Cioffi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient algorithm that produces near-optimal discrete bit-loading for a Gaussian interference channel that models a DSL network. It first takes a continuous bit-loading initialization, and then rounds one user's bits in each tone independently, with rounding direction determined by evaluating a weighted sum rate objective function. After adjusting all the tones of a user, that user's

  15. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove its applicability and appropriateness in solving supplier selection problems.

  16. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

  17. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

  18. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

  19. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

  20. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

  1. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

  2. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

  3. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

  4. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

  5. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

  6. Introduction to Modern Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, Jung-Ping

    2014-01-01

    1. Wave optics; 2. Fundamentals of holography; 3. Types of holograms; 4. Conventional digital holography; 5. Digital holography: special techniques; 6. Applications in digital holography; 7. Computer-generated holography; Index.

  7. M. Phil. in Digital Humanities

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    M. Phil. in Digital Humanities and Culture Why choose this course?Internship Entry Requirements Associate Professor in Digital Humanities, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. Telephone: 00353 experience working with cultural heritage partners or digital humanities projects. The internship

  8. Additional corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    SciTech Connect

    Londergan, J. T.; Thomas, A. W. [Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia)

    2010-12-01

    We investigate some QCD corrections that contribute to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule but have not been included in previous analyses of it. We first review the techniques by which the xF{sub 3} structure function is extracted from combinations of neutrino and antineutrino cross sections. Next we investigate corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule, with particular attention to contributions arising from strange quark distributions and from charge symmetry violating parton distributions. We find that additional corrections from strange quarks and parton charge symmetry violation are likely to have a small but potentially significant role in decreasing the current discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical estimates of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule.

  9. The lowest hidden charmed tetraquark state from QCD sum rules

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we study the $S\\bar{S}$ type scalar tetraquark state $cq\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ in details with the QCD sum rules by calculating the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion, and obtain the value $M_{Z_c}=\\left(3.82^{+0.08}_{-0.08}\\right)\\,\\rm{GeV}$, which is the lowest mass for the hidden charmed tetraquark states from the QCD sum rules. Furthermore, we calculate the hadronic coupling constants $G_{Z_c\\eta_c\\pi}$ and $G_{Z_cDD}$ with the three-point QCD sum rules, then study the strong decays $ Z_c\\to \\eta_c\\pi\\, ,\\, DD$, and observe that the total width $\\Gamma_{Z_c}\\approx 21\\,\\rm{MeV}$. The present predictions can be confronted with the experimental data in the futures at the BESIII, LHCb and Belle-II.

  10. Mini-review on QCD spectral sum rules

    E-print Network

    Stephan Narison

    2014-10-03

    Taking the example of the most popular and well-established Borel / Laplace / Exponential sum rule (LSR), I shortly review some of its recent applications in hadron physics namely the estimates of non-perturbative condensates, the determination of the light and heavy quark masses, the extraction of the heavy-light decay constants, the estimates of charmonium and bottomium molecule masses and the properties of scalar gluonium. In addition to the standard \\tau (sum rule variable) and t_c (QCD continuum threshold) stablity criteria, I introduce a new stability criterion versus the arbitrary QCD subtraction point \\mu for extracting the optimal results when radiative QCD corrections are included. Future improvements on further uses of QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR) are commented.

  11. Sum rules for light-by-light scattering.

    PubMed

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2010-11-12

    We derive a set of sum rules for the light-by-light scattering and fusion: ???all, and verify them in lowest order QED calculations. A prominent implication of these sum rules is the superconvergence of the helicity-difference total cross section for photon fusion, which in the hadron sector reveals an intricate cancellation between the pseudoscalar and tensor mesons. An experimental verification of superconvergence of the polarized photon fusion into hadrons is called for, but will only be possible at e+ e- and ?? colliders with both beams polarized. We also show how the sum rules can be used to measure various contributions to the low-energy light-by-light scattering. PMID:21231218

  12. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  13. Writing and Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Waes, Luuk, Ed.; Leijten, Marielle, Ed.; Neuwirth, Chris, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a…

  14. Browsing digital video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis C. Li; Anoop Gupta; Elizabeth Sanocki; Li-wei He; Yong Rui

    2000-01-01

    Video in digital format coupled with digital\\/programmable playback devices presents opportunities for significantly enhancing the user's viewing experience. For example, time compression can shorten the viewing length of a video and shot boundary frames can provide a visual index into the content. Such features have primarily been evaluated in isolation with a narrow set of video content types. We investigated

  15. The Digital Vaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Suzanne; Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the Digital Vaults and offers suggestions in introducing this site to students. The Digital Vaults, inspired by the permanent Public Vaults exhibition launched by the National Archives in 2004, is not just another website, but it designed to be an online exhibit and teaching tool, by offering both exposure to historical…

  16. Digital rotation measurement unit

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, S.N.

    1983-09-30

    A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

  17. Digital Knowledge Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandian, M. Paul

    2008-01-01

    Technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. Networking and computing technologies have now become sufficiently advanced to support the design and deployment of large digital libraries which are capable of supporting the conventional end-user functions. Digital libraries are a natural extension of the evolution in which libraries have…

  18. Optimization of digital designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An application specific integrated circuit is optimized by translating a first representation of its digital design to a second representation. The second representation includes multiple syntactic expressions that admit a representation of a higher-order function of base Boolean values. The syntactic expressions are manipulated to form a third representation of the digital design.

  19. Everglades Digital Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Everglades Digital Library (EDL) is a comprehensive portal to high-quality digital resources relating to the south Florida environment. These resources include online texts, articles, reports, photographs, maps, datasets, educational materials, and historical records, as well as links to organizational web sites and agency home pages. These materials come from libraries, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and other sources.

  20. Occupying the Digital Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

  1. Digital holographic imaging technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiufa Song; Aili Qin; Yi Wang

    2009-01-01

    The recording and numerical reconstruction of digital lensless Fourier hologram is analyzed. Based on the quadratic phase mask of the reconstructed image field the two common methods for phase reconstruction are discussed and compared by computer simulations. The results show that the automatic phase compensation approach has stronger toleration for noise than that of the digital holography combined with the

  2. ISDN: The Digital Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedmo, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is a dial-up digital transmission service supporting transmission of audio, video, and text data over standard copper telephone wires or fiber optic cables. Advantages of ISDN over analog transmission include the ability of one phone line to support up to three simultaneous, separate conversations (phone,…

  3. Authenticity in digital printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Carden

    2011-01-01

    For those presently undertaking research and practice within the field of digitally printed textiles, inadequately defined boundaries can potentially lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This paper aims to clarify what is meant by the term digital print and locate authenticity within it, by drawing comparisons with photography in order to better explain some of the contextual issues that currently surround

  4. Digital Media and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…

  5. Digital Image Access & Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, P. Bryan, Ed.; Sandore, Beth, Ed.

    Recent technological advances in computing and digital imaging technology have had immediate and permanent consequences for visual resource collections. Libraries are involved in organizing and managing large visual resource collections. The central challenges in working with digital image collections mirror those that libraries have sought to…

  6. Digital communications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorstyn, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

  7. Evaluation of digital libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Fuhr; Giannis Tsakonas; Trond Aalberg; Maristella Agosti; Preben Hansen; Sarantos Kapidakis; Claus-peter Klas; László Kovács; Monica Landoni; András Micsik; Christos Papatheodorou; Carol Peters; Ingeborg Sølvberg

    2007-01-01

    Digital libraries (DLs) are new and innova- tive information systems, under constant development and change, and therefore evaluation is of critical impor- tance to ensure not only their correct evolution but also their acceptance by the user and application commu- nities. The Evaluation activity of the DELOS Network of Excellence has performed a large-scale survey of cur- rent digital library

  8. Developing digital libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Falk

    2003-01-01

    Looks as the long-term implications of library digitization and suggests that the changes thus far may be merely an introduction to a much greater transition that lies ahead. Refers to the experiences of academic libraries, where there has been a sweeping transition to electronic journals and growth in the availability of other digital collections. Wider access to rare and special

  9. Implementing Trusted Digital Repositories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reagan W. Moore; Arcot Rajasekar; Richard Marciano

    Trusted digital repositories manage the integrity and authenticity of records through multiple generations of technology. They provide mechanisms to validate assertions about trustworthiness and provide the preservation processes that implement the required control and management capabilities. Today there are multiple technologies that can be used to build a digital repository that is capable of maintaining the authenticity and integrity of

  10. Taming the Digital Beast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrizio, Andy

    2006-01-01

    As more and more schools move to digital repositories, it seems inevitable that the knowledge accumulated across universities will go digital. How smoothly an institution makes that transition will depend on how well its project is planned from inception, and how well it structure its data. All of the administrators and educators the authors spoke…

  11. Digital Signal Processing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

  12. Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of said second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.

  13. Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar (inventor); Lambe, John J. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of the second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.

  14. Depth-weighted, mean soil permeability in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2000-01-01

    This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The data set was assembled using 1:24,000-scale cartographic and attribute information on the spatial distribution and characteristics of Kansas soils. The data set is in grid (raster) format with a grid-cell size of 10,000 square meters.

  15. NEWSART: Negative binomial weighted spectral analysis in real time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Emerson

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, digital filters are described for concurrent adaptive estimation of the spectral powers at several target frequencies.\\u000a Least-squares estimation is used, with a tapered weight function that discounts time-series data according to age. Frequency\\u000a selectivity and reliability of spectral estimates are controlled by different parameters. The spectral windows are closely\\u000a approximated by Student’st distribution, which is useful in

  16. Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornean, Horia D.; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2010-11-01

    This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give rise to certain convergence problems widely ignored by physicists. We give a complete answer in the case of smooth potentials and formulate a number of open problems related to less regular perturbations.

  17. Probing chiral restoration with ?-meson melting through sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    We investigate whether the rho-meson melting scenario is compatible with chiral symmetry restoration utilizing a comprehensive evaluation of the QCD and Weinberg sum rules at finite temperature. As input to this analysis, in-medium vector spectral functions which describe dilepton data from ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are used along with temperature dependent condensates from lattice calculations, when available, or approximated by a hadron resonance gas. The combined deployment of QCD and Weinberg sum rules turns out to be rather stringent in constructing axialvector spectral functions consistent with (partial) chiral restoration.

  18. Surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of nonpolar media.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shumei; Tian, Chuanshan; Shen, Y Ron

    2015-05-12

    Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is surface specific only if the bulk contribution to the signal is negligible. Negligible bulk contribution is, however, not necessarily true, even for media with inversion symmetry. The inevitable challenge is to find the surface spectrum in the presence of bulk contribution, part of which has been believed to be inseparable from the surface contribution. Here, we show that, for nonpolar media, it is possible to separately deduce surface and bulk spectra from combined phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic measurements in reflection and transmission. The study of benzene interfaces is presented as an example. PMID:25918404

  19. Digital Light Processing update: status and future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbeck, Larry J.

    1999-05-01

    Digital Light Processing (DLP) projection displays based on the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) were introduced to the market in 1996. Less than 3 years later, DLP-based projectors are found in such diverse applications as mobile, conference room, video wall, home theater, and large-venue. They provide high-quality, seamless, all-digital images that have exceptional stability as well as freedom from both flicker and image lag. Marked improvements have been made in the image quality of DLP-based projection display, including brightness, resolution, contrast ratio, and border image. DLP-based mobile projectors that weighted about 27 pounds in 1996 now weight only about 7 pounds. This weight reduction has been responsible for the definition of an entirely new projector class, the ultraportable. New applications are being developed for this important new projection display technology; these include digital photofinishing for high process speed minilab and maxilab applications and DLP Cinema for the digital delivery of films to audiences around the world. This paper describes the status of DLP-based projection display technology, including its manufacturing, performance improvements, and new applications, with emphasis on DLP Cinema.

  20. Age, weight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulou, Martha; Savopoulos, Christos; Michalakis, Konstantinos; Coppack, Simon; Dardavessis, Theodoros; Hatzitolios, Apostolos

    2012-02-01

    The western world is facing the consequences of higher standards of medical care and improved living conditions. While people are living longer the prevalence of overweight and obesity is escalating which increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. However it must be noted that there is a U shaped relationship between weight and mortality with both under and overweight increasing risk. This review examines possible contributory factors for overweight and obesity in older people: life style, depression, changes in body composition, endocrine alterations, sympathetic tone, oxidative stress and concomitant disease. PMID:22226988

  1. A linear weighted SIC multiuser detector with optimal weighting factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelouhab Bentrcia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a linear weighted successive interference cancellation (SIC) detector is introduced to overcome the convergence issues of the conventional linear SIC detector. The latter converges to the decorrelator detector if it converges. The optimal weighting factor is derived using the steepest descent method. Simulation results show that if the optimal weighting factor is used, the convergence speed and

  2. Gaussian Weighted Projection for Visualization of Cardiac Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Ke; Gilkeson, Robert; Fei, Baowei

    2013-01-01

    At our institution, we are using dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR) as a cost-effective screening tool for the detection of cardiac calcification. We are evaluating DEDR using CT as the gold standard. We are developing image projection methods for the generation of digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) from CT image volumes. Traditional visualization methods include maximum intensity projection (MIP) and average-based projection (AVG) that have difficulty to show cardiac calcification. Furthermore, MIP can over estimate the calcified lesion as it displays the maximum intensity along the projection rays regardless of tissue types. For AVG projection, the calcified tissue is usually overlapped with bone, lung and mediastinum. In order to improve the visualization of calcification on DRR images, we developed a Gaussian-weighted projection method for this particular application. We assume that the CT intensity values of calcified tissues have a Gaussian distribution. We then use multiple Gaussian functions to fit the intensity histogram. Based on the mean and standard deviation parameters, we incorporate a Gaussian weighted function into the perspective projection and display the calcification exclusively. Our digital and physical phantom studies show that the new projection method can display tissues selectively. In addition, clinical images show that the Gaussian-weighted projection method better visualizes cardiac calcification than either the AVG or MIP method and can be used to evaluate DEDR as a screening tool for the detection of coronary artery diseases. PMID:24386529

  3. Tree-structured nonlinear filters in digital mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Qian; Laurence P. Clarke; Maria Kallergi; Robert A. Clark

    1994-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters with more robust characteristics for noise suppression and detail preservation is proposed for processing digital mammographic images. The new algorithm consists of two major filtering blocks: (a) a multistage tree-structured filter for image enhancement that uses central weighted median filters as basic sub-filtering blocks and (b) a dispersion edge detector. The design of the

  4. Ahmad Almulhem, KFUPM 2010 COE 202: Digital Logic Design

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    known number system is the decimal number system ( ) ­ It has a total of ten digits: {0 and 1's ­ Binary system has more reliability than decimal · All these numbering systems are also Almulhem, KFUPM 2010 Example · The Decimal number system is a weighted number system. · For Integer decimal

  5. Ahmad Almulhem, KFUPM 2009 COE 202: Digital Logic Design

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    known number system is the decimal number system ( ) ­ It has a total of ten digits: {0 and 1's ­ Binary system has more reliability than decimal · All these numbering systems are also Almulhem, KFUPM 2009 Example 9375 · The Decimal number system is a weighted number system. · For Integer

  6. Computing Logarithms Digit-by-Digit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present an algorithm for computing logarithms of positive real numbers, that bears structural resemblance to the elementary school algorithm of long division. Using this algorithm, we can compute successive digits of a logarithm using a 4-operation pocket calculator. The algorithm makes no use of Taylor series or calculus, but…

  7. The Digital Carrot, the Digital Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author asserts that technology is not the answer to digital piracy at colleges and universities. Citing the three most common explanations given for copyright infringement--that students cannot always get what they want, cannot always use what they can get, or think the price of what they can get is unfair--he asserts that the…

  8. Bayesian locally weighted online learning 

    E-print Network

    Edakunni, Narayanan U.

    2010-01-01

    Locally weighted regression is a non-parametric technique of regression that is capable of coping with non-stationarity of the input distribution. Online algorithms like Receptive FieldWeighted Regression and Locally ...

  9. Eating Out and Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Eating Out and Weight Gain URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Eating_Out_070615.html Eating Out and Weight ...

  10. The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

  11. Designing PTASs for MIN-SUM scheduling problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foto N. Afrati; Ioannis Milis

    2006-01-01

    We review approximability and inapproximability results for MIN-SUM scheduling problems and we focus on techniques for designing polynomial time approximation schemes for this class of problems. We present examples which illustrate the efficient use of the ratio partitioning and time partitioning techniques.

  12. Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…

  13. Sum Capacity of Multiuser MIMO Broadcast Channels with Block Diagonalization

    E-print Network

    Evans, Brian L.

    Sum Capacity of Multiuser MIMO Broadcast Channels with Block Diagonalization Zukang Shen, Runhua capacity of a Gaussian broadcast MIMO channel can be achieved with Dirty Paper Coding (DPC). De- ploying-to-point MIMO channel capacity scales linearly with the minimum number of transmit and receive antennas

  14. A Structural Approach to Subset-Sum Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Vu

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a We discuss a structural approach to subset-sum problems in additive combinatorics. The core of this approach are Freiman-type\\u000a structural theorems, many of which will be presented through the paper. These results have applications in various areas,\\u000a such as number theory, combinatorics and mathematical physics.

  15. Covering a Finite Abelian Group by Subset Sums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weidong Gao; Yahya Ould Hamidoune; Anna S. Lladó; Oriol Serra

    2003-01-01

    Let G be an abelian group of order n. The critical number c( G) of G is the smallest s such that the subset sums set S( S) covers all G for eachs ubset S? G\\\\{0} of cardinality | S|= s. It has been recently proved that, if p is the smallest prime dividing n and n\\/p is composite, then

  16. Zero Sums on Unit Square Vertex Sets and Plane Colorings

    E-print Network

    Krebs, Mike

    Zero Sums on Unit Square Vertex Sets and Plane Colorings Richard Katz, Mike Krebs, and Anthony of every unit square, then it must be the zero function. This fact implies a lower bound in a "coloring be a real-valued function on the plane such that for every square ABCD in the plane, f (A) + f (B) + f (C

  17. Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zia, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…

  18. A tutorial on sum of squares techniques for systems analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis Papachristodoulou; Stephen Prajna

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial is about new system analysis techniques that were developed in the past few years based on the sum of squares decomposition. We present stability and robust stability analysis tools for different classes of systems: systems described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations or differential algebraic equations, hybrid systems with nonlinear subsystems and\\/or nonlinear switching surfaces, and time-delay systems described

  19. Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

  20. rho-meson form factors and QCD sum rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Braguta; A. I. Onishchenko

    2004-01-01

    We present predictions for rho-meson form factors obtained from the analysis of QCD sum rules in next-to-leading order of perturbation theory. The radiative corrections turn out to be sizeable and should be taken into account in rigorous theoretical analysis.