A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-01-01
For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript
The energy-weighted sum rule and the nuclear radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SchrĆ¶der, Hans Peter
2015-09-01
The energy-weighted integrated cross-section for photon absorption --known as sum rule -- is under certain conditions proportional to the mean square nuclear radius (Levinger, Bethe (Phys. Rev. 78, 115 (1950))). Due to the energy weight factor the low-energy absorption components are emphasized and the dipole transitions in the region of giant resonances contribute enhanced at . Thus, the cross-section of the full interaction can be replaced in good approximation by the dipole cross-section. Under these aspects, we have calculated and the radii of various gg-nuclei. For our purpose, we have chosen a simple shell model where the integrals can be solved analytically, and the contributions of uncorrelated functions and correlation corrections can be shown explicitly. The mean square radius as a function of differs by a factor of 1.5/0.87 from the previous result of Levinger and Kent (Phys. Rev. 95, 418 (1954)) without correlation corrections. Plotting the function of the correlation corrections and the uncorrelated function as a ratio it shows that tends towards a limit. Finally, our results for the radii of gg-nuclei are in good agreement with recent experiments (I. Angeli, K.P. Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)).
Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ?Z?=?2 nuclei within the SO(8) model
tefįnik, Duan; imkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand
2013-12-30
Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ?Z?=?2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ?Z?=?2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.
Four-Digit Numbers Which Are Squared Sums
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coughlin, Heather; Jue, Brian
2009-01-01
There is a very natural way to divide a four-digit number into 2 two-digit numbers. Applying an algorithm to this pair of numbers, determine how often the original four-digit number reappears. (Contains 3 tables.)
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sum of the years-digits method. 1.167(b)-3 Section 1.167(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(b)-3 Sum of the years-digits method....
Spectral properties of mesons in hot and dense matter from energy weighted sum rules
Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolos, L.
2010-12-28
Energy weighted sum rules for the spectral function of mesons are derived, both in cold nuclear matter and at finite temperature, by matching the Dyson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We illustrate our results by calculating the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy in a nuclear medium. We find satisfactory results from the lower energy weight sum rules, which reflect the contributions from the different quasi-particle and collective modes of the meson spectral function, and show examples of the sensitivity of the sum rules to model approximations. Finally, we discuss applications in asymmetric nuclear matter and in the study of the spectral properties of vector mesons.
Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dicenzo, A.
1979-01-01
Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tohara, Takashi; Liang, Haichao; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Igarashi, Makoto; Samukawa, Seiji; Endo, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yasuo; Morie, Takashi
2016-03-01
A nanodisk array connected with a fin field-effect transistor is fabricated and analyzed for spiking neural network applications. This nanodevice performs weighted sums in the time domain using rising slopes of responses triggered by input spike pulses. The nanodisk arrays, which act as a resistance of several giga-ohms, are fabricated using a self-assembly bio-nano-template technique. Weighted sums are achieved with an energy dissipation on the order of 1 fJ, where the number of inputs can be more than one hundred. This amount of energy is several orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital processors.
How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, William J.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum ofā¦
The 'weighted sum of relative entropy': a new index for synonymous codon usage bias.
Suzuki, Haruo; Saito, Rintaro; Tomita, Masaru
2004-06-23
Shannon entropy from information theory has been applied to estimate the degree of deviation from equal usage of synonymous codons; however, previous attempts have failed to take into account all three aspects of amino acid usage, i.e. (i) the number of distinct amino acids, (ii) their relative frequencies, and (iii) their degree of codon degeneracy. A new index taking into account all of these aspects is proposed. The index, designated as the 'weighted sum of relative entropy' (E(w)), is defined as the sum of the relative entropy of each amino acid weighted by its relative frequency in the sequence. In this paper, we demonstrate that E(w) allows us to avoid some amino acid usage biases and can yield results contradictory to those obtained by previous methods. PMID:15194186
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.
1973-01-01
The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.
Pinched weights and duality violation in QCD sum rules: A critical analysis
Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim
2010-07-01
We analyze the so-called pinched weights, that are generally thought to reduce the violation of quark-hadron duality in finite-energy sum rules. After showing how this is not true in general, we explain how to address this question for the left-right correlator and any particular pinched weight, taking advantage of our previous work [1], where the possible high-energy behavior of the left-right spectral function was studied. In particular, we show that the use of pinched weights allows to determine with high accuracy the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator-product expansion, O{sub 6}=(-4.3{sub -0.7}{sup +0.9})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 6} and O{sub 8}=(-7.2{sub -5.3}{sup +4.2})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 8}.
Energy-weighted sum rules and the analysis of vibrational structure in molecular spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, W. L.
2015-10-01
The energy-weighted sum SV = Ī£n (Eā§n - Eā³m)|<Ļā³m|Ļā§n>|2 = <Ļā³m|ĪV|Ļā³m> for the vibrational potential functions Vā§, Vā³ associated with transitions between two electronic states of diatomic molecular species is investigated and specific formulae are given using Morse functions for Vā§ and Vā³. It is found that these formulae are useful approximations which provide a convenient way to analyse the vibrational structure of real spectra to give estimates of molecular parameters such as the change in internuclear distance accompanying a transition.
Distributed weighted sum-rate maximization with multi-cell uplink-downlink throughput duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zeming; Zhu, Yuanping; Xu, Jing; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Yang
2015-12-01
The weighted sum-rate maximization (WSRMax) problem is important for the radio resource allocation in wireless networks. In this paper, we focus on solving the WSRMax optimization problem in a Home eNodeB (HeNB) wireless network for the multiple input single output (MISO) downlink transmission. Based on an ameliorated max-min multi-cell uplink-downlink throughput duality, we design a distributed algorithm which contains Loop1 and Loop2 associating with the max-min procedure, respectively. Especially, in Loop2 procedure, we propose a new distributed iteration scheme with the complete proof. During the implementation of the proposed algorithm, randomly deployed HeNBs only need to share information with their neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that the two processes can converge to a stable state, and the network capacity is dramatically improved with the coordination among HeNBs.
Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules
Jolos, R. V.; Brentano, P. von
2009-04-15
Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.
Assessment of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Modeling Chemical Mixtures and Cancer Risk
Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C
2015-01-01
In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) caseācontrol study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome. PMID:26005323
Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.
2015-01-01
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT (āface patchesā) did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ā¼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a database of images for evaluating object recognition performance. We used multielectrode arrays to characterize hundreds of neurons in the visual ventral stream of nonhuman primates and measured the object recognition performance of >100 human observers. Remarkably, we found that simple learned weighted sums of firing rates of neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex accurately predicted human performance. Although previous work led us to expect that IT would outperform V4, we were surprised by the quantitative precision with which simple IT-based linking hypotheses accounted for human behavior. PMID:26424887
Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J
2015-09-30
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT ("face patches") did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ā¼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. Significance statement: We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a database of images for evaluating object recognition performance. We used multielectrode arrays to characterize hundreds of neurons in the visual ventral stream of nonhuman primates and measured the object recognition performance of >100 human observers. Remarkably, we found that simple learned weighted sums of firing rates of neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex accurately predicted human performance. Although previous work led us to expect that IT would outperform V4, we were surprised by the quantitative precision with which simple IT-based linking hypotheses accounted for human behavior. PMID:26424887
Brock, Billy C.
2008-03-01
Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.
Soufiani, A. . Lab. d'Energetique Moleculaire et Macroscopique); Djavdan, E. )
1994-05-01
The weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) and the statistical narrow-band (SNB) models are implemented for radiative transfer calculations in realistic combustion gas mixtures and their results are compared. The WSGG model parameters are generated from SNB emissivity calculations in the [300, 2500 K] temperature range for a partial pressure ratio p[sub w]/p[sub c] = 2. In addition, the same methods are used for the resolution of the transfer equation associated with both models. Comparisons are made for the cases of planar geometry and an axisymmetrical methane--oxygen furnace. When the gas mixture is practically isothermal and surrounded by cold walls, small errors are introduced by the use of the WSGG model. On the other hand, in the case of significant temperature gradients, the inaccurate representation of gas absorptivities by the WSGG model leads to important errors.
Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven
2013-01-01
This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standardā¦
Adaptively weighted code division multiplexing for hierarchical digital broadcasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamazumi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyazawa, Hiroshi
1995-09-01
This paper describes an adaptively weighted code division multiplexing (AW-CDM) system (a power controlled spread-spectrum multiplexing), and describes its application to the hierarchical digital broadcasting of television signals. The AW-CDM is combined with a multiresolutional video encoder to provide hierarchical transmission. It allows for both high quality services for fixed receivers and lower quality services for mobile/portable receivers. The carrier and clock are robustly regenerated by the use of a spread-spectrum mulitplexed pseudorandom noise (PN) sounder as a reference in the receiver. The PN reference is also used for Rake combining with signals from different paths, and for adaptive equalization (EQ). In a prototype AW-CDM modem, three layers of hierarchical video signals (highs: 5.91 Mbps), middles: 1.50 Mbps, and lows: 0.46 Mbps) are divided into a pair of 64 orthogonal spread-spectrum subchannels, each of which can be given a different priority and therefore a different threshold. In this case, three different thresholds are given. The modem's transmission rate is 9.7 Mbps in the 6 MHz band. Indoor transmission tests confirm that lows (weighted power layer 1), middles (averaged power layer 2), and highs (lightened power layer 3) are retievable under conditions in which the desired to undesired signal ratios (DURs) are respectively 0 dB, 8.5 dB, and 13.5 dB. If the undesired signals are multipaths, these performances are dramatically improved by Rake combining and EQ. The AW-CDM system can be used for 20-30 Mbps advanced television (ATV) transmission in the 6 MHz bandwidth simply by changing the binary inputs into quaternary or octonary inputs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Peter; Zhao, Lian; Lu, Jianhua
2013-12-01
In this article, an efficient distributed and parallel algorithm is proposed to maximize the sum-rate and optimize the input distribution policy for the multi-user single input multiple output multiple access channel (MU-SIMO MAC) system with concurrent access within a cognitive radio (CR) network. The single input means that every user has a single antenna and multiple output means that base station(s) has multiple antennas. The main features are: (i) the power distribution for the users is updated by using variable scale factors which effectively and efficiently maximize the objective function at each iteration; (ii) distributed and parallel computation is employed to expedite convergence of the proposed distributed algorithm; and (iii) a novel water-filling with mixed constraints is investigated, and used as a fundamental block of the proposed algorithm. Due to sufficiently exploiting the structure of the proposed model, the proposed algorithm owns fast convergence. Numerical results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective and fast convergent. Using the proposed approach, for the simulated range, the required number of iterations for convergence is two and this number is not sensitive to the increase of the number of users. This feature is quite desirable for large scale systems with dense active users. In addition, it is also worth noting that the proposed algorithm is a monotonic feasible operator to the iteration. Thus, the stop criterion for computation could be easily set up.
Accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the nintendo wii in measuring limb load asymmetry.
Kumar, Ns Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah
2014-08-01
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry. PMID:25202181
Habecker, Patrick; Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal
2015-01-01
Researchers interested in studying populations that are difficult to reach through traditional survey methods can now draw on a range of methods to access these populations. Yet many of these methods are more expensive and difficult to implement than studies using conventional sampling frames and trusted sampling methods. The network scale-up method (NSUM) provides a middle ground for researchers who wish to estimate the size of a hidden population, but lack the resources to conduct a more specialized hidden population study. Through this method it is possible to generate population estimates for a wide variety of groups that are perhaps unwilling to self-identify as such (for example, users of illegal drugs or other stigmatized populations) via traditional survey tools such as telephone or mail surveys-by asking a representative sample to estimate the number of people they know who are members of such a "hidden" subpopulation. The original estimator is formulated to minimize the weight a single scaling variable can exert upon the estimates. We argue that this introduces hidden and difficult to predict biases, and instead propose a series of methodological advances on the traditional scale-up estimation procedure, including a new estimator. Additionally, we formalize the incorporation of sample weights into the network scale-up estimation process, and propose a recursive process of back estimation "trimming" to identify and remove poorly performing predictors from the estimation process. To demonstrate these suggestions we use data from a network scale-up mail survey conducted in Nebraska during 2014. We find that using the new estimator and recursive trimming process provides more accurate estimates, especially when used in conjunction with sampling weights. PMID:26630261
Habecker, Patrick; Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal
2015-01-01
Researchers interested in studying populations that are difficult to reach through traditional survey methods can now draw on a range of methods to access these populations. Yet many of these methods are more expensive and difficult to implement than studies using conventional sampling frames and trusted sampling methods. The network scale-up method (NSUM) provides a middle ground for researchers who wish to estimate the size of a hidden population, but lack the resources to conduct a more specialized hidden population study. Through this method it is possible to generate population estimates for a wide variety of groups that are perhaps unwilling to self-identify as such (for example, users of illegal drugs or other stigmatized populations) via traditional survey tools such as telephone or mail surveysāby asking a representative sample to estimate the number of people they know who are members of such a āhiddenā subpopulation. The original estimator is formulated to minimize the weight a single scaling variable can exert upon the estimates. We argue that this introduces hidden and difficult to predict biases, and instead propose a series of methodological advances on the traditional scale-up estimation procedure, including a new estimator. Additionally, we formalize the incorporation of sample weights into the network scale-up estimation process, and propose a recursive process of back estimation ātrimmingā to identify and remove poorly performing predictors from the estimation process. To demonstrate these suggestions we use data from a network scale-up mail survey conducted in Nebraska during 2014. We find that using the new estimator and recursive trimming process provides more accurate estimates, especially when used in conjunction with sampling weights. PMID:26630261
Park, Jae Young; Lim, Gina; Oh, Ki Won; Ryu, Dong Soo; Park, Seonghun; Jeon, Jong Chul; Cheon, Sang Hyeon; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Park, Sejun
2015-01-01
Purpose Anogential distance (AGD) and the 2:4 digit length ratio appear to provide a reliable guide to fetal androgen exposure. We intended to investigate the current status of penile size and the relationship between penile length and AGD or digit length according to birth weight in Korean newborn infants. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and February 2014, among a total of 78 newborn male infants, 55 infants were prospectively included in this study. Newborn male infants with a gestational age of 38 to 42 weeks and birth weight>2.5 kg were assigned to the NW group (n=24) and those with a gestational age<38 weeks and birth weight<2.5 kg were assigned to the LW group (n=31). Penile size and other variables were compared between the two groups. Results Stretched penile length of the NW group was 3.3Ā±0.2 cm, which did not differ significantly from that reported in 1987. All parameters including height, weight, penile length, testicular size, AGD, and digit length were significantly lower in the LW group than in the NW group. However, there were no significant differences in AGD ratio or 2:4 digit length ratio between the two groups. Conclusions The penile length of newborn infants has not changed over the last quarter century in Korea. With normal penile appearance, the AGD ratio and 2:4 digit length ratio are consistent irrespective of birth weight, whereas AGD, digit length, and penile length are significantly smaller in newborns with low birth weight. PMID:25763130
Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981
Gharehkhani, Samira; Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelensky, A. A.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.; Totsky, A. V.
2014-07-01
The methods of smoothing of the bispectral density estimate when solving the problems of restoration of signals with an unknown shape in the interference environment and random signal delay are considered for the first time. The performed analysis of statistical characteristics of noise that presents in the bispectrum estimate shows that these statistical characteristics have a rather complex unsteady behavior. An ambiguous selection of a filter optimal by the criterion of the minimum of the root-mean-square error and the minimum of dynamic distortions introduced by the filter seems to be problematic because of the unsteady behavior of counts of the bispectral density estimate and the absence of a priori data on the parameters of the restored signal. Therefore, statistic investigations were performed with the use of linear and nonlinear digital filters with variations of the sliding window sizes. It is shown that the advantages of the proposed approach most pronouncedly manifest themselves with the use of the nonlinear digital filtration and small signal/noise ratios at the input and/or with a small sampling volume of observed implementations. The Kravchenko weight functions are proposed to smooth the bispectrum of the multifrequency signal with a large dynamic range of variations in amplitudes of spectral components. The presented results are of practical interest for use in applications such as radiolocation, hydrolocation, and digital communication.
Estimate of the weight in bovine livestock using digital image processing and neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, N. A.; Molina, M. L.; Gualdron, Oscar
2004-10-01
A procedure inside the context of artificial vision that estimates the weight in bovine livestock was developed and designed. The input data to the system are images obtained by a videotape camera to color. These images are digitized and preprocessing using filters of elimination of noise; later are implemented and evaluated different segmentation methods that allow to obtain the contour of the animal in semiautomatic form. This process consists of an automatic binarization in its initial stage and an eventual manual adjustment. Later the characteristics that have a strong correlation with the weight of the animal are extracted. These are extracted in a form that is independent of the orientation of the object inside the image. Such characteristics include: the superior area, perimeter, wide of abdomen, wide of haunch, wide of scapula. The estimate of the weight of the animal is made by means of a neural network type feedforward whose inputs feed with the extracted characteristics of the image. Finally the system is evaluated in the number and type of characteristics kept in mind and in the structure of the neural network utilized.
Compact and light-weight digital beam-forming passive millimetre-wave imagers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salmon, Neil A.; Beale, John; Hayward, Steve; Hall, Peter; Macpherson, Rod; Metcalfe, Richard; Harvey, Andy
2008-10-01
This paper overviews the development of digital beam-forming passive millimetre wave (PMMW) imagers at the frequencies of 22.51 GHz, 91.65 GHz, and 183.31 GHz. These systems are demonstrators for imager architectures that can evolve into security screening products, all weather flying aids, satellite based imagers for planetary observation and test beds for future radio astronomy hardware. These are all areas where the common goal is to develop an imaging capability which is highly sensitive, has good angular resolution and has a minimal volume, typically a factor of 100 smaller than equivalent quasi-optical systems, and minimal weight. This paper describes the science behind electronic beam-forming for passive imaging, the objectives of the project, its risks, and the future of the technology.
Integrated-Circuit Active Digital Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathan, R.
1986-01-01
Pipeline architecture with parallel multipliers and adders speeds calculation of weighted sums. Picture-element values and partial sums flow through delay-adder modules. After each cycle or time unit of calculation, each value in filter moves one position right. Digital integrated-circuit chips with pipeline architecture rapidly move 35 X 35 two-dimensional convolutions. Need for such circuits in image enhancement, data filtering, correlation, pattern extraction, and synthetic-aperture-radar image processing: all require repeated calculations of weighted sums of values from images or two-dimensional arrays of data.
Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim
2014-01-01
In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an NP-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem. PMID:25844012
Brudno, S.; Louck, J.D.
1985-09-01
The nontrivial zeros of weight 1 3j and 6j coefficients given previously are shown to be the set of all such zeros. The relation of these zeros to the solutions of well-known Diophantine equations is also discussed.
Or, M; Van Goethem, B; Polis, I; Spillebeen, A; Vandekerckhove, P; Saunders, J; de Rooster, H
2015-01-01
A young Labrador Retriever was presented for treatment of severe distal hindlimb necrosis caused by bandage ischemia. During digit amputation at the metatarsophalangeal joints, the third and fourth digital pads were salvaged and transferred to the metatarsal stump to create a weight-bearing surface. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was utilized for flap immobilization and to promote granulation tissue in the remaining wound defect. Sturdy adherence of the digital pads was achieved after only four days. The skin defect healed completely by second intention and the stump was epithelialized with a thin pad after three months. At the nine month follow-up examination, the stump had a thick hyperkeratinized pad. The dog walked and ran without any apparent signs of discomfort and compensated for the loss of limb length by extending the stifle and tarsocrural joints. Despite a challenging wound in a difficult anatomical location, digital pad flap transfer and NPWT proved successful in restoring long-term ambulation in an active large breed dog. PMID:25449188
Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S
2015-01-01
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gang, Jin; Yiqi, Zhuang; Yue, Yin; Miao, Cui
2015-03-01
A novel digitally controlled automatic gain control (AGC) loop circuitry for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver chip is presented. The entire AGC loop contains a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an AGC circuit and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is implemented in a 0.18 ?m complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and measured. A binary-weighted approach is proposed in the PGA to achieve wide dB-linear gain control with small gain error. With binary-weighted cascaded amplifiers for coarse gain control, and parallel binary-weighted trans-conductance amplifier array for fine gain control, the PGA can provide a 64 dB dynamic range from -4 to 60 dB in 1.14 dB gain steps with a less than 0.15 dB gain error. Based on the Gaussian noise statistic characteristic of the GNSS signal, a digital AGC circuit is also proposed with low area and fast settling. The feed-backward AGC loop occupies an area of 0.27 mm2 and settles within less than 165 ?s while consuming an average current of 1.92 mA at 1.8 V.
RIMELL, Andrew N.; MANSFIELD, Neil J.; PADDAN, Gurmail S.
2014-01-01
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the workers noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the humans response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pong, Wai Yan
2007-01-01
We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shi, Yixun
2010-01-01
Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbersā¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shi, Yixun
2010-01-01
Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-03-01
In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.
Schneider, Iris K.; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.
2015-01-01
Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942
Schneider, Iris K; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L
2014-01-01
Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.
1994-01-01
An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.
A new state reconstructor for digital controls systems using weighted-average measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polites, Michael E.
1989-01-01
A state reconstructor is presented for a linear continuous-time plant driven by a zero-order-hold. It takes a continuous-time output vector from the plant and convolutes it with a weighting-function matrix whose elements are time dependent. This result is integrated over T second intervals to generate weighted-averaged measurements, every T seconds, that are used in the state reconstruction process. If the plant is noise-free and can be modeled precisely, the output of this state reconstructor exactly equals the true state of the plant and accomplishes this without knowledge of the plant's initial state. If noise or modeling errors are a problem, it can be catenated with a state observer or a Kalman filter for a synergistic effect.
Sum rules and correlations in asymmetric nuclear matter
Rios, A.; Polls, A.; Muether, H.
2006-02-15
The neutron and proton single-particle spectral functions in asymmetric nuclear matter fulfill energy-weighted sum rules. The validity of these sum rules within the self-consistent Green's function approach is investigated. The various contributions to these sum rules and their convergence as a function of energy provide information about correlations induced by the realistic interaction between the nucleons. The study of the sum rules in asymmetric nuclear matter exhibits the isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaoming; Mei, Ming; Liu, Jun; Hu, Wei
2015-12-01
Clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in mammograms are an important early sign of breast cancer in women. Their accurate detection is important in computer-aided detection (CADe). In this paper, we integrated the possibilistic fuzzy c-means (PFCM) clustering algorithm and weighted support vector machine (WSVM) for the detection of MC clusters in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). For each image, suspicious MC regions are extracted with region growing and active contour segmentation. Then geometry and texture features are extracted for each suspicious MC, a mutual information-based supervised criterion is used to select important features, and PFCM is applied to cluster the samples into two clusters. Weights of the samples are calculated based on possibilities and typicality values from the PFCM, and the ground truth labels. A weighted nonlinear SVM is trained. During the test process, when an unknown image is presented, suspicious regions are located with the segmentation step, selected features are extracted, and the suspicious MC regions are classified as containing MC or not by the trained weighted nonlinear SVM. Finally, the MC regions are analyzed with spatial information to locate MC clusters. The proposed method is evaluated using a database of 410 clinical mammograms and compared with a standard unweighted support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The detection performance is evaluated using response receiver operating (ROC) curves and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves. The proposed method obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.8676, while the standard SVM obtained an area of 0.8268 for MC detection. For MC cluster detection, the proposed method obtained a high sensitivity of 92 % with a false-positive rate of 2.3 clusters/image, and it is also better than standard SVM with 4.7 false-positive clusters/image at the same sensitivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, G.
1982-01-01
Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-06-01
Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-11-01
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
Counting Triangles to Sum Squares
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMaio, Joe
2012-01-01
Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.
Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter
Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.
1993-08-17
A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.
Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter
Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.
1993-01-01
A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.
Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter
Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.
1992-12-31
A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one of two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages change the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeTemple, Duane
2010-01-01
Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]ā¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeTemple, Duane
2010-01-01
Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]
Iterated binomial sums and their associated iterated integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; Raab, C. G.; Schneider, C.
2014-11-01
We consider finite iterated generalized harmonic sums weighted by the binomial binom{2k}{k} in numerators and denominators. A large class of these functions emerges in the calculation of massive Feynman diagrams with local operator insertions starting at 3-loop order in the coupling constant and extends the classes of the nested harmonic, generalized harmonic, and cyclotomic sums. The binomially weighted sums are associated by the Mellin transform to iterated integrals over square-root valued alphabets. The values of the sums for N ? ? and the iterated integrals at x = 1 lead to new constants, extending the set of special numbers given by the multiple zeta values, the cyclotomic zeta values and special constants which emerge in the limit N ? ? of generalized harmonic sums. We develop algorithms to obtain the Mellin representations of these sums in a systematic way. They are of importance for the derivation of the asymptotic expansion of these sums and their analytic continuation to N in {C}. The associated convolution relations are derived for real parameters and can therefore be used in a wider context, as, e.g., for multi-scale processes. We also derive algorithms to transform iterated integrals over root-valued alphabets into binomial sums. Using generating functions we study a few aspects of infinite (inverse) binomial sums.
Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.
2011-01-01
This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.
A 2-categorical state sum model
Baratin, Aristide; Freidel, Laurent
2015-01-15
It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027ā2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanovās invariant of 4-manifolds.
A hybrid mean value formula involving Kloosterman sums and Hurwitz zeta-function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganglian, Ren
2007-06-01
The main purpose of this paper is using the mean value theorem of Dirichlet L-function and the estimates for character sums to study the asymptotic properties of a hybrid mean value of Kloosterman sums with the weight of Hurwitz zeta-function and the Cochrane sums, and give an interesting mean value formula for it.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized BrinkāAxel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,moreĀ Ā» violation of the generalized BrinkāAxel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).Ā«Ā less
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized BrinkāAxel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized BrinkāAxel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
Schlömilch series and grating sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McPhedran, R. C.; Nicorovici, N. A.; Botten, L. C.
2005-09-01
We consider sums over the set of positive integers relevant to construction of periodic Green's functions for diffraction gratings and similar problems, and provide a general formula for a combination of Bessel functions of complex order and complex powers of distance from the origin. This general formula is investigated in a number of particular cases, and in particular we provide expressions which enable sums of functions with Neumann series to be re-expressed as combinations of hypergeometric series. We also investigate sums of Neumann functions of integer order, using analytic continuation techniques to provide formulae for their evaluation which we demonstrate are accurate and efficient in both the high and low frequency regions. We also exhibit sums which may be evaluated analytically, and recurrence formulae linking sums.
Activation of the intermediate sum in intentional and automatic calculations
Abramovich, Yael; Goldfarb, Liat
2015-01-01
Most research investigating how the cognitive system deals with arithmetic has focused on the processing of two addends. Arithmetic that involves more addends has specific cognitive demands such as the need to compute and hold the intermediate sum. This study examines the intermediate sums activations in intentional and automatic calculations. Experiment 1 included addition problems containing three operands. Participants were asked to calculate the sum and to remember the digits that appeared in the problem. The results revealed an interference effect in which it was hard to identify that the digit representing the intermediate sum was not actually one of the operands. Experiment 2, further examined if the intermediate sum is activated automatically when a task does not require calculation. Here, participants were presented with a prime of an addition problem followed by a target number. The task was to determine whether the target number is odd or even, while ignoring the addition problem in the prime. The results suggested that the intermediate sum of the addition problem in the prime was activated automatically and facilitated the target. Overall, the implications of those findings in the context of theories that relate to cognitive mathematical calculation is further discussed. PMID:26483749
Weighted Uncertainty Relations
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-01-01
Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; BlĆ¼mlein, Johannes
2013-08-15
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from Ā±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated PoincarĆ© iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
Windham, Meghan E; Hastings, Elisabeth S; Anding, Roberta; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Wiemann, Constance M
2014-10-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a 7-minute educational and motivational weight-management digital video disc (DVD) that uses real patient/parent testimonials and provider-patient interactions, on adolescent and parent knowledge of obesity-related diseases; readiness, motivation, and self-efficacy to lose weight; connectedness to care provider; and likelihood of return to clinic for follow-up care. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 40 overweight/obese adolescent participants (22.5% male, 77.5% female, mean age=15.43 years) and their parents (n=38) who visited a referral-only adolescent clinic for the first time from October 2009 to March 2010. Adolescents were randomly assigned by a research assistant to standard care alone or standard care plus DVD. Standard care (protocol-driven medical and nutritional assessment and counseling) was provided to all adolescents by a registered dietitian nutritionist and physician or nurse practitioner. Adolescents in the intervention group also viewed the DVD. Adolescents and parents completed assessments pre- and post-clinic visit. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to evaluate group differences, while controlling for race/ethnicity and age. Parents who viewed the DVD experienced greater improvements in obesity-related disease knowledge than parents who did not view the DVD. Adolescents in both groups improved on measures of motivation to lose weight and dieting self-efficacy, based on pre and post-test questionnaires. A 7-minute educational and motivational DVD helped improve parent knowledge, but was not more powerful than standard care alone in changing other weight-related outcomes in this adolescent clinic. Because it led to increased parental knowledge, incorporating the DVD into clinical practice could also allow more time for health providers to focus on specific obesity-related treatment/education. Future research might examine whether the DVD has more utility in different settings, such as primary care. PMID:24882205
Fujita, Hideki; Kuwahata, Nao; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Haruyuki
2016-01-01
We clarified the relationship between the display size of MRI images and observer performance using a digital contrast-detail (d-CD) phantom. The d-CD phantom was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express. It had a 512 Ć 512 matrix in size and a total of 100 holes, whose diameter increased stepwise from 4 to 40 pixels with a 4-pixel interval in the vertical direction; the contrast varied stepwise in the horizontal direction. The digital driving level (DDL) of the back-ground, the width of the DDL, and the contrast were adjustable. These parameters were determined on the basis of the actual T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain. In this study, the DDL, width, and contrast were set to 85, 20, and 1, respectively. The observer performance study was performed for three different display sizes (30 cm Ć 30 cm as the enlarged size, 16 cm Ć 16 cm as the original size, and 10 cm Ć 10 cm as the reduced size) using a 2-megapixel color liquid crystal display monitor, and it was analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon statistical tests. The observer performances for the original display (p < 0.01) and the reduced display sizes (p < 0.01) were superior to that observed for the enlarged size, whereas there was no significant difference between the original display and reduced display sizes (p = 0.31). Evaluation with the digital phantom simulating MR imaging also revealed that the original and reduced display sizes were superior to the enlarged display size in observer performance. The d-CD phantom enables a short-term evaluation of observer performance and is useful in analyzing relation-ship between display size and observer performance. PMID:26894360
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2013-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
de Araujo-Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; Costa, Abraćo Souza; Couto Paz, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson
2015-05-01
Described as an alternative way of assessing weight-bearing asymmetries, the measures obtained from digital scales have been used as an index to classify weight-bearing distribution. This study aimed to describe the intra-test and the test/retest reliability of measures in subjects with and without hemiparesis during quiet stance. The percentage of body weight borne by one limb was calculated for a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and for a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-test reliability. This analysis was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. The intra-test analysis showed significant differences, only observed in the hemiparesis group, between the measures obtained by single and triple trials. Excellent and moderate ICC values (0.69-0.84) between test and retest were observed in the hemiparesis group, while for control groups ICC values (0.41-0.74) were classified as moderate, progressing from almost poor for measures obtained by a single trial to almost excellent for those obtained by triple trials. In conclusion, good reliability ranging from moderate to excellent classifications was found for participants with and without hemiparesis. Moreover, an improvement of the repeatability was observed with fewer trials for participants with hemiparesis, and with more trials for participants without hemiparesis. PMID:25541319
Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thaheem, A. B.
2005-01-01
Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
1997-01-01
Presents an exercise suitable for beginning calculus students that may give insight into series representations and allow students to see some elementary application of these representations. The Fourier series is used to approximate by taking sums of trigonometric functions of the form sin(ns) and cos(nx) for n is greater than or = zero. (PVD)
Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings
Bardakci, Korkut
2006-02-16
In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.
Multichannel vector sum phase shifter.
Bui, Lam Anh; Ghorbani, Kamran; Mitchell, Arnan
2006-03-01
A novel multichannel vector sum phase shifter that is suitable for phased array antenna applications is demonstrated. Each channel is implemented using a distinct optical wavelength. Selective control of each channel is performed using an acousto-optic polarization coupler. The concept is successfully demonstrated for two individually controlled channels. For each channel, a continuously variable frequency linear phase shift is demonstrated between DC and 7 GHz, with the phasing range exceeding 100 degrees. PMID:16570403
Torque-Summing Brushless Motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaidya, J. G.
1986-01-01
Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.
Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, Niels G.
2008-01-01
Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating
Optimal generalized multistep integration formulae for real-time digital simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moerder, D. D.; Halyo, N.
1985-01-01
The problem of discretizing a dynamical system for real-time digital simulation is considered. Treating the system and its simulation as stochastic processes leads to a statistical characterization of simulator fidelity. A plant discretization procedure based on an efficient matrix generalization of explicit linear multistep discrete integration formulae is introduced, which minimizes a weighted sum of the mean squared steady-state and transient error between the system and simulator outputs.
Harraz, Ahmed M.; El-Assmy, Ahmed; Tharwat, Mohamed; Elshal, Ahmed M.; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.; Barakat, Tamer S.; Elsaadany, Mohamed M.; El-Halwagy, Samer; Ibrahiem, El Housseiny I.
2014-01-01
Objective To determine the use of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and digital rectal examination (DRE) findings to estimate the resected tissue weight (RTW) before transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Patients and methods We retrospectively analysed 983 patients who underwent TURP between December 2006 and December 2012. The primary outcome was the RTW required for clinical improvement, and was not associated with re-intervention. Age, PSA level, body mass index (BMI) and DRE findings were correlated and modelled with the RTW. The DRE result was defined as DREa (small vs. large) or DREb (small vs. moderate vs. large) according to the surgeons report. Equations to calculate RTW were developed and tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Results There were significant correlations between PSA level (r = 0.4, P < 0.001) and RTW, whilst BMI and age showed weak correlations. The median (range) RTW was 45 (760) vs. 15 (660) g for small vs. large prostates (DREa) (P < 0.001), respectively. Similarly, the median (range) RTW was 11 (659) vs. 26.2 (660) vs. 42 (760) g in small vs. moderate vs. large prostates (DREb) (P < 0.001), respectively. Using PSA level and DREb (model 3) there was a significantly better ability to estimate RTW than using PSA and DREa (model 2) or PSA alone (model 1) based on ROC curve analyses. The equation developed by model 3 (RTW = 1.2 + (1.13 × PSA) + (DREb × 9.5)) had a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 71% for estimating a RTW of >30 g, and 84% and 63% for estimating a RTW of >40 g, respectively. Conclusions The PSA level and DRE findings can be used to predict the RTW before TURP. PMID:26019959
Some properties of extremal solutions of zero-sum differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, T. L.
1975-01-01
Necessary conditions for infinite-time linear-quadratic two-player differential games with perfect state information are examined in the light of Willems' work on the algebraic Riccati equation. Necessary conditions for the nonzero-sum game do not always reduce precisely to those of the zero-sum game, when the weighting parameters of the cost index are taken as those of a zero-sum game. Formulation of zero-sum game problems in extended L2-spaces reveals the existence of nonstabilizing but infimal controls, and explicit frequency-domain conditions for existence of solutions and stabilizing solutions are established through the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE).
The Robust Weighted Multi-Objective Game
2015-01-01
This paper studies a class of multi-objective n-person non-zero sum games through a robust weighted approach where each player has more than one competing objective. This robust weighted multi-objective game model assumes that each player attaches a set of weights to its objectives instead of accessing accurate weights. Each player wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objective where the maximization is pointing to the set of weights. To address this new model, a new equilibrium concept-robust weighted Nash equilibrium is obtained. The existence of this new concept is proven on suitable assumptions about the multi-objective payoffs. PMID:26406986
An efficient sampling technique for sums of bandpass functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, W. M.
1982-01-01
A well known sampling theorem states that a bandlimited function can be completely determined by its values at a uniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the highest frequency component of the function (Nyquist rate). A less familiar but important sampling theorem states that a bandlimited narrowband function can be completely determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the passband width. This allows for efficient digital demodulation of narrowband signals, which are common in sonar, radar and radio interferometry, without the side effect of signal group delay from an analog demodulator. This theorem was extended by developing a technique which allows a finite sum of bandlimited narrowband functions to be determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density can be made arbitrarily close to the sum of the passband widths.
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating each component weight during the nonlinear propagation stage an approximation of the true pdf can be successfully reconstructed. Particle filtering (PF) methods have gained popularity recently for solving nonlinear estimation problems due to their straightforward approach and the processing capabilities mentioned above. The basic concept behind PF is to represent any pdf as a set of random samples. As the number of samples increases, they will theoretically converge to the exact, equivalent representation of the desired pdf. When the estimated qth moment is needed, the samples are used for its construction allowing further analysis of the pdf characteristics. However, filter performance deteriorates as the dimension of the state vector increases. To overcome this problem Ref. [5] applies a marginalization technique for PF methods, decreasing complexity of the system to one linear and another nonlinear state estimation problem. The marginalization theory was originally developed by Rao and Blackwell independently. According to Ref. [6] it improves any given estimator under every convex loss function. The improvement comes from calculating a conditional expected value, often involving integrating out a supportive statistic. In other words, Rao-Blackwellization allows for smaller but separate computations to be carried out while reaching the main objective of the estimator. In the case of improving an estimator's variance, any supporting statistic can be removed and its variance determined. Next, any other information that dependents on the supporting statistic is found along with its respective variance. A new approach is developed here by utilizing the strengths of the adaptive Gaussian sum propagation in Ref. [2] and a marginalization approach used for PF methods found in Ref. [7]. In the following sections a modified filtering approach is presented based on a special state-space model within nonlinear systems to reduce the dimensionality of the optimization problem in Ref. [2]. First, the adaptive Gaussian sum propagation is explained and then the new marginalized adaptive Gaussian sum propagation is derived. Finally, an example simulation is presented.
Minimizing the Sum of Completion Times with Resource Dependant Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yedidsion, Liron; Shabtay, Dvir; Kaspi, Moshe
2008-10-01
We extend the classical minimization sum of completion times problem to the case where the processing times are controllable by allocating a nonrenewable resource. The quality of a solution is measured by two different criteria. The first criterion is the sum of completion times and the second is the total weighted resource consumption. We consider four different problem variations for treating the two criteria. We prove that this problem is NP-hard for three of the four variations even if all resource consumption weights are equal. However, somewhat surprisingly, the variation of minimizing the integrated objective function is solvable in polynomial time. Although the sum of completion times is arguably the most important scheduling criteria, the complexity of this problem, up to this paper, was an open question for three of the four variations. The results of this research have various implementations, including efficient battery usage on mobile devices such as mobile computer, phones and GPS devices in order to prolong their battery duration.
Broadband performance of superdirective delay-and-sum beamformers steered to end-fire.
Trucco, A; Traverso, F; Crocco, M
2014-06-01
Linear arrays steered to end-fire provide superdirective robust performance if a constraint is imposed on the white-noise gain. Filter-and-sum beamformers achieve the maximum constrained directivity by tuning their complex weights over the frequency. Delay-and-sum beamformers have simpler structures, but their weights are fixed and optimized at a given frequency. This letter investigates the constrained directivity provided over a broad band by different delay-and-sum techniques. Complex weights and analytic signals attain near-optimal broadband performance over four octaves. Oversteered arrays using real weights and signals were found to attain superdirective performance over approximately two octaves. Hearing aids and directional hydrophones are potential applications for the considered arrays. PMID:24907842
Fouvry, Étienne; Kowalski, Emmanuel; Michel, Philippe
2015-04-28
We give a general version of cancellation in exponential sums that arise as sums of products of trace functions satisfying a suitable independence condition related to the Goursat-Kolchin-Ribet criterion, in a form that is easily applicable in analytic number theory. PMID:25802414
Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Timothy R.
2013-01-01
One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are stillā¦
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-01
Background: The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, the correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and the properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or the nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. Purpose: To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Methods: To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory, the Thouless theorem for the energy-weighted sum rule, and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule. Results: We derive the sum-rule expressions from the contour integration of the complex-energy FAM. We demonstrate that calculated sum-rule values agree with those obtained from the matrix formulation of the QRPA. We also discuss the applicability of both the Thouless theorem about the energy-weighted sum rule and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule to nuclear density functional theory in cases when the EDF is not based on a Hamiltonian. Conclusions: The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. The FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and the external field cannot be used.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings
Amore, Paolo
2013-11-15
We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N?1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.
Spin-orbit sum rule for electric multipole transitions in nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering.
van der Laan, G
2012-02-17
The sum rule for the branching ratio of dipole-excited core-valence transitions in isotropic x-ray absorption spectroscopy is extended to electric multipole transitions. The derived sum rule not only shows that the branching ratio is linearly related to the expectation value of the angular part of the spin-orbit operator in the valence states, but also shows a strong dependence on the rank of the multipole. The spin-orbit dependence vanishes in the weighted sum over the branching ratios. The effect can be an important diagnostic tool for high-energy spectroscopies. PMID:22401253
Locating the Extrema of Fungible Regression Weights
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.
2009-01-01
In a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors, every set of alternate weights belongs to an infinite class of "fungible weights" (Waller, Psychometrica, "in press") that yields identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. When the R[superscript 2] using the alternate weights is a fixed value, fungible
The generalized GDH sum for He-3
Karl Slifer
2004-06-02
The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q^2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a He-3 target at low Q^2.
Chiral sum rules and hadronic models
Ramirez, Carlos A.
1997-03-15
Several Models (mainly two: Vector Meson Dominance and Quark Models) are presented. Their predictions for the Spectral Functions, and the corresponding Sum Rules are obtained. Comparison with the experimental data and QCD constrains is done.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-10-06
This code is a set of global sums to support the paper "Computational Reproducibility for Production Physics Applications" submitted to the Numerical Reproducibility at Exascale (NRE 2015) workshop at the 2015 Supercomputing conference, Nov. 20, 2015
Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Willie
1992-01-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.
Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Willie
1992-05-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.
27 CFR 19.166 - Required penal sums.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required penal sums. 19... Operations and Withdrawal Bonds § 19.166 Required penal sums. A person must determine the penal sums for the... plant operating as a: Required penal sum represents: The penal sum must be: Not less than and need...
Digitized synchronous demodulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodhouse, Christopher E. (inventor)
1990-01-01
A digitized synchronous demodulator is constructed entirely of digital components including timing logic, an accumulator, and means to digitally filter the digital output signal. Indirectly, it accepts, at its input, periodic analog signals which are converted to digital signals by traditional analog-to-digital conversion techniques. Broadly, the input digital signals are summed to one of two registers within an accumulator, based on the phase of the input signal and medicated by timing logic. At the end of a predetermined number of cycles of the inputted periodic signals, the contents of the register that accumulated samples from the negative half cycle is subtracted from the accumulated samples from the positive half cycle. The resulting difference is an accurate measurement of the narrow band amplitude of the periodic input signal during the measurement period. This measurement will not include error sources encountered in prior art synchronous demodulators using analog techniques such as offsets, charge injection errors, temperature drift, switching transients, settling time, analog to digital converter missing code, and linearity errors.
Learning to Predict Physical Properties Using Sums of Separable Functions
D'Avezac, M.; Botts, R.; Mohlenkamp, M. J.; Zunger, A.
2011-01-01
We present an algorithm for learning the function that maps a material structure to its value on some property, given the value of this function on several structures. We pose this problem as one of learning (regressing) a function of many variables from scattered data. Each structure is first converted to a weighted set of points by a process that removes irrelevant translations and rotations but otherwise retains full information about the structure. Then, incorporating a weighted average for each structure, we construct the multivariate regression function as a sum of separable functions, following the paradigm of separated representations. The algorithm can treat all finite and periodic structures within a common framework, and in particular does not require all structures to lie on a common lattice. We show how the algorithm simplifies when the structures do lie on a common lattice, and we present numerical results for that case.
Randomly stopped sums: models and psychological applications
Smithson, Michael; Shou, Yiyun
2014-01-01
This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as life distributions such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets. PMID:25426090
Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance
Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.
1993-06-01
The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, {nu}{sub x} + 2{nu}{sub z} = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 {mu}s was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J{sub x} and J{sub z}, was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region.
Z-Sum approach to loop integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottmann, Paulo A.
We study the applicability of the Z-Sum approach to multi-loop calculations with massive particles in perturbative quantum field theory. We systematically analyze the case of one-loop scalar integrals, which represent the building blocks of any higher-loop calculation. We focus in particular on triangle one-loop integrals and identify strengths and limitations of the Z-Sum approach, extending our results to the case of one-loop box integrals when appropriate. We conclude with the calculation of a specific physical example: the calculation of heavy flavor corrections to the renormalized scattering amplitude for deep inelastic scattering.
Generalized constructive tree weights
Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org
2014-04-15
The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.
Generalized constructive tree weights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian
2014-04-01
The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.
Examining Students' Conceptions Using Sum Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ratliff, Kevin; Garofalo, Joe
2006-01-01
Students' understanding of functions is a topic that has been researched extensively. In this qualitative study, five university students of varying mathematical backgrounds were interviewed to reveal strategies and misconceptions as they struggled with graphical and analytical tasks relating to sum functions. Weaker students are seen to rely
On the sum of generalized Fibonacci sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Chin-Yoon; Ho, C. K.
2014-06-01
We consider the generalized Fibonacci sequence {Un defined by U0 = 0, U1 = 1, and Un+2 = pUn+1+qUn for all n?Z0+ and p, q?Z+. In this paper, we derived various sums of the generalized Fibonacci sequence from their recursive relations.
Vacuum energy and spectral function sum rules
Kamenshchik, Alexander Y.; Tronconi, Alessandro; Vacca, Gian Paolo; Venturi, Giovanni
2007-04-15
We reformulate the problem of the cancellation of the ultraviolet divergencies of the vacuum energy, particularly important at the cosmological level, in terms of a saturation of spectral function sum rules which leads to a set of conditions on the spectrum of the fundamental theory. We specialize the approach to both Minkowski and de Sitter space-times and investigate some examples.
Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spivey, Michael
2006-01-01
We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.
Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....
Delivering both sum and difference beam distributions to a planar monopulse antenna array
Strassner II, Bernd H.
2015-12-22
A planar monopulse radar apparatus includes a planar distribution matrix coupled to a planar antenna array having a linear configuration of antenna elements. The planar distribution matrix is responsive to first and second pluralities of weights applied thereto for providing both sum and difference beam distributions across the antenna array.
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residual Lump-Sum PIA. 225.26 Section 225.26... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable Ā§ 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Residual Lump-Sum PIA. 225.26 Section 225.26... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable Ā§ 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Residual Lump-Sum PIA. 225.26 Section 225.26... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable Ā§ 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Residual Lump-Sum PIA. 225.26 Section 225.26... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable Ā§ 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residual Lump-Sum PIA. 225.26 Section 225.26... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable Ā§ 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to...
Microcomputer Selection of a Predictor Weighting Algorithm.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, John D.
An empirical method called Predicted Error Sum of Squares (PRESS) is advanced and studied. This method is used to examine the cross-validated prediction accuracies of some popular algorithms for weighted predictor variables. The weighting methods that were considered were ordinary least squares, ridge regression, regression on principal
Experimental verification of the GDH sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helbing, K.; GDH-Collaboration
Sum rules involving the spin structure of the nucleon like those due to Bjorken, Ellis and Jaffe and the one due to Gerasimov, Drell and Hearn offer the opportunity to study the structure of strong interactions. At long distance scales in the confinement regime the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) Sum Rule connects static properties of the nucleon like the anomalous magnetic moment Īŗ and the nucleon mass m, with the spin dependent absorption of real photons with total cross sections 0gs {3}/{2} and Ļ {1}/{2}: limitā«oā{dĪ½}/{Ī½} (Ļ {3}/{2}(Ī½)-Ļ {1}/{2}(Ī½)) = {2Ļ 2Ī± }/{m 2}Ā·Īŗ 2sup Here {3}/{2} and {1}/{2} identify relative spin orientation of the photon and the nucleon parallel or anti-parallel respectively in the nucleon rest frame; Ī± denotes the fine-structure constant and Ī½ the energy of the photon. Hence the full spin-dependent excitation spectrum of the nucleon is related to its static properties. The sum rule has not been investigated experimentally until recently. For the first time this fundamental sum rule is verified by the GDH-Collaboration with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons at the two accelerators ELSA and MAMI. The investigation of the response of the proton as well as of the neutron allows to perform an isospin decomposition. Data from the resonance region up to the onset of the Regge regime are shown. The āsumā on the left hand side of the GDH Sum Rule can be generalized to the case of virtual photons. This allows to establish a Q2 dependency and to study the transition to the perturbative regime of QCD. This is the subject of several experiments e.g. at JLAB for the resonance region and of the HERMES experiment at DESY for higher Q2. Moreover, this paper covers the status of theory concerning the GDH Sum Rule, the different experimental approaches and the results for the absorption of real and virtual photons will be reviewed.
Precision digital pulse phase generator
McEwan, T.E.
1996-10-08
A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.
Precision digital pulse phase generator
McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)
1996-01-01
A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.
Summing nondetects: incorporating low-level contaminants in risk assessment.
Helsel, Dennis R
2010-07-01
Low-level contaminants often are present below the detection or reporting limits of a laboratory, resulting in values reported as a nondetect or less-than. How can these values be summed along with detected concentrations to obtain a total, particularly when weighting factors such as toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) are used? The most common method employed by environmental scientists for summing nondetects along with detected values is to substitute one-half the detection limit for each nondetect. This substitution allows the least precise measurements, data with high detection limits, to have a strong influence on the resulting total amount. Substitution methods have repeatedly been shown to provide substandard results in studies over the last 2 decades. Here an alternative, the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method used throughout the fields of medical and industrial statistics, is used to obtain the total. KM estimates are far less affected by the least precise data than are estimates computed using substitution. No assumptions about the distribution of data (whether they follow a normal or other distribution) need be made. Direct application of KM to computation of toxicity equivalence concentrations (TECs) is shown. PMID:20821699
Optical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, Stephen M.; Loudon, Rodney
2012-01-01
The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is a fundamental consequence of the position-momentum commutation relation for an atomic electron and it provides an important constraint on the transition matrix elements for an atom. Analogously, the commutation relations for the electromagnetic field operators in a magnetodielectric medium constrain the properties of the dispersion relations for the medium through four sum rules for the allowed phase and group velocities for polaritons propagating through the medium. These rules apply to all bulk media including the metamaterials designed to provide negative refractive indices. An immediate consequence of this is that it is not possible to construct a medium in which all the polariton modes for a given wavelength lie in the negative-index region.
Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok
2013-11-01
We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.
1990-01-01
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.
APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING TO MINIMIZE THE SUM OF DIAMETERS
Kopp, S.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, S.M.
2000-02-01
We consider the problem of partitioning the nodes of a complete edge weighted graph into {kappa} clusters so as to minimize the sum of the diameters of the clusters. Since the problem is NP-complete, our focus is on the development of good approximation algorithms. When edge weights satisfy the triangle inequality, we present the first approximation algorithm for the problem. The approximation algorithm yields a solution that has no more than 10k clusters such the total diameter of these clusters is within a factor O(log (n/{kappa})) of the optimal value fork clusters, where n is the number of nodes in the complete graph. For any fixed {kappa}, we present an approximation algorithm that produces {kappa} clusters whose total diameter is at most twice the optimal value. When the distances are not required to satisfy the triangle inequality, we show that, unless P = NP, for any {rho} {ge} 1, there is no polynomial time approximation algorithm that can provide a performance guarantee of {rho} even when the number of clusters is fixed at 3. Other results obtained include a polynomial time algorithm for the problem when the underlying graph is a tree with edge weights.
Advances in QCD sum-rule calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melikhov, Dmitri
2016-01-01
We review the recent progress in the applications of QCD sum rules to hadron properties with the emphasis on the following selected problems: (i) development of new algorithms for the extraction of ground-state parameters from two-point correlators; (ii) form factors at large momentum transfers from three-point vacuum correlation functions: (iii) properties of exotic tetraquark hadrons from correlation functions of four-quark currents.
Double charm states in QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarra, Fernando S.; Nielsen, Marina
2012-03-01
In this note we revisit and improve the calculation of the Tcc mass using the double ratio of QCD sum rules (QCDSR), assuming that this state is described by a molecular current. In a previous work we used a tetraquark current. We conclude that with both currents we arrive at nearly the same results for the Tcc mass, which turns out to be close to the mass of the X(3872).
Supersymmetric sum rules for electromagnetic multipoles
Giannakis, I.; Liu, J.T.; Porrati, M.
1998-08-01
We derive model-independent, nonperturbative supersymmetric sum rules for the magnetic and electric multipole moments of any theory with N=1 supersymmetry. We find that in any irreducible N=1 supermultiplet the diagonal matrix elements of the {ital l}-multipole moments are completely fixed in terms of their off-diagonal matrix elements and the diagonal (l{minus}1)-multipole moments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Doubly heavy baryons in QCD sum rules
Zhang Jianrong; Huang Mingqiu
2008-11-01
The mass spectra of doubly heavy baryons are systematically calculated in the framework of QCD sum rules. With a tentative heavy-diquark-light-quark configuration, the interpolating currents representing the doubly heavy baryons are proposed. Contributions of the operators up to dimension six are included in operator product expansion. The numerical results are compatible with other theoretical predictions, which may support the (QQ)-(q) structure of doubly heavy baryons.
Coincidence summing corrections for a clover detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Chhavi; Danu, L. S.; Gathibandhe, M.; Goswami, A.; Biswas, D. C.
2014-11-01
The true coincidence summing effect on the full energy peak efficiency calibration of a clover HPGe detector for point sources has been determined as a function of sample-to-detector distance using mono-energetic and multi-energetic gamma ray sources. The coincidence summing effect has been observed to increase at closer distances with the correction factors as high as 1.25 at closest distance studied. The correction factors for the total and the photopeak efficiencies have been obtained using the analytical method. The clover detector response has been simulated using MCNP code, taking care of the bevels and the flat surfaces of the clover detector. The geometry of the clover detector has been optimized to match the experimental and the theoretical efficiencies. The true coincidence summing correction factors (kTCS) have also been experimentally obtained by taking the ratio of corresponding mono-energetic extrapolated efficiencies to multi-energetic efficiencies. The kTCS obtained from analytical method has been found to match with the experimental kTCS with the simulated values within 1-5%.
Sum Product Networks for Activity Recognition.
Amer, Mohamed R; Todorovic, Sinisa
2016-04-01
This paper addresses detection and localization of human activities in videos. We focus on activities that may have variable spatiotemporal arrangements of parts, and numbers of actors. Such activities are represented by a sum-product network (SPN). A product node in SPN represents a particular arrangement of parts, and a sum node represents alternative arrangements. The sums and products are hierarchically organized, and grounded onto space-time windows covering the video. The windows provide evidence about the activity classes based on the Counting Grid (CG) model of visual words. This evidence is propagated bottom-up and top-down to parse the SPN graph for the explanation of the video. The node connectivity and model parameters of SPN and CG are jointly learned under two settings, weakly supervised, and supervised. For evaluation, we use our new Volleyball dataset, along with the benchmark datasets VIRAT, UT-Interactions, KTH, and TRECVID MED 2011. Our video classification and activity localization are superior to those of the state of the art on these datasets. PMID:26390445
Real time pipelined system for forming the sum of products in the processing of video data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, Brian (inventor)
1988-01-01
A 3-by-3 convolver utilizes 9 binary arithmetic units connected in cascade for multiplying 12-bit binary pixel values P sub i which are positive or two's complement binary numbers by 5-bit magnitide (plus sign) weights W sub i which may be positive or negative. The weights are stored in registers including the sign bits. For a negative weight, the one's complement of the pixel value to be multiplied is formed at each unit by a bank of 17 exclusive or gates G sub i under control of the sign of the corresponding weight W sub i, and a correction is made by adding the sum of the absolute values of all the negative weights for each 3-by-3 kernel. Since this correction value remains constant as long as the weights are constant, it can be precomputed and stored in a register as a value to be added to the product PW of the first arithmetic unit.
... weight, the calories you eat must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods Eating smaller portions Drinking water instead of sugary ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.
2002-01-01
Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;
To sum or not to sum: taxometric analysis with ordered categorical assessment items.
Walters, Glenn D; Ruscio, John
2009-03-01
Meehl's taxometric method has been shown to differentiate between categorical and dimensional data, but there are many ways to implement taxometric procedures. When analyzing the ordered categorical data typically provided by assessment instruments, summing items to form input indicators has been a popular practice for more than 20 years. A Monte Carlo study compared the accuracy of taxometric analyses implemented in the traditional way (without summing items) and taxometric analyses implemented with the summed-input method. These analyses generated no support for the summed-input method, which substantially reduced discriminating power for 2 of the 3 procedures studied. Accuracy was highest when 5 or more indicators and 4 or more ordered categories were used. Findings from the simulation study were then used to help interpret the results for taxometric analyses of antisocial personality disorder criteria with real research data. In this example, the traditional method yielded clearer results than the summed-input method. Implications for the use and further study of the taxometric method in assessment research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290770
Charmonium Hybrids from QCD Sum-Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harnett, Derek; Steele, Tom; Kleiv, Robin; Richards, Timothy; Ho, Jason; Bulthuis, Brendan; Jin, Hong-Ying
2013-04-01
Over the past decade or so, over a dozen new charmonium-like resonances have been discovered. Many of these particles, collectively dubbed the XYZ resonances, do not fit neatly into conventional quarkonium assignments. Not surprisingly, this has fueled a great deal of speculation that some of the resonances may lie outside of the quark model. Hybrids, hadrons admitting explicit quark and gluon degrees of freedom, represent one such possibility. We use QCD Laplace sum-rules to predict ground state masses of charmonium hybrids and comment on potential phenomenological implications.
Weak convergence of random sums under nonrandom centering
Kruglov, V.M.
1995-08-25
Necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the weak convergence of nonrandomly centered and normalized random sums of independent identically distributed random variables. Limit distributions for these sums are described.
A cluster version of the GGT sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hencken, Kai; Baur, Gerhard; Trautmann, Dirk
2004-03-01
We discuss the derivation of a "cluster sum rule" from the Gellmann-Goldberger-Thirring (GGT) sum rule as an alternative to the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule, which was used as the basis up to now. We compare differences in the assumptions and approximations. Some applications of the sum rule for halo nuclei, as well as, nuclei with a pronounced cluster structure are discussed.
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (S) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
Digital control of a shaker to a specified shock spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unruh, J. F.
1982-05-01
A digital computer based control system was developed for a biaxial electrohydraulic shaker table used for seismic qualification testing of nuclear power plant components. The system drive signals were developed from a weighted linear sum of 1/6-octave psuedo random noise signals. Preliminary drive signal shaping is accomplished through the use of a series of table mounted dummy mass transfer functions obtained from a previously generated data bank. Adjustments to the drive signal are made by direct comparison of the resulting test response spectrum (TRS) to the required response spectrum (RRS). Drive signal shaping sequences for a 2000 lb electrical equipment control cabinet are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system for seismic qualification.
Interpreting the Four Types of Sums of Squares in SPSS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanguma, Jesus; Speed, F. M.
This paper analyzes three possible research designs using each of the four types of sums of squares in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). When the design is balanced (i.e., each cell has the same number of observations), all of the SPSS types of sums of squares yield equivalent results (testable hypotheses and sums of squares)ā¦
SUM06 INDEX FOR DAMAGE TO FLORA FROM OZONE
In addition to health effects in humans, Ozone exposure also causes damage to plants. One index used in calculating the potential damage to plants from Ozone exposure is the SUM06 index. SUM06 is the sum of the hourly ozone values over the 5 month period from May through Septem...
28 CFR 523.16 - Lump sum awards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE Extra Good Time § 523.16 Lump sum awards. Any staff member may recommend to the Warden the approval of an inmate for a lump sum award of extra good time. Such recommendations... make lump sum awards of extra good time not to exceed thirty days. If the recommendation is for...
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmoreĀ Ā» efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.Ā«Ā less
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.
Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements
Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig
2009-12-15
Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wojcik, E. A.; Ni, D.; Lam, T. M.; Le Coz, Y. L.
2015-07-01
We have created the first stochastic SoP (Sum-over-Paths) algorithm to extract third-order impulse-response (IR) moment within RC IC interconnects. It employs a newly discovered Feynman SoP Postulate. Importantly, our algorithm maintains computational efficiency and full parallelism. Our approach begins with generation of s-domain nodal-voltage equations. We then perform a Taylor-series expansion of the circuit transfer function. These expansions yield transition diagrams involving mathematical coupling constants, or weight factors, in integral powers of complex frequency s. Our SoP Postulate enables stochastic evaluation of path sums within the circuit transition diagram to order s3-corresponding to the order of IR moment (m3) we seek here. We furnish, for the first time, an informal algebraic proof independently validating our SoP Postulate and algorithm. We list, as well, detailed procedural steps, suitable for coding, that define an efficient stochastic algorithm for m3 IR extraction. Origins of the algorithm's statistical "capacitor-number cubed" correction and "double-counting" weight factors are explained, for completeness. Our algorithm was coded and successfully tested against exact analytical solutions for 3-, 5-, and 10-stage RC lines. We achieved better than 0.65% 1-Ļ error convergence, after only 10K statistical samples, in less than 1 s of 2-GHz PentiumĀ® execution time. These results continue to suggest that stochastic SoP algorithms may find useful application in circuit analysis of massively coupled networks, such as those encountered in high-end digital IC-interconnect CAD.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yakel, Elizabeth
2001-01-01
Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stabilityā¦
Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration
Lehman, S K
2011-07-06
How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.
Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.
1997-01-01
The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.
... is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This can happen for many different reasons. They include health problems in the mother, genetic factors, problems ... by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, Filipe; Fedorov, Alexander; Baleizćo, Carlos; Valeur, Bernard; Berberan-Santos, Mįrio N.
2013-03-01
Ensemble fluorescence decays are usually analyzed with a sum of exponentials. However, broad continuous distributions of lifetimes, either unimodal or multimodal, occur in many situations. A simple and flexible fitting function for these cases that encompasses the exponential is the Becquerel function. In this work, the applicability of the Becquerel function for the analysis of complex decays of several kinds is tested. For this purpose, decays of mixtures of four different fluorescence standards (binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures) are measured and analyzed. For binary and ternary mixtures, the expected sum of narrow distributions is well recovered from the Becquerel functions analysis, if the correct number of components is used. For ternary mixtures, however, satisfactory fits are also obtained with a number of Becquerel functions smaller than the true number of fluorophores in the mixture, at the expense of broadening the lifetime distributions of the fictitious components. The quaternary mixture studied is well fitted with both a sum of three exponentials and a sum of two Becquerel functions, showing the inevitable loss of information when the number of components is large. Decays of a fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment, known to be represented by unimodal and broad continuous distributions (as previously obtained by the maximum entropy method), are also measured and analyzed. It is concluded that these distributions can be recovered by the Becquerel function method with an accuracy similar to that of the much more complex maximum entropy method. It is also shown that the polar (or phasor) plot is not always helpful for ascertaining the degree (and kind) of complexity of a fluorescence decay.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.
1972-01-01
Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.
Symmetries, sum rules and constraints on effective field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellazzini, Brando; Martucci, Luca; Torre, Riccardo
2014-09-01
Using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry, we derive universal sum rules for scattering amplitudes in theories invariant under an arbitrary symmetry group. The sum rules relate the coefficients of the energy expansion of the scattering amplitudes in the IR to total cross sections integrated all the way up to the UV. Exploiting the group structure of the symmetry, we systematically determine all the independent sum rules and positivity conditions on the expansion coefficients. For effective field theories the amplitudes in the IR are calculable and hence the sum rules set constraints on the parameters of the effective Lagrangian. We clarify the impact of gauging on the sum rules for Goldstone bosons in spontaneously broken gauge theories. We discuss explicit examples that are relevant for WW-scattering, composite Higgs models, and chiral perturbation theory. Certain sum rules based on custodial symmetry and its extensions provide constraints on the Higgs boson coupling to the electroweak gauge bosons.
Multireflection sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.
Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan
2015-08-18
We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with "m" total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ā¼m times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of >m(1/2) and
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides
2015-01-01
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called chiral SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophores orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
Sum grequency generation spectroscopy from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia
2015-03-01
Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is widely used to study the structural and dynamical properties of surfaces and interfaces. Within the dipole approximation, SFG signals are solely determined by the surface, and bulk contributions vanish. However, the bulk portion of a material may contribute to SFG spectra through higher multipole excitations, e.g. quadrupole, which usually are difficult to separate in the measured spectra. Here we present a first principles theoretical framework, to compute SFG spectra of molecular solids and fluids. Within the dipole approximation, we computed the dipole and polarizability using maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWF) and density functional perturbation theory. We then extended our method to include quadrupole contributions, and we computed quadrupole moments and their derivatives using MLWF and a real-space correction scheme, and an electric enthalpy functional. We applied our approach to investigate the ice Ih surface and we present results obtained by both finite differences and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This work was supported by Grant DOE-BES DE-SC0008938.
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides.
Carr, Joshua K; Wang, Lu; Roy, Santanu; Skinner, James L
2015-07-23
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called "chiral" SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore's orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
U.S. Geological Survey
1993-01-01
A digital orthophoto is a digital image of an aerial photograph with displacements caused by the camera angle and the terrain removed. It, thus, combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map.
Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?
Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela
2013-01-01
Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. PMID:23969758
An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory
van Vugt, M. K.; Sekuler, R.; Wilson, H. R.; Kahana, M. J.
2012-01-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in three short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed similarity model to individual subject data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PMID:22963189
New Sum Rule for the Nuclear Magnetic Polarizability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorchtein, Mikhail
2015-11-01
The well-known Levinger-Bethe photonuclear sum rule relates the strength of the photoexcitation of the giant dipole resonance in a nucleus to the number of nucleons in that nucleus. I extend this sum rule to the case of virtual photons and relate the size of the magnetic polarizability of a nucleus to the Q2 slope of the transverse virtual photoabsorption cross section integrated over the energy in the nuclear range. I check this sum rule for the deuteron where necessary data is available, discuss possible applications and connection with other sum rules postulated in the literature.
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem
2014-01-01
Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and
Directly digital flow controller.
McClenathan, Denise M; Alexander, Andrew; Poehlman, John; Hieftje, Gary M
2005-02-01
An improved directly digital flow controller is evaluated for its ability to modulate gas flow rates. As in the older device, the "GasDAC" (named for its similarity to a weighted-resistor digital-to-analog converter) is capable of controlling gas flow in a linear and reproducible manner with the advantage of having an adjustable range of flow rates. The new design incorporates venting to prevent "puffing" when the individual flow channels are opened. The temporal characteristics of the GasDAC are also examined; modulation frequencies of 10 Hz with various types of waveforms are possible with the new device. PMID:15679366
Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Ian Robert
2013-01-01
This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologiesā¦
A class of sums of Gegenbauer functions: Twenty-four sums in closed form
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Haeringen, H.
1986-04-01
Series of the type āān=0 (n+Ī») [CĪ»n (1)]2-k-l-mākh=1 CĪ»n (xh) į¹” āli=1 DĪ»n (zi) į¹” ām j=1 DĪ»n (u j) are studied. Here CĪ»n is Gegenbauer's polynomial, also called the ``ultraspherical polynomial,'' and DĪ»n and DĪ»n are Gegenbauer functions of the second kind. Interrelationships and analytic properties are discussed, and closed forms for 24 of these sums are given, more than half of which are new.
College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
2012-01-01
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winningā¦
Generating matrix and sums of Fibonacci and Pell sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, C. K.; Woon, H. S.; Chong, Chin-Yoon
2014-07-01
In this paper, we study the Fibonacci sequence and Pell sequence and developed generating matrices for them. First we proved two results on the even sum of the Fibonacci sequence and the Pell sequence, using the generating matrix approach. We then deduce the odd sums, some identities and recursive formulas for these two sequences.
Zero-recoil sum rules for ?b ??c form factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannel, Thomas; van Dyk, Danny
2015-12-01
We set up a zero recoil sum rule to constrain the form factors of the ?b ??c transition. Our results are compared with the recent lattice calculation for these transitions. We find the same situation as in the case for B ?D*: The lattice results practically saturate the sum rules, leaving basically no room for excited states.
An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depthā¦
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the
An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth
Second sum rule for the hot plasma permittivity
Bobrov, V. B.; Mendeleyev, V. Ya.; Skovorod'ko, S. N.; Trigger, S. A.
2011-02-15
Based on linear response theory, Kramers-Kronig relations, and diagram techniques of perturbation theory, it is shown that the second sum rule is satisfied for hot plasma permittivity. An explicit analytical expression for the second sum rule in the limit of weak nonideality is derived.
College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
2012-01-01
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning
Y(2175) state in the QCD sum rule
Chen Huaxing; Liu Xiang; Zhu Shilin; Hosaka, Atsushi
2008-08-01
We study the mass of the state Y(2175) of J{sup PC}=1{sup --} in the QCD sum rule. We construct both the diquark-antidiquark currents (ss)(ss) and the meson-meson currents (ss)(ss). We find that there are two independent currents for both cases and derive the relations between them. The operator product expansion convergence of these two currents is sufficiently fast, which enables us to perform good sum rule analysis. Both the SVZ (Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov) sum rule and the finite energy sum rule lead to a mass around 2.3{+-}0.4 GeV, which is consistent with the observed mass within the uncertainties of the present QCD sum rule. The coupling of the four-quark currents to lower lying states such as {phi}(1020) turns out to be rather small. We also discuss possible decay properties of Y(2175) if it is a tetraquark state.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode
Amore, Paolo
2014-10-15
We show that the formulas for the sum rules for the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in two recent papers are incomplete when the system contains a zero mode. We prove that there are finite contributions of the zero mode to the sum rules and we explicitly calculate the expressions for the sum rules of order one and two. The previous results for systems that do not contain a zero mode are unaffected. - Highlights: We discuss the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode. We derive the explicit expressions for sum rules of order one and two. We perform accurate numerical tests of these results for three examples.
Design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, R. J.; Griffin, W.
1974-01-01
The design of an infant weight scale is reported that fits into an isolette without disturbing its controlled atmosphere. The scale platform uses strain gages to measure electronically deflections of cantilever beams positioned at its four corners. The weight of the infant is proportional to the sum of the output voltages produced by the gauges on each beam of the scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun
2008-01-01
The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;ā¦
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
Digital Imaging is the computer processed numerical representation of physical images. Enhancement of images results in easier interpretation. Quantitative digital image analysis by Perceptive Scientific Instruments, locates objects within an image and measures them to extract quantitative information. Applications are CAT scanners, radiography, microscopy in medicine as well as various industrial and manufacturing uses. The PSICOM 327 performs all digital image analysis functions. It is based on Jet Propulsion Laboratory technology, is accurate and cost efficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader
2014-12-01
Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ā0ā and ā1ā, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call āmetamaterial bitsā, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental āmetamaterial bytesā with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.
Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader
2014-12-01
Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061
Digital demodulator-correlator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Layland, J. W.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Goldstein, R. M.; Hubbard, W. P. (inventors)
1978-01-01
An apparatus for demodulation and correlation of a code modulated 10 MHz signal is presented. The apparatus is comprised of a sample and hold analog-to-digital converter synchronized by a frequency coherent 40 MHz pulse to obtain four evenly spaced samples of each of the signal. Each sample is added or subtracted to or from one of four accumulators to or from the separate sums. The correlation functions are then computed. As a further feature of the invention, multipliers are each multiplied by a squarewave chopper signal having a period that is long relative to the period of the received signal to foreclose contamination of the received signal by leakage from either of the other two terms of the multipliers.
Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources
Meegan, Daniel V.
2010-01-01
Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed. PMID:21833251
Photo-absorption sum rules ??1 in different environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, S. B.
2016-02-01
Combining the spin-dependent dispersion GDH-sum rule, the iso-vector, photo-excitation states projecting Cabibbo-Radicati sum rule, and the relativistic dipole-moment-fluctuation (or generalized Gottfried) sum rule with the three valence quark configuration of nucleons taken into account for the composition of the ground and the excited states of the nucleon, the relevant moments of the distribution and correlation functions of the quark electric dipole moment operators in the nucleon ground state are expressed via the experimentally measurable nucleon resonance photo-excitation amplitudes.These functions are of interest for checking detailed quark-configuration structure of the nucleon state vector.
Third-frequency-moment sum rule for electronic multilayers
Lu, Dexin; Golden, Kenneth I.
2000-01-01
The authors establish the third-frequency-moment sum rules for the density-density response matrix of electronic multilayer structures modeled as an array of N parallel two-dimensional (2D) electron-plasma monolayers. Layer densities and spacings between adjacent layers need not be equal. Contact is made with previously established sum rules for the isolated 2D electron liquid and type-1 infinite superlattices. The case of the equal-density bilayer is considered and its third frequency-moment-sum-rules for the in-phase and out-of-phase inverse dielectric functions are formulated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Nested sums, expansion of transcendental functions, and multiscale multiloop integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moch, Sven; Uwer, Peter; Weinzierl, Stefan
2002-06-01
Expansion of higher transcendental functions in a small parameter are needed in many areas of science. For certain classes of functions this can be achieved by algebraic means. These algebraic tools are based on nested sums and can be formulated as algorithms suitable for an implementation on a computer. Examples such as expansions of generalized hypergeometric functions or Appell functions are discussed. As a further application, we give the general solution of a two-loop integral, the so-called C-topology, in terms of multiple nested sums. In addition, we discuss some important properties of nested sums, in particular we show that they satisfy a Hopf algebra.
Shear spectral sum rule in a nonconformal gravity dual
Springer, Todd; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Lee, Su Houng
2010-11-15
A sum rule which relates a stress-energy tensor correlator to thermodynamic functions is examined within the context of a simple nonconformal gravity dual. Such a sum rule was previously derived using AdS/CFT for conformal N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, but we show that it does not generalize to the nonconformal theory under consideration. We provide a generalized sum rule and numerically verify its validity. A useful by-product of the calculation is the computation of the spectral density in a strongly coupled nonconformal theory. Qualitative features of the spectral densities and implications for lattice measurements of transport coefficients are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blansett, Jim
2008-01-01
In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horn, Michael B.
2013-01-01
State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blansett, Jim
2008-01-01
In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learningā¦
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rios, Joseph
2012-01-01
Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beer, R.
1985-01-01
Small, low-cost comparator with 24-bit-precision yields ratio signal from pair of analog or digital input signals. Arithmetic logic chips (bit-slice) sample two 24-bit analog-to-digital converters approximately once every millisecond and accumulate them in two 24-bit registers. Approach readily modified to arbitrary precision.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boone, Randy; Higgins, Kyle; Edyburn, Dave
2003-01-01
This article discusses the creation of an archive that permits online access to digital copies of back issues of the "Learning Disability Quarterly." It describes how to access the archive, select and order an issue, and the benefits of providing information in digital formats. (Contains 3 references.) (CR)
Valid QCD sum rules for vector mesons in nuclear matter
Jin, X.; Leinweber, D.B.
1995-12-01
QCD sum rules for vector mesons ({rho}, {omega}, {phi}) in nuclear matter are reexamined with an emphasis on the reliability of various sum rules. Monitoring the continuum contribution and the convergence of the operator product expansion plays a crucial role in determining the validity of a sum rule. The uncertainties arising from less than precise knowledge of the condensate values and other input parameters are analyzed via a Monte Carlo error analysis. Our analysis leaves no doubt that vector-meson masses decrease with increasing density. This resolves the current debate over the behavior of the vector-meson masses and the sum rules to be used in extracting vector meson properties in nuclear matter. We find a ratio of {rho}-meson masses of {ital m}{sub {rho}}{sup *}/{ital m}{sub {rho}}=0.78{plus_minus}0.08 at nuclear matter saturation density.
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... the previous subgroup. (2) Subtract the subgroup tolerance (T). (3) The CuSum value is reset in the following situations; however, determine portion of production acceptability (see § 42.133) prior...
Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle
Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal
2010-02-01
In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.
Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules
Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.
2013-03-25
We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.
Sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary N incompatible observables
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming
2015-01-01
We formulate uncertainty relations for arbitrary N observables. Two uncertainty inequalities are presented in terms of the sum of variances and standard deviations, respectively. The lower bounds of the corresponding sum uncertainty relations are explicitly derived. These bounds are shown to be tighter than the ones such as derived from the uncertainty inequality for two observables [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 260401 (2014)]. Detailed examples are presented to compare among our results with some existing ones. PMID:26370360
L1-convergence of modified complex trigonometric sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Jatinderdeep
2012-09-01
In this paper, we shall study the L1-convergence of complex form of modified cosine and sine sums as a0/2+ ā k = 1n ā j = knĪ(ajcosjx) and ā k = 1n ā j = knĪ(ajsinjx). Also, using the complex form of above modified trigonometric sums, we shall obtain a new necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of Fourier series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schatten, Kenneth
1984-04-01
Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.
Improving weighted information criterion by using optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aladag, Cagdas Hakan; Egrioglu, Erol; Gunay, Suleyman; Basaran, Murat A.
2010-03-01
Although artificial neural networks (ANN) have been widely used in forecasting time series, the determination of the best model is still a problem that has been studied a lot. Various approaches available in the literature have been proposed in order to select the best model for forecasting in ANN in recent years. One of these approaches is to use a model selection strategy based on the weighted information criterion (WIC). WIC is calculated by summing weighted different selection criteria which measure the forecasting accuracy of an ANN model in different ways. In the calculation of WIC, the weights of different selection criteria are determined heuristically. In this study, these weights are calculated by using optimization in order to obtain a more consistent criterion. Four real time series are analyzed in order to show the efficiency of the improved WIC. When the weights are determined based on the optimization, it is obviously seen that the improved WIC produces better results.
Non-Homogeneous Fractal Hierarchical Weighted Networks
Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan
2015-01-01
A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit. PMID:25849619
An Efficient Algorithm for Maximizing Range Sum Queries in a Road Network
Jung, HaRim; Kim, Ung-Mo
2014-01-01
Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25152915
Unexplained weight loss is a decrease in body weight, when you did not try to lose the weight on your own. Many people gain and lose weight. Unintentional weight loss is loss of 10 pounds OR 5% of ...
... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...
Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa
2012-01-01
Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350
Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro
2012-01-01
Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241
Johnson, Don; Johnson, Mike
2004-04-01
The process of digital capture, editing, and archiving video has become an important aspect of documenting arthroscopic surgery. Recording the arthroscopic findings before and after surgery is an essential part of the patient's medical record. The hardware and software has become more reasonable to purchase, but the learning curve to master the software is steep. Digital video is captured at the time of arthroscopy to a hard disk, and written to a CD at the end of the operative procedure. The process of obtaining video of open procedures is more complex. Outside video of the procedure is recorded on digital tape with a digital video camera. The camera must be plugged into a computer to capture the video on the hard disk. Adobe Premiere software is used to edit the video and render the finished video to the hard drive. This finished video is burned onto a CD. We outline the choice of computer hardware and software for the manipulation of digital video. The techniques of backup and archiving the completed projects and files also are outlined. The uses of digital video for education and the formats that can be used in PowerPoint presentations are discussed. PMID:15123920
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 92.2 .0215 92.1 .0215 92.0 .0215 91.9 .0215 91.8 .0216 91.7 .0216 91.6 .0216 91.5 .0216 91.4 .0216 91.3 .0217 91.2 .0217 91.1 .0217 91.0 .0217 90.9 .0218 90.8 .0218 90.7 .0218 90.6 .0218 90.5 .0219 90.4... 67.0 .0294 66.9 .0295 66.8 .0295 66.7 .0295 66.6 .0296 66.5......
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... representing the years of useful life, i.e., 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1, or 15. Example 2. Assume in connection with an... year. This determination, of course, may be made each year by analysis, i.e., by determining the... Straight line amount Col. (4)÷ life Straight line reserve Col. (5)? Col. (3) accumulated Jan. 1...
Nucleon spectral function at finite density from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohtani, Keiuske; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2014-09-01
The QCD sum rule method is a powerful tool for studying hadron properties directly from QCD. Recently, the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) has been applied and is successful in the analysis of the rho meson sum rule in vacuum. The advantage of this approach is that the spectral functions can be extracted without assuming a specific form. We have applied this analysis method of QCD sum rules to the spectral function of the nucleon and its negative parity excited states in vacuum and have constructed the parity projected nucleon sum rules including the first order ?s corrections. Both the positive and negative parity spectral function of the nucleon are extracted after the MEM is applied to the sum rule. We find that the difference between the positive and negative parity spectral function is mainly caused by the chiral condensate. Applying this method to the analyses in nuclear matter, the mass modification of both the positive and negative parity states can be examined. By doing this, we investigate the relation between the masses and partial restoration of chiral symmetry breaking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, C.
2014-06-01
A large class of Feynman integrals, like e.g., two-point parameter integrals with at most one mass and containing local operator insertions, can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric expressions. In this survey article we present a difference field approach for symbolic summation that enables one to simplify such definite nested sums to indefinite nested sums. In particular, the simplification is given -if possible- in terms of harmonic sums, generalized harmonic sums, cyclotomic harmonic sums or binomial sums. Special emphasis is put on the developed Mathematica packages Sigma, EvaluateMultiSums and SumProduction that assist in the task to perform these simplifications completely automatically for huge input expressions.
Jimenez, J.C.; Biscay, R.; Aubert, E.
1996-07-01
An approach for the parametric representation of anatomical structures of the human body by means of trigonometric interpolating sums (TIS) is introduced. This representation is constructed on the basis of the geometric information provided by medical digital images and an arbitrarily chosen system of curvilinear coordinates. The parameterization defined by these coordinates is approximated through TIS by using a multidimensional extension of the Lancozos`s method for accelerating the convergence of trigonometric approximations for smooth, nonperiodic functions. This allows us to obtain accurate representations for a wide class of anatomical structures, including nonclosed ones. An upper bound of the approximation error is derived in the sense of the supremum norm. The reconstruction of a human face and the surface of a brain cortex are shown as illustrative examples of the parameterization by means of TIS. 23 refs., 2 figs.
Weighting dissimilarities to detect communities in networks.
Alvarez, Alejandro J; Sanz-Rodrķguez, Carlos E; Cabrera, Juan Luis
2015-12-13
Many complex systems can be described as networks exhibiting inner organization as communities of nodes. The identification of communities is a key factor to understand community-based functionality. We propose a family of measures based on the weighted sum of two dissimilarity quantifiers that facilitates efficient classification of communities by tuning the quantifiers' relative weight to the network's particularities. Additionally, two new dissimilarities are introduced and incorporated in our analysis. The effectiveness of our approach is tested by examining the Zachary's Karate Club Network and the Caenorhabditis elegans reactions network. The analysis reveals the method's classification power as confirmed by the efficient detection of intrapathway metabolic functions in C. elegans. PMID:26527808
Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merhav, Neri
2011-09-01
We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.
Sum rule for response function in nonequilibrium Langevin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuge, Tatsuro
2010-11-01
We derive general properties of the linear-response functions of nonequilibrium steady states in Langevin systems. These correspond to extension of the results which were recently found in Hamiltonian systems [A. Shimizu and T. Yuge, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79, 013002 (2010)10.1143/JPSJ.79.013002]. We discuss one of the properties, the sum rule for the response function, in particular detail. We show that the sum rule for the response function of the velocity holds in the underdamped case, whereas it is violated in the overdamped case. This implies that the overdamped Langevin models should be used with great care. We also investigate the relation of the sum rule to an equality on the energy dissipation in nonequilibrium Langevin systems, which was derived by Harada and Sasa.
Surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of nonpolar media
Sun, Shumei; Tian, Chuanshan; Shen, Y. Ron
2015-01-01
Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is surface specific only if the bulk contribution to the signal is negligible. Negligible bulk contribution is, however, not necessarily true, even for media with inversion symmetry. The inevitable challenge is to find the surface spectrum in the presence of bulk contribution, part of which has been believed to be inseparable from the surface contribution. Here, we show that, for nonpolar media, it is possible to separately deduce surface and bulk spectra from combined phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopic measurements in reflection and transmission. The study of benzene interfaces is presented as an example. PMID:25918404
Coincidence summing corrections for point and volume (152)Eu sources.
Novkovi?, Duan; ?uraevi?, Mirjana; Kandi?, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; elak, Bojan; Miloevi?, Zoran
2016-01-01
In this article, the X-ray and gamma-ray coincidence summing effect in (152)Eu is studied. Coincidence summing corrections and peak and total efficiencies of point and volume sources were determined using the direct matrices multiplication (DMM) method. The theoretically evaluated peak count rates were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values. Validation was performed by comparing the calculated efficiency curves and the corresponding correction factors with the results obtained using GESPECOR 4.2 software. PMID:26496693
{pi}-{eta} mixing from QCD sum rules
Chan, C.T.; Henley, E.M.; Meissner, T.
1994-03-01
The q{sub 2} dependence of the {pi}-{eta} mixing amplitude is examined with the use of QCD sum rules. The linear slope of the mixing function {theta}(q{sup 2}) is found to be much smaller than that for {rho}-{omega} mixing. Thus the mixing amplitude is approximately the same in the space-like region as in the time-like one, and one may neglect the q{sup 2} dependence of the mixing. A comparison between a hadron-meson, an effective chiral model, and the QCD sum rules approaches is made.
QCD sum rules and properties of baryons in nuclei
Johnson, M.B.; Kisslinger, L.S.
1995-12-31
The use of medium-energy experiments to constrain in-medium four-quark condensates, whose uncertainty is currently the most important problem inhibiting the use of QCD sum rules to study hadrons in nuclear matter, is discussed. A value for a particular linear combination of these condensates is extracted using results of an Isobar-Doorway model analysis of pion-nucleus scattering data and a QCD sum rule analysis of the mass of the {Delta}(1232) in nuclei. Extending the analysis to include higher-lying baryon resonances is possible with data from modem facilities.
The quantum Ising model: finite sums and hyperbolic functions
Damski, Bogdan
2015-01-01
We derive exact closed-form expressions for several sums leading to hyperbolic functions and discuss their applicability for studies of finite-size Ising spin chains. We show how they immediately lead to closed-form expressions for both fidelity susceptibility characterizing the quantum critical point and the coefficients of the counterdiabatic Hamiltonian enabling arbitrarily quick adiabatic driving of the system. Our results generalize and extend the sums presented in the popular Gradshteyn and Ryzhik Table of Integrals, Series, and Products. PMID:26514674
Weighted conditional least-squares estimation
Booth, J.G.
1987-01-01
A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.
Pisano, Etta D; Yaffe, Martin J
2005-02-01
In digital mammography, the processes of image acquisition, display, and storage are separated, which allows optimization of each. Radiation transmitted through the breast is absorbed by an electronic detector, the response of which is faithful over a wide range of intensities. Once this information is recorded, it can be displayed by using computer image-processing techniques to allow arbitrary settings of image brightness and contrast, without the need for further exposure to the patient. In this article, the current state of the art in technology for digital mammography and data from clinical trials that support the use of the technology will be reviewed. In addition, several potentially useful applications that are being developed with digital mammography will be described. PMID:15670993
Programmable Digital Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wassick, Gregory J.
2012-01-01
An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.
[Digital radiography in urography].
Salvini, E; Abbona, M; Barigozzi, P; Favini, G; Pedroli, G; Crespi, A; Pastori, R; Cerutti, R; Stacul, F
1989-01-01
The clinical utility was evaluated of a computed radiographic system in urography. The system (FCR 101, Philips Medical Systems, Inc., Shelton, CT) is based on a photo-stimulatable phosphor screen (imaging plate) for X-ray image detection and storage. The X-ray information recorded on the imaging plate is converted into digital from and processed by means of a computer. After processing is completed, the digitized image is reversed back to analogic signals, which modulate the intensity of a laser beam scanning the image on a single-emulsion film (Fuji CR 633). Two hundred IVP's were obtained in four groups, of 50 patients each, with normal azotemic values by rapid infusion of a low osmolality contrast medium (iopamidol 150 mgI/ml). While conventional radiographs were performed on the first group of patients with the injection of 0.6 gI/kg body weight of contrast medium, digital examinations were carried out, in the remaining three groups, with the injection of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.12 gI/kg, respectively. The digital images were processed with the "Abdomen-routine" program. A specific algorithm was implemented in order to reduce the excessive contrast resolution of the bladder, which is due to the characteristics of the nonionic contrast medium and enhanced by the reading program. The image details were evaluated by two observers and then statistically analyzed with nonparametric tests. Statistical analysis did not show any difference in the quality of digital and screen-film images. Image processing improved some inadequate images, by reducing the contrast resolution of the bladder, and allowed a better detection of some details. Low doses (0.3 gI/kg) of a low osmolality (150 mgI/kg) contrast medium were enough to obtain good images. Another biological advantage was obtained by a consistent radiation dose reduction (about 40%). PMID:2928564
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Ning
This section discusses the applications of digital sequences in acoustical system identification and characterization and describes Golay codes and binary maximum-length sequences (MLSs) in some detail. Legendre sequences and other coded signals are briefly described. Golay codes and MLS have been used for acoustic applications for years. Applications of Legendre sequences have also been reported. Digital sequences of other classes such as, e.g., binary Gold sequences and Kasami sequences have only recently found applications in acoustical system identification and characterization.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.
Cable, Louella E.
1967-01-01
The large number of measurements needed to describe fully the characteristics of biological specimens and other objects has always been tedious and time consuming. The work can be done much more rapidly and with greater accuracy with a digital caliper recently developed by us. The digital caliper is a new electronic instrument built to measure objects precisely throughout the range of 0.1 mm to 1.0 m. Calipers of several different discrete sizes make it possible to select the most convenient unit for the particular range of length and degree of accuracy desired.
Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.
Glenn, Nicole M
2013-03-01
Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478
Baryons with two heavy quarks from QCD spectral sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagan, E.; Chabab, M.; Narison, S.
1993-06-01
We study the masses and couplings of baryons made with two heavy quarks using QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). Coulomb-like 1/Ī½3 singularities enhance largely the mixed quark-gluon condensate contributions and modify the usual quark-hadron duality picture in the QSSR analysis. UnitĆ© de Recherche associĆ©e au CNRS, URA 768.
Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun
1994-01-01
We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.
Catalan's identity and sum of k-Lucas sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sia, Jye Ying; Ho, Chee Kit
2015-12-01
We proved the Catalan's Identity and obtained the sum using the same generating matrix for the k-Lucas sequence, Ln+1 = kLn + Ln-1 with the initial values, L0 = k, L1 = 2 when n and k are both positive.
Gottfried sum in the SU(3) NJL model
Blotz, A.; Praszalowicz, M.; Goeke, K.
1996-01-01
Within the semibosonized SU(3) Nambu{endash}Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model we calculate the Gottfried sum with linear 1/{ital N}{sub {ital c}} and srange mass corrections and find surprising agreement with recent NMC measurements. The limits of pure valence and pure bosonized pictures are derived. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Physical Society.}
The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin
2013-01-01
An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-03-01
We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.
A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min
2009-01-01
This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A
Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2014-11-01
Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M?S? scheme m?b(m?b) ? 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ? 210-220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ? 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m?b(m?b) = 4:247 GeV: (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constantsand especially for the ratio fB* / fBprove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.
Zero-sum two-person games in LCP
Parthasarathy, T.
1994-12-31
In zero-sum two-person games, von Neumann`s minimax theorem and Kaplansky`s theorem on completely mixed games play a significant role. We derive some new and interesting results in Linear complementarity problem using the above mentioned theorems, especially in identifying certain class of Q-matrices.
Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2016-01-01
We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.
The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albright, Brian
2012-01-01
We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.
2005-01-01
The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number
Inequalities for frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1986-01-01
The relations between the various frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids, which include even-power moments, are systematically examined by using the Cauchy-Schwarz and Hoelder inequalities. A relation involving the isothermal sound velocity and the kinetic and potential energies is obtained from one of the inequalities in the long-wavelength limit, and is generalized to arbitrary spatial dimensions.
SimSum: An Empirically Founded Simulation of Summarizing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte
2000-01-01
Describes SimSum (Simulation of Summarizing), which simulates 20 real-world working steps of expert summarizers. Presents an empirically founded cognitive model of summarizing and demonstrates that human summarization strategies can be simulated. Discusses current research in automatic summarization, summarizing in the World Wide Web, and
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... tax at the rates prescribed by law, on the maximum quantity of beer used in the production of... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety Ā§ 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety Ā§ 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety Ā§ 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety Ā§ 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... tax at the rates prescribed by law, on the maximum quantity of beer used in the production of... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety Ā§ 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe
2011-01-01
Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and onlineā¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frederiksen, Linda
2013-01-01
Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, theyā¦
Conventional mammography uses X-rays to look for tumors or suspicious areas in the breasts. Digital mammography also uses X-rays, but the data is collected on computer instead of on a piece of film. This means that the image can be computer-enhanced,
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe
2011-01-01
Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online
Reciprocity for Gauss sums on finite abelian groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turaev, Vladimir
1998-09-01
A classical reciprocity formula for Gauss sums due to Cauchy, Dirichlet, and Kronecker states thatformula herewhere a, b are nonzero integers and w[set membership][open face Q] such that ab+2aw[set membership]2[open face Z]. For a detailed proof and historical background, see [4, chapter IX]. Various versions of formula (1) have been extensively studied in connection with transformation properties of theta functions. A version of (1) for multivariate Gauss sums was first obtained by A. Krazer [10] in 1912, see also [2, 5, 11, 14]. Krazer's formula generalizes the case w=0 of (1) via replacing one of the numbers a, b by an integer quadratic form of several variables.Recently, Florian Deloup [6] found a new and most beautiful reciprocity formula for multivariate Gauss sums. His formula is a far reaching generalization of Krazer's result. Roughly speaking, Deloup replaces both numbers a, b with quadratic forms. Deloup involves Wu classes of quadratic forms which allows him to remove the evenness condition appearing in Krazer's formulation. However, Deloup's formula covers only the cases w=0 and w=b/2 of (1).In this paper we establish a more general reciprocity for Gauss sums including the Krazer and Deloup formulas and formula (1) in its full generality. Our reciprocity law involves two quadratic forms and a so-called rational Wu class, as defined below.The original proofs of Cauchy, Dirichlet, Kronecker and Krazer are analytical and involve a study of a limit of a transformation formula for theta-functions. Deloup's proof goes by a reduction to the case w=b/2 of (1) based on a careful study of Witt groups of quadratic forms. Our proof is more direct and uses only (a generalization of) the van der Blij computation of Gauss sums via signatures of integer quadratic forms. In particular, our argument provides a new proof of (1).
27 CFR 19.245 - Bonds and penal sums of bonds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds and penal sums of... Bonds and penal sums of bonds. The bonds, and the penal sums thereof, required by this subpart, are as follows: Penal Sum Type of bond Basis Minimum Maximum (a) Operations bond: (1) One plant bondā...
29 CFR 4050.9 - Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant... CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS MISSING PARTICIPANTS § 4050.9 Annuity or elective lump sumliving missing... § 4050.5(a)(3) (no lump sum) or § 4050.5(a)(4) (elective lump sum) and who is living on the date as...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Willie
1992-01-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume provides a software listing and graphical data gathered from flight STS-40.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Willie
1992-05-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume provides a software listing and graphical data gathered from flight STS-40.
Weighted Integrate-And-Dump Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadr, Ramin
1989-01-01
Digital weighted integrate-and-dump filter (WIDF) proposed for detection of weak rectangular-pulse signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Received signal first low-pass prefiltered, and samples taken at multiple of symbol frequency. Improved performance means lower sampling and processing rates used for given symbol rate, reducing cost of system.
Tang, S; Helmeste, D
2000-02-01
The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872
Effect of clothing weight on body weight
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delion, Doru S.; Schuck, Peter; Tohyama, Mitsuru
2016-02-01
The Self-Consistent RPA (SCRPA) approach is elaborated for cases with a continuously broken symmetry, this being the main focus of the present article. Correlations beyond standard RPA are summed up correcting for the quasi-boson approximation in standard RPA. Desirable properties of standard RPA such as fulfillment of energy weighted sum rule and appearance of Goldstone (zero) modes are kept. We show theoretically and, for a model case, numerically that, indeed, SCRPA maintains all properties of standard RPA for practically all situations of spontaneously broken symmetries. A simpler approximate form of SCRPA, the so-called renormalised RPA, also has these properties. The SCRPA equations are first outlined as an eigenvalue problem, but it is also shown how an equivalent many body Green's function approach can be formulated.
Heavy quarkonium correlators at finite temperature: QCD sum rule approach
Morita, Kenji; Lee, Su Houng
2010-09-01
We investigate the properties of heavy quarkonia at finite temperature in detail using QCD sum rules. Extending previous analyses, we take into account a temperature-dependent effective continuum threshold and derive constraints on the mass, the width, and the varying effective continuum threshold. We find that at least one of these quantities of a charmonium changes abruptly in the vicinity of the phase transition. We also calculate the ratio of the imaginary time correlator to its reconstructed one, G/G{sub rec}, by constructing a model spectral function and compare it to the corresponding lattice QCD results. We demonstrate that the almost constant unity of G/G{sub rec} can be obtained from the destructive interplay of the changes in each part of the spectral modification which are extracted from QCD sum rules.
Ab initio calculations of electronic excitations: Collapsing spectral sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, J. A.; Reining, Lucia; Sottile, Francesco
2010-07-01
We present a method for the evaluation of electronic excitations of advanced materials by reformulating spectral sum-over-states expressions such that only occupied states appear. All empty states are accounted for by one effective energy. Thus we keep the simplicity and precision of the sum-over-states approach while speeding up calculations by more than an order of magnitude. We demonstrate its power by applying it to the GW method, where a huge summation over empty states appears twice (screening and self-energy). The precision is shown for bulk Si and solid and atomic Ar. We then use it to determine the band gap of the technologically important oxide SnO2 .
Coincidence-Summing Corrections for Close Geometry Measurements
Gueray, R. Taygun
2008-11-11
For a given stellar temperature, nuclear reactions take place in the energy range of the Gamow window with the relatively low energies of the astrophysical interest for charged particle induced reactions. In order to measure the nuclear reaction cross sections with the activation method at projectile energies as low as possible, a gamma counting system that consists of Ge detectors and the irradiated target in close geometry is required. The presence of cascade transitions requires coincidence summing corrections that can not be ignored because of the very large solid angle. In this study, the determination of the summing correction factor and photopeak efficiency for a gamma spectrometer, as an example, composed of two Ge clover detectors in close geometry is briefly described.
Experience Replay for Optimal Control of Nonzero-Sum Game Systems With Unknown Dynamics.
Zhao, Dongbin; Zhang, Qichao; Wang, Ding; Zhu, Yuanheng
2016-03-01
In this paper, an approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum (NZS) game systems with completely unknown dynamics. First, a model identifier based on a three-layer neural network (NN) is established to reconstruct the unknown NZS games systems. Moreover, the identifier weight vector is updated based on experience replay technique which can relax the traditional persistence of excitation condition to a simplified condition on recorded data. Then, the single-network adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) with experience replay algorithm is proposed for each player to solve the coupled nonlinear Hamilton- (HJ) equations, where only the critic NN weight vectors are required to tune for each player. The feedback Nash equilibrium is provided by the solution of the coupled HJ equations. Based on the experience replay technique, a novel critic NN weights tuning law is proposed to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and the convergence of the value functions. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that the uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is achieved. Finally, two simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:26529794
Radial excitations of mesons and nucleons from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jin-Feng; Zhu, Shi-Lin
2015-10-01
Within the framework of QCD sum rules, we use the least-squares fitting method to investigate the first radial excitations of the nucleon and light mesons such as Ļ , K*, Ļ , and Ļ . The extracted masses of these radial excitations are consistent with the experimental data. In particular, we find that the decay constant of Ļ (1300 ), which is the first radial excitation of Ļ , is tiny and is strongly suppressed as a consequence of chiral symmetry.
Haken spheres in the connected sum of two lens spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Fengchun
2005-01-01
A Haken sphere S in a 3-manifold M with a Heegaard splitting Vcup_F W is a separating 2-sphere in M which intersects the Heegaard surface F only in an essential circle in F. We describe how any two Haken spheres in the genus 2 Heegaard splitting of connected sum of two lens spaces are related, which extends Scharlemann-Thompson's corresponding result on Haken spheres in genus 2 Heegaard splitting for S(3) .
Sum Rule Analysis of Low-Energy Onestep Direct Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcinkowski, A.; Marianski, B.
1999-05-01
Analysis of inclusive nonelastic nucleon emission use inconsistently gradual absorption into the quasibound particle-hole states of multistep compound reaction chain together with the predominantly onestep direct reactions to describe experiments [1--3]. A sum rule analysis of the onestep direct reactions cross section calculated in the framework of the multistep direct reaction theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin (FKK) [4] has revealed that these cross sections are misinterpreted.
A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons
Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.
2010-12-28
A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.
Signal replication by multiple sum- or difference-frequency generation.
McKinstrie, C J; Agarwal, A; Banwell, T C; Dailey, J M
2015-09-21
In this paper, the coupled-mode equations for sum-frequency generation (SFG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) driven by multiple pumps are solved, and the noise figures of idler generation are determined. For SFG, the (common) noise figure is n, the number of pumps (and idlers), whereas for DFG, the (common) noise figure is 2, independent of n. Thus, DFG driven by multiple pumps enables the generation of multiple low-noise idlers. PMID:26406669
Algebraic Riccati equations in zero-sum differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, T. L.; Chao, A.
1974-01-01
The procedure for finding the closed-loop Nash equilibrium solution of two-player zero-sum linear time-invariant differential games with quadratic performance criteria and classical information pattern may be reduced in most cases to the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Based on the results obtained by Willems, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of solutions to these equations are derived, and explicit conditions for a scalar example are given.
Second Trimester Estimated Fetal Weight and Fetal Weight Gain Predict Childhood Obesity
Parker, Margaret; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Belfort, Mandy B.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Gillman, Matthew W.
2012-01-01
Objective To determine the extent to which fetal weight during mid-pregnancy and fetal weight gain from mid-pregnancy to birth predict adiposity and blood pressure (BP) at age 3 years. Study design Among 438 children in the Project Viva cohort, we estimated fetal weight at 16ā20 (median 18) weeks gestation using ultrasound biometry measures. We analyzed fetal weight gain as change in quartile of weight from the second trimester until birth, and we measured height, weight, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses and BP at age 3. Results Mean (SD) estimated weight at 16ā20 weeks was 234 (30) grams and birth weight was 3518 (420) grams. In adjusted models, weight estimated during the second trimester and at birth were associated with higher BMI z-scores at age 3 years (0.32 units [95% C.I. 0.04, 0.60] and 0.53 units [95% C.I. 0.24, 0.81] for the highest v. lowest quartile of weight). Infants with more rapid fetal weight gain and those who remained large from mid-pregnancy to birth had higher BMI z-scores (0.85 units [95% C.I. 0.30, 1.39] and 0.63 units [95% C.I. 0.17, 1.09], respectively) at age 3 than infants who remained small during fetal life. We did not find associations between our main predictors and sum or ratio of subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses or systolic BP. Conclusion More rapid fetal weight gain and persistently high fetal weight during the second half of gestation predicted higher BMI z-score at age 3 years. The rate of fetal weight gain throughout pregnancy may be important for future risk of adiposity in childhood. PMID:22682615
Infrared modified QCD couplings and Bjorken sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandramai, V. L.; Teryaev, O. V.; Gabdrakhmanov, I. R.
2016-02-01
We test the recently proposed āMassiveā Perturbation Theory (MPT) for the description of the Ī1p-n data at low momentum transfers. The MPT constructed on the two grounds: the first is pQCD with only one parameter added, an effective āglueball massā mp ā² Mgl ā² 1 GeV; serving as an infrared āregulatorā the second stems out of the ghost- free Analytic Perturbation Theory comprising non-power perturbative expansion that makes it compatible with linear integral transformations. It is regular in the low-energy region and could serve as a practical means for the analysis of data below 1 GeV up to the IR-limit. We study the non-perturbative Bjorken sum rule higher twists correction by using the MPT, the integral representation for infinite sum of higher twists coefficients and the QCD-inspired model for the Q2-dependence of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule.
Viscosity in dilute Fermi gases: spectral functions and sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit
2010-03-01
Recently there has been considerable interest in the viscosity of strongly interacting systems, especially in regimes where the mean free path is of the order of the interparticle spacing and a quasiparticle description breaks down. We derive exact results for the spectral functions and sum rules for the shear and bulk viscosities, Re ?(?) and Re ?(?), of strongly interacting Fermi and Bose systems. The zero-frequency limits of these functions give the viscosities measured in hydrodynamic damping experiments. For a two-component Fermi gas, we find the exact sum rules &?circ;0d?; Re?(?)/?=?/3-2
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.
CloĆ«t, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-22
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|ā³0.5āāGeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum MonteĀ Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei. PMID:26849589
Mass Dependence of the Entropy Product and Sum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Sijie
2015-03-01
For black holes with multiple horizons, the area product of all horizons has been proven to be mass independent in many cases. Counterexamples were also found in some occasions. In this paper, we first prove a theorem derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics and a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant. With these arguments, we develop some general criteria for the mass independence of the entropy product as well as the entropy sum. In particular, if a d -dimensional spacetime is spherically symmetric and its radial metric function f (r ) is a Laurent series in r with the lowest power -m and the highest power n , we find the criterion is extremely simple: The entropy product is mass independent if and only if m ?d -2 and n ?4 -d . The entropy sum is mass independent if and only if m ?d -2 and n ?2 . Compared to previous works, our method does not require an exact expression of the metric. Our arguments turn out to be useful even for rotating black holes. By applying our theorem and lemma to a Myers-Perry black hole with spacetime dimension d , we show that the entropy product/sum is mass independent for all d >4 , while it is mass dependent only for d =4 , i.e., the Kerr solution.
Direct instantons, topological charge screening, and QCD glueball sum rules
Forkel, Hilmar
2005-03-01
Nonperturbative Wilson coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for the spin-0 glueball correlators are derived and analyzed. A systematic treatment of the direct instanton contributions is given, based on a realistic instanton size distribution and renormalization at the operator scale. In the pseudoscalar channel, topological charge screening is identified as an additional source of (semi-) hard nonperturbative physics. The screening contributions are shown to be vital for consistency with the anomalous axial Ward identity, and previously encountered pathologies (positivity violations and the disappearance of the 0{sup -+} glueball signal) are traced to their neglect. On the basis of the extended OPE, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of eight Borel-moment sum rules in both spin-0 glueball channels is then performed. The nonperturbative OPE coefficients turn out to be indispensable for consistent sum rules and for their reconciliation with the underlying low-energy theorems. The topological short-distance physics strongly affects the sum rule results and reveals a rather diverse pattern of glueball properties. New predictions for the spin-0 glueball masses and decay constants and an estimate of the scalar glueball width are given, and several implications for glueball structure and experimental glueball searches are discussed.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
CloĆ«t, Ian C.; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W.
2016-01-01
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q |ā³0.5 GeV . The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Spine head calcium as a measure of summed postsynaptic activity for driving synaptic plasticity.
Graham, Bruce P; Saudargiene, Ausra; Cobb, Stuart
2014-10-01
We use a computational model of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell to demonstrate that spine head calcium provides an instantaneous readout at each synapse of the postsynaptic weighted sum of all presynaptic activity impinging on the cell. The form of the readout is equivalent to the functions of weighted, summed inputs used in neural network learning rules. Within a dendritic layer, peak spine head calcium levels are either a linear or sigmoidal function of the number of coactive synapses, with nonlinearity depending on the ability of voltage spread in the dendrites to reach calcium spike threshold. This is strongly controlled by the potassium A-type current, with calcium spikes and the consequent sigmoidal increase in peak spine head calcium present only when the A-channel density is low. Other membrane characteristics influence the gain of the relationship between peak calcium and the number of active synapses. In particular, increasing spine neck resistance increases the gain due to increased voltage responses to synaptic input in spine heads. Colocation of stimulated synapses on a single dendritic branch also increases the gain of the response. Input pathways cooperate: CA3 inputs to the proximal apical dendrites can strongly amplify peak calcium levels due to weak EC input to the distal dendrites, but not so strongly vice versa. CA3 inputs to the basal dendrites can boost calcium levels in the proximal apical dendrites, but the relative electrical compactness of the basal dendrites results in the reverse effect being less significant. These results give pointers as to how to better describe the contributions of pre- and postsynaptic activity in the learning "rules" that apply in these cells. The calcium signal is closer in form to the activity measures used in traditional neural network learning rules than to the spike times used in spike-timing-dependent plasticity. PMID:25058697
Informed Test Component Weighting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rudner, Lawrence M.
2001-01-01
Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty ofā¦
Weight Management and Calories
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jianping; Su, Feiran; Wu, Guiling
2014-11-01
Time-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converter (TIPADC) is a promising candidate to process ultra-wideband signals. In a TIPADC, quantization is electrical in order to obtain large effective number of bits (ENOB). In this paper, we study the issues on the signal sampling and reconstruction in the TIPADC from the systematic point of view. The sampling output and frequency response of the system are derived using a model that includes the photonic sampling, demultiplexing, photo detecting, electronic quantizing and digital processing. The signal sampling and reconstruction mechanism of TIPADC with a uniform system sampling rate and matched channels are illuminated with the spectrum of signal in each processing step. The effect of the sampling pulse and back-end electronics on the system frequency response is analyzed in detail. The feasible regions of the system for alias-free sampling in terms of system frequency response, and a set of sampling criteria on bandwidth of the sampling pulse and back-end electronics are presented for the TIPADC. We find that the analog bandwidth of TIPADC can be much higher than the bandwidth of back-end electronics due to the weighted summing introduced by the multichannel time-interleaved photonic sampling. The proposed model and sampling criteria are validated by simulations under different parameter configurations.
Choi, Kihwan; Ng, Alphonsus H C; Fobel, Ryan; Wheeler, Aaron R
2012-01-01
Digital microfluidics (DMF) is an emerging liquid-handling technology that enables individual control over droplets on an open array of electrodes. These picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets, each serving as an isolated vessel for chemical processes, can be made to move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Because of its unique advantages, including simple instrumentation, flexible device geometry, and easy coupling with other technologies, DMF is being applied to a wide range of fields. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of DMF technology from the perspective of analytical chemistry in sections describing the theory of droplet actuation, device fabrication and integration, and applications. PMID:22524226
The developmental evolution of avian digit homology: an update.
Wagner, GĆ¼nter P
2005-11-01
The identity of avian digits has been unresolved since the beginning of evolutionary morphology in the mid-19th century, i.e. as soon as questions of phylogenetic homology have been raised. The main source of concern is the persistent discrepancy between anatomical/paleontological and embryological evidence over the identity of avian digits. In this paper, recent evidence pertaining to the question of avian digit homology is reviewed and the various ideas of how to resolve the disagreement among developmental and phylogenetic evidence are evaluated. Paleontological evidence unequivocally supports the hypothesis that the fully formed digits of maniraptoran theropods are digits DI, DII, and DIII, because the phylogenetic position of Herrerasaurus is resolved, even when hand characters are excluded from the analysis. Regarding the developmental origin of the three digits of the avian hand the discovery of an anterior digit condensation in the limb bud of chickens and ostriches conclusively shows that these three digits are developing from condensations CII, CIII, and CIV. The existence of this additional anterior condensation has been confirmed in four different labs, using four different methods: Alcian blue staining, PNA affinity histochemistry, micro-capillary regression and Sox9 expression. Finally, recent evidence shows that the digit developing from condensation CII has a Hox gene expression pattern that is found in digit DI of mice forelimb and chick hind limbs. The sum of these data supports the idea that digit identity has shifted relative to the location of condensations, known as Frame Shift Hypothesis, such that condensation CII develops into digit DI and condensation CIII develops into digit DII, etc. A review of the literature on the digit identity of the Italian Three-toed Skink or Luscengola (Chalcides chalcides), shows that digit identity frame shifts may not be limited to the bird hand but may be characteristic of "adaptive" digit reduction in amniotes (sensu Steiner, H., Anders, G., 1946. Zur Frage der Entstehung von Rudimenten. Die Reduktion der Gliedmassen von Chalcides tridactylus Laur. Rev. Suisse Zool. 53, 537-546) in general. In this mode of evolution two digits are lost, in the course of the adaptation of the three anterior digits to a function that does not require the two posterior digits. This evidence suggests that the evolution of digits in tetrapods can proceed at least on two distinct levels of integration, the level of digit condensations and that of adult digits. PMID:17046354
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delaigle, Jean-Francois; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Macq, Benoit M. M.
1996-03-01
This paper presents a process able to mark digital pictures with an invisible and undetectable secret information, called the watermark. This process can be the basis of a complete copyright protection system. The process first step consists in producing a secret image. The first part of the secret resides in basic information that forms a binary image. That picture is then frequency modulated. The second part of the secret is precisely the frequencies of the carriers. Both secrets depend on the identity of the copyright owner and on the original picture contents. The obtained picture is called the stamp. The second step consists in modulating the amplitude of the stamp according to a masking criterion stemming from a model of human perception. That too theoretical criterion is corrected by means of morphological tools helping to locate in the picture the places where the criterion is supposed not to match. This is followed by the adaptation of the level of the stamp at that place. The so formed watermark is then added to the original to ensure its protection. That watermarking method allows the detection of watermarked pictures in a stream of digital images, only with the knowledge of the picture owner's secrets.
Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk
Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery
2011-01-01
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informantsā body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601
Luminance channel modulated watermarking of digital images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Chee-Hung H.; Wiltz, Anthony W.
1999-03-01
Digital watermarking of digital images allow authentication of ownership and protection of intellectual property. We consider an algorithm wherein a luminance channel modulated watermark is embedded in the blue channel of a color image. The blue channel image is decomposed via a wavelet transform, and the embedding strength is varied depending on the resolution band. The resolution band weighting improves the algorithms' watermark recovery performance when distortion is introduced due to lossy compression.
Research in digital adaptive flight controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, H.
1976-01-01
A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.
Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss
Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur
2013-01-01
Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity. PMID:24533218
Scanning for Digitization Projects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wentzel, Larry
2007-01-01
Librarians and archivists find themselves facing the prospect of digitization. Everyone is doing it, everyone needs it. Discussions rage nationally and internationally concerning what to digitize and the best means to present and retain digital objects. Digitization is the act of making something digital, expressing a physical object "in numerical
Lossless compression of weight vectors from an adaptive filter
Bredemann, M.V.; Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.
1994-08-01
Techniques for lossless waveform compression can be applied to the transmission of weight vectors from an orbiting satellite. The vectors, which are a part of a hybrid analog/digital adaptive filter, are a representation of the radio frequency background seen by the satellite. An approach is used which treats each adaptive weight as a time-varying waveform.
Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)
Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L.; Smith, Kirk R.
2014-01-01
The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474
3He Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules
Slifer, Karl; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Auerbach, Leonard; Averett, Todd; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Black, Tim; Brash, Edward; Brown, D.; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cates, Gordon; Chai, Zhengwei; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Ciofi, Claudio; Cisbani, Evaristo; De Jager, Cornelis; Deur, Alexandre; DiSalvo, R.; Dieterich, Sonja; Djawotho, Pibero; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Glockle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, Emma; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hersman, F.; Holmes, Richard; Huber, Garth; Hughes, Emlyn; Humensky, Thomas; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jensen, S.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, Mark; Jutier, Christophe; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, Armen; Kominis, Ioannis; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Lakuriqi, Enkeleida; Laveissiere, Geraud; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Malov, Sergey; Marroncle, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mitchell, Joseph; Nogga, Andreas; Pace, Emanuele; Papandreou, Zisis; Pavlin, Tina; Petratos, Gerassimos; Pripstein, David; Prout, David; Ransome, Ronald; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rvachev, Marat; Sabatie, Franck; Saha, Arunava; Salme, Giovanni; SCOPETTA, S.; Skibinski, R.; Souder, Paul; Saito, Teijiro; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Takahashi, Kazunori; Todor, Luminita; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Urciuoli, Guido; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Voskanyan, Hakob; Witala, Henryk; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xiong, Feng; Xu, Wang; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zhang, Bin; Zolnierczuk, Piotr
2008-07-01
We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the \\vec{^3He}(\\vec{e},e')X} reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at four-momentum transfer 0.1 < Q^2< 0.9 GeV^2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt--Cottingham and extended GDH sum rules for the first time. Impulse approximation and exact three-body Faddeev calculations are also compared to the data in the quasielastic region.
The 12 GHZ image and sum enhanced mixer diode converter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degenford, J. E.; Newman, B. A.
1973-01-01
The development, fabrication, and testing of five image and sum frequency enhanced mixed diode converters are discussed. Design specifications include a RF band of 11.7 to 12.2 GHz, an IF band of 1.0 to 1.5 GHz, an IF return loss of 10 db, band center of 6.2 db, band edge of 6.7 db, LO frequency of 10.7 GHz, LO power of 20 dbm, and a conversion gain of 15.8 db. The converter is also capable of 30 db below desired signals for the third order intermodulation product level for twelve -75 dbm carriers.
Spin content of {lambda} in QCD sum rules
Erkol, Gueray; Oka, Makoto
2009-06-01
We calculate the isoscalar axial-vector coupling constants of the {lambda} hyperon using the method of QCD sum rules. A determination of these coupling constants reveals the individual contributions of the u, d, and the s quarks to the spin content of {lambda}. Our results for the light-quark contributions are in agreement with those from experiment assuming flavor SU(3). We also find that the flavor-SU(3)-breaking effects are small and the contributions from the u and the d quarks to the {lambda} polarization are negatively polarized as in the flavor-SU(3) limit.
Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226
Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.
2013-07-01
Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011. A second batch of approximately 500 more drums were measured and analyzed during the following 2 1/2 months. Four different HPGe detectors were employed for the operation. The screening and spectral summing approach can reduce the overall measurement and analysis time required. However, developing the technical details and automation spreadsheets requires a significant amount of expert time prior to beginning field operations and must be considered in the overall project schedule. This approach has continued to be used for characterizing several hundred more empty drums in 2012 and is planned to continue in 2013. (authors)
Role of unphysical solution in nucleon QCD sum rules
Drukarev, E. G.; Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.
2009-07-01
We show that at certain values of QCD condensates the nucleon QCD sum rules with the 'pole+continuum' model for the hadron spectrum obtain an unphysical solution. This provides constraints for the values of condensates to be consistent with the existence of a physical solution. The constraints become much weaker if the radiative corrections are included perturbatively. We demonstrate that the most important dependence of nucleon mass on the quark scalar condensate becomes less pronounced under a factorization assumption for the four-quark and six-quark condensates.
Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahumada, Albert J Jr
2002-01-01
For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.
20 CFR 10.422 - May compensation payments be issued in a lump sum?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... compensation payments be issued in a lump sum? (a) In exercise of the discretion afforded under 5 U.S.C. 8135(a...-sum payments for wage-loss benefits, OWCP will not exercise further discretion in the matter....
20 CFR 10.422 - May compensation payments be issued in a lump sum?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... compensation payments be issued in a lump sum? (a) In exercise of the discretion afforded under 5 U.S.C. 8135(a...-sum payments for wage-loss benefits, OWCP will not exercise further discretion in the matter....
20 CFR 10.422 - May compensation payments be issued in a lump sum?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... compensation payments be issued in a lump sum? (a) In exercise of the discretion afforded under 5 U.S.C. 8135(a...-sum payments for wage-loss benefits, OWCP will not exercise further discretion in the matter....
20 CFR 10.422 - May compensation payments be issued in a lump sum?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... compensation payments be issued in a lump sum? (a) In exercise of the discretion afforded under 5 U.S.C. 8135(a...-sum payments for wage-loss benefits, OWCP will not exercise further discretion in the matter....
Structure-property correlation study through sum-over-state approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, P. K.; Hatua, K.; Bansh, A. K.; Panja, N.; Ghanty, T. K.
2015-01-01
The use of Thomas Kuhn (TK) sum rule in the expanded sum-over-state (SOS) expression of hyperpolarizabilities leads to various relationships between different order of polarizabilities and ground state dipole moment etc.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Kevin Michael
2011-01-01
Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight
... Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) About Adult BMI Adult BMI Calculator Metric Version Ć About Child & Teen BMI Measuring Children's Height and Weight Accurately At Home Child & Teen BMI Calculator Children's BMI Tool for Schools Finding a Balance Other Factors in Weight Gain Preventing Weight Gain ...
... Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) About Adult BMI Adult BMI Calculator Metric Version Ć About Child & Teen BMI Measuring Children's Height and Weight Accurately At Home Child & Teen BMI Calculator Children's BMI Tool for Schools Finding a Balance Other Factors in Weight Gain Preventing Weight Gain ...
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isnāt enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... householdā as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to Ā§ 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... householdā as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to Ā§ 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... householdā as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to Ā§ 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... householdā as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to Ā§ 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment Ā§ 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... householdā as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to Ā§ 234.21 for an explanation...
PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa
2002-01-01
The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shull, T. A. (inventor)
1982-01-01
A digital demodulator for converting pulse code modulated data from phase shift key (PSK) to non return to zero (NRZ) and to biphase data is described. The demodulator is composed of standard integrated logic circuits. The key to the demodulation function is a pair of cross coupled one shot multivibrators and which with a flip-flop produce the NRZ-L is all that is required, the circuitry is greatly simplified and the 2(v) times bit rate contraint can be removed from the carrier. A flip-flop, an OR gate, and AND gate and a binary counter generate the bit rate clock (BTCK) for the NRZ-L. The remainder of the circuitry is for converting the NRZ-L and BTCK into biphase data. The device was designed for use in the space shuttle bay environment measurements.
Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Tanaka, K.L.
1998-01-01
Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.
Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R
2002-06-01
With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a theoretical solution to help overcome many of these difficulties. PMID:12056679
20 CFR 725.521 - Commutation of payments; lump sum awards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
.... (f) In the event that an operator or carrier is adjudicated liable for the payment of benefits, such... determine whether a lump sum award shall be made. Such operator or carrier shall, in the event a lump sum... payments under the Act to the person who has requested such lump-sum award. In the event that an...
Updating Best Practices: Applying On-Screen Reading Strategies to RĆ©sumĆ© Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diaz, Charlsye Smith
2013-01-01
The best practices presented in textbooks and professional publications provide separate guidelines for paper-based and electronic or "scannable" rĆ©sumĆ©s. This article recommends changing these practices so that writers can prepare one rĆ©sumĆ© for both paper and electronic delivery. These recommendations focus on three areas. RĆ©sumĆ©sā¦
5 CFR 550.1205 - Calculating a lump-sum payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculating a lump-sum payment. 550.1205 Section 550.1205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Lump-Sum Payment for Accumulated and Accrued Annual Leave § 550.1205 Calculating a lump-sum payment. (a) An agency...
5 CFR 550.1205 - Calculating a lump-sum payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculating a lump-sum payment. 550.1205 Section 550.1205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Lump-Sum Payment for Accumulated and Accrued Annual Leave § 550.1205 Calculating a lump-sum payment. (a) An agency...
Row-Sum of a Class of M-Bonomial Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, Muniru A.
2011-01-01
Formulae for row-sum of M-bonomial coefficients [image omitted] where G is an mth g-gonal number is developed from a study of the ratio between consecutive terms of the sequence of row-sum. The result generalizes the formula for row-sum of binomial coefficients: [image omitted].
An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.
2008-01-01
Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule
Achiral and Chiral Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Joshua; Wang, Lu; Skinner, James
2013-03-01
In vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, a resonant IR and a non-resonant visible laser pulse are applied to a sample, and a signal is detected at the sum frequency of the pulses. This signal is sensitive to the local environments of interfacial chromophores. For the psp polarization combination (p-polarized SF, s-polarized visible, p-polarized IR), the signal is selectively sensitive to chiral structures. Recently, it was found that peptide secondary structures could be distinguished by the presence of absence of psp signals for the amide I and NH stretch modes. This finding has been exploited to track the aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide at a water/air interface. To facilitate the interpretation of these experiments in terms of detailed structures, we present here a mixed quantum/classical method for the computation of both achiral and chiral SFG spectra for the peptide amide I mode, based on classical molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to model systems, and comment as to the importance of both intrinsic chirality (the presence of atomic chiral centers) and structural chirality (the presence of chiral secondary structure) to the strength of the psp signal. Currently at Stanford University
Connections between chiral Lagrangians and QCD sum-rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fariborz, Amir H.; Pokraka, A.; Steele, T. G.
2016-01-01
In this paper, it is shown how a chiral Lagrangian framework can be used to derive relationships connecting quark-level QCD correlation functions to mesonic-level two-point functions. Crucial ingredients of this connection are scale factor matrices relating each distinct quark-level substructure (e.g.Ā quark-antiquark, four-quark) to its mesonic counterpart. The scale factors and mixing angles are combined into a projection matrix to obtain the physical (hadronic) projection of the QCD correlation function matrix. Such relationships provide a powerful bridge between chiral Lagrangians and QCD sum-rules that are particularly effective in studies of the substructure of light scalar mesons with multiple complicated resonance shapes and substantial underlying mixings. The validity of these connections is demonstrated for the example of the isotriplet a0(980)-a0(1450) system, resulting in an unambiguous determination of the scale factors from the combined inputs of QCD sum-rules and chiral Lagrangians. These scale factors lead to a remarkable agreement between the quark condensates in QCD and the mesonic vacuum expectation values that induce spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in chiral Lagrangians. This concrete example shows a clear sensitivity to the underlying a0-system mixing angle, illustrating the value of this methodology in extensions to more complicated mesonic systems.
Stability of Zero-Sum Games in Evolutionary Game Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin
2014-03-01
Evolutionary game theory has evolved into a successful theoretical concept to study mechanisms that govern the evolution of ecological communities. On a mathematical level, this theory was formalized in the framework of the celebrated replicator equations (REs) and its stochastic generalizations. In our work, we analyze the long-time behavior of the REs for zero-sum games with arbitrarily many strategies, which are generalized versions of the children's game Rock-Paper-Scissors.[1] We demonstrate how to determine the strategies that survive and those that become extinct in the long run. Our results show that extinction of strategies is exponentially fast in generic setups, and that conditions for the survival can be formulated in terms of the Pfaffian of the REs' antisymmetric payoff matrix. Consequences for the stochastic dynamics, which arise in finite populations, are reflected by a generalized scaling law for the extinction time in the vicinity of critical reaction rates. Our findings underline the relevance of zero-sum games as a reference for the analysis of other models in evolutionary game theory.
Extraction of bound-state parameters from dispersive sum rules
Lucha, W.; Melikhov, D. I.; Simula, S.
2010-10-15
The procedure of extracting the ground-state parameters from vacuum-to-vacuum and vacuum-to-hadron correlators within the method of sum rules is considered. The emphasis is laid on the crucial ingredient of this method-the effective continuum threshold. A new algorithm to fix this quantity is proposed and tested. First, a quantum-mechanical potential model which provides the only possibility to probe the reliability and the actual accuracy of this method is used as a study case. In this model, our algorithm is shown to lead to a remarkable improvement of the accuracy of the extracted ground-state parameters compared to the standard procedures adopted in the method and used in all previous applications of dispersive sum rules in QCD. As a next step, it is demonstrated that the procedures of extracting the ground-state decay constant in the potential model and in QCD are quantitatively very close to each other. Therefore, the application of the proposed algorithm in QCD promises a considerable increase of the accuracy of the extracted hadron parameters.
Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces
Ji, Na
2006-02-13
Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.
Birchard, W.G.
1988-06-21
A digital actuator is described comprising: (a) digital actuator cells, each digital actuator cell having an axis of expansion and first and second end surfaces; (b) third connecting means, each for connecting the first end surface of one digital actuator cell to the second end surface of an adjacent actuator cell, the plurality of digital actuator cells being connected in series by respective ones of the third connecting means to form the digital linear actuator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carstens, C. J.
2015-04-01
Randomization of binary matrices has become one of the most important quantitative tools in modern computational biology. The equivalent problem of generating random directed networks with fixed degree sequences has also attracted a lot of attention. However, it is very challenging to generate truly unbiased random matrices with fixed row and column sums. Strona et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 4114 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms5114] introduce the innovative Curveball algorithm and give numerical support for the proposition that it generates truly random matrices. In this paper, we present a rigorous proof of convergence to the uniform distribution. Furthermore, we show the Curveball algorithm must include certain failed trades to ensure uniform sampling.
Carstens, C J
2015-04-01
Randomization of binary matrices has become one of the most important quantitative tools in modern computational biology. The equivalent problem of generating random directed networks with fixed degree sequences has also attracted a lot of attention. However, it is very challenging to generate truly unbiased random matrices with fixed row and column sums. Strona et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 4114 (2014)] introduce the innovative Curveball algorithm and give numerical support for the proposition that it generates truly random matrices. In this paper, we present a rigorous proof of convergence to the uniform distribution. Furthermore, we show the Curveball algorithm must include certain failed trades to ensure uniform sampling. PMID:25974552
High speed digital data correlator having a synchronous pipelined full adder cell array
Brost, A.C.
1990-02-20
This patent describes a high speed digital data correlator for detecting a known correlation word in a serial data stream having a known data rate. It comprises: first means for storing respective bits of the known correlation word, for receiving the serial data stream and a clock signal synchronous therewith; synchronous pipelined single bit full adder cell array means for providing a binary sum indicating a number of bit matches obtained by the first means; and second means for receiving the sum provided by the array means, comparing the sum with a predetermined threshold, and providing a synchronizing output signal when the comparison is obtained.
Matrix error correction for digital data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dotson, Ronald S. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A technique for digital data error detection and correction is disclosed which adds alignment and checksum bytes to three sides of a matrix (24) of digital data to be protected. This technique is particularly used for the recording and storage (16,18) of digital data on video tape medium (14). The digital data is treated as a matrix block (24). Checksum and alignment bytes are added (20) to the digital data before tape storage and stripped (22) therefrom after successful alignment checks and data validation. In particular, the first column may be used to provide alignment bytes of a predetermined value for each row. The last column provides row checksum bytes for the data in each row. The last row provides column check sum bytes for each column, excluding the column of alignment bytes. The data location at the intersection of the row of column checksum bytes and the column of row checksum bytes may be used as a checksum byte for either the row or column checksum bytes.
Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Wan
2012-01-01
In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students
Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Wan
2012-01-01
In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate studentsā¦
Size, weight, and power in electronic payloads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haislet, Donald A.; Wilson, Larry
A Tactical SIGINT System Hardware program developed by ESL, a subsidiary of TRW Avionics and Surveillance Group, is discussed. The program studied the parts of typical systems that have the greatest size, weight, and power leverage, namely, the chassis, circuit-card assemblies, thermal management techniques, and interconnections. Mechanical weight savings were achieved in both chassis and modules due to replacement of aluminum with metal matrix composites. Circuit miniaturization based on multichip modules made it possible to reduce a key digital circuit by 8:1.
Weighted Laplacians, cocycles and recursion relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos
2013-11-01
Hodge's formula represents the gravitational MHV amplitude as the determinant of a minor of a certain matrix. When expanded, this determinant becomes a sum over weighted trees, which is the form of the MHV formula first obtained by Bern, Dixon, Perelstein, Rozowsky and rediscovered by Nguyen, Spradlin, Volovich and Wen. The gravity MHV amplitude satisfies the Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten recursion relation. The main building block of the MHV amplitude, the so-called half-soft function, satisfies a different, Berends-Giele-type recursion relation. We show that all these facts are illustrations to a more general story. We consider a weighted Laplacian for a complete graph of n vertices. The matrix tree theorem states that its diagonal minor determinants are all equal and given by a sum over spanning trees. We show that, for any choice of a cocycle on the graph, the minor determinants satisfy a Berends-Giele as well as Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten type recursion relation. Our proofs are purely combinatorial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Manuel F.; Jorge, Jorge M.
1997-12-01
The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.
1998-01-01
The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.
Structure of supersymmetric sums in multiloop unitarity cuts
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Ita, H.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.
2009-09-15
In this paper we describe algebraic and diagrammatic methods related to the maximally helicity-violating generating function method for evaluating and exposing the structure of supersymmetric sums over the states crossing generalized unitarity cuts of multiloop amplitudes in four dimensions. We focus mainly on cuts of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills amplitudes. We provide various concrete examples, some of which are directly relevant for the calculation of four-loop amplitudes. Additionally, we discuss some cases with less-than-maximal supersymmetry. The results of these constructions carry over to generalized cuts of multiloop supergravity amplitudes through use of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations between gravity and gauge-theory tree amplitudes.
Sparse Zero-Sum Games as Stable Functional Feature Selection
Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier; Rizkalla, Salwa; Clément, Karine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel
2015-01-01
In large-scale systems biology applications, features are structured in hidden functional categories whose predictive power is identical. Feature selection, therefore, can lead not only to a problem with a reduced dimensionality, but also reveal some knowledge on functional classes of variables. In this contribution, we propose a framework based on a sparse zero-sum game which performs a stable functional feature selection. In particular, the approach is based on feature subsets ranking by a thresholding stochastic bandit. We provide a theoretical analysis of the introduced algorithm. We illustrate by experiments on both synthetic and real complex data that the proposed method is competitive from the predictive and stability viewpoints. PMID:26325268
Modified reduced-sum pyramid and one of its implementations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yaohua; Tang, Jinhui; Hao, Li
2012-01-01
Existing image pyramid data structures have certain limitations. Some need much more storage space than original images; some are unable to reconstruct original images accurately; the others result in bad visual qualities. In this paper, a type of modified reduced-sum pyramid (MRSP) is proposed. In such a pyramid, every father-node can be got by adding a certain integer to one of its son-nodes, and the son-node can also be got by subtracting the same integer from the father-node. This integer is calculated using the neighboring nodes of the son-node. This type of pyramid has many possible implementations; they all fulfill the same general formula, but use different approaches to calculate the integer. One implementation, based on the technique of image inpainting, is also presented in this paper. Theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate that the proposed pyramid achieves good performance in precision, storage space and visual quality.
SEU System Analysis: Not Just the Sum of All Parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Single event upset (SEU) analysis of complex systems is challenging. Currently, system SEU analysis is performed by component level partitioning and then either: the most dominant SEU cross-sections (SEUs) are used in system error rate calculations; or the partition SEUs are summed to eventually obtain a system error rate. In many cases, system error rates are overestimated because these methods generally overlook system level derating factors. The problem with overestimating is that it can cause overdesign and consequently negatively affect the following: cost, schedule, functionality, and validation/verification. The scope of this presentation is to discuss the risks involved with our current scheme of SEU analysis for complex systems; and to provide alternative methods for improvement.
Test of Sum Rules in Nucleon Transfer Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffer, J. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Freeman, S. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mitchell, A. J.; Parker, P. D.; Sharp, D. K.; Thomas, J. S.
2012-01-01
The quantitative consistency of nucleon transfer reactions as a probe of the occupancy of valence orbits in nuclei is tested. Neutron-adding, neutron-removal, and proton-adding transfer reactions were measured on the four stable even Ni isotopes, with particular attention to the cross section determinations. The data were analyzed consistently in terms of the distorted wave Born approximation to yield spectroscopic factors. Valence-orbit occupancies were extracted, utilizing the Macfarlane-French sum rules. The deduced occupancies are consistent with the changing number of valence neutrons, as are the vacancies for protons, both at the level of <5%. While there has been some debate regarding the true observability of spectroscopic factors, the present results indicate that empirically they yield self-consistent results.
Moments of Spin Structure Functions: Sum Rules and Polarizabilities
Jian-Ping Chen
2010-10-01
Nucleon structure study is one of the most important research areas in modern physics and has challenged us for decades. Spin has played an essential role and often brought surprises and puzzles to the investigation of the nucleon structure and the strong interaction. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture in the strong region of the interaction and of the transition region from the strong to the asymptotic-free region. Insight for some aspects of the theory for the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Bjorken, Burkhardt-Cottingham, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH), and the generalized GDH). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator-product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers.
Approximating a wavefunction as an unconstrained sum of Slater determinants
Beylkin, Gregory; Perez, Fernando; Mohlenkamp, Martin J.
2008-03-15
The wavefunction for the multiparticle Schroedinger equation is a function of many variables and satisfies an antisymmetry condition, so it is natural to approximate it as a sum of Slater determinants. Many current methods do so, but they impose additional structural constraints on the determinants, such as orthogonality between orbitals or an excitation pattern. We present a method without any such constraints, by which we hope to obtain much more efficient expansions and insight into the inherent structure of the wavefunction. We use an integral formulation of the problem, a Green's function iteration, and a fitting procedure based on the computational paradigm of separated representations. The core procedure is the construction and solution of a matrix-integral system derived from antisymmetric inner products involving the potential operators. We show how to construct and solve this system with computational complexity competitive with current methods.
Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casini, Horacio; TestĆ©, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo
2016-03-01
We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d = 2 and in d > 2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.
Studies of Polymer Surfaces by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhan; Shen, Y. R.; Somorjai, Gabor A.
2002-10-01
Recently, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been developed into a powerful technique to study surfaces of polymer materials. This review summarizes the significant achievements in understanding surface molecular chemical structures of polymer materials obtained by SFG. It reviews in situ detection at the molecular level of surface structures of some common polymers in air, surface segregation of small end groups, polymer surface restructuring in water, and step-wise changed polymer blend surfaces. Studies of surface glass transition and surface structures modified by rubbing, plasma deposition, UV light irradiation, oxygen ion and radical irradiation, and wet etching are also discussed. SFG probing of polymer surfaces provides valuable insights into the relations between polymer surface structures and surface properties, which will assist in the design of polymer materials with desired surface properties.
A probabilistic approach of sum rules for heat polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignat, C.; Lévźque, O.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we show that the sum rules for generalized Hermite polynomials derived by Daboul and Mizrahi (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4470/38/2/010) and by Graczyk and Nowak (2004 C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. 1 338 849) can be interpreted and easily recovered using a probabilistic moment representation of these polynomials. The covariance property of the raising operator of the harmonic oscillator, which is at the origin of the identities proved in Daboul and Mizrahi and the dimension reduction effect expressed in the main result of Graczyk and Nowak are both interpreted in terms of the rotational invariance of the Gaussian distributions. As an application of these results, we uncover a probabilistic moment interpretation of two classical integrals of the Wigner function that involve the associated Laguerre polynomials.
Sum frequency generation using an optical parametric oscillator
Alford, W.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Smith, A.V.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Mead, R.D.
1993-11-01
A number of applications would benefit from sources of tunable coherent ultraviolet (uv) radiation in the 250 to 400 nm range. Among these are uv fluorescence laser detection and ranging (LIDAR). Other applications such as photolithography could use a fixed-frequency solid-state equivalent to excimer lasers. Broad tunability in this wavelength region has generally been accessed by frequency doubling tunable visible or near infrared lasers or by frequency mixing these lasers with the harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. Unfortunately, to cover the full wavelength range requires multiple dye changes and/or multiple nonlinear crystals because of the relatively narrow tuning range of any one laser medium. The use of optical parametric oscillators (OPO`s) with their wide tuning range as a tunable source of near infrared light coupled with a single {beta}-barium borate (BBO) crystal for sum frequency mixing with the Nd:YAG harmonics should yield a convenient alternative to cover this wavelength range. In this paper we demonstrate that an OPO can be efficiently sum frequency mixed with the Nd:YAG harmonics to produce tunable uv radiation in the 250--400 nm range. This is significant because OPO`s generally have poor beam quality which limits their nonlinear conversion in critically phase matched processes. Specifically, we have mixed the 780 nm signal beam from a potassium tytanyl phosphate (KTP) OPO with the second harmonic from a Nd:YAG laser in BBO converting up to 50% of the OPO photons into 316 nm photons. We have also demonstrated the generation of narrow bandwidth 248 nm by mixing 827 nm from the OPO with the third harmonic of the Nd:YAG.
Educational Applications for Digital Cameras.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine
1997-01-01
Discusses uses of digital cameras in education. Highlights include advantages and disadvantages, digital photography assignments and activities, camera features and operation, applications for digital images, accessory equipment, and comparisons between digital cameras and other digitizers. (AEF)
Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider if any are right for you. About 5 to ... whether the cost, side effects, and the small weight loss you can expect are worth it to you. ...
... a healthy eating plan and set realistic weight goals. Do not stop any medicines that may be ... al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc . 2009;109:330-46. ...
... and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies Weāve heard ... that prepregnancy weight and pregnancy weight gain can impact not only pregnancy outcomes for mother and baby, ...
... get us off the hook. How Our Minds Influence Weight Loss Why is it so hard to ... is where counselors (like psychologists or weight-management social workers) can help. They are trained to understand ...
Optimal watermarking of digital hologram of 3-D object.
Kim, Hyun; Lee, Yeon
2005-04-18
The optimum condition for watermarking the digital hologram of a 3-D host object is analyzed. It is shown in the experiment that the digital hologram watermarked with the optimum weighting factor produces the least errors in the reconstructed 3-D host object and the decoded watermark even in the presence of an occlusion attack. PMID:19495183
H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prensky, Marc
2009-01-01
As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky
Digital Breast Imaging Workflow.
Odle, Teresa G
2016-01-01
Most breast imaging programs have replaced film-screen mammography systems with digital mammography. Other breast imaging methods, such as digital breast tomosynthesis, complement the tools available for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer. This article examines digital mammography, other digital breast imaging modalities, and the effects of these technologies on practice, quality, efficiency, and the technologist's role in patient care. PMID:26721854
H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prensky, Marc
2009-01-01
As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prenskyā¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Kevin Michael
2011-01-01
Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weightā¦
... inches (25 centimeters) during puberty before reaching full adult height. Most kids gain weight more rapidly during this ... her weight and height. The BMI formula uses height and weight measurements to ... is the same for adults and children, figuring out what the BMI number ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyer, A., Jr.; Ferrara, P. W.; Luke, H. P.
1969-01-01
Weight Control System, a set of linked computer programs which provides weight and balance reports from magnetic tape files, provides weight control and reporting on launch vehicle programs. With minor format modifications the program is applicable to aerospace, marine, automotive and other land transportation industries.
The Worst-Case Weighted Multi-Objective Game with an Application to Supply Chain Competitions.
Qu, Shaojian; Ji, Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a worst-case weighted approach to the multi-objective n-person non-zero sum game model where each player has more than one competing objective. Our "worst-case weighted multi-objective game" model supposes that each player has a set of weights to its objectives and wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objectives where the maximization is with respect to the set of weights. This new model gives rise to a new Pareto Nash equilibrium concept, which we call "robust-weighted Nash equilibrium". We prove that the robust-weighted Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist even when the weight sets are unbounded. For the worst-case weighted multi-objective game with the weight sets of players all given as polytope, we show that a robust-weighted Nash equilibrium can be obtained by solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). For an application, we illustrate the usefulness of the worst-case weighted multi-objective game to a supply chain risk management problem under demand uncertainty. By the comparison with the existed weighted approach, we show that our method is more robust and can be more efficiently used for the real-world applications. PMID:26820512
The Worst-Case Weighted Multi-Objective Game with an Application to Supply Chain Competitions
Qu, Shaojian; Ji, Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a worst-case weighted approach to the multi-objective n-person non-zero sum game model where each player has more than one competing objective. Our āworst-case weighted multi-objective gameā model supposes that each player has a set of weights to its objectives and wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objectives where the maximization is with respect to the set of weights. This new model gives rise to a new Pareto Nash equilibrium concept, which we call ārobust-weighted Nash equilibriumā. We prove that the robust-weighted Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist even when the weight sets are unbounded. For the worst-case weighted multi-objective game with the weight sets of players all given as polytope, we show that a robust-weighted Nash equilibrium can be obtained by solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). For an application, we illustrate the usefulness of the worst-case weighted multi-objective game to a supply chain risk management problem under demand uncertainty. By the comparison with the existed weighted approach, we show that our method is more robust and can be more efficiently used for the real-world applications. PMID:26820512
Digital second-order phase-locked loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holes, J. K.; Carl, C.; Tegnelia, C. R. (inventors)
1973-01-01
A digital second-order phase-locked loop is disclosed in which a counter driven by a stable clock pulse source is used to generate a reference waveform of the same frequency as an incoming waveform, and to sample the incoming waveform at zero-crossover points. The samples are converted to digital form and accumulated over M cycles, reversing the sign of every second sample. After every M cycles, the accumulated value of samples is hard limited to a value SGN = + or - 1 and multiplied by a value delta sub 1 equal to a number of n sub 1 of fractions of a cycle. An error signal is used to advance or retard the counter according to the sign of the sum by an amount equal to the sum.
Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas
2013-07-01
The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.
Interstitial Digital-Image-Point Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, T. R.
1984-01-01
Resolution of digital imagery increased by calculating estimated values of intensity at coordinate points between original intensity-data points. Calculator implements algorithm that generates such interstitial points using four-by-four array of convolute integer coefficients. Coefficients multiplied by intensities at 16 original image points nearest each interstice to obtain weighted average intensity at each interstice.
Nasiri, Ebrahim; Nasiri, Reza
2013-01-01
Context: Accurate patient weight is an important factor in the emergency and operating room departments. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of estimation of total body weight by legs and head weight measuring and comparison method in the anesthetized patients. Settings and Design: Education of hospitals, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, prospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: This is prospective observational study. Nursing staff were asked to estimated weight that knows about a similar person weight on the operating room and matched together, then told his/her guests. They were measured total body weight before anesthesia and then patient head and legs weight after anesthesia. The main outcome was mean weight of these methods and percent accuracy in weight estimation for each group recorded. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistically used. Results: Overall, 57.3% (243/425) of operating personnel estimations were equal with actual weight. 35.4% (150/425) of the estimations were less 10 kg than the actual weight and only 7.3 (31/425) of the estimations were above 5 kg of actual weight. The accuracy of overall estimations by operating personnel and its comparison to the accuracy of legs weight, head, and sum weight by a similar method is demonstrated. Conclusions: Despite having no formula in the critical intensive care and anesthesia region for estimation anesthetized, for comatose patient weight. We can use this formula, but where possible, should be based on measured weight for drug dose calculation and this is not possible, combination of these formulas is suitable. PMID:25885980
Sumoylation in Aspergillus nidulans: sumO inactivation, overexpression and live-cell imaging
Wong, Koon Ho; Todd, Richard B.; Oakley, Berl R.; Oakley, C. Elizabeth; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.
2014-01-01
Sumoylation, the reversible covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptides has emerged as an important regulator of target protein function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not in Schizosaccharyomes pombe, deletion of the gene encoding SUMO peptides is lethal. We have characterized the SUMO-encoding gene, sumO, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The sumO gene was deleted in a diploid and sumO haploids were recovered. The mutant was viable but exhibited impaired growth, reduced conidiation and self-sterility. Overexpression of epitope-tagged SumO peptides revealed multiple sumoylation targets in A. nidulans and SumO overexpression resulted in greatly increased levels of protein sumoylation without obvious phenotypic consequences. Using five-piece fusion PCR, we generated a gfp-sumO fusion gene expressed from the sumO promoter for live cell imaging of GFP-SumO and GFP-SumO-conjugated proteins. Localisation of GFP-SumO is dynamic, accumulating in punctate spots within the nucleus during interphase, lost at the onset of mitosis and re-accumulating during telophase. PMID:18262811
The calibration status of P-sum mode for XIS on board Suzaku
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohmura, T.; Kawai, K.; Ikeda, S.; Kaneko, K.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Nakajima, H.; Koyama, K.; Tsuru, T. G.; Nobukawa, M.; Dotani, T.; Ozaki, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; Matsuta, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, K.; Uchiyama, H.; Mori, K.; Suzaku XIS Team
2012-03-01
The XIS (X-ray Imaging Spectrometer) on board Suzaku satellite provides two kinds of clocking modes, the Normal and the Parallel-Sum (P-sum) mode. In the P-sum mode, observer can obtain the highest time resolution 8/1024 (~8ms) with XIS. But, the spatial resolution in the Y-direction of the CCD is lost with P-sum mode. Because, in the P-sum mode, the pixel data from multiple rows are summed in the Y-direction on the CCD, and the sum is put in the Pixel RAM as a single row. We have analyzed observed data of E0102-72 which was observed with P-sum mode for calibration purpose have studied the performance of P-sum mode. For seven years after the lunch, we find the gain of both XIS0 and XIS3 p-sum mode data has gradually changed from 3.6eV/ch to 4.2eV/ch. And the energy resolution has also changed from 60eV to 140eV at the energy of NeIX.
Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen
2014-05-01
A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887
Kinetic energy sum spectra in nonmesonic weak decay of hypernuclei
Barbero, Cesar; Galeao, Alfredo P.; Hussein, Mahir S.; Krmpotic, Francisco
2008-10-15
We evaluate the coincidence spectra in the nonmesonic weak decay (NMWD) {lambda}N{yields}nN of {lambda} hypernuclei {sub {lambda}}{sup 4}He, {sub {lambda}}{sup 5}He, {sub {lambda}}{sup 12}C, {sub {lambda}}{sup 16}O, and {sub {lambda}}{sup 28}Si, as a function of the sum of kinetic energies E{sub nN}=E{sub n}+E{sub N} for N=n,p. The strangeness-changing transition potential is described by the one-meson-exchange model, with commonly used parametrization. Two versions of the independent-particle shell model (IPSM) are employed to account for the nuclear structure of the final residual nuclei. They are as follows: (a) IPSM-a, where no correlation, except for the Pauli principle, is taken into account and (b) IPSM-b, where the highly excited hole states are considered to be quasistationary and are described by Breit-Wigner distributions, whose widths are estimated from the experimental data. All np and nn spectra exhibit a series of peaks in the energy interval 110 MeV
Qian, F; Li, G; Ruan, H; Jing, H; Liu, L
1999-09-10
A novel, to our knowledge, two-step digit-set-restricted modified signed-digit (MSD) addition-subtraction algorithm is proposed. With the introduction of the reference digits, the operand words are mapped into an intermediate carry word with all digits restricted to the set {1, 0} and an intermediate sum word with all digits restricted to the set {0, 1}, which can be summed to form the final result without carry generation. The operation can be performed in parallel by use of binary logic. An optical system that utilizes an electron-trapping device is suggested for accomplishing the required binary logic operations. By programming of the illumination of data arrays, any complex logic operations of multiple variables can be realized without additional temporal latency of the intermediate results. This technique has a high space-bandwidth product and signal-to-noise ratio. The main structure can be stacked to construct a compact optoelectronic MSD adder-subtracter. PMID:18324073
Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.
2014-01-01
Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727
Maximum permissible load weight of a Taishuh pony at a trot.
Matsuura, A; Sakuma, S; Irimajiri, M; Hodate, K
2013-08-01
The aim of this study was to determine the loading capacity of a trotting Taishuh pony by gait analysis using a motion analysis system. Seven Taishuh Ponies (5 mares and 2 geldings) and their rider were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) and recorded by 2 high-resolution digital DVD cameras (at a sampling frequency of 60 Hz) as they were trotting along a straight course. Each horse performed 7 tests: 1 test with a loaded weight of 70 kg, 5 tests with random loaded weights between 80 kg and 120 kg, and a final test with a loaded weight of 70 kg again. Three-dimensional movements of each marker were analyzed using motion capture system. The time series of the vertical displacements of the marker was subjected to spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first 2 peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity of the gait, and the sum of symmetry and regularity was defined as stability. The cross-spectrum analysis (Blackman-Tukey method) also was performed to analyze the time lag and cross-correlation coefficient between the time series of both pony and rider. Among ponies, symmetry in the 120 kg test (0.54) was significantly lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.75, P < 0.05) and stabilities in the 100 kg (1.17) and 120 kg (1.17) tests were significantly less than that in the first 70 kg (1.46, P < 0.05). Regarding the rider, there were no significant differences in symmetry, regularity, and stability between loaded weights. The time lag between the time series of horse and rider in the 120 kg test (47.6 ms) was significantly greater than that in the first 70 kg (14.3 ms, P < 0.05) test. These results suggests that the maximum permissible load weight of the Taishuh pony trotting at 3.0 m/s over a short distance was less than 100 kg, which is 43% of the BW. PMID:23736046
Rarefied-continuum gas dynamics transition for SUMS project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Sin-I
1989-01-01
This program is to develop an analytic method for reducing SUMS data for the determination of the undisturbed atmosphere conditions ahead of the shuttle along its descending trajectory. It is divided into an internal flow problem, an external flow problem and their matching conditions. Since the existing method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) failed completely for the internal flow problem, the emphasis is on the internal flow of a highly non-equilibrium, rarefied air through a short tube of a diameter much less than the gaseous mean free path. A two fluid model analysis of this internal flow problem has been developed and studied with typical results illustrated. A computer program for such an analysis and a technical paper published in Lecture Notes in Physics No. 323 (1989) are included as Appendices 3 and 4. A proposal for in situ determination of the surface accommodation coefficients sigma sub t and sigma e is included in Appendix 5 because of their importance in quantitative data reduction. A two fluid formulation for the external flow problem is included as Appendix 6 and a review article for AIAA on Hypersonic propulsion, much dependent on ambient atmospheric density, is also included as Appendix 7.
Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy
Chen, Zhan
2010-01-01
This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334
Rowing and the same-sum problem have their moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrow, John D.
2010-07-01
We consider the optimal positioning of an even number of identical crew members in a coxless racing boat so as to avoid the presence of a sideways wiggle as the boat is propelled forward through the water. We show that the traditional (alternate port and starboard) positioning always possesses an oscillating nonzero transverse moment and associated wiggling motion and that the problem of finding the zero-moment positions is related to a special case of the subset sum problem. We find the one (known) zero-moment rig for a racing Four and show that there are four possible such rigs for a racing Eight, of which only two are known. We show that only balanced boats with crew numbers that are divisible by four can have the zero-moment property and give the 29 zero-moment solutions for racing Twelves, which have zero transverse moments. Some aspects of unbalanced boats in which the numbers of port and starboard oars are unequal are also discussed.
Beyond local group modes in vibrational sum frequency generation.
Chase, Hilary M; Psciuk, Brian T; Strick, Benjamin L; Thomson, Regan J; Batista, Victor S; Geiger, Franz M
2015-04-01
We combine deuterium labeling, density functional theory calculations, and experimental vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy into a form of "counterfactual-enabled molecular spectroscopy" for producing reliable vibrational mode assignments in situations where local group mode approximations are insufficient for spectral interpretation and vibrational mode assignments. We demonstrate the method using trans-?-isoprene epoxydiol (trans-?-IEPOX), a first-generation product of isoprene relevant to atmospheric aerosol formation, and one of its deuterium-labeled isotopologues at the vapor/silica interface. We use our method to determine that the SFG responses that we obtain from trans-?-IEPOX are almost exclusively due to nonlocal modes involving multiple C-H groups oscillating at the same frequency as one vibrational mode. We verify our assignments using deuterium labeling and use DFT calculations to predict SFG spectra of additional isotopologues that have not yet been synthesized. Finally, we use our new insight to provide a viable alternative to molecular orientation analysis methods that rely on local mode approximations in cases where the local mode approximation is not applicable. PMID:25774902
One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences
Kaul, A.; Landfermann, H.; Thieme, M.
1996-11-01
During the week 8-12 April 1996, an international conference summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster after one decade took place in Vienna. Organizers were the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (EC/IAEA/WHO 1996). One of the authors, A. Kaul, presented the outcome of the conference as given below to the IPRA 9 congress which was held in Vienna the following week. Two caveats have to be mentioned here: firstly, only facts actually reported and reviewed at the conference can be accounted for, and, secondly, according to the groundrules of the conference, the deadline for the background papers of the conference was the 9 February 1996, meaning that facts materializing after that time are not covered in this paper. The same applied to information given at the conference that was not properly reviewed and published. Reports, for example, given at the conference on an observed increase of thyroid cancers and leukemia among liquidators and of diabetes mellitus among children are not yet substantiated and are, therefore, not yet recognized as consequences. If corroborated, and it is obvious that all higher exposed groups should be closely monitored in the future, an update on the consequences will have to take this into account. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenblatt, R. E.
2013-10-01
Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant āheavy tailsā were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.
Rational trigonometric approximations using Fourier series partial sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.
1993-01-01
A class of approximations (S(sub N,M)) to a periodic function f which uses the ideas of Pade, or rational function, approximations based on the Fourier series representation of f, rather than on the Taylor series representation of f, is introduced and studied. Each approximation S(sub N,M) is the quotient of a trigonometric polynomial of degree N and a trigonometric polynomial of degree M. The coefficients in these polynomials are determined by requiring that an appropriate number of the Fourier coefficients of S(sub N,M) agree with those of f. Explicit expressions are derived for these coefficients in terms of the Fourier coefficients of f. It is proven that these 'Fourier-Pade' approximations converge point-wise to (f(x(exp +))+f(x(exp -)))/2 more rapidly (in some cases by a factor of 1/k(exp 2M)) than the Fourier series partial sums on which they are based. The approximations are illustrated by several examples and an application to the solution of an initial, boundary value problem for the simple heat equation is presented.
Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.
Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan
2014-05-01
A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085
Background-Free Fourth-Order Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.
Schleeger, Michael; Grechko, Maksim; Bonn, Mischa
2015-06-01
The recently developed 2D sum frequency generation spectroscopy offers new possibilities to analyze the structure and structural dynamics of interfaces in a surface-specific manner. Its implementation, however, has so far remained limited to the pump-probe geometry, with its inherent restrictions. Here we present 2D SFG experiments utilizing a novel noncollinear geometry of four incident laser pulses generating a 2D SFG response, analogous to the triangle geometry applied in bulk-sensitive 2D infrared spectroscopy. This approach allows for background-free measurements of fourth-order nonlinear signals, which is demonstrated by measuring the fourth-order material response from a GaAs (110) surface. The implementation of phase-sensitive detection and broadband excitation pulses allows for both highest possible time resolution and high spectral resolution of the pump axis of a measured 2D SFG spectrum. To reduce the noise in our spectra, we employ a referencing procedure, for which we use noncollinear pathways and individual focusing for the signal and local oscillator beams. The 2D spectra recorded from the GaAs (110) surface show nonzero responses for the real and imaginary component, pointing to contributions from resonant electronic pathways to the ?((4)) response. PMID:26266512
Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena
Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.
Optic Disc Localization in Retinal Images Based on Cumulative Sum Fields.
Soares, Ivo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Pinheiro, Antonio M G
2016-03-01
This paper describes an automatic method for the optic disc localization in retinal images, which is effective and reliable with multiple datasets. Particularly, the described method reveals very effective dealing with retinal images with large pathological signs. The algorithm begins with a new vessel enhancement method based on a modified corner detector. Subsequently, a weighted version of the vessel enhancement is combined with morphological operators, to detect the four main vessels orientations {0(Ā°), 45(Ā°), 90(Ā°), 135(Ā°) }. These four image functions have all the necessary information to determine an initial optic disc localization, resulting in two images that are respectively divided along the vertical or horizontal orientations with different division sizes. Each division is averaged creating a 2-D step function, and a cumulative sum of the different sizes step functions is calculated in the vertical and horizontal orientations, resulting in an initial optic disc position. The final optic disc localization is determined by a vessel convergence algorithm using its two most relevant features; high vasculature convergence and high intensity values. The proposed method was evaluated in eight publicly available datasets, including the STARE and DRIVE datasets. The optic disc was localized correctly in 1752 out of the 1767 retinal images (99.15%) with an average computation time of 18.34 s. PMID:25594989
Weight control in the management of hypertension. World Hypertension League.
1989-01-01
This article, which includes a brief description of the mechanisms and some epidemiological findings in obesity and high blood pressure, sums up present knowledge on a complex subject and provides guidance to medical practitioners on the management of obese hypertensive patients. Weight reduction, together with drug therapy in severe and moderate hypertension, and other non-pharmacological methods and continuing observation in mild hypertension are the essential measures to be applied. In addition to the lowering of blood pressure, weight loss offers several other metabolic and haemodynamic benefits. PMID:2670295
Digital adaptive flight controller development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, H.; Alag, G.; Berry, P.; Kotob, S.
1974-01-01
A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Two designs are described for an example aircraft. Each of these designs uses a weighted least squares procedure to identify parameters defining the dynamics of the aircraft. The two designs differ in the way in which control law parameters are determined. One uses the solution of an optimal linear regulator problem to determine these parameters while the other uses a procedure called single stage optimization. Extensive simulation results and analysis leading to the designs are presented.
Ewald sums for Yukawa potentials in quasi-two-dimensional systems
Mazars, Martial
2007-02-07
In this article, the author derive Ewald sums for Yukawa potential for three-dimensional systems with two-dimensional periodicity. This sums are derived from the Ewald sums for Yukawa potentials with three-dimensional periodicity [G. Salin and J.-M. Caillol, J. Chem. Phys.113, 10459 (2000)] by using the method proposed by Parry for the Coulomb interactions [D. E. Parry, Surf. Sci.49, 433 (1975); 54, 195 (1976)].
Symbolic methods for the evaluation of sum rules of Bessel functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Górska, K.; Penson, K. A.
2013-07-01
The use of the umbral formalism allows a significant simplification of the derivation of sum rules involving products of special functions and polynomials. We rederive in this way known sum rules and addition theorems for Bessel functions. Furthermore, we obtain a set of new closed form sum rules involving various special polynomials and Bessel functions. The examples we consider are relevant for applications ranging from plasma physics to quantum optics.
29 CFR 4050.9 - Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant... CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS MISSING PARTICIPANTS Ā§ 4050.9 Annuity or elective lump sumāliving missing... Ā§ 4050.5(a)(3) (no lump sum) or Ā§ 4050.5(a)(4) (elective lump sum) and who is living on the date as...
Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teryaev, O. V.
2015-04-01
Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.
Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules
Teryaev, O.V.
2015-04-10
Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.
Symbolic methods for the evaluation of sum rules of Bessel functions
Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Górska, K.; Penson, K. A.
2013-07-15
The use of the umbral formalism allows a significant simplification of the derivation of sum rules involving products of special functions and polynomials. We rederive in this way known sum rules and addition theorems for Bessel functions. Furthermore, we obtain a set of new closed form sum rules involving various special polynomials and Bessel functions. The examples we consider are relevant for applications ranging from plasma physics to quantum optics.
Development of the modified sum-peak method and its application.
Ogata, Y; Miyahara, H; Ishihara, M; Ishigure, N; Yamamoto, S; Kojima, S
2016-03-01
As the sum-peak method requires the total count rate as well as the peak count rates and the sum peak count rate, this meets difficulties when a sample contains other radionuclides than the one to be measured. To solve the problem, a new method using solely the peak and the sum peak count rates was developed. The method was theoretically and experimentally confirmed using (60)Co, (22)Na and (134)Cs. We demonstrate that the modified sum-peak method is quite simple and practical and is useful to measure multiple nuclides. PMID:26688359
Polynomial fuzzy observer designs: a sum-of-squares approach.
Tanaka, Kazuo; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Seo, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Motoyasu; Wang, Hua O
2012-10-01
This paper presents a sum-of-squares (SOS) approach to polynomial fuzzy observer designs for three classes of polynomial fuzzy systems. The proposed SOS-based framework provides a number of innovations and improvements over the existing linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based approaches to Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy controller and observer designs. First, we briefly summarize previous results with respect to a polynomial fuzzy system that is a more general representation of the well-known T-S fuzzy system. Next, we propose polynomial fuzzy observers to estimate states in three classes of polynomial fuzzy systems and derive SOS conditions to design polynomial fuzzy controllers and observers. A remarkable feature of the SOS design conditions for the first two classes (Classes I and II) is that they realize the so-called separation principle, i.e., the polynomial fuzzy controller and observer for each class can be separately designed without lack of guaranteeing the stability of the overall control system in addition to converging state-estimation error (via the observer) to zero. Although, for the last class (Class III), the separation principle does not hold, we propose an algorithm to design polynomial fuzzy controller and observer satisfying the stability of the overall control system in addition to converging state-estimation error (via the observer) to zero. All the design conditions in the proposed approach can be represented in terms of SOS and are symbolically and numerically solved via the recently developed SOSTOOLS and a semidefinite-program solver, respectively. To illustrate the validity and applicability of the proposed approach, three design examples are provided. The examples demonstrate the advantages of the SOS-based approaches for the existing LMI approaches to T-S fuzzy observer designs. PMID:22510951
Sigma meson in pole-dominated QCD sum rules
Kojo, Toru; Jido, Daisuke
2008-12-01
The properties of the {sigma} meson are studied using the QCD sum rules for tetraquark operators. In the SU(3) chiral limit, we separately investigate SU(3) singlet and octet tetraquark states as constituents of the {sigma} meson and discuss their roles for the classification of the light scalar nonets {sigma}, f{sub 0}, a{sub 0}, and {kappa} as candidates of tetraquark states. All of our analyses are performed in the suitable Borel window which is indispensable to avoid the pseudopeak artifacts outside of the Borel window. We can set up acceptably wide Borel windows after preparing favorable linear combinations of operators and including the dimension 12 terms in the operator-product expansion. Taking into account the possible large widths, we evaluate masses for singlet and octet states as 700-850 and 600-750 MeV, respectively, although the octet operators have a smaller overlap with the tetraquark states than the singlet case, which requires careful interpretations. The splitting of the singlet and octet states emerges from the number of the qq annihilation diagrams, which include the color singlet annihilation processes qqqq{yields}(qq){sub 1} and the color octet annihilation processes qqqq{yields}G(qq){sub 8}. The mass of the {sigma} meson is evaluated as 600-800 MeV, which is much closer to the experimental value {approx}500 MeV than the mass evaluated by 2-quark correlator analyses, {approx}1.0 GeV. This indicates that the tetraquark state shares a larger fraction in the {sigma} meson than ordinary two quark meson states.
Sum frequency generation spectroscopy of the aqueous interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, Mary Jane; Schnitzer, Cheryl; Simonelli, Danielle; Baldelli, Steve
The liquid interface of aqueous solutions is of central importance to numerous phenomena from cloud processing of combustion generated oxides to corrosion degradation of structural materials to transport across cell membranes. Despite the importance of this interface, little molecular-level information was known about it prior to the last decade-and-a-half. Molecular-level information is important not only for a fundamental understanding of processes at interfaces, but also for predicting methods for diminishing deleterious effects. Recently, the non-linear spectroscopic method, sum frequency generation (SFG), has been applied to the investigation of the structure of the liquid interface. This review focuses on the liquid-air interface of aqueous solutions containing soluble, ionic species - H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, alkali sulphates and bisulphates, NaCl and NaNO3 - as well as soluble molecular species-glycerol, sulphuric acid and ammonia. Ionic materials influence the structure of water at the interface through an electric double layer which arises from the differential distribution of anions and cations near the interface. Due to the extreme size of the proton, the strongest field is generated by acidic materials. As the concentration of these ionic materials increases, ion pairs form diminishing the strength of the double layer. This enables the ion-pair complex to penetrate to the interface and either displace water or bind it into hydrated complexes. Soluble materials of lower surface tension partition to the interface and either displace water from the interface or bind water into hydrated complexes. In particular, the conjectured ammonia-water complex on aqueous solutions is observed and it is determined to tilt 34-38 from the normal.
Sum frequency generation process for a new astronomical instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baudoin, R.; Gomes, J. T.; Delage, L.; Grossard, L.; Ten Brummelar, T. A.; Scott, N. J.; Sturmann, J.; Reynaud, F.
2014-02-01
We propose an exotic use of sum frequency generation process (SFG) to develop a new kind of high resolution interferometer for astronomical imaging. SFG is well known to be intrinsically a noiseless non linear process of upconversion which permits a wavelength shift. Thereby we propose to shift astronomical MIR and FIR radiation to shorter wavelength where optical fibers and optical components are available and efficient. In order to demonstrate the validity of this method for high resolution imaging, we plan to set up a two-arm upconversion interferometer on the CHARA telescope array (California). Each arm would include an upconversion stage at the focus of telescope. The success of such a project is obviously conditioned by the quality of nonlinear components (waveguided PPLN) in term of efficiency and noise biases. Moreover, coherence study requires the use of identical non linear components which implies manufacturing constraints. To ensure the feasibility of this project, several studies have been conducted. By implementing an upconversion interferometer in laboratory we have recently demonstrated our ability to analyze the coherence properties of a 1550nm signal at visible wavelength. We also have successfully converted astronomical light using one arm of this interferometer at the Hawaļ observatory. It showed the capability of our instrument to astronomical observing conditions in photon counting regime. A preliminary mission at CHARA observatory allowed us to check the compatibility of our instrument with the environment onsite and expected photometric levels. From these data we estimate to be able to study the coherence of astronomical target at 1550nm using such an instrument.
Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Baghaei, H.; Cichocki, A.; Blecher, M.; Breuer, M.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Caracappa, A.; Fan, Q.
1995-12-31
Energy weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photo-production cross sections ({sigma}{sub {1/2}} - {sigma}{sub 3/2}) provide information on the nucleon`s Spin-dependent Polarizability ({gamma}), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. (The latter forms the Q{sup 2}=0 limit of recent spin-asymmetry experiments in deep-inelastic lepton-scattering.) There are no direct measurements of {sigma}{sub {1/2}} or {sigma}{sub 3/2}, for either the proton or the neutron. Estimates from current {pi}-photo-production multipole analyses, particularly for the proton-neutron difference, are in good agreement with relativistic-l-loop Chiral calculations ({chi}PT) for {gamma} but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) both the 2-loop corrections to the Spin-Polarizability are large and the existing multipoles are wrong, or (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon. The helicity-dependent photo-reaction amplitudes, for both the proton and the neutron, will be measured at LEGS from pion-threshold to 470 MeV. In these double-polarization experiments, circularly polarized photons from LEGS will be used with SPHICE, a new frozen-spin target consisting of {rvec H} {center_dot} {rvec D} in the solid phase. Reaction channels will be identified in SASY, a large detector array covering about 80% of 4{pi}. A high degree of symmetry in both target and detector will be used to minimize systematic uncertainties.
A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to ... or other changes of the prostate gland. A digital rectal exam may be done to collect stool ...
Method of glitch reduction in DAC with weight redundancy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azarov, Olexiy D.; Murashchenko, Olexander G.; Chernyak, Olexander I.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kashaganova, Gulzhan
2015-12-01
The appearance of glitches in digital-to-analog converters leads to significant limitations of conversion accuracy and speed, which is critical for DAC and limits their usage. This paper researches the possibility of using the redundant positional number system in order to reduce glitches in DAC. There had been described the usage pattern of number systems with fractional digit weights of bits as well as with the whole number weights of bits. Hereafter there had been suggested the algorithm for glitches reduction in the DAC generation mode of incessant analogue signal. There had also been estimated the efficiency of weight redundancy application with further presentation of the most efficient parameters of number systems. The paper describes a block diagram of a low-glitch DAC based on Fibonacci codes. The simulation results prove the feasibility of weight redundancy application and show a significant reduction of glitches in DAC in comparison with the classical binary system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iona, Mario
1975-01-01
Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas
2007-01-01
We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14ā¦
... Weight Control A calorie is a unit of energy. Most foods and beverages contain calories. To lose weight you ... Combine the two for the best results The foods you eat and the beverages you drink provide energy and nutrients. The basic required nutrients are: water, ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Katch, Victor L.
This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculatedā¦
... with age. The secret to maintaining a healthy weight is to balance āenergy inā and āenergy out.ā Energy in means the calories you get from the food and beverages you consume. Energy ... you be to keep a healthy weight? The answer is diļ¬erent for each person, but ...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas
2007-01-01
We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
2014-07-01
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447
Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....
... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...
The sumLINK statistic for genetic linkage analysis in the presence of heterogeneity.
Christensen, G B; Knight, S; Camp, N J
2009-11-01
We present the "sumLINK" statistic--the sum of multipoint LOD scores for the subset of pedigrees with nominally significant linkage evidence at a given locus--as an alternative to common methods to identify susceptibility loci in the presence of heterogeneity. We also suggest the "sumLOD" statistic (the sum of positive multipoint LOD scores) as a companion to the sumLINK. sumLINK analysis identifies genetic regions of extreme consistency across pedigrees without regard to negative evidence from unlinked or uninformative pedigrees. Significance is determined by an innovative permutation procedure based on genome shuffling that randomizes linkage information across pedigrees. This procedure for generating the empirical null distribution may be useful for other linkage-based statistics as well. Using 500 genome-wide analyses of simulated null data, we show that the genome shuffling procedure results in the correct type 1 error rates for both the sumLINK and sumLOD. The power of the statistics was tested using 100 sets of simulated genome-wide data from the alternative hypothesis from GAW13. Finally, we illustrate the statistics in an analysis of 190 aggressive prostate cancer pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics, where we identified a new susceptibility locus. We propose that the sumLINK and sumLOD are ideal for collaborative projects and meta-analyses, as they do not require any sharing of identifiable data between contributing institutions. Further, loci identified with the sumLINK have good potential for gene localization via statistical recombinant mapping, as, by definition, several linked pedigrees contribute to each peak. PMID:19217022
Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescentsā Obesogenic Environment
Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.
2012-01-01
Obesogenic built environments may contribute to excessive eating and obesity. Twenty-three 12- to 17-year-old low-income African American adolescents created digital diaries by photographing their lunchtime food environment in a summer academic program. Digitally depicted foods were classified as appearing on the platescape (studentās or othersā plate) or the tablescape (food buffet). Height, weight, BMI percentile, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated at baseline and week 4. Adolescents digitally depicted high caloric, high fat foods on the platescape and tablescape, particularly adolescents with a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Weight gain during the 4-week program was significantly predicted by the number of calories and the amount of fat content depicted on the studentās plates. Digital diaries, then, can document adolescentsā perspectives of their food environments that promote their overconsumption of high caloric and high fat foods that contribute to weight gain and put them at risk for obesity. PMID:23180882
Weight discrimination and bullying.
Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M
2013-04-01
Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Shu-Chiuan; Shrock, Robert
2010-02-01
We study two weighted graph coloring problems, in which one assigns q colors to the vertices of a graph such that adjacent vertices have different colors, with a vertex weighting w that either disfavors or favors a given color. We exhibit a weighted chromatic polynomial Ph( G, q, w) associated with this problem that generalizes the chromatic polynomial P( G, q). General properties of this polynomial are proved, and illustrative calculations for various families of graphs are presented. We show that the weighted chromatic polynomial is able to distinguish between certain graphs that yield the same chromatic polynomial. We give a general structural formula for Ph( G, q, w) for lattice strip graphs G with periodic longitudinal boundary conditions. The zeros of Ph( G, q, w) in the q and w planes and their accumulation sets in the limit of infinitely many vertices of G are analyzed. Finally, some related weighted graph coloring problems are mentioned.
Digital Literacy. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Ronald
2011-01-01
21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coyle, Karen
2006-01-01
Mass digitization of the bound volumes that we generally call "books" has begun, and, thanks to the interest in Google and all that it does, it is getting widespread media attention. The Open Content Alliance (OCA), a library initiative formed after Google announced its library book digitization project, has brought library digitization projects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny
2008-01-01
As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner
Interactive Digital Signal Processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mish, W. H.
1985-01-01
Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of set of time series analysis "operators" based on various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis. Processing of digital signal time series to extract information usually achieved by applications of number of fairly standard operations. IDSP excellent teaching tool for demonstrating application for time series operators to artificially generated signals.
NEXUS: Digitizing Higher Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirk, Camille
2000-01-01
Discussion of digital technology in the context of higher education planning considers how these technologies change teaching; the digital divide; the costs of information technology; hard wiring the campus; material consequences of information technology; digitally enabled crimes and misdemeanors; and libraries and scholarly publishing. Concludesā¦
Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pangrazio, Luciana
2016-01-01
While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption ofā¦
Buda, A.J.; Delp, E.J.
1985-01-01
This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: The analysis of left ventricular function with digital subtraction angiography; Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve; Clinical application of cardiac CT; Digital two-dimensional echocardiography; and Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart.
Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pangrazio, Luciana
2016-01-01
While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of
Kornai, AndrĆ”s
2013-01-01
Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny
2008-01-01
As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milnerā¦
Changing State Digital Libraries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pappas, Marjorie L.
2006-01-01
Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital
5 CFR 837.306 - Refund of lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refund of lump-sum credit. 837.306 Section 837.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.306 Refund of lump-sum credit. An annuitant serving as a justice or...
Sex Differences in Sum Scores May Be Hard to Interpret: The Importance of Measurement Invariance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slof-Op 't Landt, M. C. T.; van Furth, E. F.; Rebollo-Mesa, I.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Slagboom, P. E.; Boomsma, D. I.; Meulenbelt, I.; Dolan, C. V.
2009-01-01
In most assessment instruments, distinct items are designed to measure a trait, and the sum score of these items serves as an approximation of an individual's trait score. In interpreting group differences with respect to sum scores, the instrument should measure the same underlying trait across groups (e.g., male/female, young/old). Differences
A Comparison of Heuristic Procedures for Minimum within-Cluster Sums of Squares Partitioning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brusco, Michael J.; Steinley, Douglas
2007-01-01
Perhaps the most common criterion for partitioning a data set is the minimization of the within-cluster sums of squared deviation from cluster centroids. Although optimal solution procedures for within-cluster sums of squares (WCSS) partitioning are computationally feasible for small data sets, heuristic procedures are required for most practical
Congruences for a Class of Alternating Lacunary Sums of Binomial Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dilcher, Karl
2007-10-01
An 1876 theorem of Hermite, later extended by Bachmann, gives congruences modulo primes for lacunary sums over the rows of Pascal's triangle. This paper gives an analogous result for alternating sums over a certain class of rows. The proof makes use of properties of certain linear recurrences.
5 CFR 837.305 - Lump-sum credit not reduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lump-sum credit not reduced. 837.305 Section 837.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.305 Lump-sum credit...
Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hersh, Reuben
2012-01-01
By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.
A Comparison of Heuristic Procedures for Minimum within-Cluster Sums of Squares Partitioning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brusco, Michael J.; Steinley, Douglas
2007-01-01
Perhaps the most common criterion for partitioning a data set is the minimization of the within-cluster sums of squared deviation from cluster centroids. Although optimal solution procedures for within-cluster sums of squares (WCSS) partitioning are computationally feasible for small data sets, heuristic procedures are required for most practicalā¦
29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments C Appendix C to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4022, App. C Appendix C to Part 4022Lump Sum Interest Rates...
27 CFR 19.957 - Instructions to compute bond penal sum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions to compute bond penal sum. 19.957 Section 19.957 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Bonds Ā§ 19.957 Instructions to compute bond penal sum. (a) Medium plants. To find the...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-29
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... Control No. 2900- 0060.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life... veteran's Government Insurance policies. If the beneficiary desires monthly installment in lieu of...
29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4022, App. A Appendix A to Part 4022āLump Sum...
Modified Kramers-Kronig relations and sum rules for meromorphic total refractive index
Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Saarinen, Jarkko J.; Vartiainen, Erik M.
2003-08-01
Modified Kramers-Kronig relations and corresponding sum rules are shown to hold for the total refractive index that can be presented as a sum of complex linear and nonlinear refractive indices, respectively. It is suggested that a self-action process, involving the degenerate third-order nonlinear susceptibility, can yield a negative total refractive index at some spectral range.
Exceptional algebraic relations for reciprocal sums of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsner, Carsten; Shimomura, Shun; Shiokawa, Iekata
2011-09-01
We discuss algebraic relations for reciprocal sums of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. For a certain set of 12 such sums, we show that any two numbers are algebraically independent, and that any three are algebraically independent except for those in 22 exceptional triplets. We explicitly present algebraic relations for some of these exceptional cases.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-27
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. ] b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States...
On the Higher Power Sums of Reciprocal Higher-Order Sequences
Zhang, Jin
2014-01-01
Let {un} be a higher-order linear recursive sequence. In this paper, we use the properties of error estimation and the analytic method to study the reciprocal sums of higher power of higher-order sequences. Then we establish several new and interesting identities relating to the infinite and finite sums. PMID:24741351
Digital filter design for radar image formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, John W.; Nelson, Jeffrey E.; Banh, N. D.; Moncada, John J.; Bayma, Robert W.
1989-01-01
Novel weighted-least-squares approaches to the design of digital filters for SAR applications are presented. The filters belong to three different categories according to their combinations of minimax passband, least-squares stopband, minimax stopband, and maximally-flat passband. For real-time applications, it is important to design the sets of digital filter coefficient tables in an offline environment; the appropriate precomputed filter is then selected for each SAR signal-processing function, as a function of both mode and mapping geometry during real-time processing.
Operator-sum representation for bosonic Gaussian channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivan, J. Solomon; Sabapathy, Krishna Kumar; Simon, R.
2011-10-01
Operator-sum or Kraus representations for single-mode bosonic Gaussian channels are developed, and several of their consequences explored. The fact that the two-mode metaplectic operators acting as unitary purification of these channels do not, in their canonical form, mix the position and momentum variables is exploited to present a procedure which applies uniformly to all families in the Holevo classification. In this procedure the Kraus operators of every quantum-limited Gaussian channel can be simply read off from the matrix elements of a corresponding metaplectic operator. Kraus operators are employed to bring out, in the Fock basis, the manner in which the antilinear, unphysical matrix transposition map when accompanied by injection of a threshold classical noise becomes a physical channel, denoted D(Īŗ) in the Holevo classification. The matrix transposition channels D(Īŗ), D(Īŗ-1) turn out to be a dual pair in the sense that their Kraus operators are related by the adjoint operation. The amplifier channel with amplification factor Īŗ and the beam-splitter channel with attenuation factor Īŗ-1 turn out to be mutually dual in the same sense. The action of the quantum-limited attenuator and amplifier channels as simply scaling maps on suitable quasiprobabilities in phase space is examined in the Kraus picture. Consideration of cumulants is used to examine the issue of fixed points. The semigroup property of the amplifier and attenuator families leads in both cases to a Zeno-like effect arising as a consequence of interrupted evolution. In the cases of entanglement-breaking channels a description in terms of rank 1 Kraus operators is shown to emerge quite simply. In contradistinction, it is shown that there is not even one finite rank operator in the entire linear span of Kraus operators of the quantum-limited amplifier or attenuator families, an assertion far stronger than the statement that these are not entanglement breaking channels. A characterization of extremality in terms of Kraus operators, originally due to Choi, is employed to show that all quantum-limited Gaussian channels are extremal. The fact that almost every noisy Gaussian channel can be realized as a product of a pair of quantum-limited channels is used to construct a discrete set of linearly independent Kraus operators for these noisy Gaussian channels, including the classical noise channel, and these Kraus operators have a particularly simple structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottlieb, David; Shu, Chi-Wang
1994-01-01
We continue our investigation of overcoming Gibbs phenomenon, i.e., to obtain exponential accuracy at all points (including at the discontinuities themselves), from the knowledge of a spectral partial sum of a discontinuous but piecewise analytic function. We show that if we are given the first N Gegenbauer expansion coefficients, based on the Gegenbauer polynomials C(sub k)(sup mu)(x) with the weight function (1 - x(exp 2))(exp mu - 1/2) for any constant mu is greater than or equal to 0, of an L(sub 1) function f(x), we can construct an exponentially convergent approximation to the point values of f(x) in any subinterval in which the function is analytic. The proof covers the cases of Chebyshev or Legendre partial sums, which are most common in applications.
Renormalization group summation of Laplace QCD sum rules for scalar gluon currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chishtie, Farrukh; Steele, T. G.; McKeon, D. G. C.
2016-03-01
We employ renormalization group (RG) summation techniques to obtain portions of Laplace QCD sum rules for scalar gluon currents beyond the order to which they have been explicitly calculated. The first two of these sum rules are considered in some detail, and it is shown that they have significantly less dependence on the renormalization scale parameter Ī¼2 once the RG summation is used to extend the perturbative results. Using the sum rules, we then compute the bound on the scalar glueball mass and demonstrate that the 3 and 4-Loop perturbative results form lower and upper bounds to their RG summed counterparts. We further demonstrate improved convergence of the RG summed expressions with respect to perturbative results.
The entropy sum of (A)dS black holes in four and higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wei; Wang, Jia; Meng, Xin-He
2014-11-01
We present the "entropy sum" relation of (A)dS charged black holes in higher-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity, f(R) gravity, Gauss-Bonnet gravity and gauged supergravity. For their "entropy sum" with the necessary effect of the unphysical "virtual" horizon included, we conclude the general results that the cosmological constant dependence and Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant dependence do hold in both the four and six dimensions, while the "entropy sum" is always vanishing in odd dimensions. Furthermore, the "entropy sum" of all horizons is related to the geometry of the horizons in four and six dimensions. In these explicitly four cases, one also finds that the conserved charges M (the mass), Q (the charge from Maxwell field or supergravity) and the parameter a (the angular momentum) play no role in the "entropy sum" relations.
Englberger, L.
1999-01-01
A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662
... that spark physical changes like breast development in girls, testicular enlargement in boys, and spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ...
... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...
Digital rights management for digital cinema
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.
2001-12-01
There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.
Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Clifford
2002-01-01
Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities forā¦
Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Clifford
2002-01-01
Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for
A novel weighted-direction color interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Jin-you; Yang, Jianfeng; Xue, Bin; Liang, Xiaofen; Qi, Yong-hong; Wang, Feng
2013-08-01
A digital camera capture images by covering the sensor surface with a color filter array (CFA), only get a color sample at pixel location. Demosaicking is a process by estimating the missing color components of each pixel to get a full resolution image. In this paper, a new algorithm based on edge adaptive and different weighting factors is proposed. Our method can effectively suppress undesirable artifacts. Experimental results based on Kodak images show that the proposed algorithm obtain higher quality images compared to other methods in numerical and visual aspects.
Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
A Precise Sum Rule among Four B -> K pi CP Asymmetries
Gronau, Michael; /SLAC /Technion
2005-08-29
A sum rule relation is proposed for direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} K{pi} decays. Leading terms are identical in the isospin symmetry limit, while subleading terms are equal in the flavor SU(3) and heavy quark limits. The sum rule predicts A{sub CP}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = -0.17 {+-} 0.06 using current asymmetry measurements for the other three B {yields} K{pi} decays. A violation of the sum rule would be evidence for New Physics in b {yields} s{bar q}q transitions.
Rate and CP-Asymmetry Sum Rules in B to K pi
Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.
2006-08-28
The observed violation of A{sub CP}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = A{sub CP}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) has been recently mentioned as a puzzle for the standard model. They point out that while this violation may be accounted for by a large color-suppressed tree amplitude, a sum rule involving three or four B {yields} K{pi} CP asymmetries should hold. the current experimental status of these sum rules and of a sum rule for B {yields} K{pi} decay rates is presented.
Self-frequency summing in quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity lasers
Ota, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904
2013-12-09
We demonstrate self-frequency summing in photonic crystal nanocavity lasers with quantum dot gain. Two dipole modes and a hexapole mode, supported in the cavity, simultaneously showed lasing oscillation in the near infrared wavelength region under optical carrier injection. Meanwhile, within the same laser cavity, the internally generated three laser fields are up-converted to exhibit sharp visible emission lines via intra-cavity nonlinear frequency summing (and doubling) processes. This self-frequency summing process in active nanocavities will pave the way for developing nanoscale nonlinear optical light sources.
A general relation between sums of cubes and triangular pyramidal numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johari, M. A. M.; Atan, K. A. M.; Sapar, S. H.
2012-05-01
Let ck(m) denote the number of representations of integer m as a sum of k cubes and pk(m) denote the number of representations of integer m as a sum of k triangular pyramidal numbers. We give a relation pk(m) = coddk (Ī½) where Ī½ = 48m - 24n+2Ć±+k and coddk (Ī½) denotes the number of representations of integer Ī½ as a sum of k odd cubes, for a single value of m. A general relation between number of representations between Ī£ki=1 xsi and its associated polytopic numbers for any orders of s, is also given.
?*N ?N*(1520 ) transition form factors in light cone QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliev, T. M.; Savc?, M.
2014-11-01
The ?*N ?N*(1520 ) reaction is studied in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules method. The sum rules for the multipole form factors, namely, for the magnetic dipole GM(Q2), electric quadrupole GE(Q2), and Coulomb quadrupole GC(Q2) [i.e., form factors responsible for the ?*N ?N*(1520 ) transition] are derived. Using these sum rules, the helicity amplitudes are presented as combinations of these multipole form factors, and their Q2 dependences are studied. We compare our results on the helicity amplitudes with those of the spectator model predictions and with the existing experimental data.
Lorcaserin for weight management.
Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason
2013-01-01
Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ā„30 kg/m(2) or ā„27 kg/m(2) with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837
Lorcaserin for weight management
Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason
2013-01-01
Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ā„30 kg/m2 or ā„27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837
MARSANGO, V.; BOLLERO, R.; DOVIDIO, N.; MIRANDA, M.; BOLLERO, P.; BARLATTANI, A.
2014-01-01
SUMMARY Objective. The project presents a clinical case in which the digital work-flow procedure was applied for a prosthetic rehabilitation in natural teeth and implants. Materials. Digital work-flow uses patients photo for the aesthetics planning, digital smile technology for the simulation of the final restoration and real time scanning to register the two arches. Than the scanning are sent to the laboratory that proceed with CAD-CAM production. Results. Digital work-flow offers the opportunities to easily speak with laboratory and patients, gives better clinical results and demonstrated to be a less invasiveness method for the patient. Conclusion. Intra-oral scanner, digital smile design, preview using digital wax-up, CAD-CAM production, are new predictable opportunities for prosthetic team. This work-flow, compared with traditional methods, is faster, more precise and predictable. PMID:25694797
Sum of the Parts: Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics
Milne, Stephen B.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Myers, David S.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Brown, H. Alex
2013-01-01
Metabolomics is a rapidly growing field of research used in the identification and quantification of the small molecule metabolites within an organism, thereby providing insights into cell metabolism and bioenergetics as well as processes important in clinical medicine, such as disposition of pharmaceutical compounds. It offers comprehensive information on thousands of low molecular weight compounds (<1500 Da) that represent a wide range of pathways and intermediary metabolism. Due to its vast expansion in the last two decades mass spectrometry has become an indispensable tool in omic analyses. The use of different ionization techniques such as the more traditional electrospray (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI), as well as recently popular desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), has allowed the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules (e.g. peptides, proteins, lipids and sugars), and their imaging and analysis in the original sample environment in a workup free fashion. An overview of the current state of the methodology is given, as well as examples of application. PMID:23442130
Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.; Bockhorst, Richard M.
2015-02-01
The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).
Digital In, Digital Out: Digital Editing with Firewire.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doyle, Bob; Sauer, Jeff
1997-01-01
Reviews linear and nonlinear digital video (DV) editing equipment and software, using the IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connector. Includes a chart listing specifications and rating eight DV editing systems, reviews two DV still-photo cameras, and previews beta DV products. (PEN)
Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.
2010-01-01
This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to show that age is
Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.
2010-01-01
This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to show that age isā¦
Light weight phosphate cements
Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Natarajan, Ramkumar, (Woodridge, IL); Kahn, David (Miami, FL)
2010-03-09
A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.
Computation of synthetic mammograms with an edge-weighting algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homann, Hanno; Bergner, Frank; Erhard, Klaus
2015-03-01
The promising increase in cancer detection rates1, 2 makes digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) an interesting alternative to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast cancer screening. However, this benefit comes at the cost of an increased average glandular dose in a combined DBT plus FFDM acquisition protocol. Synthetic mammograms, which are computed from the reconstructed tomosynthesis volume data, have demonstrated to be an alternative to a regular FFDM exposure in a DBT plus synthetic 2D reading mode.3 Besides weighted averaging and modified maximum intensity projection (MIP) methods,4, 5 the integration of CAD techniques for computing a weighting function in the forward projection step of the synthetic mammogram generation has been recently proposed.6, 7 In this work, a novel and computationally efficient method is presented based on an edge-retaining algorithm, which directly computes the weighting function by an edge-detection filter.
Digital security technology simplified.
Scaglione, Bernard J
2007-01-01
Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609
Exploring digital professionalism.
Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen
2015-09-01
The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences. PMID:26030375
Experiments in digital literacy.
Eshet-Alkali, Yoram; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair
2004-08-01
Having digital literacy requires more than just the ability to use software or to operate a digital device; it includes a large variety of complex skills such as cognitive, motoric, sociological, and emotional that users need to have in order to use digital environments effectively. A conceptual model that was recently described by the authors suggests that digital literacy comprises five major digital skills: photo-visual skills ("reading" instructions from graphical displays), reproduction skills (utilizing digital reproduction to create new, meaningful materials from preexisting ones), branching skills (constructing knowledge from non-linear, hypertextual navigation), information skills (evaluating the quality and validity of information), and socio-emotional skills (understanding the "rules" that prevail in cyberspace and applying this understanding in online cyberspace communication). The present paper presents results from a performance-based pioneer study that investigated the application of the above digital literacy skills conceptual model among different groups of scholars. Results clearly indicate that the younger participants performed better than the older ones, with photo-visual and branching literacy tasks, whereas the older participants were found to be more literate in reproduction and information literacy tasks. Research results shed light on the cognitive skills that users utilize in performing with digital environments, and provide educators and software developers with helpful guidelines for designing better user-centered digital environments. PMID:15331029
Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography
Goodman, P.C.; Brant-Zawadski, M.
1982-08-01
Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography was performed in 14 patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. In 13 of 14, useful clinical information was obtained. Four patients were found to have pulmonary emboli. In nine patients, digital subtraction angiography was performed through pulmonary artery catheters already in place for monitoring critically ill patients. Conventional angiography in nine patients confirmed the findings by digital angiography. This initial experience suggests that digital subtraction pulmonary angiography provides adequate image quality in certain circumstances with several advantages over conventional angiography.
Xue, Fei; Holtkamp, Irma S.; Knudson, Frances L.
2012-07-31
This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.
Digital Electronic Still Camera
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Samuel D.; Yeates, Herbert D.
1993-01-01
Digital electronic still camera part of electronic recording, processing, tansmitting, and displaying system. Removable hard-disk drive in camera serves as digital electronic equivalent of photographic film. Images viewed, analyzed, or transmitted quickly. Camera takes images of nearly photographic quality and stores them in digital form. Portable, hand-held, battery-powered unit designed for scientific use. Camera used in conjunction with playback unit also serving as transmitting unit if images sent to remote station. Remote station equipped to store, process, and display images. Digital image data encoded with error-correcting code at playback/transmitting unit for error-free transmission to remote station.
Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moopenn, Alexander W. (inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar (inventor); Lambe, John J. (inventor)
1987-01-01
Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of the second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.
Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of said second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.
Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei
2015-07-01
We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.
Forward Compton scattering with weak neutral current: Constraints from sum rules
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Zhang, Xilin
2015-07-01
We generalize forward real Compton amplitude to the case of the interference of the electromagnetic and weak neutral current, formulate a low-energy theorem, relate the new amplitudes to the interference structure functions and obtain a new set of sum rules. We address a possible new sum rule that relates the product of the axial charge and magnetic moment of the nucleon to the 0th moment of the structure function g?(?0). For the dispersive ? ?-box correction to the proton's weak charge, the application of the GDH sum rule allows us to reduce the uncertainty due to resonance contributions by a factor of two. The finite energy sum rule helps addressing the uncertainty in that calculation due to possible duality violations.
Optimal approximations for risk measures of sums of lognormals based on conditional expectations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanduffel, S.; Chen, X.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Henrard, L.; Kaas, R.
2008-11-01
In this paper we investigate the approximations for the distribution function of a sum S of lognormal random variables. These approximations are obtained by considering the conditional expectation E[S|[Lambda
An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums
Giscard, P.-L.; Lui, K.; Thwaite, S. J.; Jaksch, D.
2015-05-15
We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures.
Forward Compton scattering with weak neutral current: Constraints from sum rules
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Zhang, Xilin
2015-06-09
We generalize forward real Compton amplitude to the case of the interference of the electromagnetic and weak neutral current, formulate a low-energy theorem, relate the new amplitudes to the interference structure functions and obtain a new set of sum rules. Furthermore, we address a possible new sum rule that relates the product of the axial charge and magnetic moment of the nucleon to the 0th moment of the structure function g5(?, 0). For the dispersive ? Z-box correction to the protons weak charge, the application of the GDH sum rule allows us to reduce the uncertainty due to resonance contributions by a factor of two. Finally, the finite energy sum rule helps addressing the uncertainty in that calculation due to possible duality violations.
Sum rules and static local-field corrections of electron liquids in two and three dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1984-01-01
The dielectric functions of electron liquids which take into account short-range electron-electron correlations via the static local-field corrections are examined in the light of the frequency-moment sum rules. The formation is given for degenerate as well as classical electron liquids in arbitrary (d) spatial dimensions, which is suitable for comparison between the two- and three-dimensional cases. By using the virial equations of state it is shown that such dielectric functions cannot satisfy the compressibility sum rule and the third-frequency-moment sum rule simultaneously. In the degenerate case, the plasmon, single-pair, and multipair contributions to the sum rules are analyzed, and the reason for this incompatibility is discussed.
A New Proof for Monotone Likelihood for the Sum of Independent Bernoulli Random Variables.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huynh, Huynh
1994-01-01
A new direct and short proof is offered for the monotone likelihood ratio for the sum of independent Bernoulli random variables through use of an inequality by Marcus and Lopes (1957) on elementary symmetric functions. (SLD)
Forward Compton scattering with weak neutral current: Constraints from sum rules
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Zhang, Xilin
2015-07-01
We generalize forward real Compton amplitude to the case of the interference of the electromagnetic and weak neutral current, formulate a low-energy theorem, relate the new amplitudes to the interference structure functions and obtain a new set of sum rules. We address a possible new sum rule that relates the product of the axial charge and magnetic moment of the nucleon to the 0th moment of the structure function g?(?0). For the dispersive ? ?-box correction to the proton's weak charge, the application of the GDH sum rule allows us to reduce the uncertainty due to resonance contributions by amore »factor of two. The finite energy sum rule helps addressing the uncertainty in that calculation due to possible duality violations.« less
MathQCDSR: a Mathematica Package for QCD Sum Rules Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lai; Lee, Frank X.
2010-02-01
We present a software package written in Mathematica for standard QCD sum rules calculations. Two examples are given to demonstrate how to use the package. One is for the mass spectrum of octet baryons from two-point correlation functions; the other for the magnetic moments of octet baryons in the external-field method. The software package FeynCalc is used to handle the gamma-matrix computations. The derived sum rules can be saved in various forms (native Mathematica, JAVA, Fortran, or Latex). Several notebooks are provided to carry out a Monte-Carlo-based numerical analysis of the sum rules, complete with in-line graphical display of sum rule matching, error distributions, scatter plots for correlations, etc. )
Forward Compton scattering with weak neutral current: Constraints from sum rules
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Zhang, Xilin
2015-06-09
We generalize forward real Compton amplitude to the case of the interference of the electromagnetic and weak neutral current, formulate a low-energy theorem, relate the new amplitudes to the interference structure functions and obtain a new set of sum rules. Furthermore, we address a possible new sum rule that relates the product of the axial charge and magnetic moment of the nucleon to the 0th moment of the structure function g5(?, 0). For the dispersive ? Z-box correction to the protons weak charge, the application of the GDH sum rule allows us to reduce the uncertainty due to resonance contributionsmore »by a factor of two. Finally, the finite energy sum rule helps addressing the uncertainty in that calculation due to possible duality violations.« less