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1

A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…

Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

2012-01-01

2

On weighted rank-sum tests for dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Here is proposed a class of two sample non-parametric scale tests (for both the situations, viz., with and without assuming\\u000a the identity of the locations) based on a family of congruent inter-quantile numbers, and their various properties have been\\u000a studied. A class of appropriate weightfunctions has also been proposed here, and the corresponding weighted rank-sum tests\\u000a appear to be asymptotically

P. K. Sen

1963-01-01

3

The parity of the Zeckendorf sum-of-digits function  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  Let s(n) denote the sum of digits of the Zeckendorf representation of n and . The aim of this paper is to discuss the behaviour of $S_{q,i}(N)$. First it is shown that that the values of admit a Gaussian limit law with bounded mean and variance of order log N. Conversely, for q?1 (mostly) has a periodic fractal structure. We

Michael Drmota; Mariusz Ska?ba

2000-01-01

4

An Entropy-Weighted Sum over Non-Perturbative Vacua  

E-print Network

We discuss how, in a Universe restricted to the causal region connected to the observer, General Relativity implies the quantum nature of physical phenomena and directly leads to a string theory scenario, whose dynamics is ruled by a functional that weights all configurations according to their entropy. The most favoured configurations are those of minimal entropy. Along this class of vacua a four-dimensional space-time is automatically selected; when, at large volume, a description of space-time in terms of classical geometry can be recovered, the entropy-weighted sum reduces to the ordinary Feynman's path integral. What arises is a highly predictive scenario, phenomenologically compatible with the experimental observations and measurements, in which everything is determined in terms of the fundamental constants and the age of the Universe, with no room for freely-adjustable parameters. We discuss how this leads to the known spectrum of particles and interactions. Besides the computation of masses and couplings, CKM matrix elements, cosmological constant, expansion parameters of the Universe etc..., all resulting, within the degree of the approximation we used, in agreement with the experimental observations, we also discuss how this scenario passes the tests provided by cosmology and the constraints imposed by the physics of the primordial Universe.

Andrea Gregori

2007-05-08

5

On the time-weighted quadratic sum of linear discrete systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is proposed for obtaining the time-weighted quadratic sum for linear discrete systems. The formula of the weighted quadratic sum is obtained from matrix z-transform formulation. In addition, it is shown that this quadratic sum can be derived in a recursive form for several useful weighted functions. The discussion presented parallels that of MacFarlane (1963) for weighted quadratic integral for linear continuous systems.

Jury, E. I.; Gutman, S.

1975-01-01

6

Optimal methods for calculating classification images: weighted sums.  

PubMed

In signal detection theory, an observer's responses are often modeled as being based on a decision variable obtained by cross-correlating the stimulus with a template, possibly after corruption by external and internal noise. The response classification method estimates an observer's template by measuring the influence of each pixel of external noise on the observer's responses. A map that shows the influence of each pixel is called a classification image. Other authors have shown how to calculate classification images from external noise fields, but the optimal calculation has never been determined, and the quality of the resulting classification images has never been evaluated. Here we derive the optimal weighted sum of noise fields for calculating classification images in several experimental designs, and we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the resulting classification images. Using the expressions for the SNR, we show how to choose experimental parameters, such as the observer's performance level and the external noise power, to obtain classification images with a high SNR. We discuss two-alternative identification experiments in which the stimulus is presented at one or more contrast levels, in which each stimulus is presented twice so that we can estimate the power of the internal noise from the consistency of the observer's responses, and in which the observer rates the confidence of his responses. We illustrate these methods in a series of contrast increment detection experiments. PMID:12678598

Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

2002-01-01

7

A functional MOS transistor featuring gate-level weighted sum and threshold operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional MOS transistor is proposed which works more intelligently than a mere switching device. The functional transistor calculates the weighted sum of all input signals at the gate level, and controls the `on' and `off' of the transistor based on the result of such a weighted sum operation. Since the function is quite analogous to that of biological neurons,

Tadashi Shibata; Tadahiro Ohmi

1992-01-01

8

Four-Digit Numbers Which Are Squared Sums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a very natural way to divide a four-digit number into 2 two-digit numbers. Applying an algorithm to this pair of numbers, determine how often the original four-digit number reappears. (Contains 3 tables.)

Coughlin, Heather; Jue, Brian

2009-01-01

9

Analog-To-Digital Converter For Sum-Of-Squares Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit designed as part of larger circuit intended to measure root-mean-square current on 20-kHz powerline. Provides digital output of 11 bits of data plus 1-bit overflow signal at sampling rate of 4 MHz. Output processed by multiplying-and-accumulating circuitry to obtain sum of squares and digitized current samples accumulated during preset number of consecutive sampling periods. Used to digitize current samples from ADC directly as alternative or auxiliary output. Notable features include low power and fast conversion.

Osborn, Stephen H.; Davies, Bryan L.; Sullender, Craig C.

1993-01-01

10

An Iterative Water-Filling Algorithm for Maximum Weighted Sum-Rate of Gaussian MIMO-BC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the maximization of weighted rate sum in Gaussian multiple-input-multiple-output broadcast channels. This problem is motivated by optimal adaptive resource allocation policies in wireless systems with multiple antenna at the base station. In fact, under random packet arrival and transmission queues, the system stability region is achieved by maximizing a weighted rate sum with suitable weights that depend on

Mari Kobayashi; Giuseppe Caire

2006-01-01

11

Real time soft-partition-based weighted sum filtering with GPU acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently image processing such as noise reduction, restoration, and super-resolution using the soft-partition-based weighted sum filters have shown state-of-the-art results. The partition-based weighted sum filters are spatially adaptive filtering techniques by combining vector quantization and linear finite impulse response filtering, which have been shown to achieve much better results than spatial-invariant filtering methods. However, they are computationally prohibitive for practical applications because of enormous computation involved in both filtering and training. Real-time filtering is impossible even for small image and window sizes. This paper presents fast implementations of the soft-partition-based weighted sum filtering by exploiting the massively parallel processing capabilities of a GPU within the CUDA framework. For the implementations, we focus on memory management and implementation strategies. The performance on various image and window sizes is measured and compared between the GPU-based and CPU-based implementations. The results show that the GPU-based implementations can significantly accelerate computations for the soft-partition-based weighted sum filtering, and make real-time image filtering possible.

Zhang, Shuqun; Furia, Bryan

2014-09-01

12

How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of…

Matthews, William J.

2013-01-01

13

Statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences formed from the sum of maximum-length sequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.

Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.

1973-01-01

14

Orbital M1 versus E2 strength in deformed nuclei: A new energy weighted sum rule  

E-print Network

Within the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson we derive the following linear energy weighted sum rule for low energy orbital 1$^+$ excitations in even-even deformed nuclei $$S_{\\rm LE}^{\\rm lew} (M_1^{\\rm orb}) \\cong (6/5) \\epsilon (B(E2; 0^+_1 \\rightarrow 2_1^+ K=0)/Z e^2^2) \\mu^2_N$$ with B(E2) the E2 strength for the transition from the ground state to the first excited state in the ground state rotational band, $$ the charge r.m.s. radius squared and $\\epsilon$ the binding energy per nucleon in the nuclear ground state. It is shown that this energy weighted sum rule is in good agreement with available experimental data. The sum rule is derived using a simple ansatz for the intrinsic ground state wave function that predicts also high energy 1$^+$ strength at 2$\\hbar \\omega$ carrying 50\\% of the total $m_1$ moment of the orbital M1 operator.

E. Moya de Guerra; L. Zamick

1993-03-16

15

Experimental active structural acoustic control of simply supported plates using a weighted sum of spatial gradients.  

PubMed

A limitation currently facing active structural acoustic control (ASAC) researchers is that an ideal minimization quantity for use in the control algorithms has not been developed. A novel parameter termed the "weighted sum of spatial gradients" (WSSG) was recently developed for use in ASAC and shown to effectively attenuate acoustic radiation from a vibrating flat simply supported plate in computer simulations. This paper extends this research from computer simulations and provides experimental test results. The results presented show that WSSG is a viable control quantity and provides better results than the volume velocity approach. The paper also investigates several of the challenges presented by the use of WSSG. These include determining a method to measure WSSG experimentally, an analysis of the influence of noise on WSSG control results and complications presented when degenerate modes exist. Results are shown and discussed for several experimental configurations. PMID:25373961

Hendricks, Daniel R; Johnson, William R; Sommerfeldt, Scott D; Blotter, Jonathan D

2014-11-01

16

Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.

Jolos, R. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Brentano, P. von [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

2009-04-15

17

Collective excitations and energy-weighted sum rules in relativistic random phase approximation with vacuum polarization  

E-print Network

The isoscalar and isovector collective multipole excitations in stable nuclei are studied in the framework of relativistic random-phase approximation with the vacuum polarization arising from the nucleon-antinucleon field. A fully self-consistent calculation which guarantees the decoupling of the spurious state and the conservation of the multipole-transition current is carried out by using the derivative-expansion method for the description of the vacuum contribution. A remarkable effect of the inclusion of the vacuum polarization is the increase of the effective mass, $m^*/m_N \\sim 0.8$; for all multipole modes, the energy-weighted sum rule values with the vacuum polarization are smaller than those of the relativistic model without the vacuum polarization, which typically has the effective mass $m^*/m_N \\sim 0.6$. Also, the present model can give an excellent agreement with experimental data on the excitation energy, in particular, for the isoscalar quadrupole resonances in which it was previously reported that the calculated energies in the relativistic model are about 1-2 MeV above the experimental values. It is shown, further, that the change of the shell structure due to the inclusion of the vacuum polarization plays an important role in the improvement of the discrepancies seen in the dipole compression modes. On the other hand, the isoscalar monopole resonance has a similar peak whether or not the vacuum polarization is taken into account, if the compression modulus is kept the same in the analysis.

A. Haga; H. Toki; S. Tamenaga; Y. Horikawa

2006-01-15

18

A 155 ? W 88-dB DR discrete-time ?? modulator for digital hearing aids exploiting a summing SAR ADC quantizer.  

PubMed

This paper presents a low-power switched-capacitor ?? modulator for digital hearing-aid applications that features a novel summing successive approximation (SAR). The summing SAR performs multi-bit quantization together with the analog addition required in feed-forward (FF) ?? modulator (??M) topologies, with no attenuation of the input signals and no need for amplifiers. The prototype is implemented in a 0.18- ? m CMOS technology and its measurements demonstrate a dynamic range of 88 dB in 10 kHz bandwidth while consuming 155 ?W from a 1.8 V supply. The combined use of passive addition and SAR quantization reduces the complexity and power consumption of the modulator. The summing SAR ADC quantizer results in a calculated power saving of 40% when compared to a multi-bit FF ??M using active addition and flash quantization. PMID:24232624

Porrazzo, Serena; Morgado, Alonso; San Segundo Bello, David; Cannillo, Francesco; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat; van Roermund, Arthur H M; Cantatore, Eugenio

2013-10-01

19

Accurate displacement measurement via a self-adaptive digital image correlation method based on a weighted ZNSSD criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been increasingly employed to implement surface deformation measurements in many engineering fields. Practically, it has been demonstrated that the choice of subset sizes exerts a strong influence on measurement results of DIC, especially when there exists locally larger deformation over the subsets involved. This paper proposes a novel subpixel registration algorithm with Gaussian windows to implicitly optimize the subset sizes by adjusting the shape of Gaussian windows in a self-adaptive fashion with the aid of a so-called weighted zero-normalized sum-of-squared difference correlation criterion. The feasibility and effectiveness of the self-adaptive algorithm are carefully verified through a set of well-designed synthetic speckle images, which indicates that the presented algorithm is able to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of displacement measurements as compared with the traditional subpixel registration methods.

Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Jianyong; Peng, Xiaoling; Xiong, Chunyang; Fang, Jing; Yuan, Fan

2014-01-01

20

Accuracy of a Digital Weight Scale Relative to the Nintendo Wii in Measuring Limb Load Asymmetry  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry. PMID:25202181

Kumar, NS Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah

2014-01-01

21

Uniqueness of Weighted Code Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimal computers ordinarily use a binary-coded decimal representation. One class of binary-coded decimal digits is the so-called four-bit weighted code representation with weights ¿1 ¿2 ¿3 ¿4. Each ¿i is a nonzero integer in the range ¿9¿¿i¿9, and the set of weights must have the property that every decimal digit can be represented by the sum ¿i=14 bi ¿i, with

G. P. Weeg

1960-01-01

22

Synthesis of Resistive Digital-to-Analog Conversion Ladders for Arbitrary Codes with Fixed Positive Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the realizability of resistive digital-to-analog conversion ladders for arbitrary codes with fixed positive weights. Realizability and synthesis are shown to hinge on the choice of the input admittance. Simple equations are given for purposes of design and several examples are worked out.

M. R. Aaron; S. K. Mitra

1967-01-01

23

Weighted sum-rate maximization for multi-user SIMO multiple access channels in cognitive radio networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, an efficient distributed and parallel algorithm is proposed to maximize the sum-rate and optimize the input distribution policy for the multi-user single input multiple output multiple access channel (MU-SIMO MAC) system with concurrent access within a cognitive radio (CR) network. The single input means that every user has a single antenna and multiple output means that base station(s) has multiple antennas. The main features are: (i) the power distribution for the users is updated by using variable scale factors which effectively and efficiently maximize the objective function at each iteration; (ii) distributed and parallel computation is employed to expedite convergence of the proposed distributed algorithm; and (iii) a novel water-filling with mixed constraints is investigated, and used as a fundamental block of the proposed algorithm. Due to sufficiently exploiting the structure of the proposed model, the proposed algorithm owns fast convergence. Numerical results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective and fast convergent. Using the proposed approach, for the simulated range, the required number of iterations for convergence is two and this number is not sensitive to the increase of the number of users. This feature is quite desirable for large scale systems with dense active users. In addition, it is also worth noting that the proposed algorithm is a monotonic feasible operator to the iteration. Thus, the stop criterion for computation could be easily set up.

He, Peter; Zhao, Lian; Lu, Jianhua

2013-12-01

24

Multiobjective Optimization on Antiplatelet Effects of Three Components Combination by Quantitative Composition-activity Relationship Modeling and Weighted-Sum Method.  

PubMed

Multicomponent therapeutic has become an increasingly favored strategy for treating complex diseases in recent years. In this study, a multiple objective optimization approach was proposed to design the optimal combination of three components for antiplatelet activity. The platelet aggregation assays induced by three different ways, adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, and collagen, were applied to evaluate the in vitro antiplatelet activities of three active components derived from a traditional Chinese medicine. After analyzing this dataset by quantitative composition-activity relationship modeling, a weighted-sum optimization method was adopted to calculate the optimal ratio between three components for antiplatelet effects. Further experiments validated our method and showed that better antiplatelet activity was exerted by the optimized combination than the individual component or other combinations. Our findings suggested that the proposed multiobjective optimization approach is a novel method for multicomponent drug design. PMID:24725674

Huang, Yi; Jiang, Wei; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi

2014-11-01

25

Biomechanical properties and dry weight content of the developing superficial digital flexor tendon in rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition and structural organization of tendon changes during aging and these alterations affect the mechanical behaviors\\u000a of this structure. Therefore, this experiment was designed to study the biomechanical properties together with changes in\\u000a dry weight content of normal superficial digital flexor tendon of rabbits from pre-natal stage to 112 days post-natally. Forty-two\\u000a White New Zealand rabbits were assigned to seven different

A. Oryan; A. H. Shoushtari

2009-01-01

26

Angle Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this applet, students can examine the angles in a triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon or octagon. They can change the shape of the figure by dragging the vertices; the size of each angle is shown and the sum of the interior angles calculated. Students are challenged to find a relationship between the number of sides and the sum of the interior angles.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

27

Extension of weighted sum of gray gas data to mathematical simulation of radiative heat transfer in a boiler with gas-soot media.  

PubMed

In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981

Gharehkhani, Samira; Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman

2014-01-01

28

Extension of Weighted Sum of Gray Gas Data to Mathematical Simulation of Radiative Heat Transfer in a Boiler with Gas-Soot Media  

PubMed Central

In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981

Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz

2014-01-01

29

Optimization of Energy Resolution in the Digital Hadron Calorimeter using Longitudinal Weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics at a future lepton collider requires unprecedented jet energy and dijet mass resolutions. Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been proposed to achieve these. PFAs measure particles in a jet individually with the detector subsystem providing the best resolution. For this to work a calorimeter system with very high granularity is required. A prototype Digital Hadron Calorimeter (the DHCAL) based on the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) technology with a record count of readout channels has been developed, constructed, and exposed to particle beams. In this context, we report on a technique to improve the single hadron energy resolution by applying a set of calibration weights to the individual layers of the calorimeter. This weighting procedure was applied to approximately 1 million events in the energy range up to 60 GeV and shows an improvement in the pion energy resolution. Simulated data is used to verify particle identification techniques and to compare with the data.

Smith, J. R.; Bilki, B.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.

2013-04-01

30

Smoothing of the bispectral density estimate based on digital nonlinear filtering and the Kravchenko weight functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of smoothing of the bispectral density estimate when solving the problems of restoration of signals with an unknown shape in the interference environment and random signal delay are considered for the first time. The performed analysis of statistical characteristics of noise that presents in the bispectrum estimate shows that these statistical characteristics have a rather complex unsteady behavior. An ambiguous selection of a filter optimal by the criterion of the minimum of the root-mean-square error and the minimum of dynamic distortions introduced by the filter seems to be problematic because of the unsteady behavior of counts of the bispectral density estimate and the absence of a priori data on the parameters of the restored signal. Therefore, statistic investigations were performed with the use of linear and nonlinear digital filters with variations of the sliding window sizes. It is shown that the advantages of the proposed approach most pronouncedly manifest themselves with the use of the nonlinear digital filtration and small signal/noise ratios at the input and/or with a small sampling volume of observed implementations. The Kravchenko weight functions are proposed to smooth the bispectrum of the multifrequency signal with a large dynamic range of variations in amplitudes of spectral components. The presented results are of practical interest for use in applications such as radiolocation, hydrolocation, and digital communication.

Zelensky, A. A.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.; Totsky, A. V.

2014-07-01

31

Compact and light-weight digital beam-forming passive millimetre-wave imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper overviews the development of digital beam-forming passive millimetre wave (PMMW) imagers at the frequencies of 22.51 GHz, 91.65 GHz, and 183.31 GHz. These systems are demonstrators for imager architectures that can evolve into security screening products, all weather flying aids, satellite based imagers for planetary observation and test beds for future radio astronomy hardware. These are all areas where the common goal is to develop an imaging capability which is highly sensitive, has good angular resolution and has a minimal volume, typically a factor of 100 smaller than equivalent quasi-optical systems, and minimal weight. This paper describes the science behind electronic beam-forming for passive imaging, the objectives of the project, its risks, and the future of the technology.

Salmon, Neil A.; Beale, John; Hayward, Steve; Hall, Peter; Macpherson, Rod; Metcalfe, Richard; Harvey, Andy

2008-10-01

32

Lucky Sums?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this probability game for two students, each player predicts the sum of the two numbers that will be rolled for each of 12 rolls of a pair of dice and then records his/her predictions on the game sheet. Students play the game and the player whose predictions were the most accurate wins. After the game has been played through once, students are given an opportunity to revise their strategy and play again. Creating a table of theoretical probabilities after the first round of play will help student develop their strategies.

2011-01-01

33

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities

P D Nguyen; A Danda; M Embouazza; M Gazdallah; P Evrard; V Feldheim

2012-01-01

34

Using the root-mean-square detector for weighting of disturbances according to its effect on digital communication services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of finding a new electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurement detector with proper weighting properties for the effect of disturbances on digital communication services is of great importance for the development of future emission standards. We investigate the root-mean-square (RMS) detector as a possible candidate for future emission measurements. This investigation is done for type of disturbances typical for information

Peter F. Stenumgaard

2000-01-01

35

Evaluation of periprosthetic bone cysts in patients with a scandinavian total ankle replacement: weight-bearing conventional digital radiographs versus weight-bearing multiplanar reconstructed fluoroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Periprosthetic bone cysts are a known finding after total ankle replacement (TAR). The significance of cysts is uncertain, but they may threaten the long-term survival of the implant. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of weight-bearing digital radiography compared with 3D weight-bearing multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) fluoroscopic imaging when diagnosing periprosthetic bone cysts in patients who have undergone TAR. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Forty-two consecutive patients with a Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR) were consecutively enrolled and underwent digital radiography and 3D MPR imaging in the same session. All 3D MPR images were interpreted in a blinded fashion, specifically with regard to the presence and extent of periprosthetic bone cysts. Cysts were measured in three planes whenever possible. Interrater and intrarater reliability was assessed by using Cohen kappa test, and comparisons between the two modalities were performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank and McNemar tests. RESULTS. Significantly more cysts were detected on 3D MPR (74 vs 55) (p = 0.03), with the mean size of cysts detected by 3D MPR significantly larger than that of cysts diagnosed on digital radiography (1545 mm(3) vs 253 mm(3)) (p < 0.0001). Statistical analysis based on the presence or absence of cysts in individual patients did not show a significant difference between 3D MPR and digital radiography (p = 0.23). CONCLUSION. The data imply that cysts are better detected and more accurately measured with 3D fluoroscopic MPR imaging compared with digital radiography, which underestimates not only the presence but also the extent of periprosthetic cysts. PMID:25247953

Jensen, Janni; Frøkjær, Johnny; Gerke, Oke; Ludvigsen, Lise; Torfing, Trine

2014-10-01

36

Parameter estimation for multivariate exponential sums  

E-print Network

reconstruct the parameters of an exponential sum h by a novel algorithm, the sparse approximate Prony methodParameter estimation for multivariate exponential sums Daniel Potts Manfred Tasche The recovery of signal parameters from noisy sampled data is an essential problem in digital signal processing

37

Projection-based energy weighting on photon-counting X-ray images in digital subtraction mammography: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.

Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung

2014-03-01

38

Digital combining-weight estimation for broadband sources using maximum-likelihood estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm described for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system is compared with the maximum-likelihood estimate. This provides some improvement in performance, with an increase in computational complexity. However, the maximum-likelihood algorithm is simple enough to allow implementation on a PC-based combining system.

Rodemich, E. R.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

1994-01-01

39

Sums of Consecutive Integers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.

Pong, Wai Yan

2007-01-01

40

A feasibility study of projection-based energy weighting based on a photon-counting detector in contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: A simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.

Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

2014-06-01

41

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

42

Computing prime harmonic sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a method for computing sum_{p le x} 1/p , using time about x^{2/3} and space about x^{1/3} . It is based on the Meissel-Lehmer algorithm for computing the prime-counting function pi(x) , which was adapted and improved by Lagarias, Miller, and Odlyzko. We used this algorithm to determine the first point at which the prime harmonic sum first crosses 4.

Bach, Eric; Klyve, Dominic; Sorenson, Jonathan P.

2009-12-01

43

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1993-08-17

44

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

45

State Sums and Geometry  

E-print Network

In this thesis I review the definition of topological quantum field theories through state sums on triangulated manifolds. I describe the construction of state sum invariants of 3-manifolds from a graphical calculus and show how to evaluate the invariants as boundary amplitudes. I review how to define such a graphical calculus through SU(2) representation theory. I then review various geometricity results for the representation theory of SU(2), Spin(4) and SL(2,C), and define coherent boundary manifolds for state sums based on these representations. I derive the asymptotic geometry of the SU(2) based Ponzano-Regge invariant in three dimensions, and the SU(2) based Ooguri models amplitude in four dimensions. As a corollary to the latter results I derive the asymptotic behaviour of various recently proposed spin foam models motivated from the Plebanski formulation of general relativity. Finally the asymptotic geometry of the SL(2,C) based model is derived.

Frank Hellmann

2011-02-08

46

SUMS calibration test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

Robertson, G.

1982-01-01

47

Influence of graphical weights' interpretation and filtration algorithms on generalization ability of neural networks applied to digit recognition.  

PubMed

In this paper, the method of the graphical interpretation of the single-layer network weights is introduced. It is shown that the network parameters can be converted to the image and their particular elements are the pixels. For this purpose, weight-to-pixel conversion formula is used. Moreover, new weights' modification method is proposed. The weight coefficients are computed on the basis of pixel values for which image filtration algorithms are implemented. The approach is applied to the weights of three types of the models: single-layer network, two-layer backpropagation network and the hybrid network. The performance of the models is then compared on two independent data sets. By means of the experiments, it is presented that the adjustment of the weights to new values decreases test error value compared to the error obtained for initial set of weights. PMID:22997482

Kusy, Maciej; Szczepanski, Damian

2012-10-01

48

CLASSICAL PHOTOABSORPTION SUM RULES  

E-print Network

We use a quantum loop expansion to derive sum rule constraints on polarized photoabsorption cross sections in the Standard Model, generalizing earlier results obtained by Altarelli, Cabibbo, and Maiani. We show that the logarithmic integral of the spin-dependent photoabsorption cross section $\\int^\\infty_{\

Stanley J. Brodsky; Ivan Schmidt

1995-02-28

49

Digital monopulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digitally formed monopulse radar employing dynamic real-time calibration during operation is described. The invention has a transmitter section, timing circuit, RF section, IF section, in-phase and quadrature section and a digital signal processor. A portion of the transmit signal is diverted from the transmitter section for preparation of calibration factors during the calibration period between receive signals. The calibration factors prepared by the digital signal processor are applied by the processor to antenna received signals during the receive mode and to produce the corrected sum and delta pitch, and delta yaw signals and the tracking errors Ey.

Ghaleb, Sam; Stokes, Michael

1994-05-01

50

Summing free unitary random matrices.  

PubMed

I use quaternion free probability calculus--an extension of free probability to non-Hermitian matrices (which is introduced in a succinct but self-contained way)--to derive in the large-size limit the mean densities of the eigenvalues and singular values of sums of independent unitary random matrices, weighted by complex numbers. In the case of circular unitary ensemble summands, I write them in terms of two "master equations," which I then solve and numerically test in four specific cases. I conjecture a finite-size extension of these results, exploiting the complementary error function. I prove a central limit theorem, and its first subleading correction, for independent identically distributed zero-drift unitary random matrices. PMID:21867151

Jarosz, Andrzej

2011-07-01

51

Number Cube Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this calculator activity students complete an experiment on the frequency of sums by rolling two dice fifty times and recording their data. Students record their data in a table using tallies, fractions, decimals, and percent form. Individual data is then compiled into a class chart to identify patterns in data when more trials are conducted. This activity is designed to be completed using the TI-15 Explorer calculator. A PDF of the lesson plan and student sheet is included.

2008-06-09

52

SumAll  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interested in learning about your social media reach? You may want to check out SumAll which is a rather nice way to do just that. After signing up for the free version, visitors will receive a daily digest of their social media influence on over a dozen platforms, including LinkedIn, Twitter, Google+ and others. It's a powerful tool that is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-13

53

Sums of Infinite Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spiral is a curve traced by moving either outward or inward about a fixed point called the pole. A Baravelle Spiral is generated by connecting the midpoints of the successive sides of a regular polygon. Triangles will be formed. The process of identifying and repeatedly connecting the midpoints is called iteration. Mathematically, the Baravelle Spiral is a geometric illustration of a concept basic to the Calculus: The sum of an infinite geometric series - an unbounded set of numbers where each term is related by a common ratio, or multiplier, of "r" - converges to a finite number called a limit when 0 < r < 1. Much time in the Calculus curriculum, and its applications in the sciences, focuses on whether a particular mathematical expression has a limit and thus be highly useful. Historically, one of our oldest mathematical documents, the Rhind Papyrus (ca. 1650 BC), offers a set of data thought to represent a geometric series and possibly an understanding of the formula for finding its sum. In this case, the common ratio of r = 7 is obviously NOT less than 1 and leads to 71+72 +73 + 74 + 75 = 19,607. While not a converging series, as in the case of Baravelle Spirals, we appreciate the early Egyptian fascination with sums of series.

Lai, Robert

2006-01-01

54

R68-17 Synthesis of Resistive Digital-to-Analog Conversion Ladders for Arbitrary Codes with Fixed Positive Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop design equations for switched positive-resistance digital-to-analog converters. The authors state that no synthesis method heretofore has existed for the design of this type of ladder network. The problem to which the paper addresses itself is the following

C. F. Crocker

1968-01-01

55

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

56

Matsubara Frequency Sums  

E-print Network

We cannot use directly the results of zero-temperature at finite temperature, for at finite temperature the average is to be carried over all highly degenerate excited states unlike zero-temperature average is only on unique ground state. One of the formal way to take into account the finite temperature into quantum field theory is due to Matsubara, to replace temporal component of eigenvalues $k_{4}$ by $\\omega_{n}=\\frac{2\\pi n}{\\beta}$ $(\\frac{2\\pi (n+{1/2})}{\\beta})$ with summation over all integer values of $n$. The summation is done with the infinite series expansion of $\\coth (\\pi y)$. With the chemical potential $\\mu$, $\\omega_{n}$ will be replaced by $\\omega_{n} - \\mu$ in the eigenvalues and the summation over $n$ cannot be done easily. Various methods exist to evaluate it. We use the infinite series expansion of $\\coth (\\pi y)$ to work operationally for such Matsubara frequency sums.

Alok Kumar

2010-02-25

57

"Teens Talk Healthy Weight": The Impact of a Motivational Digital Video Disc on Parental Knowledge of Obesity-Related Diseases in an Adolescent Clinic.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a 7-minute educational and motivational weight-management digital video disc (DVD) that uses real patient/parent testimonials and provider-patient interactions, on adolescent and parent knowledge of obesity-related diseases; readiness, motivation, and self-efficacy to lose weight; connectedness to care provider; and likelihood of return to clinic for follow-up care. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 40 overweight/obese adolescent participants (22.5% male, 77.5% female, mean age=15.43 years) and their parents (n=38) who visited a referral-only adolescent clinic for the first time from October 2009 to March 2010. Adolescents were randomly assigned by a research assistant to standard care alone or standard care plus DVD. Standard care (protocol-driven medical and nutritional assessment and counseling) was provided to all adolescents by a registered dietitian nutritionist and physician or nurse practitioner. Adolescents in the intervention group also viewed the DVD. Adolescents and parents completed assessments pre- and post-clinic visit. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to evaluate group differences, while controlling for race/ethnicity and age. Parents who viewed the DVD experienced greater improvements in obesity-related disease knowledge than parents who did not view the DVD. Adolescents in both groups improved on measures of motivation to lose weight and dieting self-efficacy, based on pre and post-test questionnaires. A 7-minute educational and motivational DVD helped improve parent knowledge, but was not more powerful than standard care alone in changing other weight-related outcomes in this adolescent clinic. Because it led to increased parental knowledge, incorporating the DVD into clinical practice could also allow more time for health providers to focus on specific obesity-related treatment/education. Future research might examine whether the DVD has more utility in different settings, such as primary care. PMID:24882205

Windham, Meghan E; Hastings, Elisabeth S; Anding, Roberta; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Wiemann, Constance M

2014-10-01

58

Parameter estimation for exponential sums by approximate Prony method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of signal parameters from noisy sampled data is a fundamental problem in digital signal processing. In this paper, we consider the following spectral analysis problem: Let f be a real-valued sum of complex exponentials. Determine all parameters of f, i.e., all different frequencies, all coefficients, and the number of exponentials from finitely many equispaced sampled data of f.

Daniel Potts; Manfred Tasche

2010-01-01

59

Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.  

PubMed

Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

2013-01-01

60

Recurrence Formulas for Fibonacci Sums  

E-print Network

In this article we present a new recurrence formula for a finite sum involving the Fibonacci sequence. Furthermore, we state an algorithm to compute the sum of a power series related to Fibonacci series, without the use of term-by-term differentiation theorem

Adilson J. V. Brandao; Joao L. Martins

2008-05-18

61

Constrained Sums of Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We study properties of infomorphisms between information systems. In particular, we interpret infomorphisms between information\\u000a systems in terms of sums with constraints (constrained sums, for short) that are some operations on information systems. Applications\\u000a of approximation spaces, used in rough set theory, to study properties of infomorphisms are included.

Andrzej Skowron; Jaroslaw Stepaniuk

2004-01-01

62

Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms  

SciTech Connect

In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria)] [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria); Blümlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

2013-08-15

63

Efficient method for evaluating energy-dependent sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy-dependent sum rules are useful tools in many fields of physics. In nuclear physics, they typically involve an integration of the response function over the nuclear spectrum with a weight function composed of integer powers of the energy. More complicated weight functions are also encountered, e.g., in nuclear polarization corrections of atomic spectra. Using the Lorentz integral transform method and the Lanczos algorithm, we derive a computationally efficient technique for evaluating such sum rules that avoids the explicit calculation of both the continuum states and the response function itself. Our numerical results for electric dipole sum rules of the He4 nucleus with various energy-dependent weights show rapid convergence with respect to the number of Lanczos steps. This demonstrates the usefulness of the method in a variety of electroweak reactions.

Nevo Dinur, N.; Barnea, N.; Ji, C.; Bacca, S.

2014-06-01

64

Summing tree graphs at threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution of the classical field equation generates the sum of all tree graphs. We show that the classical equation reduces to an easily solved ordinary differential equation for certain multiparticle threshold amplitudes and compute these amplitudes.

Brown, Lowell S.

1992-11-01

65

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

66

The vector sum model of pigeon landmark use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments further tested a model of how pigeons use landmarks to find a location. The vector sum model (Cheng, 1988) predicts that when a landmark is shifted in one direction from its usual position, the bird's peak place of search may shift in that direction, but not in the orthogonal direction. The weight placed on a particular landmark is

Ken Cheng

1989-01-01

67

Indefinite hypergeometric sums in MACSYMA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A MACSYMA function is presented which, given the command a sub n = delta g(n) = g(n+1)-g(n), finds g(n), the indefinite sum, within an additive constant, provided that g(n+1)/g(n) is a rational function of n.

Gosper, R. W., Jr.

1977-01-01

68

Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

Thaheem, A. B.

2005-01-01

69

DMT of weighted Parallel Channels: Application to Broadcast Channel  

E-print Network

In a broadcast channel with random packet arrival and transmission queues, the stability of the system is achieved by maximizing a weighted sum rate capacity with suitable weights that depend on the queue size. The weighted sum rate capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) and Zero Forcing (ZF) is asymptotically equivalent to the weighted sum capacity over parallel single-channels. In this paper, we study the Diversity Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the fading broadcast channel under a fixed weighted sum rate capacity constraint. The DMT of both identical and different parallel weighted MISO channels is first derived. Finally, we deduce the DMT of a broadcast channel using DPC and ZF precoders.

Mroueh, Lina; Othman, Ghaya Rekaya-Ben; Belfiore, Jean-Claude

2008-01-01

70

Repeated Reasoning: Products and Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #8âLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning shows a classroom of fourth grade students exploring the relationships between sums and products of numbers when numbers are added to themselves and when they are multiplied by each other. The sum and product of each number is displayed sequentially in an array on grid paper to detect patterns more readily. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # 7-Look for and make use of structures is evident.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

71

Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings  

SciTech Connect

In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

Bardakci, Korkut

2006-02-16

72

Subset sums in abelian groups  

E-print Network

Denoting by Sigma(S) the set of subset sums of a subset S of a finite abelian group G, we prove that |Sigma(S)| >= |S|(|S|+2)/4-1 whenever S is symmetric, |G| is odd and Sigma(S) is aperiodic. Up to an additive constant of 2 this result is best possible, and we obtain the stronger (exact best possible) bound in almost all cases. We prove similar results in the case |G| is even. Our proof requires us to extend a theorem of Olson on the number of subset sums of anti-symmetric subsets S from the case of Z_p to the case of a general finite abelian group. To do so, we adapt Olson's method using a generalisation of Vosper's Theorem proved by Hamidoune and Plagne.

Balandraud, Eric; Griffiths, Simon; Hamidoune, Yahya Ould

2011-01-01

73

The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 ?A (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

2013-03-01

74

PDA+: A Personal Digital Assistant for Obesity Treatment - An RCT testing the use of technology to enhance weight loss treatment for veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obese adults struggle to make the changes necessary to achieve even modest weight loss, though a decrease in weight by as\\u000a little as 10% can have significant health benefits. Failure to meet weight loss goals may in part be associated with barriers\\u000a to obesity treatment. Wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based obesity treatment faces multiple challenges including cost,\\u000a access, and implementing the

Jennifer M Duncan; E Amy Janke; Andrea T Kozak; Megan Roehrig; Stephanie W Russell; H Gene McFadden; Andrew Demott; Alex Pictor; Don Hedeker; Bonnie Spring

2011-01-01

75

Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases.  

PubMed

Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer n as a sum n=?k?kUk, where the digits ?k are taken from a finite alphabet ? and (Uk)k is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with U0=1. The most prominent example of a base sequence (Uk)k is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight ?k|?k| are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices. PMID:22163376

Grabner, Peter J; Steiner, Wolfgang

2011-10-21

76

Digital Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

77

Parameter estimation for exponential sums by approximate Prony method Daniel Potts a , Manfred Tasche b  

E-print Network

Parameter estimation for exponential sums by approximate Prony method Daniel Potts a , Manfred parameters from noisy sampled data is a fundamental problem in digital signal processing. In this paper, we. Determine all parameters of f , i.e., all di#erent frequencies, all coe#cients, and the number

Potts, Daniel

78

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

79

Super-high-efficiency approximate calculation of series sum and discrete Fourier transform  

E-print Network

We present a super-high-efficiency approximate computing scheme for series sum and discrete Fourier transform. The summation of a series sum or a discrete Fourier transform is approximated by summing over part of the terms multiplied by corresponding weights. The calculation is valid for the function under the transform being piecewise smooth in the continuum variable. The scheme reduces significantly the requirement for computer memory storage and enhances the numerical computation efficiency without losing accuracy. By comparing with the known results of examples, we show the accuracy and the efficiency of the scheme. The efficiency can be higher than $10^6$ for the examples.

Xin-Zhong Yan

2013-11-18

80

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings  

SciTech Connect

We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N?1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2013-11-15

81

On the General Dedekind Sums and Two-Term Exponential Sums  

PubMed Central

We use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind hybrid mean value involving the general Dedekind sums and the two-term exponential sums, and give an interesting computational formula for it. PMID:25374933

Zhang, Junli

2014-01-01

82

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

...Ci-1 + Xi ? (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2014-07-01

83

A Dual Decomposition Approach to the Sum Power Gaussian Vector Multiple Access Channel Sum Capacity Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gaussian vector multiple access channel with a sum-power constraint across all users, rather than the usual individual power constraint on each user, has recently been shown to be the dual of a Gaussian vector broadcast channel (1) (2). Further, a numerical algorithm for the sum capacity under the sum power constraint has been proposed in (3). This paper proposes

Wei Yu

2003-01-01

84

Digital Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...

Heather

2008-09-29

85

The use of exp(iS[x]) in the sum over histories  

E-print Network

The use of $\\sum \\exp(iS[x])$ as the generic form for a sum over histories in configuration space is discussed critically and placed in its proper context. The standard derivation of the sum over paths by discretizing the paths is reviewed, and it is shown that the form $\\sum \\exp(iS[x])$ is justified only for Schrodinger-type systems which are at most second order in the momenta. Extending this derivation to the relativistic free particle, the causal Green's function is expressed as a sum over timelike paths, and the Feynman Green's function is expressed both as a sum over paths which only go one way in time and as a sum over paths which move forward and backward in time. The weighting of the paths is shown not to be $\\exp(iS[x])$ in any of these cases. The role of the inner product and the operator ordering of the wave equation in defining the sum over histories is discussed.

Arlen Anderson

1993-08-17

86

SU(3) Sum Rules for Charm Decay  

E-print Network

We present flavor SU(3) sum rules for $D \\to PP$ and $D \\to PV$ decay amplitudes, that are valid to second order in symmetry breaking by the strange quark mass spurion. Decay rate sum rules are also computed to this order. Particular attention is given to sum rules arising from the isospin and U-spin subgroups, the former providing sensitive tests for alternative sources of SU(3) breaking. We apply the latter together with the postulated $\\Delta U = 0$ rule for the large penguin picture to predict the ratio and difference of the direct CP asymmetries for $D \\to KK^*$ and $D \\to \\pi \\rho$.

Grossman, Yuval

2012-01-01

87

Precision digital pulse phase generator  

DOEpatents

A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

88

Precision digital pulse phase generator  

DOEpatents

A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-10-08

89

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums  

SciTech Connect

We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of inhomogeneous drums. •We discuss the extension to higher dimensions. •We discuss the special case of an inhomogeneity only along one direction.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2013-09-15

90

Nuclear magnetic moments and related sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We first review the history and our present understanding of nuclear magnetic moments and Gamow-Teller transitions, with emphasis on the roles of configuration mixing and meson exchange currents. Then we discuss the renormalization of the orbital g-factor in nuclei, and its relation to the E1 sum rule for photoabsorption and the M1 sum rule for the scissors mode of deformed nuclei.

Bentz, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Arima, Akito [Musashi University, 1-26-1 Toyotama-kami, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176-8534 (Japan)

2011-05-06

91

Generalized constructive tree weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

Rivasseau, Vincent; Tanasa, Adrian

2014-04-01

92

Frequency-sum passive cavitation imaging.  

PubMed

Passive cavitation imaging (PCI) is a method for spatially mapping acoustic emissions caused by microbubble activity, including subharmonic and ultraharmonic emissions that denote stable cavitation. The point spread function (PSF) of passive cavitation images is diffraction limited. When typical clinical diagnostic linear arrays are used for PCI, the diffraction limit results in high azimuthal resolution but low axial resolution. Abadi et al. (2013)recently demonstrated a method called frequency-sum beamforming, which employs second-order or higher products of the acoustic emissions to manufacture higher frequencies, thereby reducing the size of the PSF. We applied this approach to cavitation emissions recorded from albumin-shelled bubbles insonified by 2 MHz ultrasound. Cavitation emissions were recorded on a 5 MHz, 128 element linear array using a Vantage scanner (Verasonics Inc.). Quadratic and fourth-order frequency-sum beamforming was applied to both harmonic and ultraharmonic cavitation emissions. Corresponding simulations were also performed to illustrate frequency-sum passive cavitation imaging of multiple bubbles. In comparison to delay-and-sum PCI, apparent areas of cavitation activity decreased when products of the emissions were used to perform frequency-sum beamforming. However, frequency-sum beamforming also produced artifacts, including the appearance of spurious emission sources. PMID:25235673

Haworth, Kevin J; Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Mast, T Douglas

2014-04-01

93

Weight set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-11

94

Learning to Predict Physical Properties Using Sums of Separable Functions  

SciTech Connect

We present an algorithm for learning the function that maps a material structure to its value on some property, given the value of this function on several structures. We pose this problem as one of learning (regressing) a function of many variables from scattered data. Each structure is first converted to a weighted set of points by a process that removes irrelevant translations and rotations but otherwise retains full information about the structure. Then, incorporating a weighted average for each structure, we construct the multivariate regression function as a sum of separable functions, following the paradigm of separated representations. The algorithm can treat all finite and periodic structures within a common framework, and in particular does not require all structures to lie on a common lattice. We show how the algorithm simplifies when the structures do lie on a common lattice, and we present numerical results for that case.

D'Avezac, M.; Botts, R.; Mohlenkamp, M. J.; Zunger, A.

2011-01-01

95

Moduli spaces of weighted pointed stable curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weighted pointed curve consists of a nodal curve and a sequence of marked smooth points, each assigned a number between zero and one. A subset of the marked points may coincide if the sum of the corresponding weights is no greater than one. We construct moduli spaces for these objects using methods of the log minimal model program, and

Brendan Hassett

2002-01-01

96

Moduli spaces of weighted pointed stable curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weighted pointed curve consists of a nodal curve and a sequence of marked smooth points, each assigned a number between zero and one. A subset of the marked points may coincide if the sum of the corresponding weights is no greater than one. We construct moduli spaces for these objects using methods of the log minimal model program, and

Brendan Hassett

2003-01-01

97

Weinberg sum rules at finite temperature  

E-print Network

The saturation of the two Weinberg sum rules is studied at finite temperature, using recent independent QCD sum rule results for the thermal behaviour of hadronic parameters in the vector and axial-vector channels. Both sum rules are very well satisfied from $T=0$ up to $T/T_c \\simeq 0.7-0.8$. At higher temperatures close to $T_c$ a hadronic, pion-loop contribution in the space-like region proportional to $T^2$, present at leading order in the vector but not in the axial-vector channel, induces an asymmetry leading to a small deviation. In this region, though, QCD sum rules for the hadronic parameters begin to have no solutions, as the hadronic widths of the $\\rho$ and the $a_1$ mesons diverge signalling deconfinement. Close to, and at $T=T_c$ there are no pions left in the medium and chiral symmetry is restored, so that the sum rules are trivially satisfied.

A. Ayala; C. A. Dominguez; M. Loewe; Y. Zhang

2014-05-09

98

Randomly stopped sums: models and psychological applications  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as “life distributions” such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets.

Smithson, Michael; Shou, Yiyun

2014-01-01

99

Digital materials for digital fabrication  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces digital materials by analogy with digital computation and digital communications. Traditional fabrication techniques include pick-and-place, roll-to-roll, molding, patterning and more. Current research ...

Popescu, George A

2007-01-01

100

Distributed Weight Balancing over Digraphs Apostolos I. Rikos, Member, IEEE, Themistoklis Charalambous, Member, IEEE, and  

E-print Network

Distributed Weight Balancing over Digraphs Apostolos I. Rikos, Member, IEEE, Themistoklis Charalambous, Member, IEEE, and Christoforos N. Hadjicostis, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract A weighted digraph is balanced if, for each node, the sum of the weights of the edges outgoing from that node is equal to the sum

Hadjicostis, Christoforos

101

Coincidence summing corrections applied to volume sources.  

PubMed

The numerical calculation of coincidence summing corrections requires both the total and full-energy peak efficiencies to be included in the corrective factors. Moreover, in the case of volume sources, the coincidence probability depends on the position of the photon emission inside the radioactive sample, thus it is necessary to calculate the coincidence summing corrective factors by integrating the elemental contributions for the entire volume. The software ETNA calculates coincidence summing corrective factors according to a deterministic method, for volume sources, two approaches are included in the software: the "simplified" calculation uses directly the efficiency of the volume source like in the case of point source, and the "complete" calculation performs the volume integration. To assess the difference between these, different geometrical cases are tested for several radionuclides using both methods. PMID:22410298

Lépy, Marie-Christine; Ferreux, Laurent; Pierre, Sylvie

2012-09-01

102

Diquarks: A QCD sum rule perspective  

SciTech Connect

We propose a phenomenological QCD sum rule with an explicit diquark field to investigate the essential ingredients inside the hadrons. By introducing the mass m{sub {phi}} and the condensate <{phi}{sup 2}> for the diquark field as parameters in the model, we find that the sum rule works well for {Lambda}, {Lambda}{sub c}, and {Lambda}{sub b}. This implies that these {Lambda} baryons can be represented by a diquark and a quark configuration. We also find that there is a duality relation among the parameters (m{sub {phi},}<{phi}{sup 2}>) for which the sum rule is equally good. In the limit when <{phi}{sup 2}>=0, we find m{sub {phi}=}400 MeV, which can be thought of as the constituent diquark mass.

Kim, Kyungil; Lee, Su Houng [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jido, Daisuke [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2011-08-15

103

One View of the Gdh Sum Rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This year is the fiftieth anniversary of the origins of the GDH sum rule. The rule can be traced back to work on dispersion relations for Compton scattering in the 1950's, and can be inferred under certain conditions from a paper by Gell-Mann, Goldberger and Thirring in 1954, among others. In this talk the author will describe how Compton scattering dominated his work in physics since 1959. This work involved not only the sum rule, but also his Ph.D. thesis and several related papers. It was also a catalyst for his career change from physics to computer science in the early 1970's.

Hearn, A.

2005-02-01

104

Digital Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

Yakel, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

105

Digital printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital

Werner K. Sobotka

1997-01-01

106

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

107

Popular weight reduction diets.  

PubMed

The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

Volpe, Stella Lucia

2006-01-01

108

Nonlinear approximation by sums of nonincreasing exponentials  

E-print Network

Prony method (APM) which is based on [2]. In contrast to [2], we apply perturbation theory as regularization parameter. The first part of APM recovers the exponents. The second part computes the co­ e words and phrases: nonlinear approximation, exponential sum, approxi­ mate Prony method, singular value

Potts, Daniel

109

QCD sum rules and the MIT bag  

SciTech Connect

The QCD Sum Rules provide a theoretical method to compute the resonance masses of hadrons in terms of QCD parameters and a number of vacuum matrix elements like the quark and gluon condensates. But this method when analyzed in terms of a nonrelativistic potential model for charmonium has produced some considerable criticism. Also the MIT Bag has been a very successful resonance model for low lying hadrons. In order to examine the sum rule methodology and its criticism, a sum rule procedure for the MIT Bag is developed. The photon polarization operator in the Bag model is calculated using a prescription to remove the center of mass degrees of freedom. The SVZ moments are computed and the prediction of the ground state of charmonium is explored. In order to introduce confinement perturbatively, the multiple reflection expansion (MRE) of quark propagator is used and the resulting behavior of SVZ moments is studied. This investigation is also carried out in the case of exponential moments. The nonrelativistic expansion of these moments is also developed. The criticism of QCD sum rule approach is analyzed in this context. The analysis supports the validity of the criticism.

Gounder, K.N.

1988-01-01

110

Preprocessing minpaths for sum of disjoint products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, Network reliability algorithms which produce sums of disjoint products (SDP) are sensitive to the order in which the minimal pathsets are analyzed. The minpaths are preprocessed by choosing this order in the hope that an SDP algorithm will then provide a relatively efficient analysis. The most commonly used preprocessing strategy is to list the minpaths in order of increasing

Alexandru O. Balan; Lorenzo Traldi

2003-01-01

111

CUMULATIVE SUM TECHNIQUES IN ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CUMULATIVE SUM TECHNIQUES IN ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT R. A. Vesilo School of MPCE, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 AUSTRALIA Abstract Effective ATM traffic management re­ quires knowledge of when traffic parameter estima­ tion and serial correlation. 1 Introduction ATM traffic management involves monitoring

Vesilo, Rein

112

Generalized Sum Rules of the Nucleon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider doubly virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon with the photon virtualities q1^2=q2^2=-Q^2 and formulate the low energy theorem (LET) for this process. We show that the LET can only be defined at finite momentum transfer t=-2Q^2 which is at variance with existing studies in the literature. Combining LET with dispersion relations for the forward VVCS amplitude, we obtain the new, correct version of the generalized sum rules of the nucleon that state a correspondence between the low energy constants of VVCS and the moments of the DIS structure functions. We notice that the t-channel unitarity is necessary to translate the forward dispersion relations to the low energy limit. This approach leads to a substantial modification of the generalized GDH sum rule at finite Q^2 that undergoes extensive studies at JLab. For the spin-independent VVCS amplitude, the new sum rule for the generalized magnetic susceptibility ?(Q^2) is obtained. Our approach provides a consistent, Lorentz invariant formulation of LET for the most general VVCS process that removes inconsistencies that stain the previous studies of the generalized polarizabilities of virtual Compton scattering and the generalized sum rules of the nucleon.

Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam

2008-10-01

113

On the sum of generalized Fibonacci sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the generalized Fibonacci sequence {Un defined by U0 = 0, U1 = 1, and Un+2 = pUn+1+qUn for all n?Z0+ and p, q?Z+. In this paper, we derived various sums of the generalized Fibonacci sequence from their recursive relations.

Chong, Chin-Yoon; Ho, C. K.

2014-06-01

114

Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.

Spivey, Michael

2006-01-01

115

An Octonionic Geometric (Balanced) state Sum Model  

E-print Network

We propose a new 4D state sum model, related to the balanced model, which is constructed using the octonions, or equivalently, triality. An effective continuum physical theory constructed from this model coupled to the balanced model would have a non-vanishing cosmological constant, chiral asymmetry, and a gauge group related to the octonions.

Louis Crane

1998-06-12

116

Excited Heavy Mesons from QCD Sum Rules  

E-print Network

Orbitally excited L=1 charm mesons are studied by QCD sum rules in the framework of heavy quark effective theory. The meson masses and the strong decay widths are obtained. This talk is based on our works of refs. 1 and 2 collaborated with Y.B. Dai, C.S. Huang, M.Q. Huang and H.Y. Jin.

Chun Liu

1998-02-03

117

Riemann Sums: A Symbolic and Graphical Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo uses a computer algebra system to investigate various approximations to the definite integral. Right hand endpoint, left hand endpoint and midpoint Riemann sums as well as trapezoidal and Simpson's rules are expressed in closed form as functions of the change in x.

Roberts, Lila F.

118

A method to compute periodic sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a number of problems in computational physics, a finite sum of kernel functions centered at N particle locations located in a box in three dimensions must be extended by imposing periodic boundary conditions on box boundaries. Even though the finite sum can be efficiently computed via fast summation algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), the periodized extension is usually treated via a different algorithm, Ewald summation, accelerated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). A different approach to compute this periodized sum just using a blackbox finite fast summation algorithm is presented in this paper. The method splits the periodized sum into two parts. The first, comprising the contribution of all points outside a large sphere enclosing the box, and some of its neighbors, is approximated inside the box by a collection of kernel functions (“sources”) placed on the surface of the sphere or using an expansion in terms of spectrally convergent local basis functions. The second part, comprising the part inside the sphere, and including the box and its immediate neighborhood, is treated via available summation algorithms. The coefficients of the sources are determined by least squares collocation of the periodicity condition of the total potential, imposed on a circumspherical surface for the box. While the method is presented in general, details are worked out for the case of evaluating electrostatic potentials and forces. Results show that when used with the FMM, the periodized sum can be computed to any specified accuracy, at an additional cost of the order of the free-space FMM. Several technical details and efficient algorithms for auxiliary computations are provided, as are numerical comparisons.

Gumerov, Nail A.; Duraiswami, Ramani

2014-09-01

119

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... weight... Read full story >> Healthy Weight Loss share Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your ... your own skin share The ABC's of Positive Body Image Feeling comfortable in your own skin can be ...

120

Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

121

APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING TO MINIMIZE THE SUM OF DIAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of partitioning the nodes of a complete edge weighted graph into {kappa} clusters so as to minimize the sum of the diameters of the clusters. Since the problem is NP-complete, our focus is on the development of good approximation algorithms. When edge weights satisfy the triangle inequality, we present the first approximation algorithm for the problem. The approximation algorithm yields a solution that has no more than 10k clusters such the total diameter of these clusters is within a factor O(log (n/{kappa})) of the optimal value fork clusters, where n is the number of nodes in the complete graph. For any fixed {kappa}, we present an approximation algorithm that produces {kappa} clusters whose total diameter is at most twice the optimal value. When the distances are not required to satisfy the triangle inequality, we show that, unless P = NP, for any {rho} {ge} 1, there is no polynomial time approximation algorithm that can provide a performance guarantee of {rho} even when the number of clusters is fixed at 3. Other results obtained include a polynomial time algorithm for the problem when the underlying graph is a tree with edge weights.

Kopp, S.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, S.M.

2000-02-01

122

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2011-07-01

124

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2013-07-01

125

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2012-07-01

126

QCD Sum Rule Calculation of Twist-4 Corrections to Bjorken and Ellis-Jaffe Sum Rules  

E-print Network

We calculate the twist-4 corrections to the integral of $g_1(x,Q^2)$ in the framework of QCD sum rules using an interpolating nucleon field which contains explicitly a gluonic degree of freedom. This information can be used together with previous calculations of the twist-3 contribution to the second moment of $g_2(x)$ to estimate the higher-twist corrections to the Ellis-Jaffe and Bjorken sum rules. We get $f^{(2)}(proton) = -0.037 \\pm 0.006$ and $f^{(2)}(neutron) = -0.013 \\pm 0.006$. Numerically our results roughly agree with those obtained by Balitsky, Braun and Kolesnichenko based on a sum rule for a simpler current. Our calculations are far more stable as tested within the sum rule approach but are more sensitive to less well known condensates.

E. Stein; P. Gornicki; L. Mankiewicz; A. Schaefer

1995-02-16

127

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2014-07-01

128

sum of cubes 11/13/2007 1 Sum of Cubes  

E-print Network

sum of cubes 11/13/2007 1 Sum of Cubes Jo was supposed to be studying for her grade 12 physics test down the cubes of the list you've just made." She knew just what to do. She listed the cubes (using her is wonderful when you get a reaction like that. Table for n = 24 Divisors of 24 # of divisors cubes of col 2 1

Taylor, Peter

129

Nucleon wave functions and QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use QCD sum rules to study the first few moments of the quark distribution amplitudes of the nucleon, using the same auxiliary operators as Chernyak and Zhitnitsky. We obtain different results for the correlators in the euclidean region, leading in turn to different quantitative results for the quark distribution amplitudes. The asymmetry found by Chernyak and Zhitnitsky is confirmed, but is reduced in magnitude.

King, I. D.; Sachrajda, C. T.

1987-01-01

130

A More Sensitive Lorentzian State Sum  

E-print Network

We give the construction modulo normalization of a new state sum model for lorentzian quantum general relativity, using the construction of Dirac's expansors to include quantum operators corresponding to edge lengths as well as the quantum bivectors of the Barrett-Crane model, and discuss the problem of its normalization. The new model gives rise to a new picture of quantum geometry in which lengths come in a discrete spectrum, while areas have a continuum of values.

Louis Crane; David Yetter

2003-01-06

131

Digital orthophotos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A digital orthophoto is a digital image of an aerial photograph with displacements caused by the camera angle and the terrain removed. It, thus, combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map.

1993-01-01

132

Coincidence summing corrections for a clover detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The true coincidence summing effect on the full energy peak efficiency calibration of a clover HPGe detector for point sources has been determined as a function of sample-to-detector distance using mono-energetic and multi-energetic gamma ray sources. The coincidence summing effect has been observed to increase at closer distances with the correction factors as high as 1.25 at closest distance studied. The correction factors for the total and the photopeak efficiencies have been obtained using the analytical method. The clover detector response has been simulated using MCNP code, taking care of the bevels and the flat surfaces of the clover detector. The geometry of the clover detector has been optimized to match the experimental and the theoretical efficiencies. The true coincidence summing correction factors (kTCS) have also been experimentally obtained by taking the ratio of corresponding mono-energetic extrapolated efficiencies to multi-energetic efficiencies. The kTCS obtained from analytical method has been found to match with the experimental kTCS with the simulated values within 1-5%.

Agarwal, Chhavi; Danu, L. S.; Gathibandhe, M.; Goswami, A.; Biswas, D. C.

2014-11-01

133

Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?  

PubMed

Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. PMID:23969758

Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

2013-01-01

134

A Nearly All-Digital Frequency Mixer Based on Nonlinear Digital-to-Analog Conversion and Intermodulation Cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a nearly all-digital frequency mixer pro- ducing either the sum or difference of two frequencies provided as digital clocks. No filtering of the clock inputs is needed to suppress intermodulation products at the output. The mixer achieves high spurious-free dynamic range through optimization of an output nonlinear DAC and a multiphase intermodulation cancellation technique. A programmable logic implementation

William A. Ling; Paul Peter Sotiriadis

2011-01-01

135

Digit-Set Conversions: Generalizations and Applications  

E-print Network

to gener- alize the O(log n) time algorithm for conditional sum addition using parallel pre#12;x into redundant digit sets are gener- alized based on a very simple lemma, which provides a framework for all into another plays an important role in computing, and in particular in many implementations of basic

Kornerup, Peter

136

Simple pulse counting circuit computes sum of squares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse counting circuit with an extra chain of flip-flops, delay lines, and gates computes the sum of the squares of the pulse sequences. A pulse train and the sum of the squares of the pulses are simultaneously completed.

Schaefer, D. H.

1965-01-01

137

7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42.132...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections...132 Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for...

2010-01-01

138

A method of Weil sum in multivariate quadratic cryptosystem  

E-print Network

A new cryptanalytic application is proposed for a number theoretic tool Weil sum to the birthday attack against multivariate quadratic trapdoor function. This new customization of the birthday attack is developed by evaluating the explicit Weil sum...

Harayama, Tomohiro

2007-09-17

139

Nucleon QCD sum rules in instanton vacuum  

E-print Network

We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the instantons of large and small sizes. The former are described in terms of the local scalar condensate, while the latter can be interpreted as the nonlocal scalar condensate. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rules equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small size instantons w_s \\approx 2/3.

Drukarev, E G

2014-01-01

140

Nucleon QCD sum rules in instanton vacuum  

E-print Network

We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the instantons of large and small sizes. The former are described in terms of the local scalar condensate, while the latter can be interpreted as the nonlocal scalar condensate. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rules equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small size instantons w_s \\approx 2/3.

E. G. Drukarev; V. A. Sadovnikova

2014-07-10

141

Sums of permanental minors using Grassmann algebra  

E-print Network

We show that a formalism proposed by Creutz to evaluate Grassmann integrals provides an algorithm of complexity $O(2^n n^3)$ to compute the generating function for the sum of the permanental minors of a matrix of order $n$. This algorithm improves over the Brualdi-Ryser formula, whose complexity is at least $O(2^{\\frac{5n}{2}})$. In the case of a banded matrix with band width $w$ and rank $n$ the complexity is $O(2^{min(2w, n)} (w + 1) n^2)$. Related algorithms for the matching and independence polynomials of graphs are presented.

Butera, P

2014-01-01

142

Direct sums of trace maps and self-adjoint extensions  

E-print Network

We give a simple criterion so that a countable infinite direct sum of trace (evaluation) maps is a trace map. An application to the theory of self-adjoint extensions of direct sums of symmetric operators is provided; this gives an alternative approach to results recently obtained by Malamud-Neidhardt and Kostenko-Malamud using regularized direct sums of boundary triplets.

Andrea Posilicano

2014-02-20

143

Efficient Evaluation of SUM Queries over Probabilistic Data*  

E-print Network

1 Efficient Evaluation of SUM Queries over Probabilistic Data* Reza Akbarinia1 , Patrick Valduriez1 and their probabilities. In general, there is no efficient solution for the problem of evaluating ALL_SUM queries. But INTRODUCTION Aggregate (or aggr for short) queries, in particular SUM queries, are crucial for many

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Programmable digital temperature controller apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A programmable digital temperature controller apparatus utilizing a pair of binary-coded decimal units and a switching unit to generate a ten bit binary word which represents a pre-selected temperature in a temperature range is discussed. A pair of erasable programmable read only memory units store digital temperatures and temperature range information. The ten bit binary word determines which digital data from the memory units will be applied to a D/A converter unit and a pair of multiplexer units. One multiplexer unit controls the voltage per bit within the D/A converter unit while the other multiplexer unit generates a starting voltage. The output voltage from the D/A converter unit and the starting voltage are summed together to provide a voltage output signal which represent the pre-selected temperature.

Veneklase, B. J.

1984-07-01

145

Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2009-12-15

146

Body Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add ...

147

Weight simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

1972-01-01

148

Digital Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Imaging is the computer processed numerical representation of physical images. Enhancement of images results in easier interpretation. Quantitative digital image analysis by Perceptive Scientific Instruments, locates objects within an image and measures them to extract quantitative information. Applications are CAT scanners, radiography, microscopy in medicine as well as various industrial and manufacturing uses. The PSICOM 327 performs all digital image analysis functions. It is based on Jet Propulsion Laboratory technology, is accurate and cost efficient.

1986-01-01

149

Digital Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Women strives to be a full-service portal for working women in all varieties of business. The site offers a huge collection of resources, including informative articles, manuals, free software, Web tools, and advice, as well as ten free newsletters and mailing lists. Digital Women also provides a place for business women to network, including information about the Digital Women 2000 Annual International Net-Together, which will take place on Vancouver Island September 29-October 1, 2000.

150

Digital metamaterials.  

PubMed

Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061

Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

2014-12-01

151

Critique of the angular momentum sum rules and a new angular momentum sum rule  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the tensorial structure of the hadronic matrix elements of the angular momentum operators J. Well known results in the literature are shown to be incorrect, and we have taken pains to derive the correct expressions in three different ways, two involving explicit physical wave packets and the third, totally independent, based upon the rotational properties of the state vectors. Surprisingly it turns out that the results are very sensitive to the type of relativistic spin state used to describe the motion of the particle, i.e., whether a canonical (i.e., boost) state or a helicity state is utilized. We present results for the matrix elements of the angular momentum operators, valid in an arbitrary Lorentz frame, for both helicity states and canonical states. These results are relevant for the construction of angular momentum sum rules, relating the angular momentum of a nucleon to the spin and orbital angular momentum of its constituents. It turns out that it is necessary to distinguish carefully whether the motion of the partons is characterized via canonical or helicity spin states. Fortunately, for the simple parton model interpretation, when the proton moves along OZ, our results for the sum rule based upon the matrix elements of J{sub z} agree with the often used sum rule found in the literature. But for the components J{sub x},J{sub y} the results are different and lead to a new and very intuitive sum rule for transverse polarization.

Bakker, B.L.G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leader, E. [Imperial College London, SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Trueman, T.L. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2004-12-01

152

A generating function of higher-dimensional Apostol–Zagier sums and its reciprocity law  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce higher-dimensional Dedekind sums with a complex parameter z, generalizing Zagier's higher-dimensional Dedekind sums. The sums tend to Zagier's higher-dimensional Dedekind sums as z??. We show that the sums turn out to be generating functions of higher-dimensional Apostol–Zagier sums which are defined to be hybrids of Apostol's sums and Zagier's sums. We prove reciprocity law for the sums. The

Shinji Fukuhara; Noriko Yui

2006-01-01

153

Integrated cost\\/weight optimization of aircraft structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for a combined cost\\/weight optimization of aircraft components is proposed. The objective function is formed\\u000a by a simplified form of direct operating cost, i.e. by a weighted sum of the manufacturing cost and the component weight.\\u000a Hence, the structural engineer can perform the evaluation of a design solution based on economical values rather than pure\\u000a cost or weight

Markus Kaufmann; Dan Zenkert; Per Wennhage

2010-01-01

154

On Achieving Weighted Service Differentiation: An End-to-End  

E-print Network

Destination weight = 2Application TCP-v2 pTCP IP TCP-v1 weight = 2Application TCP-v2 pTCP IP TCP-v1 Weight = 2 conditions (on the same path) TCP semantics Reliable and in-sequence delivery TCP friendliness* A flow with weight w = sum of w default TCP flows End-to-end approach Does not rely on infrastructure support

Sivakumar, Raghupathy

155

QCD Sum Rules Study of X(4350)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The QCD sum rule approach is used to analyze the nature of the recently observed new resonance X(4350), which is assumed to be a diquark-antidiquark state [cs][bar cbar s] with JPC = 1-+. The interpolating current representing this state is proposed. In the calculation, contributions of operators up to dimension six are included in the operator product expansion (OPE), as well as terms which are linear in the strange quark mass ms. We find m1-+ = (4.82 ± 0.19) GeV, which is not compatible with the X(4350) structure as a 1-+ tetraquark state. Finally, we also discuss the difference of a four-quark state's mass whether the state's interpolating current has a definite charge conjugation.

Mo, Zeng; Cui, Chun-Yu; Liu, Yong-Lu; Huang, Ming-Qiu

2014-04-01

156

Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration  

SciTech Connect

How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-06

157

Holography and ARPES sum-rules  

E-print Network

We study correlation functions of elementary fermions in strongly interacting field theories using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence generically associates bulk fields to composite operators in field theory. We modify the holographic prescription in order to obtain correlators that correspond to fermonic single-particle excitations by introducing a dynamical fermionic source localized on a UV brane in a holographic background. We work out the conditions when these correlators obey the zeroth frequency sum-rule satisfied by angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) and are thus directly relevant to the AdS/CMT correspondence. To illustrate our techniques, we study field theories at zero chemical potential with an arbitrary dynamical exponent z, i.e., the Lifshitz invariant conformal field theories, including the usual relativistic case z=1.

Umut Gursoy; Erik Plauschinn; Henk Stoof; Stefan Vandoren

2011-12-21

158

Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.

Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.

1997-01-01

159

Digital Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…

Blansett, Jim

2008-01-01

160

Digital LDQ.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the creation of an archive that permits online access to digital copies of back issues of the "Learning Disability Quarterly." It describes how to access the archive, select and order an issue, and the benefits of providing information in digital formats. (Contains 3 references.) (CR)

Boone, Randy; Higgins, Kyle; Edyburn, Dave

2003-01-01

161

Digital Roundup  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues…

Horn, Michael B.

2013-01-01

162

Digital Ratiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, low-cost comparator with 24-bit-precision yields ratio signal from pair of analog or digital input signals. Arithmetic logic chips (bit-slice) sample two 24-bit analog-to-digital converters approximately once every millisecond and accumulate them in two 24-bit registers. Approach readily modified to arbitrary precision.

Beer, R.

1985-01-01

163

Digital TMI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

Rios, Joseph

2012-01-01

164

Digital Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exactly is digital archaeology? It's the documentation of the "formative years of digital culture" and it all happens right here on this site. Digital Archaeology was unveiled in London as part of Internet Week Europe 2010, bringing together a selection of sites to promote the concept of digital preservation. The main focus here is "Error 404," an exhibition that celebrates the golden age of the website, complete with profiles of classic sites on the "hardware and software of their day." The homepage features such articles as "Digital Revolution at the Barbican" and "The Secret History of WiFi.' Visitors can also check out the latest tweets and of course the "Error 404" exhibition itself. The Archives and Tags sections provide another fun way to explore the site.

165

Baby Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use a rule of thumb about the weight of babies to practice doubling and halving numbers. They complete an organized table and compare data using vertical and horizontal double bar graphs. The lesson includes a student activity sheet and extension ideas.

Cook, Marcy

2008-01-01

166

RESHAPING REMINISCENCE, WEB BROWSING AND WEB SEARCH USING PERSONAL DIGITAL ARCHIVES  

E-print Network

RESHAPING REMINISCENCE, WEB BROWSING AND WEB SEARCH USING PERSONAL DIGITAL ARCHIVES A DISSERTATION such as sum- marizing work or backing up attachments, to reminiscence and remembering family events and grad

Straight, Aaron

167

Symmetries, sum rules and constraints on effective field theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry, we derive universal sum rules for scattering amplitudes in theories invariant under an arbitrary symmetry group. The sum rules relate the coefficients of the energy expansion of the scattering amplitudes in the IR to total cross sections integrated all the way up to the UV. Exploiting the group structure of the symmetry, we systematically determine all the independent sum rules and positivity conditions on the expansion coefficients. For effective field theories the amplitudes in the IR are calculable and hence the sum rules set constraints on the parameters of the effective Lagrangian. We clarify the impact of gauging on the sum rules for Goldstone bosons in spontaneously broken gauge theories. We discuss explicit examples that are relevant for WW-scattering, composite Higgs models, and chiral perturbation theory. Certain sum rules based on custodial symmetry and its extensions provide constraints on the Higgs boson coupling to the electroweak gauge bosons.

Bellazzini, Brando; Martucci, Luca; Torre, Riccardo

2014-09-01

168

Rounding Sum-of-Squares Relaxations  

E-print Network

We present a general approach to rounding semidefinite programming relaxations obtained by the Sum-of-Squares method (Lasserre hierarchy). Our approach is based on using the connection between these relaxations and the Sum-of-Squares proof system to transform a *combining algorithm* -- an algorithm that maps a distribution over solutions into a (possibly weaker) solution -- into a *rounding algorithm* that maps a solution of the relaxation to a solution of the original problem. Using this approach, we obtain algorithms that yield improved results for natural variants of three well-known problems: 1) We give a quasipolynomial-time algorithm that approximates the maximum of a low degree multivariate polynomial with non-negative coefficients over the Euclidean unit sphere. Beyond being of interest in its own right, this is related to an open question in quantum information theory, and our techniques have already led to improved results in this area (Brand\\~{a}o and Harrow, STOC '13). 2) We give a polynomial-time algorithm that, given a d dimensional subspace of R^n that (almost) contains the characteristic function of a set of size n/k, finds a vector $v$ in the subspace satisfying $|v|_4^4 > c(k/d^{1/3}) |v|_2^2$, where $|v|_p = (E_i v_i^p)^{1/p}$. Aside from being a natural relaxation, this is also motivated by a connection to the Small Set Expansion problem shown by Barak et al. (STOC 2012) and our results yield a certain improvement for that problem. 3) We use this notion of L_4 vs. L_2 sparsity to obtain a polynomial-time algorithm with substantially improved guarantees for recovering a planted $\\mu$-sparse vector v in a random d-dimensional subspace of R^n. If v has mu n nonzero coordinates, we can recover it with high probability whenever $\\mu < O(\\min(1,n/d^2))$, improving for $d < n^{2/3}$ prior methods which intrinsically required $\\mu < O(1/\\sqrt(d))$.

Boaz Barak; Jonathan Kelner; David Steurer

2013-12-23

169

Digital Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital technology is having a profound influence on many aspects of human activity. It certainly has affected all areas of television broadcasting. A monitor is probably the least affected by digital technology. In the present experimental coder/decoder units for either RGB or standard (NTSC, PAL or SECAM) signals, the monitor receives an analog signal, even in an all digital studio. The same is true for computer graphics and game systems. But, it is logical to expect technological changes in broadcast and computer monitor applications.

Isailovic, Jordan

1983-08-01

170

A 3-Bit Current Mode Quantizer for Continuous Time Delta Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters  

E-print Network

The summing amplifier and the quantizer form two of the most critical blocks in a continuous time delta sigma (CT ??) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Most of the conventional CT ?? ADC designs incorporate a voltage summing amplifier and a voltage...

Sundar, Arun

2012-02-14

171

Design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an infant weight scale is reported that fits into an isolette without disturbing its controlled atmosphere. The scale platform uses strain gages to measure electronically deflections of cantilever beams positioned at its four corners. The weight of the infant is proportional to the sum of the output voltages produced by the gauges on each beam of the scale.

Peterka, R. J.; Griffin, W.

1974-01-01

172

Digital Image Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondeterministic finite automata with states and transitions labeled by real-valued weights have turned out to be powerful tools for the representation and compression of digital grayscale and color images. The addressing of pixels by input-sequences is extended to cover multi-resolution images. Encoding algorithms for such weighted finite automata (WFA) exploit self-similarities for efficient image compression, outperforming the well-known JPEG baseline standard most of the time. WFA-concepts are embedded easily into weighted finite transducers (WFT) which can execute several natural operations on images in their compressed form and also into so-called parametric WFA, which are closely related to generalized Iterated Function Systems.

Albert, Jürgen; Kari, Jarkko

173

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the formulas for the sum rules for the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in two recent papers are incomplete when the system contains a zero mode. We prove that there are finite contributions of the zero mode to the sum rules and we explicitly calculate the expressions for the sum rules of order one and two. The previous results for systems that do not contain a zero mode are unaffected.

Amore, Paolo

2014-10-01

174

Sum capacity optimization of the MIMO Gaussian MAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we study the sum capacity of a Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output multiple-access channel with a sum power constraint. In order to develop an efficient algorithm for maximization of the sum capacity, we extend recent results regarding the duality between the vector multiple access channel and broadcast channel and the Sato bound. We enhance the iterative Water-filling algorithm from

Holger Boche; Eduard A. Jorswieck

2002-01-01

175

Octet Baryon Magnetic Moments from QCD Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results on the magnetic moments of octet baryons using the method of QCD sum rules. Three sum rules from three independent tensor structures are derived for each member in the octet (p, n, ?, &+circ;, &-circ;, &-circ;, 0?, and &-circ;) using generalized interpolating fields. They are analyzed in conjunction with the corresponding mass sum rules. The convergence of each sum rule is studied, taking into account transitions in the intermediate states. Individual u, d and s quark contributions to the magnetic moment are also isolated. The results are compared to previous calculations and experiment.

Wang, Lai; Lee, Frank

2008-04-01

176

Weighted Hypernetworks  

E-print Network

Complex network theory has been used to study complex systems. However, many real life systems involve multiple kinds of objects . They can't be described by simple graphs. In order to provide complete information of these systems, we extend the concept of evolving models of complex networks to hypernetworks. In this work, we firstly propose a non-uniform hypernetwork model with attractiveness, and obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the non-uniform hypernetwork. Furthermore, we develop a model for weighted hypernetworks that couples the establishment of new hyperedges and nodes and the weights' dynamical evolution. We obtain the stationary average hyperdegree distribution by using the hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork model with attractiveness. In particular, the model yields a nontrivial time evolution of nodes' properties and scale-free behavior for the hyperdegree distribution. It is expected that our work may give help to the study of the hypernetworks in real-world syste...

Zhu, Xin-Yun

2014-01-01

177

Duality violations and spectral sum rules  

E-print Network

We study the issue of duality violations in the VV-AA vacuum polarization function in the chiral limit. This is done with the help of a model with an expansion in inverse powers of the number of colors, Nc, allowing us to consider resonances with a finite width. Due to these duality violations, the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) and the moments of the spectral function (e.g. the Weinberg sum rules) do not match at finite momentum, and we analyze this difference in detail. We also perform a comparative study of many of the different methods proposed in the literature for the extraction of the OPE parameters and find that, when applied to our model, they all fare quite similarly. In fact, the model strongly suggests that a significant improvement in precision can only be expected after duality violations are included. To this end, we propose a method to parameterize these duality violations. The method works quite well for the model, and we hope that it may also be useful in future determinations of OPE parameters in QCD.

O. Cata; M. Golterman; S. Peris

2005-06-01

178

Sum-Product Decoding of BCH Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes methods to improve soft-input and soft-output decoding performance of BCH codes by sum-product algorithm (SPA). A method to remove cycles of length four (RmFC) in the Tanner graph has been proposed. However, the RmFC can not realize good decoding performance for BCH codes which have more than one error correcting capability. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes two methods. One is to use a parity check matrix of the echelon canonical form as the starting check matrix of RmFC. The other is to use a parity check matrix that is concatenation (ConC) of multiple parity check matrices. For BCH(31,11,11) code, SPA with ConC realizes Eb/No 3.7dB better at bit error rate 10-5 than the original SPA, and 3.1dB better than the SPA with only RmFC.

Ogiwara, Haruo; Shimamura, Kyouhei; Shohon, Toshiyuki

179

Digital diorama  

E-print Network

Digital Diorama may be briefly presented as: a historical exploration of the vision devices, performances, and installations of the nineteenth century, and their influences on the project. These histories of the magic ...

Spikol, Daniel

1992-01-01

180

Digital Pulse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When high technology crashes into popular culture you've got Digital Pulse, the heartbeat of the infotainment infobahn with exclusive news and tips from the experts at CMP's Windows Magazine, NetGuide, Home PC and more. This week read about Adam Curry's deal with BMI which will let him sell (and us buy) digital recordings over the 'Net. Free registration is required on Pathfinder, Time Warner's home on the internet.

181

Digital Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Morphology library is a dynamic archive of information on digital morphology and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography of biological specimens. Plants and animals, both recent and fossil, are included. Skulls and skeletons of vertebrates, exoskeletons of invertebrates and hard parts of plants are all represented. Browse through the site and see spectacular imagery, animations and details on the morphology of over 200 representatives of the Earth's biota.

Rowe, Timothy; Maisano, Jessie; Humphries, Julian

182

Digital clubbing  

PubMed Central

Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350

Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa

2012-01-01

183

Digital Metamaterials  

E-print Network

Balancing the complexity and the simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. As Albert Einstein was once quoted to say: 'Everything must be made as simple as possible, but not one bit simpler'. The simplicity of an idea brings versatility of that idea into a broader domain, while its complexity describes the foundation upon which the idea stands. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance is in the Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers of '0' and '1' in describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the simplicity of digital electrical systems we propose to apply an analogous idea to the field of metamaterials, namely, to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metama...

Della Giovampaola, Cristian

2014-01-01

184

Kostant's weight multiplicity formula and the Fibonacci numbers  

E-print Network

It is well known that the dimension of a weight space for a finite dimensional representation of a simple Lie algebra is given by Kostant's weight multiplicity formula. We address the question of how many terms in the alternation contribute to the multiplicity of the zero weight for certain, very special, highest weights. Specifically, we consider the case where the highest weight is equal to the sum of all simple roots. This weight is dominant only in Lie types $A$ and $B$. We prove that in all such cases the number of contributing terms is a Fibonacci number. Combinatorial consequences of this fact are provided.

Harris, Pamela

2011-01-01

185

Parameter estimation for nonincreasing exponential sums by Pronylike methods  

E-print Network

Parameter estimation for nonincreasing exponential sums by Prony­like methods Daniel Potts Manfred and phrases: Parameter estimation, nonincreasing exponential sum, Prony­like method, exponential fitting Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques) [28, 29]. The basic idea of Prony­like methods can be easily

Potts, Daniel

186

College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…

Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.

2012-01-01

187

Generating matrix and sums of Fibonacci and Pell sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the Fibonacci sequence and Pell sequence and developed generating matrices for them. First we proved two results on the even sum of the Fibonacci sequence and the Pell sequence, using the generating matrix approach. We then deduce the odd sums, some identities and recursive formulas for these two sequences.

Ho, C. K.; Woon, H. S.; Chong, Chin-Yoon

2014-07-01

188

Gauss Optics and Gauss Sum on an Optical Phenomena  

E-print Network

In the previous article (Found Phys. Lett. {\\bf{16}} 325-341), we showed that a reciprocity of the Gauss sums is connected with the wave and particle complementary. In this article, we revise the previous investigation by considering a relation between the Gauss optics and the Gauss sum based upon the recent studies of the Weil representation for a finite group.

Shigeki Matsutani

2008-03-07

189

Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

2012-01-01

190

Octet magnetic Moments and their sum rules in statistical model  

E-print Network

The statistical model is implemented to find the magnetic moments of all octet baryons. The well-known sum rules like GMO and CG sum rules has been checked in order to check the consistency of our approach. The small discrepancy between the results suggests the importance of breaking in SU(3) symmetry.

M. Batra; A. Upadhyay

2013-12-18

191

Digital Light Projector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Quicktime animation of a Digital Light Projector. A digital light projector provides the capability to display a video or computer monitor signal on a projection screen. Such a projector stands out by its small size, low weight and rather unique use of MEMS. The internal light path starts with a bright halogen source, which is guided through the color wheel, reflects off the MEMS chip and is projected through the projector lens. A close-up of the color wheel and MEMS chip reveals the internal lens and beamsplitter. The micromirror chip is mounted in a package with a transparent window onto the printed circuit board. An even closer view shows the active element: a large array of little mirrors. Millions of these mirrors, each smaller than 20 micron, are packed onto the micromirror chip.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2012-09-05

192

On a class of c-sample weighted rank-sum tests for location and scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A class of c-sample (c?2) non-parametric tests for the homogeneity of location or scale parameters is proposed and their various\\u000a properties studied. These tests are based on a family of congruent interquantile numbers, and may be regarded as the c-sample\\u000a extension of a class of two sample tests, proposed and studied by Sen [15]. A useful theorem on the asymptotic

P. K. Sen; Z. Govindarajulu

1966-01-01

193

Bodies in the Brain : More than the weighted sum of their parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main question of this thesis was: Can we dissociate multiple body representations in the healthy brain? Patient studies have already shown a dichotomy between the perceptual representation used for localizing a body part (body image) versus the motor representation used for moving a body part (body schema). Here it is shown for the first time that there is also

M. P. M. Kammers

2008-01-01

194

On The Analysis of Spatially-Coupled GLDPC Codes and The Weighted Min-Sum Algorithm  

E-print Network

for all i 2 f 0; 1; : : : ; L + w 1g, we know that the thresholds obtained from (2.7) and from (2.8) are identical. 19 2.2.4 Iterative HDD with Bounded Distance Decoders It is well-known that GLDPC codes perform well under iterative soft decoding [35... by de ning the bit-level mapping implied by BDD, denoted by Di : f 0; 1gn ! f 0; 1g, which maps the received vector v 2 f 0; 1gn to the i-th decoded bit according to the rule Di(v) = 8 >>>: ci if c 2 C satis es dH(c;v) t vi if dH(c...

Jian, Yung-Yih

2013-08-07

195

Accuracy and consistency of weights provided by home bathroom scales  

PubMed Central

Background Self-reported body weight is often used for calculation of Body Mass Index because it is easy to collect. Little is known about sources of error introduced by using bathroom scales to measure weight at home. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of digital versus dial-type bathroom scales commonly used for self-reported weight. Methods Participants brought functioning bathroom scales (n?=?18 dial-type, n?=?43 digital-type) to a central location. Trained researchers assessed accuracy and consistency using certified calibration weights at 10 kg, 25 kg, 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg, and 110 kg. Data also were collected on frequency of calibration, age and floor surface beneath the scale. Results All participants reported using their scale on hard surface flooring. Before calibration, all digital scales displayed 0, but dial scales displayed a mean absolute initial weight of 0.95 (1.9 SD) kg. Digital scales accurately weighed test loads whereas dial-type scale weights differed significantly (p?digital scales at all weights (p?Digital home bathroom scales provide sufficiently accurate and consistent weights for public health research. Reminders to zero scales before each use may further improve accuracy of self-reported weight. PMID:24341761

2013-01-01

196

Digital Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Maryland Digital Cultural Heritage website is quite inviting, as it combines images of the commonwealthâÂÂs distinctive flag with historic images of racing horses, a reference to one of the regionâÂÂs most well-known pastimes. Drawing on archival collections from such local institutions as the Montgomery County Historical Society, the Enoch Pratt Free Library, along with many others, there are over a dozen fine digital collections here for the curious and historically minded. These well-thought out collections include personal letters and images from the Edgar Allen Poe collection, a clutch of digitized items (including letters and photographs) from the acerbic writer H.L. Mencken, and items from the life of that most feared lefty, pitcher Lefty Grove. Finally, visitors also have the option of searching all of these collections by using a user-friendly search option that resides in the upper-right hand corner of each screen.

197

Digital Theatre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Theater is a truly unique concept, working with Britain's leading theatre companies "to capture live performance authentically onscreen." From their homepage, visitors can Browse Productions, find out How to Watch, and read about Theatre Partners. A nice way to get started is by clicking on one (or more) of the Digital Theatre Originals, which include Much Ado About Nothing and Into the Woods. Additionally, visitors can make their way through offerings from the Royal Opera House or Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. Listings of Classic Plays, such as Far from the Maddening Crowd, can also be viewed here and purchased for a small fee.

198

Digital Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This section discusses the applications of digital sequences in acoustical system identification and characterization and describes Golay codes and binary maximum-length sequences (MLSs) in some detail. Legendre sequences and other coded signals are briefly described. Golay codes and MLS have been used for acoustic applications for years. Applications of Legendre sequences have also been reported. Digital sequences of other classes such as, e.g., binary Gold sequences and Kasami sequences have only recently found applications in acoustical system identification and characterization.

Xiang, Ning

199

Digital Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For electrical or computer engineering students or anyone with a passing interest, this site presents a very good overview of digital logic. The basics of both combinational and sequential logic are discussed, and the design of specific components such as counters and shift registers are also illustrated. A particularly interesting section is devoted to the inner workings of logic gates, which is important to fully understand digital design. This looks beyond the gate level into the transistors and other basic elements. Even though the material is very informative overall, one possible downside to this site is that some of the circuit diagrams are a little too closely spaced.

Bigelow, Ken.

1996-01-01

200

Weighting Assessment Tasks According to Student Preferences: Differences Related to a Student's Primary Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, in order to improve the validity of assessment, students are being tested using a range of different forms of assessment, the results of which are then summed to determine each student's overall score for a subject. The summing of the scores achieved by the student raises the question as to what weights are to be accorded the

Greg Jamieson

2005-01-01

201

Algorithms to evaluate multiple sums for loop computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present algorithms to evaluate two types of multiple sums, which appear in higher-order loop computations. We consider expansions of a generalized hyper-geometric-type sums, sum _{n_1,\\cdots,n_N} ? ({a}_1\\cdot {n}+c_1) ? ({a}_2\\cdot {n}+c_2) \\cdots ? ({a}_P\\cdot {n}+c_P) / ? ({b_1\\cdot {n}+d_1) ? ({b}_2\\cdot {n}+d_2) \\cdots ? ({b}_Q\\cdot {n}+d_Q) } x_1^{n_1}\\cdots x_N^{n_N} with {a}_i \\cdot {n} = sum _{j=1}^N a_{ij}n_j, etc., in a small parameter ? around rational values of ci,di's. Type I sum corresponds to the case where, in the limit ? ? 0, the summand reduces to a rational function of nj's times x_1^{n_1}\\cdots x_N^{n_N}; ci,di's can depend on an external integer index. Type II sum is a double sum (N = 2), where ci, di's are half-integers or integers as ? ? 0 and xi = 1; we consider some specific cases where at most six ? functions remain in the limit ? ? 0. The algorithms enable evaluations of arbitrary expansion coefficients in ? in terms of Z-sums and multiple polylogarithms (generalized multiple zeta values). We also present applications of these algorithms. In particular, Type I sums can be used to generate a new class of relations among generalized multiple zeta values. We provide a Mathematica package, in which these algorithms are implemented.

Anzai, C.; Sumino, Y.

2013-03-01

202

Digital micropropulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrays of “Digital Propulsion” microthrusters have been fabricated and tested. A three-layer sandwich is fabricated containing microresistors, thrust chambers, and rupture diaphragms. A propellant is loaded into each individually sealed chamber. When the resistor is energized, the propellant ignites, raising the pressure in the chamber and rupturing the diaphragm. An impulse is imparted as the high-pressure fluid is expelled from

David H. Lewis; Siegfried W. Janson; Ronald B. Cohen; Erik K. Antonsson

2000-01-01

203

Digital books.  

PubMed

In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books. PMID:22024672

Wink, Diane M

2011-01-01

204

Digital manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications for Rapid Prototyping have broadened to the point where the name no longer fits the industry. The name Digital Manufacturing is proposed for the creation of solid articles from computer data without part-specific tooling and minimal geometric restrictions. The current state of the industry is reviewed and applications are classified by material strength and process accuracy. Today designers

James F. Bredt

2000-01-01

205

Digital Mammography  

Cancer.gov

Conventional mammography uses X-rays to look for tumors or suspicious areas in the breasts. Digital mammography also uses X-rays, but the data is collected on computer instead of on a piece of film. This means that the image can be computer-enhanced,

206

Digital Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's a digital story? The folks at the Digital Storytelling initiative at The Ohio State University define it thusly: "a short (3-5 minute) movie which uses images, voice, and music to tell a story." The initiative is a great idea and this website offers visitors the chance to get acquainted with the digital stories that are being created at the school. Visitors should start their journey here by navigating over to the Stories area. Here they will find examples of these narratives, including "Howling at the Moon," "Clover Angst," "Our Sacred Circles," and "What's This Say?" Moving on, the Resources area includes information for those who would like to create their own digital stories. The links here lead to copyright-free audio and video sources, along with low-cost or free images. Also, this section includes helpful handouts that are used in the storytelling workshops at the OSU campus. No doubt this website will be a source of motivation and inspiration for those people who might like to create their own narratives.

2012-08-31

207

Digital Globe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to the Digital Globe have a front seat view of Lisbon, Portugal and the Phillipine Trench. The site offers two MPEG videos which animate topographic seafloor images. The video clips were created by David Sandwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Also available are nine images of seafloor topography from around the globe. Note that the videos are very large files.

208

The prevalence of weight loss maintenance among American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that few individuals achieve long-term weight loss maintenance. Because most of these studies were based on clinical samples and focused on only one episode of weight loss, these results may not reflect the actual prevalence of weight loss maintenance in the general population.DESIGN: A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted to determine the point prevalence

MT McGuire; RR Wing; JO Hill

1999-01-01

209

Weight Trimming and Propensity Score Weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propensity score weighting is sensitive to model misspecification and outlying weights that can unduly influence results. The authors investigated whether trimming large weights downward can improve the performance of propensity score weighting and whether the benefits of trimming differ by propensity score estimation method. In a simulation study, the authors examined the performance of weight trimming following logistic regression, classification

Brian K. Lee; Justin Lessler; Elizabeth A. Stuart; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

2011-01-01

210

Religion, weight perception, and weight control behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Religion's relationships with weight perception and weight control behavior were examined using data (3032 adults aged 25–74) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Religion was conceptualized as denomination, religious attendance\\/practice, religious social support, religious commitment, religious application, and religious identity. Weight perception was conceptualized as underestimating body weight, overestimating body weight, and accurately assessing body

Karen Hye-cheon Kim

2007-01-01

211

QCD Sum Rules and the Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling  

E-print Network

We present an extension of the QCD sum rule method in the external fields so as to determine the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g_P, which tests the validity of the partially conserved axial current (PCAC) hypothesis. This is essentially that we pick out the "higher-order" effects of both the hadron and quark (QCD) sides. A specific QCD sum rules for g_P is obtained and its prediction is briefly analyzed. It turns out that the final prediction on g_P is extremely stable. In view of the versatile nature of the present QCD sum rule methods, we appendix some discussions on the possible future of the method.

Henley, E M; Kisslinger, L S

2010-01-01

212

QCD Sum Rules and the Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling  

E-print Network

We present an extension of the QCD sum rule method in the external fields so as to determine the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g_P, which tests the validity of the partially conserved axial current (PCAC) hypothesis. This is essentially that we pick out the "higher-order" effects of both the hadron and quark (QCD) sides. A specific QCD sum rules for g_P is obtained and its prediction is briefly analyzed. It turns out that the final prediction on g_P is extremely stable. In view of the versatile nature of the present QCD sum rule methods, we appendix some discussions on the possible future of the method.

E. M. Henley; W-Y. P. Hwang; L. S. Kisslinger

2010-04-16

213

Casimir effect as a sum over modes in dissipative systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to show that within the open-system framework the sum-over-modes approach of Casimir leads to the Lifshitz formula for the Casimir free energy. A general result applicable to arbitrary geometries is obtained through the use of Ford, Lewis, and O’Connell's remarkable formula. Additionally, we address the possibility of obtaining the Casimir energy as a sum over complex “modes.” We show in this case that the standard sum-over-modes formula must be suitably generalized to avert unphysical complex energies. Finally, we apply our results to several standard examples.

Intravaia, Francesco; Behunin, Ryan

2012-12-01

214

The optical sum rule in strongly correlated systems  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the problem of a possible 'violation' of the optical sum rule in the normal (nonsuperconducting) state of strongly correlated electronic systems, using our recently proposed DMFT + {sigma} approach applied to two typical models: the 'hot spot' model of the pseudogap state and the disordered Anderson-Hubbard model. We explicitly demonstrate that the general Kubo single-band sum rule is satisfied for both models, but the optical integral itself is in general dependent on temperature and characteristic parameters, such as the pseudogap width, correlation strength, and disorder scattering, leading to an effective 'violation' of the optical sum rule, which may be observed in experiments.

Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Kuleeva, N. A.; Nekrasov, I. A.; Sadovskii, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Institute for Electrophysics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: sadovski@iep.uran.ru

2008-08-15

215

Digital Wireless Communication  

E-print Network

Digital Wireless Communication: Physical Layer Exploitation Wireless Networking and Communications Signals and Systems Digital Signal Processing Analog Communication Digital Communication Intro to Wireless;Why at the Graduate Level? It involves many different areas of expertise Digital communication

Heath Jr., - Robert W.

216

Betweenness centrality in a weighted network.  

PubMed

When transport in networks follows the shortest paths, the union of all shortest path trees G union or logical sum SPT can be regarded as the "transport overlay network." Overlay networks such as peer-to-peer networks or virtual private networks can be considered as a subgraph of G union or logical sum SPT. The traffic through the network is examined by the betweenness Bl of links in the overlay G union or logical sum SPT. The strength of disorder can be controlled by, e.g., tuning the extreme value index alpha of the independent and identically distributed polynomial link weights. In the strong disorder limit (alpha-->0), all transport flows over a critical backbone, the minimum spanning tree (MST). We investigate the betweenness distributions of wide classes of trees, such as the MST of those well-known network models and of various real-world complex networks. All these trees with different degree distributions (e.g., uniform, exponential, or power law) are found to possess a power law betweenness distribution Pr[Bl=j] approximately j(-c). The exponent c seems to be positively correlated with the degree variance of the tree and to be insensitive of the size N of a network. In the weak disorder regime, transport in the network traverses many links. We show that a link with smaller link weight tends to carry more traffic. This negative correlation between link weight and betweenness depends on alpha and the structure of the underlying topology. PMID:18517688

Wang, Huijuan; Hernandez, Javier Martin; Van Mieghem, Piet

2008-04-01

217

Point weight function method application for semi-elliptical mode I cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of the approximate weight function construction for a semi-elliptical crack was suggested. The weight function sought was written as the sum of asymptotic (weight function for an elliptical crack in an infinite body) and correction components. To take into account the influence of a body free surface on the asymptotic component behavior, fictitious forces symmetric with respect to

I. V. Orynyak; M. V. Borodii

1994-01-01

218

BRST cohomology of the sum of two pure spinors  

E-print Network

We study the zero mode cohomology of the sum of two pure spinors. The knowledge of this cohomology allows us to better understand the structure of the massless vertex operator of the Type IIB pure spinor superstring.

Andrei Mikhailov; Renjun Xu

2013-01-15

219

A Discontinuity in the Distribution of Fixed Point Sums  

E-print Network

A Discontinuity in the Distribution of Fixed Point Sums Edward A. Bender Department of Mathematics existence of other discontinuities in f(n, r) for permutations. We generalize our results to other families

Bender, Ed

220

SLAC{PUB{95-6761 CLASSICAL PHOTOABSORPTION SUM RULES?  

E-print Network

We useaquantum loop expansion to derive sum rule constraints on polarized photoabsorption cross sections in the Standard Model, generalizing earlier results hep-ph/9502416 obtained by Altarelli, Cabibbo, and Maiani. We show that the logarithmic integral of the spin-dependent photoabsorption cross section R 1 th d Born ()vanishes for any 2! 2 process a! bc in the classical, tree-graph approximation in the Standard Model, supersymmetric gauge theories, and other quantum eld theories where the Drell-Hearn Gerasimov sum rule is valid. Here = p q=M and () = P (); A ( ) is the di erence between the photoabsorption cross section for parallel and antiparallel photon and target helicities. Tests of the sum rule for the reactions e! W and! W + W; can provide new tests of the canonical magnetic and quadrupole couplings of the Standard Model. We also extend the sum rule to certain virtual photon processes.

Stanley J. Brodsky; Ivan Schmidt

221

Generic implementations of parallel prefix sums and its applications  

E-print Network

synchronization as the number of processors increases. As part of the applications for parallel prefix sums, parallel radix sort and four parallel tree applications are built on top of the implementation. These applications are also fundamental parallel algorithms...

Huang, Tao

2009-05-15

222

Pentagon Relations in Direct Sums and Grassmann Algebras  

E-print Network

We construct vast families of orthogonal operators obeying pentagon relation in a direct sum of three n-dimensional vector spaces. As a consequence, we obtain pentagon relations in Grassmann algebras, making a far reaching generalization of exotic Reidemeister torsions.

Igor G. Korepanov; Nurlan M. Sadykov

2012-12-15

223

Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle  

SciTech Connect

In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.

Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg Institut) Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-02-01

224

Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants 2001 Marc Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants  

E-print Network

Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants ©2001 Marc Prensky _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants By Marc Prensky From On the Horizon (MCB University Press, Vol by and adopted many #12;Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants ©2001 Marc Prensky

Cassell, Justine

225

Q^2 dependence of generalized Baldin sum rule  

SciTech Connect

The generalized Baldin sum rule for virtual photon, an unpolarized analog of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule, provides an unique way to investigate the transition between the perturbative QCD and hadronic descriptions of nucleon structure. We report on new measurements in Hall C at Jefferson Lab of the generalized Baldin integral for the proton at Q^2 of 0.3-4.0 GeV^2.

Y. Liang

2005-02-01

226

Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sum-frequency spectroscopy signatures of NH- (amide A) and C=O (amide I) groups, the amide segments in all proteins, are measured in thin films that consist of an ensemble of right-handed, helical poly-?-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) macromolecules that are endgrafted and self-organized into a monomolecular film with a large degree of unidirectional order. Distinct sum-frequency spectral signatures associated with the amide A

André Knoesen; Saulius Pakalnis; Mingshi Wang; William D. Wise; Nancy Lee; Curt W. Frank

2004-01-01

227

Störmer-Cowell: straight, summed and split. An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the relationship between some (forms of) specific numerical methods for (second-order) initial value problems. In particular, the Störmer-Cowell method in second-sum form is shown to be the Gauss-Jackson method (and analogously, for the sake of completeness, we relate Adams-Bashforth-Moulton methods to their first-sum forms). Furthermore, we consider the split form of the Störmer-Cowell method. The

J. F. Frankena

1995-01-01

228

Energy current density correlation function. I. Frequency sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions for zeroth-, second- and fourth-frequency sum rules of energy current density correlation function have been derived. These exact expressions involve static correlation functions of up to five particles. Because of the non-availability of any information about triplet and higher-particle correlation functions, the authors use a low-order decoupling approximation for these. The resulting expressions for the frequency sum rules, which

K. Tankeshwar; K. N. Pathak; S. Ranganathan

1989-01-01

229

Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = ?s?s?\\/?q?q? with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy Sum Rules

Cesareo A. Dominguez; Nasrallah F. Nasrallah; Karl Schilcher

2008-01-01

230

Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

Bracco, M. E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rod. Presidente Dutra Km 298, Polo Industrial, 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25

231

Weight structures, weight ltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for  

E-print Network

Weight structures, weight #28;ltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for basic notion is the new de#28;nition of a weight structure for a triangulated C. We prove that a weight to cohomology zero". For Hw being the heart of the weight structure we de#28;ne a canonical conservative weakly

232

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

233

Digital tachometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tachometer with digital indication was built for measuring the speed of automobile engines with only two digits in the rpm readout. It consists of a Schmitt trigger for shaping input pulses, a pulse counter, a cycle time setting multivibrator and a readout time setting multivibrator, a stabilizer, a flicker suppressor, and a capacitive transducer. The instrument operates from a 12 V battery and draws 180 mA. The transducer includes a 30 to 50 turns coil of PEL 0.5 wire wound around the conductor which connects the ignition coil to the engine distributor and its transistor is mounted on a fin-type heat sink. Tuneup of the tachometer involves matching the transducer capacitor for maximum voltage at minimum current and trimming the readout time setting multivibrator with its adjustable resistor for a 1.5 readout with a 50 Hz input signal.

Shirokov, B.

1984-03-01

234

Digital Arts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Arts website was designed to offer "inspiration for digital creative." It does a fairly standup job of that, offering news updates, tutorials, reviews, features, portfolios, and information about upcoming competitions that will be of interest to those working in a range of industries. First-time visitors would do well to look at the Short Cuts area to learn about new design websites, watch artists work on compelling large format projects, and pick up scuttlebutt from experts in their fields. Moving on, the Tutorials area offers helpful guides such as "How to stop photo noise," "Add texture to retro styled artworks," and "Create X-ray vector art." Finally, the Guides area contains helpful overviews of key fields and programs like Adobe Creative Suite 6, animation, graphic design, and interactive design.

2013-01-01

235

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing digital and online technologies to teach different disciplines continues to be quite popular, and the Digital History website will be a most welcome find for teachers (and students) of American history. Developed in collaboration with the University of Houston, the Chicago Historical Society, the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston and several other entities the site includes an online American history textbook, an interactive timeline, a multimedia section, and a very rich selection of primary source materials. The multimedia section is a real find, as it contains several well-thought out lectures with titles like "The History of Domestic Violence", "The Cultural Civil War of the 1960s", and "America Today and America Past". Students will also appreciate the writing guide area, as it contains several short essays on how to write in a history class and how to compose a critical book review.

236

Digital Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Land of Lincoln is certainly not lacking in organizations who seek to document the rich history of the area, whether it be the many innovations in farm technology that have arisen out of the creative minds of local inventors or the gritty urban landscapes of the Second CityâÂÂs nooks and crannies. Fortunately for those with a penchant for these subjects, there is the Digital Past website, which began in 1998 with a partnership with the North Suburban Library System in Wheeling, Illinois. Currently, the digital archive contains over 35,000 items (such as postcards, architectural plans, and personal letters) culled from close to 30 institutions in the area. Visitors may want to take a look at some of their thematic collections of digitized objects and related materials, such as those devoted to the architecture of the North Shore community of Glencoe or a history of the city of Park Ridge. Of course, visitors should feel most welcome to search the complete archive of materials here, which they may do by looking through a list of cities, organizations, and proper names.

2005-01-01

237

Weighted conditional least-squares estimation  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.

Booth, J.G.

1987-01-01

238

Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.  

PubMed

Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings. PMID:23202478

Glenn, Nicole M

2013-03-01

239

An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.  

PubMed

This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983

Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K

2009-10-24

240

Weight structures, weight oltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for  

E-print Network

Weight structures, weight oltrations, weight spectral sequences, and weight complexes (for and func- tors. Our basic notion is the new deonition of a weight structure for a triangulated C_. We prove that a weight structure deones Postnikov towers of objects of C_; these towers

241

Modern Summation Methods for Loop Integrals in Quantum Field Theory: The Packages Sigma, EvaluateMultiSums and SumProduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large class of Feynman integrals, like e.g., two-point parameter integrals with at most one mass and containing local operator insertions, can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric expressions. In this survey article we present a difference field approach for symbolic summation that enables one to simplify such definite nested sums to indefinite nested sums. In particular, the simplification is given -if possible- in terms of harmonic sums, generalized harmonic sums, cyclotomic harmonic sums or binomial sums. Special emphasis is put on the developed Mathematica packages Sigma, EvaluateMultiSums and SumProduction that assist in the task to perform these simplifications completely automatically for huge input expressions.

Schneider, C.

2014-06-01

242

CH Analog/Digital Service CH Analog/Digital Service CH Analog/Digital Service CH Analog/Digital Service 2 Analog CBB 30.1 Digital MTV2 65 Digital NFL HD 100 Digital Hit List  

E-print Network

Digital Food Network HD 113 Digital Rock 10 Digital WMHT (PBS) 34.1 Digital NHL Network HD (NY) 114 News HD 117 Digital Adult Alternative 12 Digital TELEMUNDO HD 35.1 Digital MLB Network HD (NY) 118 WNYA 45 Digital National Geographic HD 129 Digital True Country 19 Digital BET HD 46 Digital

Linhardt, Robert J.

243

Digital Himalaya  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those who feel that there may be a paucity of material on the Himalayan region, they will need to take a close look at this fine site provided through a collaboration between the Department of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University and the Anthropology Department at Cornell University. Since its inception in December 2000, the partners have managed to digitize a number of photographic collections, several journals, and a number of short films. Scholars with an interest in Himalayan studies will want to browse through the digitized volumes of such publications as Contributions to Nepalese Studies and the Journal of Bhutan Studies. One particularly intriguing collection made available here is the Frederick Williamson Collection. Williamson was a British political officer stationed in Sikkim, Bhutan, and Tibet during the 1930s. During his tenure there he and his wife took some 1,700 photographs documenting their experiences and also made a number of short films, which are also available for viewing on the site. Visitors to the site may also want to register with the project so that they are informed of project updates. [KMG

244

Information Processing Digital Systems  

E-print Network

. · The process of conversion is known as Digitization or Quantization. · Analog-to-digital-converters (ADC information processing and representation are clarified. These include: 1. "Analog" versus "Digital" parameters and systems. 2. Digitization of "Analog" signals. 3. Digital representation of information. 4

Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

245

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

246

A Bayesian analysis of the nucleon QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

QCD sum rules of the nucleon channel are reanalyzed, using the maximum entropy method (MEM). This new approach, based on the Bayesian probability theory, does not restrict the spectral function to the usual "pole + continuum"-form, allowing a more flexible investigation of the nucleon spectral function. Making use of this flexibility, we are able to investigate the spectral functions of various interpolating fields, finding that the nucleon ground state mainly couples to an operator containing a scalar diquark. Moreover, we formulate the Gaussian sum rule for the nucleon channel and find that it is more suitable for the MEM analysis to extract the nucleon pole in the region of its experimental value, while the Borel sum rule does not contain enough information to clearly separate the nucleon pole from the continuum.

Keisuke Ohtani; Philipp Gubler; Makoto Oka

2011-04-29

247

Width of exotics from QCD sum rules : Tetraquarks or molecules?  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the widths of the recently observed charmonium like resonances X(3872), Z(4430), and Z{sub 2}(4250) using QCD sum rules. Extending previous analyses regarding these states as diquark-antiquark states or molecules of D mesons, we introduce the Breit-Wigner function in the pole term. We find that introducing the width increases the mass at the small Borel window region. Using the operator-product expansion up to dimension 8, we find that the sum rules based on interpolating current with molecular components give a stable Borel curve from which both the masses and widths of these resonances can be well obtained. Thus the QCD sum rule approach strongly favors the molecular description of these states.

Lee, Su Houng; Morita, Kenji [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nielsen, Marina [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2008-10-01

248

A Computer Algebra Toolbox for Harmonic Sums Related to Particle Physics  

E-print Network

In this work we present the computer algebra package HarmonicSums and its theoretical background for the manipulation of harmonic sums and some related quantities as for example Euler-Zagier sums and harmonic polylogarithms. Harmonic sums and generalized harmonic sums emerge as special cases of so-called d'Alembertian solutions of recurrence relations. We show that harmonic sums form a quasi-shuffle algebra and describe a method how we can find algebraically independent harmonic sums. In addition, we define a differentiation on harmonic sums via an extended version of the Mellin transform. Along with that, new relations between harmonic sums will arise. Furthermore, we present an algorithm which rewrites certain types of nested sums into expressions in terms of harmonic sums. We illustrate by nontrivial examples how these algorithms in cooperation with the summation package Sigma support the evaluation of Feynman integrals.

Jakob Ablinger

2010-11-04

249

Digital implementation for conic section function networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital implementation is presented for a neural network, which uses conic section function neurons. This network is employed in a digit pattern recognition application. The neural network is trained without any consideration about non-idealities of hardware implementation and then obtained weight parameters are converted to fixed-point bit-string format in order to match hardware implementation. Controlling the number of bits

Hadi Esmaelzadeh; Hamed Farshbaf; C. Lucas; S. M. Fakhraie

2004-01-01

250

MIMO radar waveform design with peak and sum power constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal power allocation for multiple-input multiple-output radar waveform design subject to combined peak and sum power constraints using two different criteria is addressed in this paper. The first one is by maximizing the mutual information between the random target impulse response and the reflected waveforms, and the second one is by minimizing the mean square error in estimating the target impulse response. It is assumed that the radar transmitter has knowledge of the target's second-order statistics. Conventionally, the power is allocated to transmit antennas based on the sum power constraint at the transmitter. However, the wide power variations across the transmit antenna pose a severe constraint on the dynamic range and peak power of the power amplifier at each antenna. In practice, each antenna has the same absolute peak power limitation. So it is desirable to consider the peak power constraint on the transmit antennas. A generalized constraint that jointly meets both the peak power constraint and the average sum power constraint to bound the dynamic range of the power amplifier at each transmit antenna is proposed recently. The optimal power allocation using the concept of waterfilling, based on the sum power constraint, is the special case of p = 1. The optimal solution for maximizing the mutual information and minimizing the mean square error is obtained through the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) approach, and the numerical solutions are found through a nested Newton-type algorithm. The simulation results show that the detection performance of the system with both sum and peak power constraints gives better detection performance than considering only the sum power constraint at low signal-to-noise ratio.

Arulraj, Merline; Jeyaraman, Thiruvengadam S.

2013-12-01

251

Testing solar lepton mixing sum rules in neutrino oscillation experiments  

E-print Network

Small discrete family symmetries such as S4, A4 or A5 may lead to simple leading-order predictions for the neutrino mixing matrix such as the bimaximal, tribimaximal or golden ratio mixing patterns, which may be brought into agreement with experimental data with the help of corrections from the charged-lepton sector. Such scenarios generally lead to relations among the parameters of the physical leptonic mixing matrix known as solar lepton mixing sum rules. In this article, we present a simple derivation of such solar sum rules, valid for arbitrary neutrino and charged lepton mixing angles and phases, assuming only {\\theta}13^{\

Ballett, Peter; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A

2014-01-01

252

Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give rise to certain convergence problems widely ignored by physicists. We give a complete answer in the case of smooth potentials and formulate a number of open problems related to less regular perturbations.

Cornean, Horia D.; Nenciu, Gheorghe

2010-11-01

253

Chiral QCD sum rules for open charm mesons  

E-print Network

QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. This allows for the identification of such QCD condensates which drive the non-degeneracy of chiral partners in lowest order of the strong coupling alpha_s and which therefore may serve as "order parameters" for chiral restoration (or elements thereof).

Thomas Hilger; Burkhard Kampfer; Stefan Leupold

2011-09-06

254

Friedel sum rule and Levinson theorem for massless Weyl fermions  

SciTech Connect

The Friedel sum rule for massless Weyl fermions is given. Due to the parity violation of Weyl fermions it is shown that the global phases of spinors are important in determining the accurate sum rule, and the Levinson theorem is proved to be determined only by the number of discrete zero modes. For potential barriers that do not allow any zero modes it is revealed that a particular duality relation exists between the phase shifts at the Fermi surface and the critical point of zero momentum.

Lin, D.-H. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2006-05-15

255

A Derivative of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

We derive a sum rule which establishes a linear relation between a particle's anomalous magnetic moment and a quantity connected to the photoabsorption cross-section. This quantity cannot be measured directly. However, it can be computed within a given theory. As an example, we demonstrate validity of the sum rule in QED at tree level---the renowned Schwinger's correction to the anomalous magnetic moment is readily reproduced. In the case of the strong interactions, we also consider the calculation of the nucleon magnetic moment within chiral theories.

Vladimir Pascalutsa; Barry Holstein; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2004-08-01

256

Sum rules and spin multipair excitations in liquid 3He  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipair excitations in liquid 3He at low temperature are investigated using a sum-rule approach. The m3=FS(q,omega)omega3 domega sum rule is calculated microscopically by properly accounting for short-range correlations. The average spin multipair (mp) energy omegai31[mi3(mp)\\/mi1(mp)]1\\/2 is found to be ~50 K in the low-q limit. A rigorous lower bound for the multipair contribution to the static form factor in the

F. Dalfovo; S. Stringari

1989-01-01

257

Sum rules and spin multipair excitations in liquid 3He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multipair excitations in liquid 3He at low temperature are investigated using a sum-rule approach. The m3=FS(q,?)?3 d? sum rule is calculated microscopically by properly accounting for short-range correlations. The average spin multipair (mp) energy ?i31[mi3(mp)/mi1(mp)]1/2 is found to be ~50 K in the low-q limit. A rigorous lower bound for the multipair contribution to the static form factor in the low-q limit is derived. The relative importance of coherent and spin-dependent multipair excitations is also discussed.

Dalfovo, F.; Stringari, S.

1989-07-01

258

Sum rules of four-neutrino mixing in matter  

E-print Network

Assuming the existence of one light sterile neutrino, we investigate the neutrino flavor mixing matrix in matter. Sum rules between the mixing parameters in vacuum and their counterparts in matter are derived. By using these new sum rules, we obtain the simple but exact expressions of the effective flavor mixing matrix in matter in terms of neutrino masses and the mixing parameters in vacuum. The rephasing invariants, sides of unitarity quadrangles and oscillation probabilities in matter are also achieved. Our model-independent results will be very helpful for analyzing flavor mixing and CP violation in the future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

He Zhang

2006-06-04

259

Testing solar lepton mixing sum rules in neutrino oscillation experiments  

E-print Network

Small discrete family symmetries such as S4, A4 or A5 may lead to simple leading-order predictions for the neutrino mixing matrix such as the bimaximal, tribimaximal or golden ratio mixing patterns, which may be brought into agreement with experimental data with the help of corrections from the charged-lepton sector. Such scenarios generally lead to relations among the parameters of the physical leptonic mixing matrix known as solar lepton mixing sum rules. In this article, we present a simple derivation of such solar sum rules, valid for arbitrary neutrino and charged lepton mixing angles and phases, assuming only {\\theta}13^{\

Peter Ballett; Stephen F. King; Christoph Luhn; Silvia Pascoli; Michael A. Schmidt

2014-10-28

260

Different weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: postpartum weight and birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the effect of different gestational weight gains among women of normal weight before pregnancy on babies’ birth weights, and women’s weights 18–24 months postpartum.Methods: Two groups of women of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index [BMI] 19.6–25.4 kg\\/m2) took part in the study (n = 200). They gained either moderate weight (9–15 kg) or high weight

Inga Thorsdottir; Bryndis E Birgisdottir

1998-01-01

261

NCI Digital Media Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

NCI Digital Media Guidelines NCI Digital Media Guidelines The NCI Digital Media Guidelines provide developers and content managers guidance on the visual and content standards, as well as policies and procedures, in effect for National Cancer Institute

262

Evolution of Digital Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concepts of digital organisms and digital evolution. They learn about the research that digital evolution software makes possible, and compare and contrast it with biological evolution.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

263

Digital Durham  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Durham, North Carolina has been the subject of many scholarly works, and its particular location and context makes it a compelling place for persons interested in examining urbanization, immigration, industrialization, and emancipation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Created by Duke University and the North Carolina State Library, this digital archive presents a cornucopia of primary sources, including personal letters, entries from a prominent general store in the region, maps, and census data. Visitors should feel free to browse through these documents, or they can also perform a detailed search. Other features of the site include a brief geographic overview of the Piedmont region and a glossary of terms used in the 1880 census. Educators will enjoy looking over the "Teachers' Corner", which includes lesson plans that utilize some of the primary documents in the archive.

264

Digital Horizons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

265

Digital Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Avionics activities played an important role in the advancements made in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. This document profiles advances made in each of these areas by the aerospace industry, NASA centers, and the U.S. military. Emerging communication technologies covered in this document include Internet connectivity onboard aircraft, wireless broadband communication for aircraft, and a mobile router for aircraft to communicate in multiple communication networks over the course of a flight. Military technologies covered in this document include avionics for unmanned combat air vehicles and microsatellites, and head-up displays. Other technologies covered in this document include an electronic flight bag for the Boeing 777, and surveillance systems for managing airport operations.

Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

2003-01-01

266

Digital Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Digital Communication, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume IV âÂÂDigital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Electrical signal types, Optical data communication, and Network topology. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-11

267

Digital structural  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.

Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Tanaka, K.L.

1998-01-01

268

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights  

E-print Network

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between the transactions, and the weighted association rule mining does not work on databases with only binary attributes

Bai, Fengshan

269

Raman sum rule and the relation to the infrared sum rule in La2-xCuO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic Raman scattering has no sum rule in no and weak correlation, but the existence of sum rule has been proposed in strong correlation. The present Raman scattering disclosed that the first moment of the Raman susceptibility is proportional to the generalized moment of the optical conductivity in the metallic phase. The present experiment disclosed that a large amount of electronic states are incoherent states. The incoherent states are the relevant states for the superconductivity, because the gap opens in the incoherent states as well as the coherent states.

Sugai, S.; Takayanagi, Y.; Hayamizu, N.; Muroi, T.; Nohara, J.; Shiozaki, R.; Okazaki, K.; Takenaka, K.

2010-12-01

270

Informed Test Component Weighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

Rudner, Lawrence M.

2001-01-01

271

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2014-04-01

272

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2013-04-01

273

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2010-04-01

274

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2012-04-01

275

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2011-04-01

276

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2014-04-01

277

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2012-04-01

278

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2013-04-01

279

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2011-04-01

280

NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION BY SUMS OF EXPONENTIALS AND TRANSLATES  

E-print Network

this problem by an approximate Prony method (APM) and prove the stability of the solution in the square of a 1­periodic window function. Determine all shift parameters, all coefficients, and the number, this problem is transferred into the above parameter estimation problem for an exponential sum which is solved

281

Zero-sum two-person games in LCP  

SciTech Connect

In zero-sum two-person games, von Neumann`s minimax theorem and Kaplansky`s theorem on completely mixed games play a significant role. We derive some new and interesting results in Linear complementarity problem using the above mentioned theorems, especially in identifying certain class of Q-matrices.

Parthasarathy, T.

1994-12-31

282

Locally Informed Global Search for Sums of Combinatorial Games  

E-print Network

Locally Informed Global Search for Sums of Combinatorial Games Martin M¨uller and Zhichao Li games. They can be characterized as local analysis and global search. Algorithms from combinatorial game depends mainly on the complexity of analyzing individual sub- games. Most importantly

Müller, Martin

283

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

284

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games  

E-print Network

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B.P. 93 2004 Route of South Australia The Levels, Australia, 5095 Abstract This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions

285

A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

2009-01-01

286

A topological state sum model for fermions on the circle  

E-print Network

A simple state sum model for fermions on a 1-manifold is constructed. The model is independent of the triangulation and gives exactly the same partition function as the Dirac functional integral with zeta-function regularisation. Some implications for more realistic physical models are discussed.

John W. Barrett; Steven Kerr; Jorma Louko

2012-11-19

287

On Stirling numbers and Euler sums Victor Adamchik  

E-print Network

On Stirling numbers and Euler sums Victor Adamchik Wolfram Research Inc., 100 Trade Center Dr of Stirling numbers of the rst kind for non-integer values of their arguments. We discuss the analytic representations of Stirling numbers through harmonic numbers, the generalized hy- pergeometric function

Adamchik, Victor

288

On Stirling numbers and Euler sums Victor Adamchik  

E-print Network

On Stirling numbers and Euler sums Victor Adamchik Wolfram Research Inc., 100 Trade Center Dr of Stirling numbers of the first kind for non­integer values of their arguments. We discuss the analytic representations of Stirling numbers through harmonic numbers, the generalized hy­ pergeometric function

Adamchik, Victor

289

Probability Inequalities for Sums of Bounded Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper bounds are derived for the probability that the sum S of n independent random variables exceeds its mean ES by a positive number nt. It is assumed that the range of each summand of S is bounded or bounded above. The bounds for Pr {S – ES ? nt} depend only on the endpoints of the ranges of the

Wassily Hoeffding

1963-01-01

290

The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Albright, Brian

2012-01-01

291

LIMITING SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SUMS OF UNITARY AND ORTHOGONAL MATRICES  

E-print Network

transform of Tn that is made in [7, Theorem 1]. 1. Introduction The method of moments and the Stieltjes. As a byproduct of our approach, we relax the requirement of uniformly bounded imaginary part of Stieltjes.5]), motivated us to consider the related problem of sum of d independent Haar distributed, unitary or orthogonal

Dembo, Amir

292

Developing Africa's economy Doing the sums on Africa  

E-print Network

Africa and has promoted insurgencies across the Sahel (the border region between desert and savannah productivity, but then responded with around $500m in emergency food aid in 2003 when the crops failed assistance. Strip out sums for emergencies such as food aid and anti-retroviral medicines, military

293

12/September/1999 DIAMAGNETIC BEHAVIOR OF SUMS OF DIRICHLET EIGENVALUES  

E-print Network

12/September/1999 DIAMAGNETIC BEHAVIOR OF SUMS OF DIRICHLET EIGENVALUES L'aszl'o Erd�os \\Lambda . Our method involves a new diamagnetic inequality for constant magnetic fields. 1. Introduction When studying Schr¨odinger operators with magnetic fields, the diamagnetic inequal­ ity is the only general tool

294

Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

1994-01-01

295

Sums over geometries and improvements on the mean field approximation  

SciTech Connect

The saddle points of a Lagrangian due to Efetov are analyzed. This Lagrangian was originally proposed as a tool for calculating systematic corrections to the Bethe approximation, a mean-field approximation which is important in statistical mechanics, glasses, coding theory, and combinatorial optimization. Detailed analysis shows that the trivial saddle point generates a sum over geometries reminiscent of dynamically triangulated quantum gravity, which suggests new possibilities to design sums over geometries for the specific purpose of obtaining improved mean-field approximations to D-dimensional theories. In the case of the Efetov theory, the dominant geometries are locally treelike, and the sum over geometries diverges in a way that is similar to quantum gravity's divergence when all topologies are included. Expertise from the field of dynamically triangulated quantum gravity about sums over geometries may be able to remedy these defects and fulfill the Efetov theory's original promise. The other saddle points of the Efetov Lagrangian are also analyzed; the Hessian at these points is nonnormal and pseudo-Hermitian, which is unusual for bosonic theories. The standard formula for Gaussian integrals is generalized to nonnormal kernels.

Sacksteder, Vincent E. IV [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector III, Block JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2007-11-15

296

A new leptogenesis scenario with predictions on \\sum m_{\  

E-print Network

In an SU(3)_c \\times SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_L \\times U(1)_R left-right symmetric framework with spontaneous breaking U(1)_L \\times U(1)_R \\rightarrow U(1)_{B-L}, we present a new leptogenesis scenario to predict low limits on neutrinos' mass scale \\sum m_{\

Gu, Pei-Hong

2014-01-01

297

On Gaussian-summing identity maps between Lorentz sequence spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using formulae for the interpolation of spaces of operators, we show that for 1 summing, where 1\\/˜ p =1 \\/p ?1\\/ 2a nd 1\\/˜ q =1 \\/q ?1\\/2. This extends the corresponding result forp-spaces due to Linde and Pietsch.

Carsten Michels

298

Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = langlebar ssrangle\\/langlebar qqrangle with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy

Cesareo A. Dominguez; Nasrallah F. Nasrallah; Karl Schilcher

2008-01-01

299

Self Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing  

E-print Network

the subsequent genetic expression [1, 2]. The concept of self-modification can be a unifying way of looking that by utilizing self-modification opera- tions within an existing computational method (a form of geneticSelf Modifying Cartesian Genetic Programming: Fibonacci, Squares, Regression and Summing Simon

Fernandez, Thomas

300

Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

Ng, Wan

2012-01-01

301

Matrix error correction for digital data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for digital data error detection and correction is disclosed which adds alignment and checksum bytes to three sides of a matrix (24) of digital data to be protected. This technique is particularly used for the recording and storage (16,18) of digital data on video tape medium (14). The digital data is treated as a matrix block (24). Checksum and alignment bytes are added (20) to the digital data before tape storage and stripped (22) therefrom after successful alignment checks and data validation. In particular, the first column may be used to provide alignment bytes of a predetermined value for each row. The last column provides row checksum bytes for the data in each row. The last row provides column check sum bytes for each column, excluding the column of alignment bytes. The data location at the intersection of the row of column checksum bytes and the column of row checksum bytes may be used as a checksum byte for either the row or column checksum bytes.

Dotson, Ronald S. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

302

Maintaining a Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... and drink Other ways to maintian a healthy weight? Limit portion size to control calorie intake. Add ... Go4Life Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall health and well-being. ...

303

Assessing Your Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... provider about how you might achieve a healthier body weight. Obesity and overweight have been shown to increase ... Contact CDC-INFO Healthy Weight Introduction Assessing Your Weight BMI - Body Mass Index Adult BMI Calculator Metric Version Adult - ...

304

Lossless compression of weight vectors from an adaptive filter  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for lossless waveform compression can be applied to the transmission of weight vectors from an orbiting satellite. The vectors, which are a part of a hybrid analog/digital adaptive filter, are a representation of the radio frequency background seen by the satellite. An approach is used which treats each adaptive weight as a time-varying waveform.

Bredemann, M.V.; Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

1994-08-01

305

Bach Digital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that Johann Sebastian Bach was a gifted and prodigious composer would be like saying that Shakespeare merely wrote a few plays. This Web site is a loving tribute to his work, undertaken by the main repositories of Bach's compositions, including the Bach-Archiv in Leipzig and the University of Leipzig. New visitors to the site will want to take the well-produced guided tour that helps orient users to the wide variety of materials contained on the site. Perhaps one of the main highlights of the site is the original Bach autographs that have been digitized for public perusal. Autographs are musical manuscripts that have been written by the composer himself, and in the case of Bach, offer intimate insight into the composition process. Along with essays on the preservation of these important documents, viewers can view selected compositions, among them the "Prelude and Fugue in G Major" and the "Christmas Oratorio." Additionally, visitors can hear sound samples and view photographs of musical instruments built during his lifetime, including a lute, the legendary organ from Hilbersdorf, and echo flutes. Overall, it's a fine tribute to Bach, and more broadly, musicology.

2000-01-01

306

Statistics of weighted Poisson events and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistics of the sum of random weights where the number of weights is Poisson distributed has important applications in nuclear physics, particle physics and astrophysics. Events are frequently weighted according to their acceptance or relevance to a certain type of reaction. The sum is described by the compound Poisson distribution (CPD) which is shortly reviewed. It is shown that the CPD can be approximated by a scaled Poisson distribution (SPD). The SPD is applied to parameter estimation in situations where the data are distorted by resolution effects. It performs considerably better than the normal approximation that is usually used. A special Poisson bootstrap technique is presented which permits to derive confidence limits for observations following the CPD.

Bohm, G.; Zech, G.

2014-06-01

307

Educational Applications for Digital Cameras.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses uses of digital cameras in education. Highlights include advantages and disadvantages, digital photography assignments and activities, camera features and operation, applications for digital images, accessory equipment, and comparisons between digital cameras and other digitizers. (AEF)

Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

1997-01-01

308

WEIGHTED Lp -BOUNDEDNESS OF FOURIER SERIES  

E-print Network

Jacobi weight on the interval [-1, 1] and, for each function f, let Snf denote the n-th partial sum with respect to dµ. The study of the boundedness Snf Lp(updµ) C f Lp(vpdµ), (1) where u(x) = (1 - x)a (1 + x, . . . , N) (3) and A a, B b, Gi gi (4) hold, then C > 0 such that Snf Lp(updµ) C f Lp(vpdµ) f Lp (vp dµ

Pérez, Mario

309

EMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION  

E-print Network

: Communication and Digital Media 2. Data Context and Digital Personas 3. Personal Data: Use, Reuse-sector discussion about people's relation to the digital ecosystem, which depends on personal data to deliver valueEMPOWERING DIGITAL SELF DETERMINATION Symposium Summary Stanford University, Summer 2012 #12

Das, Rhiju

310

Storytelling with Digital Photographs  

E-print Network

Storytelling with Digital Photographs: Supporting the Practice, Understanding the Benefit Brian M of Technology #12;8/6/07 Storytelling for Digital Photographs 2 Digital Capture of Experiences #12;8/6/07 Storytelling for Digital Photographs 3 Sharing Our Experiences · Display ­ Picture Frames ­ Photo Albums

Guzdial, Mark

311

Preserving digital information forever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well within our lifetime we can expect to see most information being created, stored and used digitally. Despite the growing importance of digital data, the wider community pays almost no attention to the problems of preserving this digital information for the future. Even within the archival and library communities most work on digital preservation has been theoretical, not practical, and

Andrew Waugh; Ross Wilkinson; Brendan Hills; Jon Dell'oro

2000-01-01

312

H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

Prensky, Marc

2009-01-01

313

Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.  

PubMed

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-12-01

314

The Relative Inefficiency of Sequence Weights Approaches in Determining a Nucleotide Position Weight Matrix*  

PubMed Central

Approaches based upon sequence weights, to construct a position weight matrix of nucleotides from aligned inputs, are popular but little effort has been expended to measure their quality. We derive optimal sequence weights that minimize the sum of the variances of the estimators of base frequency parameters for sequences related by a phylogenetic tree. Using these we find that approaches based upon sequence weights can perform very poorly in comparison to approaches based upon a theoretically optimal maximum-likelihood method in the inference of the parameters of a position-weight matrix. Specifically, we find that among a collection of primate sequences, even an optimal sequences-weights approach is only 51% as efficient as the maximum-likelihood approach in inferences of base frequency parameters. We also show how to employ the variance estimators to obtain a greedy ordering of species for sequencing. Application of this ordering for the weighted estimators to a primate collection yields a curve with a long plateau that is not observed with maximum-likelihood estimators. This plateau indicates that the use of weighted estimators on these data seriously limits the utility of obtaining the sequences of more than two or three additional species. PMID:16646830

Newberg, Lee A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles E.

2006-01-01

315

Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity. PMID:24533218

Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

2013-01-01

316

Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

Ahumada, Albert J Jr

2002-01-01

317

Spine head calcium as a measure of summed postsynaptic activity for driving synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

We use a computational model of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell to demonstrate that spine head calcium provides an instantaneous readout at each synapse of the postsynaptic weighted sum of all presynaptic activity impinging on the cell. The form of the readout is equivalent to the functions of weighted, summed inputs used in neural network learning rules. Within a dendritic layer, peak spine head calcium levels are either a linear or sigmoidal function of the number of coactive synapses, with nonlinearity depending on the ability of voltage spread in the dendrites to reach calcium spike threshold. This is strongly controlled by the potassium A-type current, with calcium spikes and the consequent sigmoidal increase in peak spine head calcium present only when the A-channel density is low. Other membrane characteristics influence the gain of the relationship between peak calcium and the number of active synapses. In particular, increasing spine neck resistance increases the gain due to increased voltage responses to synaptic input in spine heads. Colocation of stimulated synapses on a single dendritic branch also increases the gain of the response. Input pathways cooperate: CA3 inputs to the proximal apical dendrites can strongly amplify peak calcium levels due to weak EC input to the distal dendrites, but not so strongly vice versa. CA3 inputs to the basal dendrites can boost calcium levels in the proximal apical dendrites, but the relative electrical compactness of the basal dendrites results in the reverse effect being less significant. These results give pointers as to how to better describe the contributions of pre- and postsynaptic activity in the learning "rules" that apply in these cells. The calcium signal is closer in form to the activity measures used in traditional neural network learning rules than to the spike times used in spike-timing-dependent plasticity. PMID:25058697

Graham, Bruce P; Saudargiene, Ausra; Cobb, Stuart

2014-10-01

318

Digital Sensor Technology  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

2013-07-01

319

Strawkets and Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effect that weight has on rocket flight. Students construct a variety of their own straw-launched rockets, or "strawkets," that have different weights. Specifically, they observe what happens when the weight of a strawket is altered by reducing its physical size and using different construction materials. Finally, the importance of weight distribution in a rocket is determined.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

320

Eigenvalue statistics for the sum of two complex Wishart matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum of independent Wishart matrices, taken from distributions with unequal covariance matrices, plays a crucial role in multivariate statistics, and has applications in the fields of quantitative finance and telecommunication. However, analytical results concerning the corresponding eigenvalue statistics have remained unavailable, even for the sum of two Wishart matrices. This can be attributed to the complicated and rotationally noninvariant nature of the matrix distribution that makes extracting the information about eigenvalues a nontrivial task. Using a generalization of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral, we find exact solution to this problem for the complex Wishart case when one of the covariance matrices is proportional to the identity matrix, while the other is arbitrary. We derive exact and compact expressions for the joint probability density and marginal density of eigenvalues. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations and we find perfect agreement.

Kumar, Santosh

2014-09-01

321

On the Maximal Sum of Exponents of Runsin a String  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A run is an inclusion maximal occurrence in a string (as a subinterval) of a repetition v with a period p such that 2p ? |v|. The exponent of a run is defined as |v|/p and is ? 2. We show new bounds on the maximal sum of exponents of runs in a string of length n. Our upper bound of 4.1 n is better than the best previously known proven bound of 5.6 n by Crochemore & Ilie (2008). The lower bound of 2.035 n, obtained using a family of binary words, contradicts the conjecture of Kolpakov & Kucherov (1999) that the maximal sum of exponents of runs in a string of length n is smaller than 2n.

Crochemore, Maxime; Kubica, Marcin; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Wale?, Tomasz

322

Direct Sum Matrix Game with Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game  

PubMed Central

A direct sum form is proposed for constructing a composite game from two games, prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game. This kind of direct sum form game is called a multiple roles game. The replicator dynamics of the multiple roles game with will-mixed populations is explored. The dynamical behaviors on square lattice are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of population on square lattice depend on the mixing proportion of the two simple games. Mixing SD activities to pure PD population inhibits the proportion of cooperators in PD, and mixing PD activities to pure SD population stimulates the proportion of cooperators in SD. Besides spatial reciprocity, our results show that there are roles reciprocities between different types of individuals. PMID:24376505

Ma, Chengzhang; Cao, Wei; Liu, Wangheng; Gui, Rong; Jia, Ya

2013-01-01

323

A critical assessment of the angular momentum sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are now five angular momentum relations or sum rules in the literature: the Jaffe, Manohar relation for a longitudinally polarized nucleon, and the Bakker, Leader, Trueman result for the case of transverse polarization; the Ji relation for longitudinal polarization, and the Leader result for transverse polarization, both involving generalized parton distributions; and a new sum rule due to Ji, Xiong and Yuan dealing with the transverse component of the Pauli-Lubanski vector. I discuss these various relations and examine their precise interpretation in the light of the so-called “angular momentum controversy”. In particular, I show that the claim of Ji, Xiong, Yuan that their Pauli-Lubanski relation is frame or energy independent is incorrect and that they have missed an energy dependent term in their expression.

Leader, Elliot

2013-03-01

324

Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = langlebar ssrangle/langlebar qqrangle with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy Sum Rules (FESR) that involve as integration kernel a second degree polynomial, tuned to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties in the hadronic spectral functions. As a result, the parameters limiting the precision of this determination are ?QCD, and to a major extent the strange quark mass. From the positivity of Rsu there follows an upper bound on the latter: \\overline{m_{s}}(2 GeV) <= 121 (105) MeV, for ?QCD = 330 (420) MeV.

Dominguez, Cesareo A.; Nasrallah, Nasrallah F.; Schilcher, Karl

2008-02-01

325

First application of the ?-summing technique in inverse kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-summing technique was successfully implemented for the first time in inverse kinematics using the NSCL Summing NaI(Tl) detector at the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. This new method offers a way to measure (p,?) and (?,?) reactions on unstable nuclei, which are critical for an improved understanding of nucleosynthesis. As a proof of principle, the well-known resonances at Ec.m.=956 keV in the p(27Al,?)28Si reaction and at Ec.m.=1400 keV in the p(58Ni,?)59Cu reaction were measured and their resonance strengths were deduced. The values of the present work agree well with the reported literature values, demonstrating the viability of the technique.

Quinn, S. J.; Spyrou, A.; Simon, A.; Battaglia, A.; Bowers, M.; Bucher, B.; Casarella, C.; Couder, M.; DeYoung, P. A.; Dombos, A. C.; Greene, J. P.; Görres, J.; Kontos, A.; Li, Q.; Long, A.; Moran, M.; Paul, N.; Pereira, J.; Robertson, D.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. K.; Stech, E.; Talwar, R.; Tan, W. P.; Wiescher, M.

2014-09-01

326

Algebraic Riccati equations in zero-sum differential games  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedure for finding the closed-loop Nash equilibrium solution of two-player zero-sum linear time-invariant differential games with quadratic performance criteria and classical information pattern may be reduced in most cases to the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Based on the results obtained by Willems, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of solutions to these equations are derived, and explicit conditions for a scalar example are given.

Johnson, T. L.; Chao, A.

1974-01-01

327

A Collocation-Based WSD Model: RFR-SUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the concept of Relative Frequency Ratio (RFR) is presented to evaluate the strength of collocation. Based on\\u000a RFR, a WSD Model RFR-SUM is put forward to disambiguate polysemous Chinese word sense. It selects 9 frequently used polysemous\\u000a words as examples, and achieves the average precision up to 92:50% in open test. It has compared the model with

Weiguang Qu; Zhifang Sui; Genlin Ji; Shiwen Yu; Junsheng Zhou

2007-01-01

328

Adams-Cowell integrator with a first sum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As compared with the classical form, the Adams- Cowell formulae with the first sum are preferred for their slower accumulation of the roundoff error. It is the most efficient method among the excising integrators for integrating the orbits with small eccentricities. Based on this method, the article lists the formulae for step by step integration, for initial procedure and for interpolation at the non-step points and further develops them in detail to fit the practical application.

Huang, Tian-yi; Zhou, Qing-lin

1993-04-01

329

Proton spin, sum rules, QCD and higher twist  

E-print Network

We examine the present status of the Bjorken sum rule in the light of recent data on the spin structure functions of the proton, neutron and deuteron obtained by the CERN and SLAC experimental groups. We also discuss the role of possible higher-twist contributions and higher-order PQCD corrections and comment on the extraction of the necessary parameters, D and F, obtained from hyperon semi-leptonic decays.

Ratcliffe, P G

1995-01-01

330

Rapid vibrational imaging with sum frequency generation microscopy  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate rapid vibrational imaging based on sum frequency generation (SFG) microscopy with a collinear excitation geometry. Using the tunable picosecond pulses from a high-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator, vibrationally selective imaging of collagen fibers is achieved with submicrometer lateral resolution. We furthermore show simultaneous SFG and second harmonic generation imaging to emphasize the compatibility of the microscope with other nonlinear optical modalities. PMID:21964132

Raghunathan, Varun; Han, Yang; Korth, Olaf; Ge, Nien-Hui; Potma, Eric Olaf

2014-01-01

331

QCD sum rules for the baryon octet in nuclear matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The baryon self-energies are expressed in terms of the QCD condensates of the lowest dimension in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter within the QCD sum-rule approach. The self-energies are shown to satisfy the Gell-Mann-Okubo relations in the linear SU(3) breaking approximation. The results are in qualitative agreement with those obtained by the standard nuclear physics methods.

Kryshen, E. L.

2011-11-01

332

Sum frequency generation of hydrogen-bonding liquid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy sum frequency generation (SFG) is used to examine the physical\\/chemical environment of molecules at the liquid\\/air interface. In glycerol\\/water mixtures, glycerol is found to partition to the surface in excess compared to the bulk concentration. Further, it is discovered that the free OH peak of water (an OH group projecting out of the liquid into the

Steve Baldelli

1998-01-01

333

A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

Aliev, T. M. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Permanent institute: Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ozpineci, A. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-12-28

334

Charm mass determination from QCD charmonium sum rules at order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the charm quark mass from a charmonium QCD sum rules analysis. On the theoretical side we use input from perturbation theory at . Improvements with respect to previous analyses include (1) an account of all available e + e - hadronic cross section data and (2) a thorough analysis of perturbative uncertainties. Using a data clustering method to combine hadronic cross section data sets from different measurements we demonstrate that using all available experimental data up to c.m. energies of 10 .538 GeV allows for determinations of experimental moments and their correlations with small errors and that there is no need to rely on theoretical input above the charmonium resonances. We also show that good convergence properties of the perturbative series for the theoretical sum rule moments need to be considered with some care when extracting the charm mass and demonstrate how to set up a suitable set of scale variations to obtain a proper estimate of the perturbative uncertainty. As the final outcome of our analysis we obtain . The perturbative error is an order of magnitude larger than the one obtained in previous sum rule analyses.

Dehnadi, Bahman; Hoang, Andre H.; Mateu, Vicent; Zebarjad, S. Mohammad

2013-09-01

335

Mass Dependence of the Entropy Product and Sum  

E-print Network

For black holes with multiple horizons, the area product of all horizons has been proven to be mass independent in many cases. Counterexamples were also found in some occasions. In this paper, we first prove a theorem derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics and a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant. With these arguments, we develop some general criterion for the mass independence of the entropy product as well as the entropy sum. In particular, if a $d$-dimensional spacetime is spherically symmetric and its the radial metric function $f(r)$ is a Laurent series in $r$ with the lowest power $-m$ and the highest power $n$, we find the criteria is extremely simple: The entropy product is mass independent if and only if $m\\geq d-2$ and $n\\geq4-d$. The entropy sum is mass independent if and only if $m\\geq d-2$ and $n\\geq 2$. Compared to previous works, our method does not require an exact expression of the metric. Our arguments turn out to be useful even for rotating black holes. By applying our theorem and lemma to a Myers-Perry black hole with spacetime dimension $d$, we show that the entropy product/sum is mass independent for all $d>4$, while it is mass dependent only for $d=4$, i.e., the Kerr solution.

Yuan Zhang; Sijie Gao

2014-10-27

336

Evaluating weight perception using digital facial-image feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the MophMed study, a joint effort between technologists and doctors to explore the effects of facial image modification on children's body image and on parental support for children's healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors.

Ana C. Andrés Del Valle; Jeannie Huang; Karen Becerra; Susan Fernandez

2009-01-01

337

On the problem of parameter estimation in exponential sums H. N. Mhaskar  

E-print Network

: frequency analysis, spectral analysis problem, parameter estimation, exponential sums, prony method 1On the problem of parameter estimation in exponential sums F. Filbir H. N. Mhaskar , and J. Prestin

Prestin, Jürgen

338

29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments...Appendix C to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments...integer and 0 interest rate i 1 shall apply from...

2010-07-01

339

Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part one of this paper highlights how students today think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors, as a result of being surrounded by new technology. The author compares these “digital natives” with the older generation who are learning and adopting new technology naming them “digital immigrants”.

Marc Prensky

2001-01-01

340

Family Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family Issues Obesity in Children Parenting Weight Control Transcript Overweight parents wanting to ... weight control program among 96 overweight or obese children between the ages of 2 and 5. For ...

341

Weighted network modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

2007-06-01

342

Hourglass of constant weight  

E-print Network

In contrast to a still common belief, a steadily flowing hourglass changes its weight in the course of time. We will show that, nevertheless, it is possible to construct hourglasses that do not change their weight.

Volker Becker; Thorsten Poeschel

2007-01-31

343

Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)  

PubMed Central

The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations.

Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L.; Smith, Kirk R.

2014-01-01

344

On the Evolution of Sum Rules for T-Odd Distribution and Fragmentation Functions  

E-print Network

We test the stability of sum rules for transverse-momentum-dependent distribution and fragmentation functions under probabilistic evolution. We find that preservation of the Burkardt sum rule for Sivers distribution functions is similar to the conservation of longitudinal momentum related to spin-averaged parton distributions. At the same time, the preservation of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for Collins functions is similar to the preservation of the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule for the g2 structure function.

Ratcliffe, Philip G

2014-01-01

345

Gottfried sum from the ratio Fn2/Fp2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results obtained at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron on the structure-function ratio Fn2/Fp2 in the kinematic range 0.004sum F(Fp2-Fn2)dx/x=0.240+/-0.016 is below the quark-parton-model expectation of 1/3.

Amaudruz, P.; Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Baum, G.; Beaufays, J.; Bird, I. G.; Botje, M.; Broggini, C.; Brückner, W.; Brüll, A.; Burger, W. J.; Ciborowski, J.; Crittenden, R.; van Dantzig, R.; Döbbeling, H.; Domingo, J.; Drinkard, J.; Dzierba, A.; Engelien, H.; Ferrero, M. I.; Fluri, M. L.; Grafstrom, P.; von Harrach, D.; van der Heijden, M.; Heusch, C.; Ingram, Q.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janson, K.; de Jong, M.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kaiser, R.; Ketel, T. J.; Klein, F.; Korzen, B.; Krüner, U.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lettenström, F.; Lindqvist, T.; Mallot, G. K.; Mariotti, C.; van Middelkoop, G.; Mizuno, Y.; Nassalski, J.; Nowotny, D.; Pavel, N.; Peschel, H.; Peroni, C.; Povh, B.; Rieger, R.; Rith, K.; Röhrich, K.; Rondio, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Sandacz, A.; Scholz, C.; Schumacher, R.; Sennhauser, U.; Sever, F.; Shibata, T.-A.; Siebler, M.; Simon, A.; Staiano, A.; Taylor, G.; Treichel, M.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Walcher, T.; Welch, K.; Windmolders, R.; Zetsche, F.

1991-05-01

346

Thermal properties of light tensor mesons via QCD sum rules  

E-print Network

The thermal properties of light tensor mesons are investigated in the framework of QCD sum rules at finite temperature. In particular, the masses and decay constants of the light tensor mesons are calculated taking into account the new operators appearing at finite temperature. The numerical results show that, near to the deconfinement temperature, the decay constants decrease with amount of $6%$ compared to their vacuum values. While, the masses diminish about $96%$, $99%$ and $40%$ for $f_{2}(1270)$, $a_{2}(1320)$ and $K_2^*(1430)$ states, respectively. The results obtained at zero temperature are in good consistency with the experimental data as well as existing theoretical predictions.

Azizi, K; Veliev, E Veli; Sundu, H

2014-01-01

347

Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226  

SciTech Connect

Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011. A second batch of approximately 500 more drums were measured and analyzed during the following 2 1/2 months. Four different HPGe detectors were employed for the operation. The screening and spectral summing approach can reduce the overall measurement and analysis time required. However, developing the technical details and automation spreadsheets requires a significant amount of expert time prior to beginning field operations and must be considered in the overall project schedule. This approach has continued to be used for characterizing several hundred more empty drums in 2012 and is planned to continue in 2013. (authors)

Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)] [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)

2013-07-01

348

He3 Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the He-->3(e-->,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1<=Q2<=0.9GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body

Karl Slifer; M. Amarian; L. Auerbach; T. Averett; J. Berthot; P. Bertin; B. Bertozzi; T. Black; E. Brash; D. Brown; E. Burtin; J. Calarco; G. Cates; Z. Chai; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; C. Ciofi Degli Atti; E. Cisbani; C. W. de Jager; A. Deur; R. Disalvo; S. Dieterich; P. Djawotho; M. Finn; K. Fissum; H. Fonvieille; S. Frullani; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; A. Gasparian; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; W. Glöckle; J. Golak; E. Goldberg; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; B. Hersman; R. Holmes; G. M. Huber; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; M. Iodice; S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C. Jones; G. Jones; M. Jones; C. Jutier; H. Kamada; A. Ketikyan; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; K. Kumar; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; G. Laveissiere; J. J. Lerose; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; G. Lolos; S. Malov; J. Marroncle; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; A. Nogga; E. Pace; Z. Papandreou; T. Pavlin; G. G. Petratos; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R. Ransome; Y. Roblin; D. Rowntree; M. Rvachev; F. Sabatié; A. Saha; G. Salmè; S. Scopetta; R. Skibinski; P. Souder; T. Saito; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; S. Teijiro; Luminita Todor; Hiroaki Tsubota; Hiroaki Ueno; Guido Urciuoli; Rob van der Meer; Pascal Vernin; H. Voskanian; Henryk Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Feng Xiong; Wang Xu; Jae-Choon Yang; Bin Zhang; Piotr Zolnierczuk

2008-01-01

349

Simulation approach to coincidence summing in ?-ray spectrometry.  

PubMed

Some of the radionuclides used for efficiency calibration of a HPGe spectrometer are subject to coincidence-summing (CS) and account must be taken of the phenomenon to obtain quantitative results when counting samples to determine their activity. We have used MCNPX simulations, which do not take CS into account, to obtain ?-ray peak intensities that were compared to those observed experimentally. The loss or gain of a measured peak intensity relative to the simulated peak is attributed to CS. CS correction factors are compared with those of ETNA and GESPECOR. Application to a test sample prepared with known radionuclides gave values close to the published activities. PMID:21992843

Dziri, S; Nourreddine, A; Sellam, A; Pape, A; Baussan, E

2012-07-01

350

F-TF Sum and Difference angle formulas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In this task, you will show how all of the sum and difference angle formulas can be derived from a single formula when combined with relations you have...

351

A-CED Sum of angles in a polygon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below is a quadrilateral $ABCD$: Show, by dividing $ABCD$ into triangles, that the sum of the interior angles is $360^\\circ$: m(\\angle A) + m(\\angle B)...

352

GDH sum rule in QED and ChPT  

SciTech Connect

The celebrated Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule (SR) relates the anomalous magnetic moment (a.m.m.) of a spin-1/2 particle to a dispersion integral of its polarized total photoabsorption cross-section: e{sup 2}k{sup 2}/2M{sup 2} = 1/{pi} {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}} d{omega} {Delta}{sigma}({omega})/{omega}, where {Delta}{sigma} = {sigma}{sub 3/2} - {sigma}{sub 1/2} (subscript 3/2 or 1/2 refers to whether the photon beam polarization is in parallel or antiparallel to the polarization of the initial nucleon).

Vladimir Pascalutsa

2005-06-01

353

Global optimization for sum of generalized fractional functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the solution of generalized fractional programming (GFP) problem which contains various variants such as a sum or product of a finite number of ratios of linear functions, polynomial fractional programming, generalized geometric programming, etc. over a polytope. For such problems, we present an efficient unified method. In this method, by utilizing a transformation and a two-part linearization method, a sequence of linear programming relaxations of the initial nonconvex programming problem are derived which are embedded in a branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical results are given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Shen, Pei-Ping; Wang, Chun-Feng

2008-04-01

354

Weinberg sum rules at NLO in 1/Nc  

E-print Network

We study the relevance of different renormalization schemes in Resonance Chiral Theory. The SS-PP correlator is explicitly computed at the one-loop level. Demanding the operator product expansion behaviour at short distances produces a new set of constraints, as some logarithmic terms are absent at high energies. Likewise, the loops induce subleading corrections in 1/Nc to the leading-order constraints, the Weinberg sum rules. We find that the short-distance conditions from a minimally subtracted scheme generate large uncertainties which, alternatively, can be largely simplified in other schemes.

J. J. Sanz-Cillero; J. Trnka

2009-12-10

355

MEAN VALUES OF DEDEKIND SUMS J. B. Conrey  

E-print Network

: Walum [10] has shown that for prime k, X Ã? mod k Ã?(\\Gamma1)=\\Gamma1 jL(1; Ã?)j 4 = Ã? 4 (k \\Gamma 1) k 2 k prime number. Then, k\\Gamma1 X h=1 s(h; k) 2m = 2 i(2m) 2 i(4m) ` k 12 ' 2m +O ii k 9=5 + k 2m\\Gamma1+ 1 `` ah k '' where ((x)) = ae x \\Gamma [x] \\Gamma 1 2 if x = 2 Z 0 if x 2 Z This sum was first studied

Scott, Clayton

356

Nonlocal condensates & QCD sum rules for the pion wave function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The QCD-sum-rule calculation of the pion wave function by Chernyak and Zhitnitsky (CZ) implicitly assumes that the correlation length of vacuum fluctuations is large compared to the typical hadronic scale 1\\/{ital m}{sub }, so that one can substitute the original nonlocal objects such as {l_angle}{ital {bar q}}(0){ital q}({ital z}){r_angle} by constant {l_angle}{ital {bar q}}(0){ital q}(0){r_angle}-type values. We outline a formalism

Anatoly Radyushkin; Sergei Mikhailov

1991-01-01

357

Approximation Algorithms for Clustering to Minimize the Sum of Diameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We consider the problem of partitioning the nodes of a completeedge weighted graph into k clusters so as to minimize the sumof the diameters of the clusters. Since the problem is NP-complete, ourfocus is on the development of good approximation algorithms. Whenedge weights satisfy the triangle inequality, we present the first approximationalgorithm for the problem. The approximation algorithm yieldsa

Srinivas R. Doddi; Madhav V. Marathe; S. S. Ravi; David Scot Taylor; Peter Widmayer

2000-01-01

358

Calculating Molecular Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

2013-06-17

359

Digital Library Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Beth Forrest Warner Director, Digital Library Initiatives University of Kansas Presentation to Oregon State University Library May 5, 2003 Evolution of Access Card catalogs Online catalogs Online databases Online journals The Web Confusion! Variety... that faculty and students need for their work providing a standardized, common framework to create and manage these resources In short, a digital library… What is a Digital Library? Selected and managed digital collections Schema for organizing and access...

Warner, Beth Forrest

2003-05-05

360

A digital frequency synthesizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital frequency synthesizer has been designed and constructed based on generating digital samples ofexp [j(2^{pi}nk\\/N)]at timenT. The real and imaginary parts of this exponential form samples of quadrature sinusoids where the frequency indexkis allowed to vary(-N\\/4) leq K < (N\\/4). The digital samples drive digital to analog converters followed by low-pass interpolating filters to produce analog sinusoids. The method

JOSEPH TIERNEY; CHARLES M. RADER; B. Gold

1971-01-01

361

Digital Library Curriculum collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Library Curriculum collection contains modules that form the basis for one or a several courses on digital libraries - thus constituting a unified curriculum for the field. They also can be used in computer science, library science, information science, and other programs for other types of courses or as supplements to an existing course. Core topics include digital objects, collection development, knowledge organization, architecture, user behavior and interactions, servics, preservation, management and evaluation and digital library education and research.

2011-01-04

362

On the Optimal Sum Capacity for OFDM With On/Off Power Allocation and Imperfect Channel  

E-print Network

allocation, which is water-pouring across subchannels and then can relay set of power levels via a feedbackOn the Optimal Sum Capacity for OFDM With On/Off Power Allocation and Imperfect Channel Estimation power, which is a sum of total training power and a sum of equal transmission power on activated

Santipach, - Wiroonsak

363

Stable Laws for Sums of Reciprocals Christopher S. Withers & Saralees Nadarajah  

E-print Network

Stable Laws for Sums of Reciprocals Christopher S. Withers & Saralees Nadarajah First version: 19, The University of Manchester #12;Stable laws for sums of reciprocals by Christopher S. Withers Applied (2012). The aim of this note is to develop stable laws for sums of reciprocals of random variables

Sidorov, Nikita

364

Variants of the Min-Sum Link-Disjoint Paths Problem  

E-print Network

1 Variants of the Min-Sum Link-Disjoint Paths Problem Anteneh Beshir and Fernando Kuipers Faculty requires computing link-disjoint primary and backup paths. Finding a min-sum pair of link-disjoint paths render the problem NP-complete. In this paper, we study different variants of the min-sum link

Kuipers, Fernando A.

365

Rule as the Sum of Rulelessness? Order, Chaos, and Patterns in  

E-print Network

a perception full of wink, flight, curve, sound: the possibility of rule as the sum of rulelessness: the "fieldRule as the Sum of Rulelessness? Order, Chaos, and Patterns in Nature David Feldman 19 February February 1998 2 Ammons' Observations: ffl Flock is neither ordered nor chaotic. ffl Rule as the sum

Feldman, David P.

366

An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…

Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

2008-01-01

367

29 CFR 4050.9 - Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant. 4050.9 Section...4050.9 Annuity or elective lump sum—living missing participant. This section...4) (elective lump sum) and who is living on the date as of which the PBGC...

2010-07-01

368

Digital Video, Digital TV IMPA -Instituto de Matemtica Pura e  

E-print Network

1 Digital Video, Digital TV and Beyond Luiz Velho IMPA - Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada 2 Outline Video in the Digital Age Deployment of Digital Video Enabling Technologies Research @ VISGRAF Laboratory Trends and the Future... 3 Evolution of Digital Video 1st Generation - Analog / Digital Conversion

369

Interactive Digital Signal Processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of set of time series analysis "operators" based on various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis. Processing of digital signal time series to extract information usually achieved by applications of number of fairly standard operations. IDSP excellent teaching tool for demonstrating application for time series operators to artificially generated signals.

Mish, W. H.

1985-01-01

370

Changing State Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

371

Bridging the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner…

Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny

2008-01-01

372

Digital Literacy. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools…

Williamson, Ronald

2011-01-01

373

Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants 2001 Marc Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, Part II  

E-print Network

and their Digital Immigrant teachers lie at the root of a great many of today's educational problems. I suggested in their "native language." Here I present evidence for why I think this is so. It comes from neurobiology, social the way people 1 #12;Marc Prensky Digital Natives Digital Immigrants ©2001 Marc Prensky

Knaust, Helmut

374

Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF  

E-print Network

Center for Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF Volume XIII Number 1 May 2011 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business, A. McAfee Shattering the Myths About Enterprise 2.0 Andrew P. McAfee, Associate Director, MIT Center for Digital Business, MIT Sloan School of Management Introduction: What Is Enterprise 2

375

Digital Language Death  

PubMed Central

Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

Kornai, Andras

2013-01-01

376

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

377

Direct Sum Theorem for Bounded Round Quantum Communication Complexity  

E-print Network

We prove a direct sum theorem for bounded round entanglement-assisted quantum communication complexity. To do so, we use the fully quantum definition for information cost and complexity that we recently introduced, and use both the fact that information is a lower bound on the communication, and the fact that a direct sum property holds for quantum information complexity. We then give a protocol for compressing a single copy of a protocol down to its quantum information cost, up to terms depending on the number of rounds and the allowed increase in error. Two important tools to derive this protocol are a smooth conditional min-entropy bound for a one-shot quantum state redistribution protocol, and the quantum substate theorem of Jain, Radhakrishnan and Sen (FOCS'02) to transform this bound into a von Neumann conditional entropy bound. This result further establishes the newly introduced notions of quantum information cost and complexity as the correct quantum generalisations of the classical ones in the standard communication complexity setting. Finding such a quantum generalization of information complexity was one of the open problem recently raised by Braverman (STOC'12).

Dave Touchette

2014-09-15

378

Spin Sum Rules and Polarizabilities: Results from Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon spin structure has been an active, exciting and intriguing subject of interest for the last three decades. Recent experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers provide new information in the confinement regime and the transition region from the confinement regime to the asymptotic freedom regime. New insight is gained by exploring moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Burkhardt-Cottingham and Bjorken). The Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is verified to good accuracy. The spin structure moments data are compared with Chiral Perturbation Theory calculations at low momentum transfers. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g{sub 1} at momentum transfer of 0.05 to 0.1 GeV{sup 2} but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability {delta}{sub LT} (the {delta}{sub LT} puzzle). New data have been taken on the neutron ({sup 3}He), the proton and the deuteron at very low Q{sup 2} down to 0.02 GeV{sup 2}. They will provide benchmark tests of Chiral dynamics in the kinematic region where the Chiral Perturbation theory is expected to work.

Jian-Ping Chen

2006-11-15

379

Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

Ji, Na

2006-02-13

380

Relaxing the zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory.  

PubMed

The zero-sum assumption is one of the ingredients of the standard neutral model of biodiversity by Hubbell. It states that the community is saturated all the time, which in this model means that the total number of individuals in the community is constant over time, and therefore introduces a coupling between species abundances. It was shown recently that a neutral model with independent species, and thus without any coupling between species abundances, has the same sampling formula (given a fixed number of individuals in the sample) as the standard model [Etienne, R.S., Alonso, D., McKane, A.J., 2007. The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory. J. Theor. Biol. 248, 522-536]. The equilibria of both models are therefore equivalent from a practical point of view. Here we show that this equivalence can be extended to a class of neutral models with density-dependence on the community-level. This result can be interpreted as robustness of the model, i.e. insensitivity of the model to the precise interaction of the species in a neutral community. It can also be interpreted as a lack of resolution, as different mechanisms of interactions between neutral species cannot be distinguished using only a single snapshot of species abundance data. PMID:18346758

Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S

2008-05-21

381

Residue theorem and summing over Kaluza-Klein excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying the equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions of bulk profiles at infrared and ultraviolet branes, we verify some lemmas on the eigenvalues of Kaluza-Klein modes in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry SU(3)c×SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1)X×PLR. Using the lemmas and performing properly analytic extensions of bulk profiles, we present the sufficient condition for a convergent series of Kaluza-Klein excitations and sum over the series through the residue theorem. The method can also be applied to sum over the infinite series of Kaluza-Klein excitations in a universal extra dimension. Furthermore, we analyze the possible connection between the propagators in five-dimensional full theory and the product of bulk profiles with corresponding propagators of exciting Kaluza-Klein modes in four-dimensional effective theory, and recover some relations presented in the literature for warped and universal extra dimensions, respectively. As an example, we present the correction from new physics to the branching ratio of B¯?Xs? to the order O(?EW2/?KK2) in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry, where ?KK denotes the energy scale of low-lying Kaluza-Klein excitations and ?EW denotes the electroweak energy scale.

Feng, Tai-Fu; Chen, Jian-Bin; Gao, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ke-Sheng

2011-11-01

382

Characterization of chemisorption on porous silicon by sum frequency generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectra of nanocrystalline porous silicon (por-Si) exposed to different chemical treatments are studied. We report the first SFG studies of por-Si in direct contact with a liquid. SFG is excited by a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire system (787 nm, 120 fs, 1 kHz). The sum frequency is generated by combining this light with infrared that is generated with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) that delivers 100-200 ?J pulses at 1370-1770 nm. Por-Si is made from a 10-20 ? cm p-type Si(001) wafer. Comparisons are made to planar Si(001) as well as GaAs(001). First principle electronic structure theory based on density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the adsorption and optical response functions from the system of ethanol molecule adsorbed on Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces. Equilibrium atomic geometries are obtained through molecular dynamics and total energy minimization methods. Electron energy structure and optical properties are calculated using generalized gradient approximation method with ab initio pseudopotentials. Predicted differential optical absorption spectra for chemisorbed Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces are analyzed in comparison with SFG data measured on differently treated porous silicon. Substantial modifications of the surface atomic and electron energy structures of silicon surfaces due to chemisorption are shown to provide the dominant contributions to the SFG response.

Kolasinski, K. W.; Harrison, I.; Gavrilenko, A. V.; Bonner, C. E., Jr.; Gavrilenko, V. I.

2006-08-01

383

Sum Rules and Moments of the Nucleon Spin Structure Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleon has been used as a laboratory to investigate its own spin structure and quantum chromodynamics. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture of the transition region from the confinement regime of the theory to its asymptotic freedom regime. Insight for some aspects of the theory is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Bjorken and Burkhardt-Cottingham). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator-product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers. The sum rules are verified to good accuracy assuming that no singular behavior of the structure functions is present at very high excitation energies. The higher-twist contributions have been examined through the moments evolution as the momentum transfer varies from higher to lower values. Furthermore, QCD-inspired low-energy effective theories, which explicitly include chiral symmetry breaking, are tested at low momentum transfers. The validity of these theories is further examined as the momentum transfer increases to moderate values. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g1 at momentum transfer of 0.1 GeV2 but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability ?LT.

Chen, J.-P.; Deur, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.

384

Pion wave functions and truncation sensitivity of QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic errors inherent in the QCD sum rule approach to meson wave functions are examined in the context of QCD in 1+1 spacetime dimensions in the large N limit where the theory is exactly solvable. The systematic sensitivity of the sum rules reconstruction of meson wave functions to the input data at large Q2 is studied in this model. We find that the reliable extraction of (a few) higher moments is possible provided a reasonably accurate uniform approximation to the Euclidean correlator over a suitable Q2 range is available, but that the extracted values are particularly sensitive to the balance of lower and higher twist contributions. Underestimates of lower twist contributions or overestimates of the highest twist term may lead to too high values for the second and fourth moments of the pion wave function, suggesting a doubly peaked structure of the Chernyak-Zhitnitsky-type. Lattice discretization is shown to lead to similar distortions in the balance of lower and higher twist terms.

Duncan, A.; Pernice, S.; Schnapka, E.

1997-02-01

385

van der Waals forces, sum rules, and pseudostate expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamine the pseudostate expansion used previously to evaluate van der Waals (vdW) coefficients and finite-mass corrections. In particular, we wish to understand the very rapid convergence of the expansion, which for the case of two hydrogenic atoms requires only ten terms to achieve an accuracy of 1×10-10. The analysis proceeds from the representation of the vdW coefficients as integrals of single-atom frequency-dependent polarizabilities. These in turn can be expanded in power series with coefficients of the form JnM2(nl)/(Enl-E1s)k, where M(nl) is a multipole matrix element between the ground (1s) and excited (nl) states. Although defined as sums over an infinite set of hydrogenic states, the coefficients of each order k are reproduced exactly by a finite sum over suitable pseudostates. By analytic continuation, the frequency-dependent polarizabilities computed using pseudostates are expected to be very close to the exact values, and hence the rapid convergence of the vdW coefficients is understood.

Au, C. K.; Drachman, Richard J.

1988-02-01

386

Tomography of red blood cells by multiple-wavelength digital holographic microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method enabling cell tomography by multiple-wavelength digital holo- graphic microscopy. 20 reflection holograms between 485 and 670 nm are sequentially acquired, then the wavefronts are summed to obtain 3D tomographic reconstruction of red blood cells. c

Jonas Kühn; Frédéric Montfort; Tristan Colomb; Benjamin Rappaz; Corinne Moratal; Nicolas Pavillon; Christian Depeursingea

2009-01-01

387

Maximum permissible load weight of a Taishuh pony at a trot.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the loading capacity of a trotting Taishuh pony by gait analysis using a motion analysis system. Seven Taishuh Ponies (5 mares and 2 geldings) and their rider were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) and recorded by 2 high-resolution digital DVD cameras (at a sampling frequency of 60 Hz) as they were trotting along a straight course. Each horse performed 7 tests: 1 test with a loaded weight of 70 kg, 5 tests with random loaded weights between 80 kg and 120 kg, and a final test with a loaded weight of 70 kg again. Three-dimensional movements of each marker were analyzed using motion capture system. The time series of the vertical displacements of the marker was subjected to spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first 2 peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity of the gait, and the sum of symmetry and regularity was defined as stability. The cross-spectrum analysis (Blackman-Tukey method) also was performed to analyze the time lag and cross-correlation coefficient between the time series of both pony and rider. Among ponies, symmetry in the 120 kg test (0.54) was significantly lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.75, P < 0.05) and stabilities in the 100 kg (1.17) and 120 kg (1.17) tests were significantly less than that in the first 70 kg (1.46, P < 0.05). Regarding the rider, there were no significant differences in symmetry, regularity, and stability between loaded weights. The time lag between the time series of horse and rider in the 120 kg test (47.6 ms) was significantly greater than that in the first 70 kg (14.3 ms, P < 0.05) test. These results suggests that the maximum permissible load weight of the Taishuh pony trotting at 3.0 m/s over a short distance was less than 100 kg, which is 43% of the BW. PMID:23736046

Matsuura, A; Sakuma, S; Irimajiri, M; Hodate, K

2013-08-01

388

Yogurt and weight management.  

PubMed

A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed. PMID:24695887

Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

2014-05-01

389

Vacation Lump Sum Deferral Explanation Will my lump sum vacation payout be subject to taxes even if I want to have it tax  

E-print Network

Vacation Lump Sum Deferral Explanation Will my lump sum vacation payout be subject to taxes even if I want to have it tax deferred? If so, how much can I defer and what are the tax consequences? Yes and Medicare taxes even if your maximum contribution limit is greater than your vacation payout. Any federal

Behmer, Spencer T.

390

Experimental investigation of fatigue behavior of spur gear in altered tooth-sum gearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the contact stress, power loss, and pitting of spur gear tooth in altered tooth-sum gearing for a tooth-sum of 100 teeth when altered by ±4% tooth-sum. Analytical and experimental methods were performed to investigate and compare the altered tooth-sum gearing against the standard tooth-sum gearing. The experiments were performed using a power recirculating type test rig. The tooth loads for the experimental investigations were determined considering the surface durability of gears. A clear picture of the surface damage was obtained using a scanning electron microphotograph. The negative alteration in the tooth-sum performed better than the positive alteration in a tooth-sum operating between specified center distances.

Sachidananda, H. K.; Gonsalvis, Joseph; Prakash, H. R.

2012-09-01

391

Digital rights management for digital cinema  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.

Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.

2001-12-01

392

Mass vs. Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory activity worksheet engages students in an exploration of mass and weight. Students use a balance to measure the mass and a spring scale to measure the weight of a series of objects. They then analyze the data to determine the relationship between these two quantities and conceptualize the distinction between the mass and weight through questions regarding measurements on the moon and other planets.

Nelson, Jane; Nelson, Jim

2011-06-14

393

QCD Sum Rule Studies of Heavy Quarkonium-like States  

E-print Network

The research presented here uses QCD sum rules (QSR) to study exotic hadrons. There are several themes in this work. First is the use of QSR to predict the masses of exotic hadrons that may exist among the heavy quarkonium-like states. The second theme is the application of sophisticated loop integration methods in order to obtain more complete theoretical results. These in turn can be extended to higher orders in the perturbative expansion in order to predict the properties of exotic hadrons more accurately. The third theme involves developing a renormalization methodology for these higher order calculations. This research has implications for the $Y(3940)$, $X(3872)$, $Z_c^\\pm\\left(3895\\right)$, $Y_b\\left(10890\\right)$, $Z_b^{\\pm}(10610)$ and $Z_b^{\\pm}(10650)$ particles, thereby contributing to the ongoing effort to understand these and other heavy quarkonium-like states.

Robin Kleiv

2014-07-08

394

Sum Rules for Nucleon GPDs and Border Function Formulation  

SciTech Connect

Recently developed new approach to model nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E is based on two types of their representation in terms of double distributions. Within this approach, we re-consider the derivation of GPD sum rules that allow to use border functions H(x,x) and E(x,x) instead of full GPDs H(x,\\xi) and E(x,\\xi) in the integrals producing Compton form factors of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Using factorized DD Ansatz to model GPDs, we discuss the relation between the border functions and underlying parton densities. We found that substantial contribution to H(x,x) border function comes from the extra term required by new DD representations and related to E(x,\\xi) GPD.

Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Old Dominion U., JINR

2013-09-01

395

Test of Sum Rules in Nucleon Transfer Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative consistency of nucleon transfer reactions as a probe of the occupancy of valence orbits in nuclei is tested. Neutron-adding, neutron-removal, and proton-adding transfer reactions were measured on the four stable even Ni isotopes, with particular attention to the cross section determinations. The data were analyzed consistently in terms of the distorted wave Born approximation to yield spectroscopic factors. Valence-orbit occupancies were extracted, utilizing the Macfarlane-French sum rules. The deduced occupancies are consistent with the changing number of valence neutrons, as are the vacancies for protons, both at the level of <5%. While there has been some debate regarding the true “observability” of spectroscopic factors, the present results indicate that empirically they yield self-consistent results.

Schiffer, J. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Freeman, S. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mitchell, A. J.; Parker, P. D.; Sharp, D. K.; Thomas, J. S.

2012-01-01

396

Lévy sections vs. partial sums of heteroscedastic time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly nonstationary processes appear in many challenging problems related to the physics of complex systems. An interesting question is how to quantify the rate of convergence to Gaussian behavior of rescaled heteroscedastic time series with stationary first moments but nonstationary multifractal long-range correlated second moments. Here we use the approach which uses a recently proposed extension of the Lévy sections theorem. We analyze statistical and multifractal properties of heteroscedastic time series and find that the Lévy sections approach provides a faster convergence to Gaussian behavior relative to the convergence of traditional partial sums of variables. We also observe that the rescaled signals retain multifractal properties even after reaching what appears to be the stable Gaussian regime.

Nascimento, C. M.; Helena, E. L. S.; Passos, F. S.; Gleria, I.; Figueiredo, A.; Viswanathan, G. M.

2011-12-01

397

SEU System Analysis: Not Just the Sum of All Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single event upset (SEU) analysis of complex systems is challenging. Currently, system SEU analysis is performed by component level partitioning and then either: the most dominant SEU cross-sections (SEUs) are used in system error rate calculations; or the partition SEUs are summed to eventually obtain a system error rate. In many cases, system error rates are overestimated because these methods generally overlook system level derating factors. The problem with overestimating is that it can cause overdesign and consequently negatively affect the following: cost, schedule, functionality, and validation/verification. The scope of this presentation is to discuss the risks involved with our current scheme of SEU analysis for complex systems; and to provide alternative methods for improvement.

Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth

2014-01-01

398

Sum frequency generation using an optical parametric oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A number of applications would benefit from sources of tunable coherent ultraviolet (uv) radiation in the 250 to 400 nm range. Among these are uv fluorescence laser detection and ranging (LIDAR). Other applications such as photolithography could use a fixed-frequency solid-state equivalent to excimer lasers. Broad tunability in this wavelength region has generally been accessed by frequency doubling tunable visible or near infrared lasers or by frequency mixing these lasers with the harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. Unfortunately, to cover the full wavelength range requires multiple dye changes and/or multiple nonlinear crystals because of the relatively narrow tuning range of any one laser medium. The use of optical parametric oscillators (OPO`s) with their wide tuning range as a tunable source of near infrared light coupled with a single {beta}-barium borate (BBO) crystal for sum frequency mixing with the Nd:YAG harmonics should yield a convenient alternative to cover this wavelength range. In this paper we demonstrate that an OPO can be efficiently sum frequency mixed with the Nd:YAG harmonics to produce tunable uv radiation in the 250--400 nm range. This is significant because OPO`s generally have poor beam quality which limits their nonlinear conversion in critically phase matched processes. Specifically, we have mixed the 780 nm signal beam from a potassium tytanyl phosphate (KTP) OPO with the second harmonic from a Nd:YAG laser in BBO converting up to 50% of the OPO photons into 316 nm photons. We have also demonstrated the generation of narrow bandwidth 248 nm by mixing 827 nm from the OPO with the third harmonic of the Nd:YAG.

Alford, W.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Smith, A.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowenthal, D.D.; Mead, R.D. [Aculight Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States)

1993-11-01

399

Moments of Spin Structure Functions:. Sum Rules and Polarizabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleon structure study is one of the most important research areas in modern physics and has challenged us for decades. Spin has played an essential role and often brought surprises and puzzles to the investigation of the nucleon structure and the strong interaction. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture in the strong region of the interaction and of the transition region from the strong to the asymptotic-free region. Insight into some aspects of the theory for the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e., the Bjorken, Burkhardt-Cottingham, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH), and the generalized GDH). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator-product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers. The higher-twist contributions have been examined through the evolution of these moments as the momentum transfer varies from higher to lower values. Furthermore, QCD-inspired low-energy effective theories, which explicitly include chiral symmetry breaking, are tested at low momentum transfers. The validity of these theories is further examined as the momentum transfer increases to moderate values. It is found that chiral perturbation theory calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g1 at low momentum transfer of 0.05-0.1 GeV2 but fail to reproduce some of the higher moments, noticeably, the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability ?LT. The Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule has been verified with good accuracy in a wide range of Q2 assuming that no singular behavior of the structure functions is present at very high excitation energies.

Chen, J.-P.

400

Baldwin Library of Children's Literature, Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Baldwin Library Digital Collection at the University of Florida includes over 2500 fully digitized children's books, published in the United States and Great Britain between 1850 and 1900 (selected from more than more than 100,000 in the Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature, dating from the mid-1600s through 2007). Although baby-boomers may be disappointed in not finding their childhood favorites, it is nonetheless amazing to page through an illustrated edition of Little Red Riding Hood, published in 1895 by Raphael Tuck & Sons. Browsing through the list of recently added items also reveals the digital version of "Bill an' me": sum ov our adventers in de "Midway Plaisance", a souvenir book documenting two boys' adventures at the World's Columbian Exposition, the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893. Books in the collection reflect the mores of the times in which they were published; for example, although the protagonists seem on the youthful side to 21st century eyes, Bill an me's adventures include the drinking of alcoholic beverages.

401

Overt weight stigma, psychological distress and weight loss treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

Weight stigma is pervasive and is associated with psychosocial distress. Little research has examined the association between weight stigma and weight loss treatment outcomes. The current investigation examined overt weight stigma, depression, binge eating, and weight loss treatment outcomes in a sample of 55 overweight and obese adults. Overt weight stigma was significantly associated with greater depression and binge eating and poorer weight loss treatment outcomes in a 14-week behavioral weight loss program, suggesting that overt weight stigma may be detrimental to overweight and obese individuals' ability to lose weight and engage in behaviors consistent with weight loss. PMID:20460417

Wott, Carissa B; Carels, Robert A

2010-05-01

402

Saving Amputated Digits  

PubMed Central

Since the advent of microsurgery in the 1960's it has become possible to sucessfully repair vessels as small as 0.5 mm in diameter, which makes the replantation of totally severed digits possible. Some centers have reported 50 to 60 percent survival of completely severed digits and up to 100 percent survival of amputated hands and of partially amputed but otherwise non-viable digits that were reattached. In view of this success, severed members should be considered as potentially replantable. The recommended indications for replantation are: (1) multiple digital amputations at or proximal to the proximal interphalangeal joint; (2) amputation of the thumb; (3) amputation of the wrist or hand; (4) partially attached digits that are non-viable without reattachment. The surviving replanted digits give functional improvement to the hand and prove cosmetically acceptable. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:4608643

Frykman, Gary K.; Wood, Virchel E.

1974-01-01

403

Birth Weight Statistical Models  

E-print Network

and birth defect rates are very high for low birth weight babies. A woman's behavior during pregnancy of carrying the baby to term and, consequently, of delivering a baby of normal weight. The goal of this study) dummy or design variables for a polytomous variable with k categories. Each dummy variable equals 1

404

Mathematics in Weighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

Francis, Richard L.

1992-01-01

405

Labor Supply and Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

2007-01-01

406

Fast differential analog-to-digital conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique first digitizes difference between input and previous conversion. Digitized difference is added to previous digitized value to yield new digital representation of analog input. Output of analog-to-digital converter is useful as digital derivative of input signal.

Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

1978-01-01

407

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing Digital Movies AutomaticallyS. Pfeioeer, R. Lienhart, S. Fischer und W. EoeelsbergUniversit#t MannheimPraktische Informatik IVL 15, 16D-68131 MannheimAbstracting Digital Movies AutomaticallySilvia Pfeioeer, Rainer Lienhart, Stephan Fischer andWolfgang EoeelsbergPraktische Informatik IVUniversity of MannheimD-68131 Mannheimpfeiffer@pi4.informatik.uni-mannheim.deAbstractLarge video on demand databases consisting of thousands of digital moviesare not easy to handle: the...

Reihe Informatik S. Pfeioeer; R. Lienhart; S. Fischer Und W. Eoeelsberg

1996-01-01

408

Informedia Digital Video Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Informedia Digital Video Library Project is developing new technologies for creating full-content search and retrieval digital video libraries. Working in collaboration with WQED Pittsburgh, the project is creating a testbed that will enable K-12 students to access, explore, and retrieve science and mathematics materials from the digital video library. The library will initially contain 1,000 hours of video from

Michael G. Christel; Takeo Kanade; M. Mauldin; Raj Reddy; Marvin A. Sirbu; Scott M. Stevens; Howard D. Wactlar

1995-01-01

409

Weight discrimination and bullying.  

PubMed

Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

2013-04-01

410

Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to show that age is…

Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.

2010-01-01

411

Digital Electronic Still Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital electronic still camera part of electronic recording, processing, tansmitting, and displaying system. Removable hard-disk drive in camera serves as digital electronic equivalent of photographic film. Images viewed, analyzed, or transmitted quickly. Camera takes images of nearly photographic quality and stores them in digital form. Portable, hand-held, battery-powered unit designed for scientific use. Camera used in conjunction with playback unit also serving as transmitting unit if images sent to remote station. Remote station equipped to store, process, and display images. Digital image data encoded with error-correcting code at playback/transmitting unit for error-free transmission to remote station.

Holland, Samuel D.; Yeates, Herbert D.

1993-01-01

412

Digital security technology simplified.  

PubMed

Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609

Scaglione, Bernard J

2007-01-01

413

Digital Imaging Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how digital technology can be used as a tool for teaching students the skills of observation, questioning, information gathering, classifying, predicting, and hypothesis testing. (Author/SOE)

Keith, Ronald L.; Saunders, David K.; Yanik, Elizabeth G.

2003-01-01

414

Impact of digital control in power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the impact of digital control in high-frequency switched-mode power supplies (SMPS), including point-of-load and isolated DC-DC converters, microprocessor power supplies, power-factor-correction rectifiers, electronic ballasts, etc., where switching frequencies are typically in the hundreds of kHz to MHz range, and where high efficiency, static and dynamic regulation, low size and weight, as well as low controller

Dragan MaksimoviC; Regan Zane; Robert Erickson

2004-01-01

415

Impact of Duality Violations on Spectral Sum Rule analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent sum rule analyses on the two-point correlator have led to significant discrepancies in the values found for the OPE condensates, most dramatically in the dimension eight condensate and to a lesser extent in the dimension six one [R. Barate et al., ALEPH Collaboration, Eur. Phys. J. C 4 (1998) 409; K. Ackerstaff et al., OPAL Collaboration, Eur. Phys. J. C 7 (1999) 571, arXiv:hep-ex/9808019; S. Peris, B. Phily and E. de Rafael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 14, arXiv:hep-ph/0007338; S. Friot, D. Greynat and E. de Rafael, JHEP 0410 (2004) 043, arXiv:hep-ph/0408281; M. Davier, L. Girlanda, A. Hocker and J. Stern, Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 096014, arXiv:hep-ph/9802447; B.L. Ioffe and K.N. Zyablyuk, Nucl. Phys. A 687 (2001) 437, arXiv:hep-ph/0010089. K.N. Zyablyuk, Eur. Phys. J. C 38 (2004) 215, arXiv:hep-ph/0404230; J. Bijnens, E. Gamiz and J. Prades, JHEP 0110 (2001) 009, arXiv:hep-ph/0108240; C.A. Dominguez and K. Schilcher, Phys. Lett. B 581 (2004) 193, arXiv:hep-ph/0309285; J. Rojo and J. I. Latorre, JHEP 0401 (2004) 055, arXiv:hep-ph/0401047; V. Cirigliano, E. Golowich and K. Maltman, Phys. Rev. D 68 (2003) 054013, arXiv:hep-ph/0305118; S. Ciulli, C. Sebu, K. Schilcher and H. Spiesberger, Phys. Lett. B 595 (2004) 359, arXiv:hep-ph/0312212. S. Narison, arXiv:hep-ph/0412152]. Precise knowledge of these condensates is of relevance in kaon decays [M. Knecht, S. Peris and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 457 (1999) 227, arXiv:hep-ph/9812471; J.F. Donoghue and E. Golowich, Phys. Lett. B 478 (2000) 172, arXiv:hep-ph/9911309; M. Knecht, S. Peris and E. de Rafael, Phys. Lett. B 508 (2001) 117, arXiv:hep-ph/0102017] and therefore it seems mandatory to assess the actual impact of what is commonly neglected in spectral sum rules, most prominently the issue of duality violations. We will explicitly compute them in a toy model and show that they are a priori non-negligible.

Catà, Oscar

2007-02-01

416

Using Triangularly Weighted Interpolation to Get 13Bit PCM from a Sigma-Delta Modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyze a method of interpolation that improves the amplitude resolution of an analog-to-digital converter. The technique requires feedback around a quantizer that operates at high speed and digital accumulation of its quantized values to provide a PCM output. We show that use of appropriate weights in the accumulation has important advantages for providing finer resoution, less spectral

JAMES C. CANDY; Y. Ching; D. Alexander

1976-01-01

417

Digital rights language support for evolving digital cinema requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital cinema can be defined as the digital electronic distribution and display of theatrical film content or live material to the theatre. However, this simple definition does not reflect the complex mesh of balanced business relationships between the different parties involved in the worldwide cinematic distribution. Its transition from an analogue to a digital business will happen progressively, starting with only content being digitally distributed and going until an all-digital business. From these facts derive strong requirements on digital rights management (DRM) systems for digital cinema and therefore on the digital rights language supporting it. This paper explores the requirements imposed by the cinematic distribution model and by its progressive transition to digital, and the impact these have on digital rights languages. We analyze the support provided by different digital rights languages, identifying weaknesses and exploring solutions in fulfilling the requirements of the digital cinema distribution model.

Orri, Xavier; Mas, Joan-Maria; Macq, Benoit M. M.

2003-06-01

418

Symbolic methods for the evaluation of sum rules of Bessel functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of the umbral formalism allows a significant simplification of the derivation of sum rules involving products of special functions and polynomials. We rederive in this way known sum rules and addition theorems for Bessel functions. Furthermore, we obtain a set of new closed form sum rules involving various special polynomials and Bessel functions. The examples we consider are relevant for applications ranging from plasma physics to quantum optics.

Babusci, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via E. Fermi 40, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via E. Fermi 40, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Dattoli, G. [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)] [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Górska, K. [H. Niewodnicza?ski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Eljasza-Radzikowskiego 152, PL 31342 Kraków, Poland and Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 66318, B 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [H. Niewodnicza?ski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Eljasza-Radzikowskiego 152, PL 31342 Kraków, Poland and Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 66318, B 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Penson, K. A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7600, Tour 13 - 5ième ét., B.C. 121, 4 pl. Jussieu, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7600, Tour 13 - 5ième ét., B.C. 121, 4 pl. Jussieu, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2013-07-15

419

Classification of handwritten digits using a RAM neural net architecture.  

PubMed

Results are reported on the task of recognizing handwritten digits without any advanced pre-processing. The result are obtained using a RAM-based neural network, making use of small receptive fields. Furthermore, a technique that introduces negative weights into the RAM net is reported. The results obtained on the task of recognizing handwritten digits is comparable with the best performances reported in the literature. PMID:9228573

Jørgensen, T M

1997-02-01

420

Design and Complexity Optimization of a New Digital IF for Software Radio Receivers With Prescribed Output Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design, signal round-off noise, and complexity optimization of a new digital intermediate frequency (IF) architecture for a software radio receiver (SRR). The IF under study consists of digital filters with fixed coefficients, except for a limited number of multipliers required in the Farrow-based sampling rate converter (SRC). The fixed-coefficient filters can be implemented efficiently using sum-of-power-of-two

S. C. Chan; K. M. Tsui; K. S. Yeung; T. I. Yuk

2007-01-01

421

The Das-Mathur-Okubo sum rule for the charged pion polarizability in a chiral model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Das-Mathur-Okubo (DMO) sum rule for the polarizability of charged pions is evaluated for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model Lagrangian in both its minimal and extended forms. A comparison is made with the results obtained using the same sum rule from chiral perturbation theory (?PT), approximate QCD sum rule calculations, explicit calculations on the lattice by Wilcox, and using the semi-empirical Kapusta-Shuryak spectral densities. The ?PT results from Compton scattering are also given. We point to a delicate cancellation between the intrinsic and recoil contributions to ??+/- in the DMO sum rule approach that can lead to calculated polarizabilities of either sign.

Klevansky, S. P.; Lemmer, R. H.; Wilmot, C. A.

1999-06-01

422

Sum-frequency generation echo and grating from interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work addresses spectroscopy of fourth-order Sum Frequency Generation Echo and Grating responses as an experimental tool to study structure and dynamics at interfaces. First, it addresses experimental geometry to extract background-free fourth-order Echo and Grating responses. Further, the article provides the analytical expressions of the response functions for these nonlinearities. The derived expressions are used to model the ?(4) two-dimensional spectral responses of a hydrated methyl acetate, which resembles a hydrated carbonyl moiety at the polar outer side of a phospholipid membrane. Orientation, transition dipole moments, and Raman tensors are obtained from the results of classical and quantum calculations, respectively. The numerical studies for the nonlinear responses under different polarization schemes and timings suggest the possibility of securely factoring of spectral contributions of ?YYYZX and ?YYYZY macroscopic susceptibilities. As such, the nonlinearities provide an experimental perspective on orientation of a generic (low-symmetry) molecular system at interfaces. Besides, the spectral properties of the tensors may reflect correlations of the in-plane and out-of-plane field components specific to the interface. For the case of a phospholipid membrane, the experiment would address in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy of hydrogen bonding and related dynamics.

Volkov, Victor

2014-10-01

423

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences  

SciTech Connect

During the week 8-12 April 1996, an international conference summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster after one decade took place in Vienna. Organizers were the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (EC/IAEA/WHO 1996). One of the authors, A. Kaul, presented the outcome of the conference as given below to the IPRA 9 congress which was held in Vienna the following week. Two caveats have to be mentioned here: firstly, only facts actually reported and reviewed at the conference can be accounted for, and, secondly, according to the groundrules of the conference, the deadline for the background papers of the conference was the 9 February 1996, meaning that facts materializing after that time are not covered in this paper. The same applied to information given at the conference that was not properly reviewed and published. Reports, for example, given at the conference on an observed increase of thyroid cancers and leukemia among liquidators and of diabetes mellitus among children are not yet substantiated and are, therefore, not yet recognized as consequences. If corroborated, and it is obvious that all higher exposed groups should be closely monitored in the future, an update on the consequences will have to take this into account. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Kaul, A.; Landfermann, H.; Thieme, M.

1996-11-01

424

Multifractal analyses of row sum signals of elementary cellular automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first apply the WT-MFDFA, MFDFA, and WTMM multifractal methods to binomial multifractal time series of three different binomial parameters and find that the WTMM method indicates an enhanced difference between the fractal components than the known theoretical result. Next, we make use of the same methods for the time series of the row sum signals of the two complementary ECA pairs of rules (90,165) and (150,105) for ten initial conditions going from a single 1 in the central position up to a set of ten 1’s covering the ten central positions in the first row. Since the members of the pairs are actually similar from the statistical point of view, we can check which method is the most stable numerically by recording the differences provided by the methods between the two members of the pairs for various important quantities of the scaling analyses, such as the multifractal support, the most frequent Hölder exponent, and the Hurst exponent and considering as the better one the method that provides the minimum differences. According to this criterion, our results show that the MFDFA performs better than WT-MFDFA and WTMM in the case of the multifractal support, while for the other two scaling parameters the WT-MFDFA is the best. The employed set of initial conditions does not generate any specific trend in the values of the multifractal parameters.

Murguía, J. S.; Rosu, H. C.

2012-07-01

425

Rarefied-continuum gas dynamics transition for SUMS project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is to develop an analytic method for reducing SUMS data for the determination of the undisturbed atmosphere conditions ahead of the shuttle along its descending trajectory. It is divided into an internal flow problem, an external flow problem and their matching conditions. Since the existing method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) failed completely for the internal flow problem, the emphasis is on the internal flow of a highly non-equilibrium, rarefied air through a short tube of a diameter much less than the gaseous mean free path. A two fluid model analysis of this internal flow problem has been developed and studied with typical results illustrated. A computer program for such an analysis and a technical paper published in Lecture Notes in Physics No. 323 (1989) are included as Appendices 3 and 4. A proposal for in situ determination of the surface accommodation coefficients sigma sub t and sigma e is included in Appendix 5 because of their importance in quantitative data reduction. A two fluid formulation for the external flow problem is included as Appendix 6 and a review article for AIAA on Hypersonic propulsion, much dependent on ambient atmospheric density, is also included as Appendix 7.

Cheng, Sin-I

1989-01-01

426

Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.  

PubMed

A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085

Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan

2014-05-01

427

Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.

Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.

1998-11-01

428

Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

Greenblatt, R. E.

2013-10-01

429

Rowing and the same-sum problem have their moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the optimal positioning of an even number of identical crew members in a coxless racing boat so as to avoid the presence of a sideways wiggle as the boat is propelled forward through the water. We show that the traditional (alternate port and starboard) positioning always possesses an oscillating nonzero transverse moment and associated wiggling motion and that the problem of finding the zero-moment positions is related to a special case of the subset sum problem. We find the one (known) zero-moment rig for a racing Four and show that there are four possible such rigs for a racing Eight, of which only two are known. We show that only balanced boats with crew numbers that are divisible by four can have the zero-moment property and give the 29 zero-moment solutions for racing Twelves, which have zero transverse moments. Some aspects of unbalanced boats in which the numbers of port and starboard oars are unequal are also discussed.

Barrow, John D.

2010-07-01

430

Rowing and the Same-Sum Problem Have Their Moments  

E-print Network

We consider the optimal positioning of an even number of crew members in a coxless racing boat in order to avoid the presence of a sideways wiggle as the boat is propelled forwards through the water. We show that the traditional (alternate port and starboard) rig of racing boats always possesses an oscillating non-zero transverse moment and associated wiggling motion. We show that the problem of finding the zero-moment rigs is related to a special case of the Subset Sum problem. We find the one (known) zero-moment rig for a racing Four and show there are four possible such rigs for a racing Eight, of which only two (the so called 'Italian' and 'German' rigs) appear to be already known. We also give the 29 zero-moment solutions for racing Twelves but refrain from explicitly listing the 263 Sixteens and 2724 Twenties which have zero transverse moments. We show that only balanced boats with crew numbers that are divisible by four can have the zero-moment property. We also discuss some aspects of unbalanced boats, in which the number of port and starboard oars are unequal.

John D. Barrow

2009-11-18

431

Heterotextuality and Digital Foreplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The now ubiquitous cell phone as digital media and communication technology invites a proliferation of uses and meanings. The ways in which young people have taken up cell phones in general and text messaging in particular seems to create cyborgian subjectivities in a refashioned mobile social network. This resulting digital-social network constructs a space in which young people perform identities

Julie Cupples; Lee Thompson

2010-01-01

432

Educating Digital Citizens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital citizenship is how educators, citizens, and parents can teach where the lines of cyber safety and ethics are in the interconnected online world their students will inhabit. Aside from keeping technology users safe, digital citizenship also prepares students to survive and thrive in an environment embedded with information, communication,…

Tan, Thomas

2011-01-01

433

DVD - digital versatile disks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas wher...

R. Gaunt

1997-01-01

434

Digital rotation measurement unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital

S. N. Sanderson

1983-01-01

435

Digital rotation measurement unit  

DOEpatents

A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

Sanderson, S.N.

1983-09-30

436

The Digital Silk Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and proposed mechanisms for digital money all require large overhead to transfer money between parties. This overhead makes them unsuitable for extremely low cost activities, such as delivering and routing packets. The digital silk road is a proposed money system with extremely low transaction cost built into the communication protocols. The money introduced by this system is much more

Norman Hardy; Eric Dean Tribble

1993-01-01

437

Geothermics and Digital Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermics is of significant importance for digital Earth. Based on 862 heat flow data and data base, a new version of heat flow map for continental area of China has been compiled. Furthermore, geothermics is closely correlated to resources and environmental problems worldwide and especially in China. Finally, the relationship between geothermics and the digital Earth is discussed in the

Jiyang Wang; Shengbiao Hu; Lijuan He

438

Preserving digital local news  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much local news -- important documentation of local history -- is being lost. The fact that a lot of news media is now available digitally, presents new opportunities but also new challenges for such preservation. We explore issues and approaches for collection and management of born digital local news. Purpose Design\\/methodology\\/approach\\/findings We examine several specific bottlenecks for implementing this project.

Robert B. Allen; Kirsten A. Johnson

2008-01-01

439

Digital Signature Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

1999-01-01

440

Digital communications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

Boorstyn, R. R.

1973-01-01

441

Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF  

E-print Network

Center for Digital Business RESEARCH BRIEF Volume X Number 2 January 2008 © 2008 MIT Center for Digital Business, S. Bhansali and E. Brynjolfsson Measuring the Impact of Electronic Data Management is stored in the form of documents such as reports, forms, memos, letters etc. and business processes

442

Interactive digital art  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present DNArt in general, our work in DNArt’s lab including a detailed presentation of the first artwork that has come out of our lab in September 2011, entitled “ENCOUNTERS #3”, and the use of DNArt for digital art conservation. Research into the use of DNArt for digital art conservation is currently conducted by the Netherlands Institute

Bill Spinhoven van Oosten; Zwaag van der Berend Jan; Nirvana Meratnia; L. Hallnäs; A. Hellström; H. Landin

2011-01-01

443

Everglades Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Everglades Digital Library (EDL) is a comprehensive portal to high-quality digital resources relating to the south Florida environment. These resources include online texts, articles, reports, photographs, maps, datasets, educational materials, and historical records, as well as links to organizational web sites and agency home pages. These materials come from libraries, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and other sources.

444

Towards a Digital Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A month ago, a French court ruled that internet access is a basic human right. Gordon Brown has said it is as crucial for people as electricity and water. Yet, 17 million Britons are still excluded from digital technology and an estimated 13 per cent of the population--some six million people--are both socially and digitally excluded. There are…

Thomson, Rachel

2009-01-01

445

INTELLISONDE TM Digital Radiosonde  

E-print Network

For soundings up to 35 km (5 hPa) Applications Operational forecasting Meteorological research Air pollution, humidity, pressure and battery voltage with digital precision. Sensor output is converted to digital words, temperature, humidity, battery voltage and a spare resistance channel. The measurement of resistance

Groppi, Christopher

446

Navigate the Digital Rapids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

2010-01-01

447

Abstracting Digital Movies Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large video-on-demand databases consisting of thousands of digital movies are not easy to handle: the user must have an attractive means of retrieving his movie of choice. For analog video, movie trailers are produced to allow a quick preview and perhaps stimulate possible buyers. This paper presents techniques for automatically producing such movie abstracts of digital videos.

Silvia Pfeiffer; Rainer Lienhart; Stephan Fischer; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1996-01-01

448

Literatronica: adaptive digital narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this workshop we explore the Literatronica system in regards to the choices and decisions made by the technical architect of the system and by an author. The Literatronica system allows authors to create pieces of adaptive digital narrative, and provides an accessible web interface for readers. Digital narrative works could reconfigure themselves for the reader, leading every time to

Juan B. Gutierrez; Mark C. Marino

2008-01-01

449

Developments in digital journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores recent developments in the production and delivery of scholarly journal articles in digital form. It identifies the key stakeholders as authors, publishers, librarians and end users. It explores their concerns with regard to the digital journal production and delivery chain. It also explores the interrelationships of different stakeholder groups and considers how their concerns accord or conflict.

Leah Halliday; Charles Oppenheim

2001-01-01

450

Occupying the Digital Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

Rice, Jeff

2013-01-01

451

Taming the Digital Beast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more and more schools move to digital repositories, it seems inevitable that the knowledge accumulated across universities will go digital. How smoothly an institution makes that transition will depend on how well its project is planned from inception, and how well it structure its data. All of the administrators and educators the authors spoke…

Patrizio, Andy

2006-01-01

452

Digital Media and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012

2012-01-01

453

Lovforslag og digital administration  

E-print Network

1 Ulla Lund s071534 Lovforslag og digital administration Fra HumanComputerInteraction til Law Modelling #12;2 Lovforslag og digital administration, Fra HumanComputerInteraction til Law brugerevalueringen, der har omfattet interviews og besvarelse af spørgeskema. Gennemgående er der en positiv

454

Digital Circuit Design Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has described the different trends in the digital circuit design and changes over the past two decades moving from chips that contained tens of thousands of devices to today' s chips that may contain over a billion transistors. The job of the digital circuit designer has grown with the chips, moving from optimizing and validating gates, to working

Mark Horowitz; Donald Stark; Elad Alon

2008-01-01

455

Digital Image Access & Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent technological advances in computing and digital imaging technology have had immediate and permanent consequences for visual resource collections. Libraries are involved in organizing and managing large visual resource collections. The central challenges in working with digital image collections mirror those that libraries have sought to…

Heidorn, P. Bryan, Ed.; Sandore, Beth, Ed.

456

ISDN: The Digital Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is a dial-up digital transmission service supporting transmission of audio, video, and text data over standard copper telephone wires or fiber optic cables. Advantages of ISDN over analog transmission include the ability of one phone line to support up to three simultaneous, separate conversations (phone,…

Piedmo, Greg

1995-01-01

457

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DIGITAL HIGH RESOLUTION GEODATABASES FOR WEBGIS: FROM DIGITAL CAMPUS TO DIGITAL NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999 right after Al Gore brought the idea of the Digital Earth, aiming to promote the Digital Earth concept Chinese Culture University (CCU) in Taiwan established the Digital Earth Research Center (DERC) and start building Digital Campus, Digital Hua- Gang project. In the mean time nations and organizations around the world have promoted and involved activities in the fields

Y. C. Ding; C. C. Huang

458

Your True Weight  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Body Weight Obesity in Children Transcript Offering fresh insight into the childhood obesity ... new research suggests that almost 1/3 of children between 8 and 15 do not have an ...

459

Prizes for weight loss.  

PubMed Central

A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

Englberger, L.

1999-01-01

460

Weight and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... The doctor will consider all factors including your age and other possible infertility factors and then make a recommendation about whether you should try to lose weight before you try to get pregnant. Changing your ...

461

Pregnancy and Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard ... health. Now women of childbearing age have another motivation for watching their weight: studies show that prepregnancy ...

462

Sum rule measurements of the spin-dependent compton amplitude (nucleon spin structure at Q{sup 2} = 0)  

SciTech Connect

Energy weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photo-production cross sections ({sigma}{sub {1/2}} - {sigma}{sub 3/2}) provide information on the nucleon`s Spin-dependent Polarizability ({gamma}), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. (The latter forms the Q{sup 2}=0 limit of recent spin-asymmetry experiments in deep-inelastic lepton-scattering.) There are no direct measurements of {sigma}{sub {1/2}} or {sigma}{sub 3/2}, for either the proton or the neutron. Estimates from current {pi}-photo-production multipole analyses, particularly for the proton-neutron difference, are in good agreement with relativistic-l-loop Chiral calculations ({chi}PT) for {gamma} but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) both the 2-loop corrections to the Spin-Polarizability are large and the existing multipoles are wrong, or (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon. The helicity-dependent photo-reaction amplitudes, for both the proton and the neutron, will be measured at LEGS from pion-threshold to 470 MeV. In these double-polarization experiments, circularly polarized photons from LEGS will be used with SPHICE, a new frozen-spin target consisting of {rvec H} {center_dot} {rvec D} in the solid phase. Reaction channels will be identified in SASY, a large detector array covering about 80% of 4{pi}. A high degree of symmetry in both target and detector will be used to minimize systematic uncertainties.

Babusci, D.; Giordano, G. [Laboratori Nationali di Frascati-INFN, Rome (Italy); Baghaei, H.; Cichocki, A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Breuer, M.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.P. [IN2P3, Orsay (France); Caracappa, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Fan, Q. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

463

Overlap distributions and taxonomy analysis of spin glass states with equal weights  

E-print Network

499 Overlap distributions and taxonomy analysis of spin glass states with equal weights N. Parga) Résumé. 2014 Nous utilisons des techniques de taxonomie numérique pour vérifier l'ultramétricité des entre échantillons disparaissent. Abstract. 2014 Techniques of numerical taxonomy are used to make

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Computation of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised Factor Scores: Equal and Differential Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard procedures for estimating factor scores for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised (WAIS–R; D. Wechsler, 1981) involve equally weighted sums of the subtests that load most highly on the factor being estimated. We argue that factor scores derived in this manner lack discriminant validity; they are strongly biased toward g (the first unrotated factor) and away from the other 2

Kevin C. H. Parker; Leslie Atkinson

1995-01-01

465

Creep simulation of asymmetric effects by use of stress mode dependent weighting functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a framework for creep modeling of materials exhibiting different behaviors in different loading scenarios, such as tension, compression and shear, respectively. To this end an additive decomposition of the flow rule is assumed into a sum of weighted stress mode related quantities. The characterization of the stress modes is obtained in the octahedral plane of the deviatoric

Rolf Mahnken

2003-01-01

466

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

467

Digital Document Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Gladney has an established background in the field of digital document management, and he also holds a number of patents. Gladney started publishing the Digital Document Quarterly (DDQ) in 2002 as an online publication that covers everything from the information revolution to providing information about digital preservation solutions. Visitors to the site can read the introduction to the DDQ, and then make their way through all of the previous issues. It's easy to see why different information science professionals and librarians would find the archive useful, as the topics covered here include basic topics in digital preservation, preserving office records, information retrieval, and even the epistemology of digital preservation. The site is rounded out by a nice glossary of terms, which covers everything from "abstract" to "value".

2008-01-01

468

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

2012-12-26

469

Weight Varieties Allen Knutson  

E-print Network

(resp. a high weight) of T V â?? the irreducible representation of G with high weight â?? \\Lambda k the high is that for each Weyl group element Ã? 2 W, any lift ~ Ã? 2 G is semisimple. (Proof: ~ Ã? jÃ?j 2 T.) Another is that lifts ~ Ã? of Coxeter elements (products of all the simple reflections) are regular [19]. 4 #12; Contents

Knutson, Allen

470

Digital halftoning of medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work considers the use of digital halftones in the display of medical images. One might assume that the use of halftone rendering (as opposed to continuous tone image rendering) will degrade the information in medical images, therefore, it is interesting to study what degree of degradation is unacceptable in medical images. We analyze various halftoning techniques quantitatively by first generating low-contrast detail diagrams (CDD) made to represent computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and ultrasound (US) modality images. These are then halftoned and printed using error diffusion, Bayer's method, blue noise mask, and centered weighted dots. The contrast areas in the diagram are randomly placed on a 5 X 5 grid. A single observer is used to determine the minimum contrast `lesion' that could be observed. The results for minimum detectable contrast depend on resolution (dots per inch), modality, and halftoning technique. It is shown that acceptable halftone rendering, with small degradation, can be achieved under certain conditions.

Silkman, Ronald W.; Parker, Kevin J.

1995-04-01

471

Digital biology and chemistry.  

PubMed

This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and cellular analysis. Microfluidics will impact digital biology and chemistry and will also benefit from them if it becomes massively distributed. PMID:24889331

Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

2014-09-01

472

From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of many efforts of the League for Innovation in the Community College to address the issue of societal technology access and learning needs. This work addresses the issue of the digital divide, which includes the often conflicting perspectives of information technology (IT) access and literacy needs held by government…

de los Santos, Gerardo E., Ed.; de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr., Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

473

The Digital Carrot, the Digital Stick  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author asserts that technology is not the answer to digital piracy at colleges and universities. Citing the three most common explanations given for copyright infringement--that students cannot always get what they want, cannot always use what they can get, or think the price of what they can get is unfair--he asserts that the…

Jackson, Gregory A.

2007-01-01

474

New Neutrino Mass Bounds from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release 8 Photometric Luminous Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present neutrino mass bounds using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release Eight (SDSS DR8). The galaxies have photometric redshifts between $z = 0.45$ and $z = 0.65$, and cover 10,000 square degrees and thus probe a volume of 3$h^{-3}$Gpc$^3$, enabling tight constraints to be derived on the amount of dark matter in the form of massive neutrinos. A new bound on the sum of neutrino masses $\\sum m_\

de Putter, Roland; Giusarma, Elena; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley; White, Martin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Kirkby, David; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Percival, Will J; Ross, Nicholas P; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

2012-01-01

475

The Parity of the Zeckendorf Sum-of-Digits-Function Michael Drmota and Mariusz Ska lba 1  

E-print Network

of order log N . Conversely, for q > 1 Sq;i (N) (mostly) has a periodic fractal structure. We also prove it is shown that that the values of S(N) = S1;0 (N) admit a Gaussian limit law with bounded mean and variance will use the notation S(N) = X nlog N ). Hence

Drmota, Michael

476

Genetic Relationship between Birth Weight and Adult Weight in Holsteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of body weight for 1026 Holstein females from two herds included birth weight and all available subsequent calving weights for the first six parities. Birth weight differed between herds and between sires within herds. Years also differed; however, partial nesting of sires within years could account for part of this. Month of birth had no influence on birth weight.

R. C. Lamb; B. O. Barker

1975-01-01

477

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

478

Digital Performance Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Digital Research Unit of the Department of Visual and Performing Arts at The Nottingham Trent University and the School of Media, Music and Performance at the University of Salford, this ambitious Website began last April to work to "document developments in the creative use of computer technologies in performance -- from live theatre and dance productions that incorporate digital media, to cyberspace interactive dramas and webcasts." Currently, the site's prime feature is its catalog of digital or digitized performances listed in new acquisitions and new records -- a monthly record of actual acquisitions of the Archive or of information about digital performances and practitioners acquired by the Archive. These records contain detailed information about the performances, including the practitioner, the affiliated group, the venue, the technologies employed, items held by the Archive, and a link to the Website, if any, of the practitioner. The site also plans to provide in the future a video showcase of digital performance and an alphabetized catalog of the archive's holdings and information. A search engine and a calendar of events in the field of digital performance are also available on-site.

479

Comparison analysis of agricultural land gradation evaluation based on different weight making methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land gradation links land classification and land appraisal. It indicates the difference in agricultural productivity resulted from differences in land's natural characteristics and/or the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural production at present and in the future. Technically, agricultural land is graded based on the sum of weighted indices and further classified by equal-distance, or axis, or sum frequency curve. It is critical to define the system of weights in this process. In practice, a single or mixed weight system has been widely applied in agricultural land gradation. However, few studies put efforts in comparing outcomes in applying different systems of weights for a specific area. This research applied several popular systems of weights, such as AHP, factor analysis, grey relation analysis, entropy method, and etc., in gradating agricultural land in Jintan, Jiangsu province. Outcomes resulted from different systems of weights were compared. The result did illustrate the obvious differences among these outcomes, which in turn stood for differences among systems of weights. Considering biases inherent in different systems of weights, a system of combined weights is highly recommended for the general practice in agricultural land gradation.

Jin, Xiaobin; Zhang, Honghui; Zhou, Yinkang

2008-10-01

480

29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments B Appendix...Appendix B to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments [In using...integer and 0 interest rate i1 shall apply from the...

2010-07-01

481

Decompositions of two player games: potential, zero-sum, and stable games  

E-print Network

Decompositions of two player games: potential, zero-sum, and stable games Sung-Ha Hwanga, , Luc Rey of decomposition for two player normal form games. Viewing the set of all games as a vector space, we exhibit explicit orthonormal bases for the subspaces of potential games, zero-sum games, and their orthogonal com

Rey-Bellet, Luc

482

Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

Hersh, Reuben

2012-01-01

483

Sex Differences in Sum Scores May Be Hard to Interpret: The Importance of Measurement Invariance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most assessment instruments, distinct items are designed to measure a trait, and the sum score of these items serves as an approximation of an individual's trait score. In interpreting group differences with respect to sum scores, the instrument should measure the same underlying trait across groups (e.g., male/female, young/old). Differences…

Slof-Op 't Landt, M. C. T.; van Furth, E. F.; Rebollo-Mesa, I.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Slagboom, P. E.; Boomsma, D. I.; Meulenbelt, I.; Dolan, C. V.

2009-01-01

484

A Comparison of Heuristic Procedures for Minimum within-Cluster Sums of Squares Partitioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the most common criterion for partitioning a data set is the minimization of the within-cluster sums of squared deviation from cluster centroids. Although optimal solution procedures for within-cluster sums of squares (WCSS) partitioning are computationally feasible for small data sets, heuristic procedures are required for most practical…

Brusco, Michael J.; Steinley, Douglas

2007-01-01

485

Successive Linear Programs for Computing All Integral Points in a Minkowski Sum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The computation of all integral points in Minkowski (or vector) sums of convex lattice polytopes of arbitrary dimension appears as a subproblem in algebraic variable elimination, parallel compiler code optimization, polyhedral combinatorics and multivariate polynomial multiplication. We use an existing approach that avoids the costly construction of the Minkowski sum by an incremen-tal process of solving Linear Programming (LP)

Ioannis Z. Emiris; Kyriakos Zervoudakis

2005-01-01

486

20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.  

...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes...RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment...

2014-04-01

487

20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes...RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment...

2010-04-01

488

20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes...RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment...

2013-04-01

489

20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes...RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment...

2011-04-01

490

20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes...RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment...

2012-04-01

491

Coincidence summing corrections for the natural decay series in g-ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Monte Carlo code and a Markov formalism to describe the decay schemes, coincidence-summing correction factors can be calculated with a suitable accuracy. For two dierent measuring geometries and an HPGe detector, calculated and experimental correction factors have been shown to closely agree for 152 Eu. The simulation method has subsequently been applied in assessing the need for coincidence-summing

M. Garcia-Talavera; J. P. Laedermann; M. Decombaz; M. J. Daza; B. Quintana

2001-01-01

492

Multiterminal source coding: sum-rate loss, code designs, and applications to video sensor networks  

E-print Network

are positively symmetric and all target distortions are equal. We first give the minimum sum-rate for joint encoding of Gaussian sources in the symmetric case, and then show that the supremum of the sum-rate loss due to distributed encoding in this case is 1 2...

Yang, Yang

2009-05-15

493

Sum frequency mixing of copper vapor laser output in KDP and. beta. -BBO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation at 271nm by frequency summing the two CVL output wavelengths (at 511 and 578 nm) in β-BBO and KDP is reported. A maximum sum frequency output of 100 mW was obtained for 6.8W total pump power from a CVL operating with a fully unstable (M=16) confocal cavity.

D. W. Coutts; M. D. Ainsworth; J. A. Piper

1989-01-01

494

Sum frequency mixing of copper vapor laser output in KDP and. beta. -BBO  

SciTech Connect

Generation at 271nm by frequency summing the two CVL output wavelengths (at 511 and 578 nm) in {beta}-BBO and KDP is reported. A maximum sum frequency output of 100 mW was obtained for 6.8W total pump power from a CVL operating with a fully unstable (M=16) confocal cavity.

Coutts, D.W.; Ainsworth, M.D.; Piper, J.A. (Centre for Lasers and Applications, Macquarie Univ., N.S.W. 2109 (AU))

1989-09-01

495

Zero-Sum Di erential Games Involving Hybrid Controls 1,2  

E-print Network

study here, a zero sum di#11;erential game involving hybrid controls. The main moti- vation comes from the hybrid control systems arising in many engineering problems like constrained robotic systems, automatedZero-Sum Di#11;erential Games Involving Hybrid Controls 1,2 S. Dharmatti 3 M. Ramaswamy 4

Ramaswamy, Mythily

496

Classical sum rules and spin correlations in photoabsorption and photoproduction processes  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the possibility of generalizing the classical photoabsorption ($\\gamma a \\to b c$) sum rules, to processes $b c \\to \\gamma a$ and crossed helicity amplitudes. In the first case, using detailed balance, the sum rule is written as $\\int_{\

Ivan Schmidt; Alfonso R. Zerwekh

2002-04-09

497

Divisibility Properties and New Bounds for Cyclic Codes and Exponential Sums in One and Several Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serre has obtained sharp estimates for the number of rational points on an algebraic curve over a finite field. In this paper we supplement his technique with divisibility properties for exponential sums to derive new bounds for exponential sums in one and several variables. The new bounds give us an improvement on previous bounds for the minimum distance of the

Simon Litsyn; Oscar Moreno; Carlos J. Moreno

1994-01-01

498

Greedy Algorithms for the Minimum Sum Coloring Problem Yu Li Corinne Lucet Aziz Moukrim Kaoutar Sghiouer  

E-print Network

Greedy Algorithms for the Minimum Sum Coloring Problem Yu Li Corinne Lucet Aziz Moukrim Kaoutar Sghiouer Abstract-- In this paper we present our study of greedy algorithms for solving the minimum sum coloring problem (MSCP). We propose two families of greedy algorithms for solving MSCP, and suggest

Boyer, Edmond

499

Congruences for a Class of Alternating Lacunary Sums of Binomial Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 1876 theorem of Hermite, later extended by Bachmann, gives congruences modulo primes for lacunary sums over the rows of Pascal's triangle. This paper gives an analogous result for alternating sums over a certain class of rows. The proof makes use of properties of certain linear recurrences.

Dilcher, Karl

2007-10-01

500

On the Higher Power Sums of Reciprocal Higher-Order Sequences  

PubMed Central

Let {un} be a higher-order linear recursive sequence. In this paper, we use the properties of error estimation and the analytic method to study the reciprocal sums of higher power of higher-order sequences. Then we establish several new and interesting identities relating to the infinite and finite sums. PMID:24741351

Zhang, Jin

2014-01-01