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1

Multidimensional Divide-and-Conquer and Weighted Digital Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies three types of functions arising separately in the\\u000aanalysis of algorithms that we analyze exactly using similar Mellin transform\\u000atechniques. The first is the solution to a Multidimensional Divide-and-Conquer\\u000a(MDC) recurrence that arises when solving problems on points in $d$-dimensional\\u000aspace. The second involves weighted digital sums. Write $n$ in its binary\\u000arepresentation $n=(b_i b_{i-1}... b_1 b_0)_2$

Y. K. Cheung; Philippe Flajolet; Mordecai J. Golin; C. Y. James Lee

2010-01-01

2

Sums of Gauss sums and weights of irreducible codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a matrix approach to compute a certain sum of Gauss sums which arises in the study of weights of irreducible codes. A lower bound on the minimum weight of certain irreducible codes is given.

Robert W. Fitzgerald; Joseph L. Yucas

2005-01-01

3

On exponential sums of digital sums related to Gelfond's theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we first give explicit formulas of exponential sums of sum of digits related to Gelfond's theorem. As an application of these formulas, we obtain a simple expression of Newman-Coquet type summation formula related to the number of binary digits in a multiple of a prime number.

Okada, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Zenji; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Shiota, Yasunobu

2008-01-01

4

Limiting Behavior of Weighted Sums of Independent Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study weighted sums $\\\\sum^n_{i=1} c_{n-i} X_i$ of i.i.d. zero-mean random variables $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots$, under the condition that the sequence $(c_n)$ is square summable. It is proved that such weighted sums are, with probability 1, of smaller order than $n^{1\\/\\\\alpha}$ (respectively $\\\\log n$, etc.) $\\\\operatorname{iff} E|X_1|^\\\\alpha < \\\\infty$ (respectively $Ee^{t|X_1|} < \\\\infty$ for all $t <

Y. S. Chow; T. L. Lai

1973-01-01

5

Aggregating sustainability indicators: beyond the weighted sum.  

PubMed

Sustainability analysts and environmental decision makers often overcome the difficulty of interpreting comprehensive environmental profiles by aggregating the results using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. However, the wide variety of methodological approaches to weighting and aggregation introduces subjectivity and often uncertainty. It is important to select an approach that is consistent with the decision maker's information needs, but scant practical guidance is available to environmental managers on how to do this. In this paper, we aim to clarify the theoretical implications of an analyst's choice of MCDA method. By systematically examining the methodological decisions that must be made by the analyst at each stage of the assessment process, we aim to improve analysts' understanding of the relationship between MCDA theory and practice, and enable them to apply methods that are consistent with a decision maker's needs in any given problem context. PMID:22813856

Rowley, Hazel V; Peters, Gregory M; Lundie, Sven; Moore, Stephen J

2012-07-17

6

Complete convergence of weighted sums under negative dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the complete convergence of weighted sums. In fact, we extend the result of Amini and Bozorgnia (J\\u000a Appl Math Stoch Anal 16(2):121–126, 2003) on unweighted average to a weighted average under mild conditions.

H. Zarei; H. Jabbari

2011-01-01

7

A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…

Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

2012-01-01

8

On weighted rank-sum tests for dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Here is proposed a class of two sample non-parametric scale tests (for both the situations, viz., with and without assuming\\u000a the identity of the locations) based on a family of congruent inter-quantile numbers, and their various properties have been\\u000a studied. A class of appropriate weightfunctions has also been proposed here, and the corresponding weighted rank-sum tests\\u000a appear to be asymptotically

P. K. Sen

1963-01-01

9

Four-Digit Numbers Which Are Squared Sums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a very natural way to divide a four-digit number into 2 two-digit numbers. Applying an algorithm to this pair of numbers, determine how often the original four-digit number reappears. (Contains 3 tables.)|

Coughlin, Heather; Jue, Brian

2009-01-01

10

The Weighted Dyadic Diaphony of Digital Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (weighted) dyadic diaphony is a measure for the irregularity of distribution modulo one of a sequence. Recently it has\\u000a been shown that the (weighted) dyadic diaphony can be interpreted as the worst-case error for QMC integration in a certain\\u000a Hilbert space of functions. In this paper we give upper bounds on the weighted dyadic diaphony of digital (t, s)-sequences

Peter Kritzer; Friedrich Pillichshammer

11

A Weighted Rank-Sum Procedure for Comparing Samples with Multiple Endpoints  

PubMed Central

Summary For comparing the distribution of two samples with multiple endpoints, O’Brien (1984) proposed rank-sum-type test statistics. Huang et al. (2005) extended these statistics to the general nonparametric Behrens-Fisher hypothesis problem and obtained improved test statistics by replacing the ad hoc variance with the asymptotic variance of the rank-sum statistics. In this paper we generalize the work of O’Brien (1984) and Huang et al. (2005) and propose a weighted rank-sum statistic. We show that the weighted rank-sum statistic is asymptotically normally distributed, permitting the computation of power, p-values and confidence intervals. We further demonstrate via simulation that the weighted rank-sum statistic is efficient in controlling the type I error rate and under certain alternatives, is more powerful than the statistics of O’Brien (1984) and Huang et al.(2005).

Li, Qizhai; Liu, Aiyi; Yu, Kai; Yu, Kai F.

2009-01-01

12

Weighted Sum Transferable Discharge Permit Programs for Control of Multiple Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transferable discharge permit (TDP) programs for controlling several pollutants may manage such pollutants as several individual commodities or as a single weighted sum of the various pollutants. This paper shows that the weighted sum permit program may be appropriate for managing pollutants that have an additive or a noninteractive effect on environmental quality. However, under this approach, administrators do not have direct control over the amount of each pollutant that is discharged, and environmental quality may be jeopardized unless the selected weighting factors induce a market equilibrium that satisfies environmental quality standards for the region. Estimates of the cost-effective weighting factors that would tend to satisfy environmental quality standards under such programs are developed here. These estimates require complete water quality information and, in the case of noninteractive pollutants, treatment costs. An approach is described for estimating the cost-effective weighting factors for noninteractive pollutants in cases where treatment cost information is unknown. This approach is demonstrated for a weighted sum TDP program for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorus. The results of this demonstration suggest that for weighted sum permits for these pollutants it is possible to determine a set of weighting factors that achieve adequate environmental protection, cost efficiency, and certainty of system outcome.

Lence, Barbara J.

1991-12-01

13

Spectral properties of mesons in hot and dense matter from energy weighted sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy weighted sum rules for the spectral function of mesons are derived, both in cold nuclear matter and at finite temperature, by matching the Dyson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We illustrate our results by calculating the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy in a nuclear medium. We find satisfactory results from the lower energy weight sum rules, which reflect the contributions from the different quasi-particle and collective modes of the meson spectral function, and show examples of the sensitivity of the sum rules to model approximations. Finally, we discuss applications in asymmetric nuclear matter and in the study of the spectral properties of vector mesons.

Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolós, L.

2010-12-01

14

Weighted-Sum-Rate Maximization in Certain Half-Duplex Cooperative Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In half-duplex cooperative systems the problem of finding the jointly optimal power and channel resource allocation that maximizes the weighted sum rate (WSR) can be difficult to solve. Algorithms to solve that problem are provided herein for two classes of orthogonal half-duplex systems. For a class of systems in which the set of rates that can be achieved without time

Wessam Mesbah; Timothy N. Davidson

2012-01-01

15

Efficient weighted-sum-rate maximization for a class of half-duplex cooperative systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many half-duplex cooperative systems, the direct formulation of the problem of finding the jointly optimal power and channel resource allocation that maximizes a weighted sum of the achievable rates can be difficult to solve. In this paper, we provide an efficient algorithm to solve this problem for a class of systems with convex achievable rate regions. For those systems,

Wessam Mesbah; Timothy N. Davidson

2010-01-01

16

Energy-weighted sum rules for mesons in hot and dense matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study energy-weighted sum rules of the pion and kaon propagator in nuclear matter at finite temperature. The sum rules are obtained from matching the Dyson form of the meson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We calculate the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy. The in-medium spectral densities of the K and K¯ mesons are obtained from a chiral unitary approach in coupled channels that incorporates the S and P waves of the kaon-nucleon interaction. The pion self-energy is determined from the P-wave coupling to particle-hole and ?-hole excitations, modified by short-range correlations. The sum rules for the lower-energy weights are fulfilled satisfactorily and reflect the contributions from the different quasiparticle and collective modes of the meson spectral function. We discuss the sensitivity of the sum rules to the distribution of spectral strength and their usefulness as quality tests of model calculations.

Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolós, L.

2009-10-01

17

Many-Objective Optimization for Knapsack Problems Using Correlation-Based Weighted Sum Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of an EMO (Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization) algorithm using a correlation\\u000a based weighted sum for many objective optimization problems. Recently many EMO algorithms are proposed for various multi-objective\\u000a problems. However, it is known that the convergence performance to the Pareto-frontier becomes weak in approaches using archives\\u000a for non-dominated solutions since the size of archives

Tadahiko Murata; Akinori Taki

2009-01-01

18

Implementation of the weighted sum of gray gases model to a narrow band: Application and validity  

SciTech Connect

Modeling the nongray behavior of combustion gases, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, is very important for calculating the radiative heat transfer in furnaces and boilers. Here, the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) is applied to narrow bands of water vapor for analyzing radiative heat transfer in nongray media. For a given narrow band, the band mean spectral emissivity is represented by a weighted sum of gray gas emissivities expressed in terms of absorption coefficients, weighting factors, absorbing gas density, and path length. Five types of temperature-versus-narrow band absorption coefficient relation are suggested, and comparisons between the modeled emissivity and that of the original narrow band model are made and shown at a few typical bands. Total and low-resolution spectral intensities at the boundary are obtained for uniform, parabolic, boundary-layer-type temperature and parabolic concentration profiles using the WSGGM with five gray gases. Results using the Curtis-Godson approximation are compared with the WSGGM computations for each narrow band. The results using the WSGGM show good agreement with the Curtis-Godson approximation results, and especially, two of the WSGGMs with wave number-dependent absorption coefficient show highly accurate results with a few percent error in the total wall heat flux. The WSGGMs with wave number-independent absorption coefficients are, however, more useful for total spectrum computation, with a slight sacrifice in the accuracy.

Kim, O.J.; Song, T.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Kusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-01

19

A Weighted Sum Validity Function for clustering with a Hybrid Niching Genetic Algorithm.  

PubMed

Clustering is inherently a difficult problem, both with respect to the construction of adequate objective functions as well as to the optimization of the objective functions. In this paper, we suggest an objective function called the Weighted Sum Validity Function (WSVF), which is a weighted sum of the several normalized cluster validity functions. Further, we propose a Hybrid Niching Genetic Algorithm (HNGA), which can be used for the optimization of the WSVF to automatically evolve the proper number of clusters as well as appropriate partitioning of the data set. Within the HNGA, a niching method is developed to preserve both the diversity of the population with respect to the number of clusters encoded in the individuals and the diversity of the subpopulation with the same number of clusters during the search. In addition, we hybridize the niching method with the k-means algorithm. In the experiments, we show the effectiveness of both the HNGA and the WSVF. In comparison with other related genetic clustering algorithms, the HNGA can consistently and efficiently converge to the best known optimum corresponding to the given data in concurrence with the convergence result. The WSVF is found generally able to improve the confidence of clustering solutions and achieve more accurate and robust results. PMID:16366242

Sheng, Weiguo; Swift, Stephen; Zhang, Leishi; Liu, Xiaohui

2005-12-01

20

Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.

Jolos, R. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Brentano, P. von [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

2009-04-15

21

Weighted sum-rate based power allocation for the uplink of nonregenerative cooperative multi-user MIMO communication system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplify-and-forward (AF) is one of the most popular and simple approaches to transmit information over a cooperative multi-input multi-output (MIMO) relay channel. In this paper, we propose a novel power allocation method for the uplink of multi-user MIMO AF cooperative system, which is designed to optimise the weighted sum-rate of the cooperative system. This method provides similar sum-rate performance than

Fabien Heliot; Reza Hoshyar; Rahim Tafazolli

2010-01-01

22

The Moments of a Kloosterman Sum and the Weight Distribution of a Zetterberg-Type Binary Cyclic Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, we give the moments of a Kloosterman sum over Fq in terms of the frequencies of weights in the binary Zetterberg code of length q+1, which are known by the work of Schoof and van der Vlugt. The method is illustrated by giving explicit formulae for the moments up to the tenth moment. As a corollary the

Marko J. Moisio

2007-01-01

23

Weighted Sum Rate Maximization for Downlink OFDMA With Subcarrier-Pair Based Opportunistic DF Relaying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a weighted sum rate (WSR) maximization problem for downlink OFDMA aided by a decode-and-forward (DF) relay under a total power constraint. A novel subcarrier-pair based opportunistic DF relaying protocol is proposed. Specifically, user message bits are transmitted in two time slots. A subcarrier in the first slot can be paired with a subcarrier in the second slot for the DF relay-aided transmission to a user. In particular, the source and the relay can transmit simultaneously to implement beamforming at the subcarrier in the second slot. Each unpaired subcarrier in either the first or second slot is used for the source's direct transmission to a user. A benchmark protocol, same as the proposed one except that the transmit beamforming is not used for the relay-aided transmission, is also considered. For each protocol, a polynomial-complexity algorithm is developed to find at least an approximately optimum resource allocation (RA), by using continuous relaxation, the dual method, and Hungarian algorithm. Instrumental to the algorithm design is an elegant definition of optimization variables, motivated by the idea of regarding the unpaired subcarriers as virtual subcarrier pairs in the direct transmission mode. The effectiveness of the RA algorithm and the impact of relay position and total power on the protocols' performance are illustrated by numerical experiments. The proposed protocol always leads to a maximum WSR equal to or greater than that for the benchmark one, and the performance gain of using the proposed one is significant especially when the relay is in close proximity to the source and the total power is low. Theoretical analysis is presented to interpret these observations.

Wang, Tao; Glineur, Francois; Louveaux, Jerome; Vandendorpe, Luc

2013-05-01

24

Comparison of methods of computing lognormal sum distributions and outages for digital wireless applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four methods that can be used to approximate the distribution function (DF) of a sum of independent lognormal random variables (RVs) are investigated and compared. The aim is to determine the best method to compute the DF considering both accuracy and computational effort. The investigation focuses on values of the dB spread, ?, valid for practical problems in wireless transmission

Norman C. Beaulieu; Adnan A. Abu-Dayya; P. J. McLane

1994-01-01

25

Pounds Off Digitally Study: A Randomized Podcasting Weight Loss Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background As obesity rates rise, new weight loss methods are needed. Little is known about the use of podcasting (audio files for a portable music player or computer) to promote weight loss, despite its growing popularity. Design A 12-week randomized controlled trial. Setting/Participants Overweight men and women (body mass index, 25–40 kg/m2) (n=78) in the Raleigh–Durham, NC area. Intervention In 2008, participants were randomly assigned to receive 24 episodes of a currently available weight loss podcast (control podcast) or a weight loss podcast based on social cognitive theory (SCT) designed by the researchers (enhanced podcast) for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Weight was measured on a digital scale at baseline and follow-up. Both groups also completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, food intake, physical activity, and SCT constructs at the introductory and 12-week meetings. Additional questionnaires at the 12-week meeting assessed perceptions of the intervention. Results Data collection and analysis occurred in 2008 and intention-to-treat was used. Enhanced group participants (n=41) had a greater decrease in weight (?2.9 ± 3.5 kg enhanced group vs ?0.3 ± 2.1 control group; P < 0.001 between groups) and BMI (?1.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2 enhanced group vs ?0.1 ± 0.7 kg/m2 control group; P < 0.001 between groups) than the control group (n=37) and had greater weight loss–related knowledge (P < 0.05), elaboration (P < 0.001), and user control (P < 0.001) and less cognitive load (P < 0.001). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the use of behavioral, theory-based podcasting may be an effective way to promote weight loss.

Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.; Tate, Deborah F.; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Bowling, J. Michael; Crosby, Lelia

2010-01-01

26

Hasse-Davenport Curves, Gauss Sums, and Weight Distributions of Irreducible Cyclic Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight distribution of irreducible cyclic codes is closely related to the distribution of the number of rational points in a family of Hasse-Davenport curves. Starting from this relation we compute the weight distribution of certain irreducible cyclic codes.

Marcel Van Der Vlugt

1995-01-01

27

Independent digit control: failure to partition perceived heaviness of weights lifted by digits of the human hand.  

PubMed Central

1. A weight-matching task was used to investigate the ability to estimate heaviness when weight lifting was isolated to the extrinsic flexor muscles (or portions thereof) that act on the digits of the hand. 2. Subjects matched a reference weight (200 g) lifted by a digit on the right with a variable weight lifted by the left thumb; a concurrent weight was simultaneously lifted by a digit on the right (reference) side. The reference and concurrent weights were lifted either by the same muscle (digital portions of flexor digitorum profundus), or anatomically separate but functionally related muscles (flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus). Anaesthesia of the radial nerve and/or posturing of the hand was used to eliminate any small forces generated by co-contraction of the extensor muscles of the digits. 3. When the concurrent weight was equal to or greater than the reference weight, the perceived heaviness of the reference weight increased significantly from control trials (in which no concurrent weight was lifted). Although perceived heaviness of the reference weight increased progressively as the concurrent weight increased, reproducibility (expressed as the coefficient of variation) did not deteriorate when a weight was lifted concurrently. These findings were qualitatively similar when the reference and concurrent weights were lifted by two digital portions of flexor digitorum profundus or when the weights were lifted by flexion of the thumb and index finger. Also, anaesthesia of the digits which lifted the reference and concurrent weights did not alter the changes in perceived heaviness. 4. Perceived heaviness of the reference weight lifted by flexor digitorum profundus did not change when subjects lifted the concurrent weight with a remote muscle group (ankle dorsiflexors). 5. This study shows that signals of heaviness are systematically overestimated whenever more than one portion of the extrinsic muscles which flex the different digits are simultaneously active. Given that estimates of heaviness are biased by the central motor command, one explanation is that when the total motor drive increases, the central nervous system is unable to partition precisely the destination of motor commands to functionally related 'muscles'.

Kilbreath, S L; Gandevia, S C

1991-01-01

28

Adaptively weighted code division multiplexing for hierarchical digital broadcasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an adaptively weighted code division multiplexing (AW-CDM) system (a power controlled spread-spectrum multiplexing), and describes its application to the hierarchical digital broadcasting of television signals. The AW-CDM is combined with a multiresolutional video encoder to provide hierarchical transmission. It allows for both high quality services for fixed receivers and lower quality services for mobile/portable receivers. The carrier and clock are robustly regenerated by the use of a spread-spectrum mulitplexed pseudorandom noise (PN) sounder as a reference in the receiver. The PN reference is also used for Rake combining with signals from different paths, and for adaptive equalization (EQ). In a prototype AW-CDM modem, three layers of hierarchical video signals (highs: 5.91 Mbps), middles: 1.50 Mbps, and lows: 0.46 Mbps) are divided into a pair of 64 orthogonal spread-spectrum subchannels, each of which can be given a different priority and therefore a different threshold. In this case, three different thresholds are given. The modem's transmission rate is 9.7 Mbps in the 6 MHz band. Indoor transmission tests confirm that lows (weighted power layer 1), middles (averaged power layer 2), and highs (lightened power layer 3) are retievable under conditions in which the desired to undesired signal ratios (DURs) are respectively 0 dB, 8.5 dB, and 13.5 dB. If the undesired signals are multipaths, these performances are dramatically improved by Rake combining and EQ. The AW-CDM system can be used for 20-30 Mbps advanced television (ATV) transmission in the 6 MHz bandwidth simply by changing the binary inputs into quaternary or octonary inputs.

Hamazumi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

1995-09-01

29

Extensions of the weighted-sample method for digitizing continuous-time filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods continue to improve for taking the transfer function of a stable, continuous-time, single-input single-output system or filter and converting it to an “equivalent” discrete-time filter. The weighted-sample (WS) method of carrying out the digitizing process is one such method. It is a higher order method, compared with the first-order Tustin's method, so it usually achieves a smaller error for

Chunxi Wan; Alan M. Schneider

2001-01-01

30

Binary-Weighted Digital-to-Analog Converter Design Using Floating-Gate Voltage References  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implementation of a compact and programmable 10-bits floating-gate digital-to-analog converter (FGDAC) is described. In this implementation, nonvolatile floating-gate voltage references (epots) are employed together with unity-size capacitors to obtain the binary-weighted scale factors. The FGDAC, fabricated in a 0.5- mum CMOS process, occupies 0.208 mm2 of die area. The stored epot voltages drift 10_3% over the period of ten

Erhan Ozalevli; Haw-Jing Lo; Paul E. Hasler

2008-01-01

31

Design of digital filters for frequency weightings required for risk assessments of workers exposed to vibration.  

PubMed

Many workers are exposed to vibration in their industrial environment. Vibration can be transmitted through a vehicle seat or a hand-held power tool. Excessive vibration exposure may cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's vibration exposure is assessed, which may require measurement by the equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to vibration may be measured using accelerometers; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical vibration measurements to the human's response to vibration. ISO 2631, BS 6841 and ISO 5349-1 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded acceleration data. ISO 8041 Annex C suggests a method but does not provide a solution. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical software. PMID:17878622

Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J

2007-08-01

32

Rademacher sums, moonshine and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1939 Rademacher derived a conditionally convergent series expression for the elliptic modular invariant, and used this expression--the first Rademacher sum--to verify its modular invariance. By generalizing Rademacher's approach we construct bases for the spaces of automorphic integrals of arbitrary even integer weight, for all groups commensurable with the modular group. We use these Rademacher sums to illuminate various aspects

John F. R. Duncan; Igor B. Frenkel

2009-01-01

33

Weighted two-valued digit-set encodings: unifying efficient hardware representation schemes for redundant number systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of two-valued digit (twit) as a binary variable that can assume one of two different integer values. Posibits, or simply bits, in {0,1} and negabits in {-1,0}, commonly used in two's-complement representations and (n,p) encoding of binary signed digits, are special cases of twits. A weighted bit-set (WBS) encoding, which generalizes the two's-complement encoding by allowing

Ghassem Jaberipur; Behrooz Parhami; Mohammad Ghodsi

2005-01-01

34

Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Adaptation of Multi-Digit Forces to Object Weight for Whole-Hand Manipulation  

PubMed Central

The delicate tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by a number of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. One such condition is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that causes sensory and motor deficits in a subset of digits in the hand. Whereas the effects of CTS on median nerve physiology are well understood, the extent to which it affects whole-hand manipulation remains to be addressed. CTS affects only the lateral three and a half digits, which raises the question of how the central nervous system integrates sensory feedback from affected and unaffected digits to plan and execute whole-hand object manipulation. We addressed this question by asking CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold a grip device (445, 545, or 745 g) for several consecutive trials. We found that CTS patients were able to successfully adapt grip force to object weight. However, multi-digit force coordination in patients was characterized by lower discrimination of force modulation to lighter object weights, higher across-trial digit force variability, the consistent use of excessively large digit forces across consecutive trials, and a lower ability to minimize net moments on the object. Importantly, the mechanical requirement of attaining equilibrium of forces and torques caused CTS patients to exert excessive forces at both CTS-affected digits and digits with intact sensorimotor capabilities. These findings suggest that CTS-induced deficits in tactile sensitivity interfere with the formation of accurate sensorimotor memories of previous manipulations. Consequently, CTS patients use compensatory strategies to maximize grasp stability at the expense of exerting consistently larger multi-digit forces than controls. These behavioral deficits might be particularly detrimental for tasks that require fine regulation of fingertip forces for manipulating light or fragile objects.

Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A.; Ross, Mark A.; Smith, Anthony A.; Coakley, Brandon J.; Gleason, Elizabeth A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Santello, Marco

2011-01-01

35

Recursion formulas for growing memory digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing memory digital filter is defined by considering the input(y_{nu-u})-output(Z_m)relationship in the formZ_m = sum_{u=0}^m W_{um} y_{m-u}, m = 0, 1, 2, cdotswhereW_{um}is the weighting sequence of a linear time varying digital filter. Contained herein are a derivation of an optimum growing memory smoothing and prediction filter in the least squares sense for polynomial input functions, (of degree =K)

M. Blum

1958-01-01

36

Personal digital assistants are comparable to traditional diaries for dietary self-monitoring during a weight loss program.  

PubMed

Dietary self-monitoring is considered the core of behavioral weight control programs. As software for personal digital assistants (PDA) has become more available, this study investigated whether the use of a PDA would improve dietary self-monitoring frequency and subsequent weight loss over the use of traditional paper diaries. One-hundred-seventy-six adults (BMI 25-39.9) participated in a 6-month behavioral weight control program. Treatment subjects (n = 61) were provided with a PalmZire 21 with Calorie King's Diet Diary software installed. Their self-monitoring habits and weight loss were compared with the results from a previous program (n = 115) which followed the same protocol using paper diaries for self-monitoring. No significant differences in weight loss or dietary self-monitoring were found. More frequent self-monitoring correlated with weight loss in both groups (p<.001). People seeking to lose weight should be encouraged to self-monitor and be matched with a mode of self-monitoring that is fitting to their lifestyle and skills. PMID:17216341

Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Gold, Beth Casey; Howard, Alan B

2007-01-10

37

A novel image digital watermark algorithm with weighted fractional calculus based on wavelet coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel digital watermark algorithm, based on fractional calculus and wavelet transform, is proposed in this paper. It makes full use of the characteristic of the high sensitive fractional order. The algorithm makes sinusoidal signal by fractional Cauchy formula with two differential orders. The sampled signals of the differential signals were superimposed as the pseudo-random sequence which is used to

Qi-Guang Miao; Cheng Shi; Wei Wang

2010-01-01

38

Sum-Difference Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

Shi, Yixun

2010-01-01

39

Rademacher sums, moonshine and gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1939 Rademacher derived a conditionally convergent series expression for\\u000athe elliptic modular invariant, and used this expression--the first Rademacher\\u000asum--to verify its modular invariance. By generalizing Rademacher's approach we\\u000aconstruct bases for the spaces of automorphic integrals of arbitrary even\\u000ainteger weight, for all groups commensurable with the modular group. We use\\u000athese Rademacher sums to illuminate various aspects

John F. R. Duncan; Igor B. Frenkel

2009-01-01

40

Fault-Tolerant Fulltext Information Retrieval in Digital Multilingual Encyclopedias with Weighted Pattern Morphing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach to add fault-tolerance to a fulltext retrieval system. The weighted pattern morphing technique circumvents some of the disadvantages of the widely used edit distance measure and can serve as a front end to almost any fast non fault-toler- ant search engine. The technique enables approximate searches by care- fully generating a set of modified

Wolfram M. Esser

2004-01-01

41

Integrated Current-Mode Spatial Filtering Detector with Variable Multi-valued Weighting Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we designed and fabricated a new Integrated Spatial Filtering Detector with Variable Multi-valued Weighting Function (ISFD-VMWF). This chip based on 32x32 array of n-well/p-sub photodiodes has been successfully developed using the analog/digital mixed implementation. The weighted-sum structure is proposed to realize the ISFD-VMWF. As the weighted structure, the 7-bit signed analog weighting circuit is used with cascode current mirrors. The weighting control partis consisted of digital registers in a weighted pixel element as the sum structure. The weights are controlled and programmed by external interface on the PC. Achieving the sum structure, the weighted current from each processing cell element is summed into one current signal, and two output signals, plus and minus, are outputted. These signals are converted to the voltage signal and amplified by the external differential op-amp with various gains with parallel. The experimental results show that output signals summed up are linearly shifted with changing weights as the basic characteristics of the ISFD-VMWF. To evaluate the ISFD-VMWF, another experiment of the velocity measurement was executed, which shows the effectiveness of the ISFD-VMWF on the measurement system.

Go, Hyunmin; Takayama, Jun-Ya; Ohyama, Shinji; Kobayashi, Akira

42

Sum rules and correlations in asymmetric nuclear matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron and proton single-particle spectral functions in asymmetric nuclear matter fulfill energy-weighted sum rules. The validity of these sum rules within the self-consistent Green's function approach is investigated. The various contributions to these sum rules and their convergence as a function of energy provide information about correlations induced by the realistic interaction between the nucleons. The study of the sum rules in asymmetric nuclear matter exhibits the isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon correlations.

Rios, A.; Polls, A.; Müther, H.

2006-02-01

43

Integrals of Lagrange functions and sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exact values are derived for some matrix elements of Lagrange functions, i.e. orthonormal cardinal functions, constructed from orthogonal polynomials. They are obtained with exact Gauss quadratures supplemented by corrections. In the particular case of Lagrange-Laguerre and shifted Lagrange-Jacobi functions, sum rules provide exact values for matrix elements of 1/x and 1/x2 as well as for the kinetic energy. From these expressions, new sum rules involving Laguerre and shifted Jacobi zeros and weights are derived.

Baye, Daniel

2011-09-01

44

An Invariant-Sum Characterization of Benford's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accountant Nigrini remarked that in tables of data distributed according toBenford's Law, the sum of all elements with first digit d (d = 1; 2; ::; 9) is approximatelyconstant. In this note, a mathematical formulation of Nigrini's observationis given and it is shown that Benford's Law is the unique probability distributionsuch that the expected sum of all elements with

Pieter C. Allaart

45

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

46

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one of two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages change the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1992-12-31

47

Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter  

DOEpatents

A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one or two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages changes the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.

Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.

1993-08-17

48

Nonzero Sum Differential Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a study of nonzero-sum games and differential games. Primary emphasis is placed on deterministic differential games with perfect information. The players are to select a pure strategy from admissible sets in seeking their equilibrium t...

E. B. Tennis

1971-01-01

49

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

50

Handheld digital equipment for weight composite distress paradigms: new considerations and for rapid documentation and intervention of rodent populations.  

PubMed

Animal care in the third millennium will require a melding of scientific and humane interests to achieve optimal care of genetically engineered mice and to expedite scientific and medical advances by using these mammals. Undoubtedly, rodent patients present certain difficulties for those who wish to assess their daily well-being and to contribute to efficient and successful scientific discovery. High-density housing, large experimental groups, and low-lux room lighting makes the application of large-animal care standards to rodents seem daunting to researchers and veterinary care programs. In addition, great variability in training and experience among those responsible for the direct application of humane care to rodents exists. Most of the direct animal care in small animal facilities occurs in decentralized locales by personnel who have completed obligatory but relatively minimal animal care training. Examples of personnel in this category include postdoctoral fellows, junior-level scientists, summer students, and assistant laboratory animal technologists. Some programs even use the husbandry staff to perform health checks of high-risk populations on a daily basis. For this reason, the extrapolation of performance-based intervention in rodent care is difficult to apply practically. Early efforts to enhance humane outcome in rodents have been published by scientists and veterinarians and are largely directed at singular endpoints, such as weight loss and declining temperatures, in specific models. Scientists often are reluctant to accept such standards because of concern about premature intervention or variability between scorers and to reservations regarding a lack of procedural likeness with their proposed study. This paper highlights a digital method for melding current advanced animal scoring standards using palm pilot user-friendly methods that account for composite weight scoring, behavioral or physiologic attributes, and interventions. Information is rapidly downloaded and results in quick storage of large rodent population monitoring. This minimizes interpretative variability between caregivers and greater standardization of procedures. These considerations facilitate the rapid diagnosis of outliers and make possible intervention that streamlines the delivery of humane care to large experimental populations. PMID:11451389

Hampshire, V

2001-07-01

51

State Sums and Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I review the definition of topological quantum field theories through state sums on triangulated manifolds. I describe the construction of state sum invariants of 3-manifolds from a graphical calculus and show how to evaluate the invariants as boundary amplitudes. I review how to define such a graphical calculus through SU(2) representation theory. I then review various geometricity results for the representation theory of SU(2), Spin(4) and SL(2,C), and define coherent boundary manifolds for state sums based on these representations. I derive the asymptotic geometry of the SU(2) based Ponzano-Regge invariant in three dimensions, and the SU(2) based Ooguri models amplitude in four dimensions. As a corollary to the latter results I derive the asymptotic behaviour of various recently proposed spin foam models motivated from the Plebanski formulation of general relativity. Finally the asymptotic geometry of the SL(2,C) based model is derived.

Hellmann, Frank

2011-02-01

52

Mystery Sums 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This third Mystery Sums Sketchpad activity which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad, as well as on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately) allows learners to use logic and early algebra reasoning skills to find the secret numerical value of ten letters, which are initially from 1-10, but this upper limit can be changed. Players encompass letters within a circle to reveal their sum. Students can play the game multiple times, with the computer generating new random values, or they can create challenges for each other to solve. A movie provides detailed instructions and downloadable PDF of teacher notes and student worksheets are also included.

Scher, Daniel

2012-10-08

53

A single 1.5-V digital chip for a 106 synapse neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital-chip architecture for a 106-synapse neural network is proposed. It runs on a 1.5-V dry cell to allow its use in portable equipment. An on-chip DRAM cell array stores synapse weights digitally to provide easy programmability and automatic refreshing. A pitch-matched interconnection and a combinational unit circuit for summing product allow a tight layout. A dynamic data transfer circuit

T. Watanabe; K. Kimura; M. Aoki; T. Sakata; K. Ito

1993-01-01

54

Length asymmetry of the bovine digits.  

PubMed

The lengths of the digital bones of the fore- and hind-limbs obtained post mortem from 40 cattle of different ages were measured using digital radiographs. The lengths of the individual digital bones and the overall length of the digit were determined using computer software. The lateral metacarpal/metatarsal condyle, and lateral P1 and P2 were significantly longer than their medial counterparts, whereas P3 of the medial digit was longer than its lateral partner. Measured from the cannon bone epiphysis to the tip of the pedal bone, the mean increased length of the lateral digit was 0.8 mm in the fore- and 1.5 mm in the hind-limb. When the lengths of the digital bones were summed, the mean length of the lateral digit was 1.8 mm longer in the fore-limb and 2.1 mm longer in the hind-limb. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the lengths of the paired digits differ in cattle. The majority of cattle have longer lateral digits in the fore- and hind-limbs. This asymmetry might explain why the lateral hind-limb claws are predisposed to sole ulcers on hard surfaces. In the hind-limbs, the impact is transferred from the pelvis directly to the longer lateral digit. In the fore-limb claws, the tenomuscular attachment to the trunk may be involved in a more even weight distribution and in a shift of weight to the medial claw. PMID:21570662

Muggli, E; Sauter-Louis, C; Braun, U; Nuss, K

2010-06-17

55

Odd Ramanujan Sums of Complex Roots of Unity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special class of odd-symmetric length-4N periodic signals is studied, and it is shown how the odd Ramanujan sums are used as weighting coefficients to compute their pure imaginary discrete Fourier transform (DFT) integer-valued coefficients. The odd Ramanujan sum, being the sums of complex roots of unity, can be calculated either using closed-form formulas or computed recursively through the impulse

Soo-Chang Pei; Kuo-Wei Chang

2007-01-01

56

Sum Rule for a Schiff-Like Dipole Moment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy-weighted sum rule for an electric dipole transition operator of a Schiff type differs from the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule by several corrective terms which depend on the number of system components, N. For illustration the formalism was applied to the case of Na clusters. One concludes that the random phase approximation (RPA) results for Na clusters obey the modified TRK sum rule.

Raduta, A. A.; Budaca, R.

57

Summing free unitary random matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I use quaternion free probability calculus—an extension of free probability to non-Hermitian matrices (which is introduced in a succinct but self-contained way)—to derive in the large-size limit the mean densities of the eigenvalues and singular values of sums of independent unitary random matrices, weighted by complex numbers. In the case of circular unitary ensemble summands, I write them in terms of two “master equations,” which I then solve and numerically test in four specific cases. I conjecture a finite-size extension of these results, exploiting the complementary error function. I prove a central limit theorem, and its first subleading correction, for independent identically distributed zero-drift unitary random matrices.

Jarosz, Andrzej

2011-07-01

58

Entanglement Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the entanglement entropy of a wide class of models that may be characterized as describing matter coupled to gauge fields. Our principle result is an entanglement sum rule that states that the entropy of the full system is the sum of the entropies of the two components. In the context of the models we consider, this result applies to the full entropy, but more generally it is a statement about the additivity of universal terms in the entropy. Our proof simultaneously extends and simplifies previous arguments, with extensions including new models at zero temperature as well as the ability to treat finite temperature crossovers. We emphasize that while the additivity is an exact statement, each term in the sum may still be difficult to compute. Our results apply to a wide variety of phases including Fermi liquids, spin liquids, and some non-Fermi liquid metals. For example, we prove that our model of an interacting Fermi liquid has exactly the log violation of the area law for entanglement entropy predicted by the Widom formula in agreement with earlier arguments.

Swingle, Brian

2013-09-01

59

Counting Triangles to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.|

DeMaio, Joe

2012-01-01

60

Flexible lognormal sum approximation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and novel method is presented to approximate the distribution of the sum of independent, but not necessarily identical, lognormal random variables, by the lognormal distribution. It is shown that matching a short Gauss-Hermite approximation of the moment generating function of the lognormal sum with that of the lognormal distribution leads to an accurate lognormal sum approximation. The advantage

Jingxian Wu; Neelesh B. Mehta; Jin Zhang

2005-01-01

61

Using Squares to Sum Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript…

DeTemple, Duane

2010-01-01

62

Fluctuations in classical sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

Elton, John R.; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

2010-10-01

63

Error Analysis of an Algorithm for Summing Certain Finite Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An algorithm for summing certain finite series is discussed in detail and a fairly complete error analysis is given. The algorithm under consideration is very convenient for use on a digital computer, since it is easy to program, and may in fact be looked...

D. Elliott

1967-01-01

64

A hybrid mean value formula involving Kloosterman sums and Hurwitz zeta-function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this paper is using the mean value theorem of Dirichlet L-function and the estimates for character sums to study the asymptotic properties of a hybrid mean value of Kloosterman sums with the weight of Hurwitz zeta-function and the Cochrane sums, and give an interesting mean value formula for it.

Ganglian, Ren

2007-06-01

65

PDA+: A Personal Digital Assistant for Obesity Treatment - An RCT testing the use of technology to enhance weight loss treatment for veterans  

PubMed Central

Background Obese adults struggle to make the changes necessary to achieve even modest weight loss, though a decrease in weight by as little as 10% can have significant health benefits. Failure to meet weight loss goals may in part be associated with barriers to obesity treatment. Wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based obesity treatment faces multiple challenges including cost, access, and implementing the programmatic characteristics on a large scale. Aims The PDA+: A Personal Digital Assistant for Obesity Treatment randomized controlled trial (RCT) was designed to test whether a PDA-based behavioral intervention enhances the effectiveness of the existing group weight loss treatment program at VA Medical Centers Managing Overweight/Obese Veterans Everywhere (MOVE!). We also aim to introduce technology as a way to overcome systemic barriers of traditional obesity treatment. Methods/Design Veterans enrolled in the MOVE! group at the Hines Hospital VAMC with BMI ? 25 and ? 40 and weigh < 400 pounds, experience chronic pain (? 4 on the NRS-I scale for ? 6 months prior to enrollment) and are able to participate in a moderate intensity exercise program will be recruited and screened for eligibility. Participants will be randomized to receive either: a) MOVE! treatment alone (Standard Care) or b) Standard Care plus PDA (PDA+). Those randomized to PDA+ will record dietary intake, physical activity, and weight on the PDA. In addition, they will also record mood and pain intensity, and receive biweekly telephone support for the first 6-months of the 12-month study. All participants will attend in-person lab sessions every three months to complete questionnaires and for the collection of anthropomorphic data. Weight loss and decrease in pain level intensity are the primary outcomes. Discussion The PDA+ trial represents an important step in understanding ways to improve the use of technology in obesity treatment. The trial will address barriers to obesity care by implementing effective behavioral components of a weight loss intervention and delivering high intensity, low cost obesity treatment. This RCT also tests an intervention approach supported by handheld technology in a population traditionally considered to have lower levels of technology literacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00371462

2011-01-01

66

Notes on Generalized Dedekind Sums.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Generalized Dedekind sums sigma(h,k,c) have proved to be useful in connection with the analysis of linear congruential random number generators. This paper introduces a simple algorithm for the calculation of generalized Dedekind sums using only integer a...

D. E. Knuth

1975-01-01

67

Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from +/-1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

Ablinger, Jakob; Blümlein, Johannes; Schneider, Carsten

2013-08-01

68

A single 1.5-V digital chip for a 106-synapse neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-chip architecture for a 106-synapse neural network is proposed. It operates on a 1.5-V dry cell so that it can be used in portable equipment. An on-chip DRAM cell array stores 106 8-b synapse weights digitally. These are readily programmable and refreshable. A pitch-matched interconnection and a combinational unit circuit used for summing product provide a tight layout by

T. Watanabe; K. Kimura; M. Aoki; T. Sakata; K. Itoh

1992-01-01

69

Sigma 3 Type Condition for Heavy Cycles in Weighted Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A weighted graph is a graph in which each edge e is assigned a non-negative number w(e), called the weight of e. The weight of cycle is the sum of the weights of its edges. The weighted degree d(sup w)(v) of a vertex v is the sum of the weights of the edg...

H. J. Broersma S. Zhang X. Li

2000-01-01

70

The vector sum model of pigeon landmark use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments further tested a model of how pigeons use landmarks to find a location. The vector sum model (Cheng, 1988) predicts that when a landmark is shifted in one direction from its usual position, the bird's peak place of search may shift in that direction, but not in the orthogonal direction. The weight placed on a particular landmark is

Ken Cheng

1989-01-01

71

Schlömilch series and grating sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider sums over the set of positive integers relevant to construction of periodic Green's functions for diffraction gratings and similar problems, and provide a general formula for a combination of Bessel functions of complex order and complex powers of distance from the origin. This general formula is investigated in a number of particular cases, and in particular we provide

R. C. McPhedran; N. A. Nicorovici; L. C. Botten

2005-01-01

72

Introduction to QCD Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

Dominguez, C. A.

2013-08-01

73

Cosmic-ray sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

Frandsen, Mads T. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Masina, Isabella [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universita di Ferrara and INFN Sez. di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Sannino, Francesco [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

2011-06-15

74

Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a…

Thaheem, A. B.

2005-01-01

75

Repeated Reasoning: Products and Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip of students engaged in Common Core Practice Standard #8âLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning shows a classroom of fourth grade students exploring the relationships between sums and products of numbers when numbers are added to themselves and when they are multiplied by each other. The sum and product of each number is displayed sequentially in an array on grid paper to detect patterns more readily. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video. A related clip (cataloged separately) shows the same exploration by the same students but Common Core Practice Standard # 7-Look for and make use of structures is evident.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

76

Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings  

SciTech Connect

In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

Bardakci, Korkut

2006-02-16

77

Multichannel vector sum phase shifter.  

PubMed

A novel multichannel vector sum phase shifter that is suitable for phased array antenna applications is demonstrated. Each channel is implemented using a distinct optical wavelength. Selective control of each channel is performed using an acousto-optic polarization coupler. The concept is successfully demonstrated for two individually controlled channels. For each channel, a continuously variable frequency linear phase shift is demonstrated between DC and 7 GHz, with the phasing range exceeding 100 degrees. PMID:16570403

Bui, Lam Anh; Ghorbani, Kamran; Mitchell, Arnan

2006-03-01

78

Energy-weighted sum rules, y-scaling and duality  

SciTech Connect

The phenomena of scaling and Bloom-Gilman duality are examined in the context of simple nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanical models. These models are shown to scale and to show the qualitative feature of Bloom-Gilman duality. This suggests that these phenomena do not necessarily require the properties of QCD.

J. Wallace Van Orden; Sabine Jeschonnek

2002-09-01

79

Sum rules and short-range correlations in nuclear matter at finite temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleon spectral function in nuclear matter fulfills an energy weighted sum rule. Comparing two different realistic potentials, these sum rules are studied for Green’s functions that are derived self-consistently within the T matrix approximation at finite temperature.

Frick, T.; Müther, H.; Polls, A.

2004-05-01

80

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

81

Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schäfer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

2010-06-01

82

Sum rules for baryon decuplet magnetic moments  

SciTech Connect

In chiral models with SU(3) group structure, baryon decuplet, and octet magnetic moments are evaluated by constructing their sum rules to yield theoretical predictions. In these sum rules we exploit six experimentally known baryon magnetic moments. Sum rules for flavor components and strange form factors of the octet and decuplet magnetic moments and decuplet-to-octet transition magnetic moments are also investigated.

Hong, Soon-Tae [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States) and Department of Science Education and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea)

2007-11-01

83

Sum rules in the proton-neutron interacting boson model: Generalized treatment and specific applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of sum rules for E0,E2 and M1 and M3 transitions within the framework of the proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2) is carried out. Both the non-energy-weighted as well as linear energy-weighted sum rules are derived for rather general IBM-2 Hamiltonians. Special attention is given to the M1 sum rule for which a large amount of data exists. We also show how these more general sum rule results reduce to simple answers when considering the limit of U(5), SU(3), and O(6) dynamical symmetries. Finally, a relation between the M1 and M3 sum rules is pointed out.

Heyde, K.; de Coster, C.; Ooms, D.

1994-01-01

84

Ewald sums for one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive analytic solutions for the potential and field in a one-dimensional system of masses or charges with periodic boundary conditions, in other words, Ewald sums for one dimension. We also provide a set of tools for exploring the system evolution and show that it is possible to construct an efficient algorithm for carrying out simulations. In the cosmological setting we show that two approaches for satisfying periodic boundary conditions—one overly specified and the other completely general—provide a nearly identical clustering evolution until the number of clusters becomes small, at which time the influence of any size-dependent boundary cannot be ignored. Finally, we compare the results with other recent work with the hope to provide clarification over differences these issues have induced.

Miller, Bruce N.; Rouet, Jean-Louis

2010-12-01

85

PDA+: A Personal Digital Assistant for Obesity Treatment - An RCT testing the use of technology to enhance weight loss treatment for veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obese adults struggle to make the changes necessary to achieve even modest weight loss, though a decrease in weight by as\\u000a little as 10% can have significant health benefits. Failure to meet weight loss goals may in part be associated with barriers\\u000a to obesity treatment. Wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based obesity treatment faces multiple challenges including cost,\\u000a access, and implementing the

Jennifer M Duncan; E Amy Janke; Andrea T Kozak; Megan Roehrig; Stephanie W Russell; H Gene McFadden; Andrew Demott; Alex Pictor; Don Hedeker; Bonnie Spring

2011-01-01

86

Labeling Points with Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annotating maps, graphs, and diagrams with pieces of text is an important step in information visualization that is usually referred to as label placement. We dene nine label-placement models for label- ing points with axis-parallel rectangles given a weight for each point. There are two groups; xed-p osition models and slider models. We aim to maximize the weight sum of

Sheung-hung Poon; Chan-su Shin; Tycho Strijk; Alexander Wolff

2001-01-01

87

Labeling Points with Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Annotating maps, graphs, and diagrams with pieces of text is an important step in information visualization that is usually referred to as label placement. We define nine label-placement models for labeling points with axis-parallel rectangles given a weight for each point. There are two groups; fixed-position models and slider models. We aim to maximize,the weight sum of those points

Sheung-hung Poon; Chan-su Shin; Tycho Strijk; Takeaki Uno; Alexander Wolff

2003-01-01

88

Digital Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...

Heather

2008-09-29

89

Two novel methods in QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Two novel methods in extracting the spectral information of hadrons in the QCD sum rule technique. The first one is to combine two sum rules so that the pole dominance is achieved and the resonance information is effectively obtained. This method is applied to the pentaquark {Theta}{sup +} and its quantum numbers are predicted. The second method is to use the Bayesian inference theory to obtain the most probable form of the spectral function from the sum rule. We have checked the method to work in the case of the rho meson sum rule.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto [Dept. of Physics, H-27, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2010-12-28

90

The Generalised GDH Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule was originally derived for real photon absorption (corresponding to Q{sup 2}=0) and has been generalized to finite Q{sup 2}. The goals of Jefferson Lab experiment E97-110 are to perform a precise measurement of the generalized GDH integral and the moments of the neutron spin structure functions in order to study their Q{sup 2} dependence between 0.02 and 0.3 (GeV/c){sup 2}. This Q{sup 2} range will allow us to extrapolate to the real photon point for {sup 3}He and the neutron. Furthermore the low Q{sup 2} predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory and its limits of applicability can be tested. The measurements will provide new constraints on understanding the {sup 3}He and neutron spin structure and contribute to the understanding of the nucleon resonances. The acquisition of data was completed in August of 2003 using the Jefferson Lab high polarization continuous-wave electron beam, the Hall A polarized {sup 3}He target, and the new Hall A septum magnet, which allows measurements at forward angles of 6 and 9 degrees. The status and prospects of the data analysis will be discussed.

Sulkosky, Vincent

2004-08-30

91

Minimizing the Sum of Completion Times with Resource Dependant Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the classical minimization sum of completion times problem to the case where the processing times are controllable by allocating a nonrenewable resource. The quality of a solution is measured by two different criteria. The first criterion is the sum of completion times and the second is the total weighted resource consumption. We consider four different problem variations for treating the two criteria. We prove that this problem is NP-hard for three of the four variations even if all resource consumption weights are equal. However, somewhat surprisingly, the variation of minimizing the integrated objective function is solvable in polynomial time. Although the sum of completion times is arguably the most important scheduling criteria, the complexity of this problem, up to this paper, was an open question for three of the four variations. The results of this research have various implementations, including efficient battery usage on mobile devices such as mobile computer, phones and GPS devices in order to prolong their battery duration.

Yedidsion, Liron; Shabtay, Dvir; Kaspi, Moshe

2008-10-01

92

Design and Verification of a Fast Digital Image Convolution Filter Using CMOS Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated circuit implementation of the arithmetic unit for a digital image processor is described. The arithmetic unit accumulates the sum of products in convolution filtering of a digital image. The architecture of the subprocessor is designed and v...

J. Aarnio V. Kontra M. Linnavuo

1985-01-01

93

GRAPHICAL CONVERGENCE OF SUMS OF MONOTONE MAPPINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives sucient conditions for graphical convergence of sums of maximal monotone mappings. The main result concerns nite- dimensional spaces and it generalizes known convergence results for sums. The proof is based on a duality argument and a new boundedness result for se- quences of monotone mappings which is of interest on its own. An application to the epi-convergence

T. PENNANEN; R. T. ROCKAFELLAR; M. TH ERA

94

Weinberg Sum Rules and Scalar Mesons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A generalization was made of the Weinberg sum rules to SU(3) x SU(3) by including scalar meson states and it was found that the second sum rule or at least its saturation with low lying-resonances is not consistent with experimental data. Hence instead th...

S. P. de Alwis

1967-01-01

95

The BFKL Pomeron calculus: Summing enhanced diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to sum over a class of enhanced diagrams, and derive a new Pomeron Green function. It is found that this sum gives the Pomeron contribution to the scattering amplitude that decreases with energy. In other words, we found that the total cross section of two colourless dipoles of small but equal sizes, falls down at high energies.

Levin, E.; Miller, J.

2012-07-01

96

T-sum of LR fuzzy numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sum of L-R fuzzy numbers based on a given Archimedian continuous t-norm T is studied. A series of improving sufficient conditions of several authors ensuring an analytical form of the output sum is completed by a sufficient and necessary condition, i.e., the best sufficient condition. Some applications are indicated.

Andrea Marková

1997-01-01

97

40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ci-1 + Xi â (FEL + F))] Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for...

2013-07-01

98

Precision digital pulse phase generator  

DOEpatents

A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

99

New Relations Between Dis Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New relations between Bjorken polarized, Gross-Llewellyn Smith and Bjorken unpolarized sum rules are proposed. They are based on the "universality" of the perturbative and non-perturbative 1/Q2 contributions to these sum rules. The letter facts can be deduced from the corresponding renormalon calculations. The similarity of 1/Q2 corrections are checked by inspecting the numerical results obtained within several approaches. The discussed relations are in agreement with existing experimental data. Some possible new phenomenological applications are mentioned including estimates of not yet measured Bjorken unpolarized sum rule.

Kataev, A. L.

2007-11-01

100

Sum rules and three point functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sum rules constraining the R-current spectral densities are derived holographically for the case of D3-branes, M2-branes and M5-branes all at finite chemical potentials. In each of the cases the sum rule relates a certain integral of the spectral density over the frequency to terms which depend both on long distance physics, hydrodynamics and short distance physics of the theory. The terms which which depend on the short distance physics result from the presence of certain chiral primaries in the OPE of two R-currents which are turned on at finite chemical potential. Since these sum rules contain information of the OPE they provide an alternate method to obtain the structure constants of the two R-currents and the chiral primary. As a consistency check we show that the 3 point function derived from the sum rule precisely matches with that obtained using Witten diagrams.

David, Justin R.; Thakur, Somyadip

2012-11-01

101

Coincidence summing in gamma-ray spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique has been developed to calculate coincidence-summing corrections in ?-ray spectroscopy. In this technique the general coincidence-summing equations were derived in matrix notation, which allowed extracting either the first-order correction (combinations of only two coincident ?-rays) or a full correction (all possible combinations of emitted ?-rays). Subsequently, it is shown how the technique can be applied to the determination of the source disintegration rate, ?-ray emission rates or peak efficiencies in the presence of coincidence summing. In particular, the technique has been applied to the determination of peak efficiencies of a germanium detector. The peak efficiencies were iterated self-consistently using the coincidence-summing equations. The above calculation showed that, in general, the full correction is necessary for complicated decay schemes. In addition, a method has been developed to determine the peak-to-total ratio for a germanium detector in the presence of an interfering ?-ray.

Semkow, Thomas M.; Mehmood, Ghazala; Parekh, Pravin P.; Virgil, Mark

1990-05-01

102

A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed {rho}-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2011-05-23

103

Stochastic Comparison of Sums, Using Majorization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stochastic comparisons of sums of random variables are obtained. The random variables come from two types of families of distributions: (1) Families which have proportional hazard functions; and, (2) Families which are obtained by transforming random vari...

F. Proschan J. Sethuraman

1974-01-01

104

Gaussian Sum Rules for Optical Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new (Gaussian) type of sum rules (GSR) for several optical functions, is presented. The functions considered are: dielectric permeability, refractive index, energy loss function, rotatory power and ellipticity (circular dichroism). While reducing to the...

I. Kimel

1981-01-01

105

The generalized GDH sum for He-3  

SciTech Connect

The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q^2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a He-3 target at low Q^2.

Karl Slifer

2004-06-02

106

Gromov-Witten Invariants of Symplectic Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural sum operation for symplectic manifolds is defined by gluing along codimension two submanifolds. Specifically, let X be a symplectic 2n-manifold with a symplectic (2n-2)-submanifold V. Given a similar pair (Y,W) with a symplectic identification V=W and a complex anti-linear isomorphism between the normal bundles of V and W, we can form the symplectic sum Z=X # Y. This

Eleny-Nicoleta Ionel; Thomas H. Parker

1998-01-01

107

Gaussian sum rules for optical functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new (Gaussian) type of sum rules (GSR) for several optical functions is presented. The functions considered are dielectric permeability, refractive index, energy-loss function, rotatory power, and ellipticity (circular dichroism). While reducing to the usual type of sum rules in a certain limit, the GSR contain, in general, a Gaussian factor that serves to improve convergence. GSR might be useful in analyzing experimental data.

Kimel, Isidoro

1982-06-01

108

Sum and Product in Dynamic Epistemic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sum-and-Product riddle was first published in (Fre69). We provide an overview on the history of the dissemination of this riddle through the academic and puzzle-math community. This includes some references to precursors of the riddle, that were previously (as far as we know) unknown. We then model the Sum-and-Product riddle in a modal logic called public announcement logic. This

Hans P. Van Ditmarsch; Ji Ruan; Rineke Verbrugge

2008-01-01

109

Locating the Extrema of Fungible Regression Weights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors, every set of alternate weights belongs to an infinite class of "fungible weights" (Waller, Psychometrica, "in press") that yields identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. When the R[superscript 2] using the alternate weights is a fixed value, fungible…

Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

2009-01-01

110

Characterizing Ideal Weighted Threshold Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Weighted threshold secret sharing was introduced by Shamir in his seminal work on secret sharing. In such settings, there is a set of users where each user is assigned a positive weight. A dealer wishes to distribute a secret among,those users so that a subset of users may reconstruct the secret if and only if the sum of weights

Amos Beimel; Tamir Tassa; Enav Weinreb

2008-01-01

111

Characterizing Ideal Weighted Threshold Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighted threshold secret sharing was introduced by Shamir in his seminal work on secret sharing. In such settings, there is a set of users where each user is assigned a positive weight. A dealer wishes to distribute a secret among those users so that a subset of users may reconstruct the secret if and only if the sum of weights

Amos Beimel; Tamir Tassa; Enav Weinreb

2005-01-01

112

Learning to Predict Physical Properties Using Sums of Separable Functions  

SciTech Connect

We present an algorithm for learning the function that maps a material structure to its value on some property, given the value of this function on several structures. We pose this problem as one of learning (regressing) a function of many variables from scattered data. Each structure is first converted to a weighted set of points by a process that removes irrelevant translations and rotations but otherwise retains full information about the structure. Then, incorporating a weighted average for each structure, we construct the multivariate regression function as a sum of separable functions, following the paradigm of separated representations. The algorithm can treat all finite and periodic structures within a common framework, and in particular does not require all structures to lie on a common lattice. We show how the algorithm simplifies when the structures do lie on a common lattice, and we present numerical results for that case.

D'Avezac, M.; Botts, R.; Mohlenkamp, M. J.; Zunger, A.

2011-01-01

113

Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions.

Amore, Paolo

2013-09-01

114

Coincidence summing corrections applied to volume sources.  

PubMed

The numerical calculation of coincidence summing corrections requires both the total and full-energy peak efficiencies to be included in the corrective factors. Moreover, in the case of volume sources, the coincidence probability depends on the position of the photon emission inside the radioactive sample, thus it is necessary to calculate the coincidence summing corrective factors by integrating the elemental contributions for the entire volume. The software ETNA calculates coincidence summing corrective factors according to a deterministic method, for volume sources, two approaches are included in the software: the "simplified" calculation uses directly the efficiency of the volume source like in the case of point source, and the "complete" calculation performs the volume integration. To assess the difference between these, different geometrical cases are tested for several radionuclides using both methods. PMID:22410298

Lépy, Marie-Christine; Ferreux, Laurent; Pierre, Sylvie

2012-02-28

115

Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

Lynch, Clifford

2002-01-01

116

Digitizer Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the acceptance tests conducted on the Gradicon digitizer manufactured by Instronics, Ltd. The digitizer was evaluated on the basis of its applicability to the area of cartography. Primary emphasis was placed on overall accuracy and re...

F. T. Kulon W. G. McLellan

1973-01-01

117

Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.|

Spivey, Michael

2006-01-01

118

Minimization of Modulo2 Sum of Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This correspondence attempts to solve the problem of expressing an arbitrary switching function in a modulo-2 sum-of-product terms form, having a minimum number of product terms. Each product term may contain variables in complemented or uncomplemented form.

George K. Papakonstantinou

1979-01-01

119

Sum rules for exchange and correlation potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent papers [S. Liu, P. W. Ayers, and R. G. Parr, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6927 (1999); A. Görling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5459 (1999)] have stated that ??2?xc(r)dr=4?, where ?xc(r) is the exchange-correlation potential of density functional theory. Here, we derive this sum rule and related rules such as ??2?x(r)dr=4? and ??2?c(r)dr=0, where ?x(r) and ?c(r) are the exchange and correlation components of ?xc(r). Using similar methods, we derive the sum rule for the ``screening'' portion of the exchange-correlation potential and also ``generalized'' sum rules for ?c(r) and the ``response'' portion of the exchange-correlation potential, vxcresponse(r). From the sum rule for vxcresponse(r), we deduce the asymptotic decay of the density response of the hole-correlation function. We conclude by discussing the probable utility of these results for the development of new exchange-correlation functionals.

Ayers, Paul W.; Levy, Mel

2001-09-01

120

Generalized Sum Rules of the Nucleon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider doubly virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon with the photon virtualities q1^2=q2^2=-Q^2 and formulate the low energy theorem (LET) for this process. We show that the LET can only be defined at finite momentum transfer t=-2Q^2 which is at variance with existing studies in the literature. Combining LET with dispersion relations for the forward VVCS amplitude, we obtain the new, correct version of the generalized sum rules of the nucleon that state a correspondence between the low energy constants of VVCS and the moments of the DIS structure functions. We notice that the t-channel unitarity is necessary to translate the forward dispersion relations to the low energy limit. This approach leads to a substantial modification of the generalized GDH sum rule at finite Q^2 that undergoes extensive studies at JLab. For the spin-independent VVCS amplitude, the new sum rule for the generalized magnetic susceptibility ?(Q^2) is obtained. Our approach provides a consistent, Lorentz invariant formulation of LET for the most general VVCS process that removes inconsistencies that stain the previous studies of the generalized polarizabilities of virtual Compton scattering and the generalized sum rules of the nucleon.

Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam

2008-10-01

121

Normal ordering and the leading logarithm sum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MS and normal ordered renormalization prescriptions are compared. The MS prescription is shown to be superior when one is interested in summing the leading logarithm radiative corrections since the normal ordered prescription does not account for the leading logarithm corrections in any simple manner. Current address: Polaroid Corporation, 153 Needham St., Bldg. NEW1, Newton, MA 02164-1577.

de Young, Anemarie

1994-06-01

122

Diamagnetism, gauge transformations, and sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of conventional definitions of the atomic diamagnetic susceptibility on the gauge adopted for the description of the magnetic field is illustrated. The demonstration of the gauge invariance of the complete magnetic susceptibility leads to a discussion of the connection between gauge transformations and sum rules.

Friar, J. L.; Fallieros, S.

1981-09-01

123

On Jacobi Sums and Difference Sets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let e be even and > or = 4, and let L be the cyclotomic field of the e-th roots of unity. Let J denote the group of Jacobi sums divisible by a certain prime ideal divisor P of a prime p = 1 (mod. e). Then J is embedded into a group J sub o = WXA, where W ...

K. Yamamoto

1966-01-01

124

QCD sum rules and the MIT bag  

SciTech Connect

The QCD Sum Rules provide a theoretical method to compute the resonance masses of hadrons in terms of QCD parameters and a number of vacuum matrix elements like the quark and gluon condensates. But this method when analyzed in terms of a nonrelativistic potential model for charmonium has produced some considerable criticism. Also the MIT Bag has been a very successful resonance model for low lying hadrons. In order to examine the sum rule methodology and its criticism, a sum rule procedure for the MIT Bag is developed. The photon polarization operator in the Bag model is calculated using a prescription to remove the center of mass degrees of freedom. The SVZ moments are computed and the prediction of the ground state of charmonium is explored. In order to introduce confinement perturbatively, the multiple reflection expansion (MRE) of quark propagator is used and the resulting behavior of SVZ moments is studied. This investigation is also carried out in the case of exponential moments. The nonrelativistic expansion of these moments is also developed. The criticism of QCD sum rule approach is analyzed in this context. The analysis supports the validity of the criticism.

Gounder, K.N.

1988-01-01

125

Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?  

PubMed

Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. PMID:23969758

Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

2013-08-20

126

New QCD sum rules based on canonical commutation relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New derivation of QCD sum rules by canonical commutators is developed. It is the simple and straightforward generalization of Thomas–Reiche–Kuhn sum rule on the basis of Kugo–Ojima operator formalism of a non-abelian gauge theory and a suitable subtraction of UV divergences. By applying the method to the vector and axial vector current in QCD, the exact Weinberg's sum rules are examined. Vector current sum rules and new fractional power sum rules are also discussed.

Hayata, Tomoya

2012-04-01

127

Digital Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hardware implementations of cellular automata as reliable, adjustable, and secure commication lines. We discuss energy efficient digital wires on a nano-scale, all-optical digital wires, and digital wires as power lines and present performance data of a prototype digital wire, a six cells wide and ten cells long Boolean network. We show that digital wires have the following advantages: (i) Fixed pulse shape (pulses have a rectangular shape with a constant height and a constant width and produce no echos); (ii) Robust against electric smog. Digital wires based on semiconductor technology are effectively inert against electro-magnetic radiation, except for low-frequency radiation (heat) and high frequency radiation (X-rays). Digital wires based on plasma technology have in addition a very high tolerance for heat and X-rays. In digital wire the pulse speed can be rapidly adjusted. Signals on digital wires can be encrypted. Some digital wires can be used as general purpose computers. The data and the code are the input of the wire. Then both travel along the wire and `collide'. The collision is the computation. The result travels to the end of the wire, for further processing, as parallel input by a CPU, an actuator, or another digital wire.

Brown, Benny; Hubler, Alfred

2009-03-01

128

Digital watermarking for digital cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing the distribution channel of movies from analogue to digital provides new perspectives and possibilities for applying digital watermarking as security mechanisms. Digital watermarking provides its best security options when used for individual marking of copies to trace back distribution leaks. For analogue copies, protecting movies with individual watermarks was only cost-effective for small sets of copies as in promotional

Stefan Thiemert; Martin Steinebach; Huajian Liu

2009-01-01

129

40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...where applicable), all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations...inserting the new FEL into the sample size equation as specified in § 90...calculations remain unchanged. If the sample size calculation indicates...

2012-07-01

130

A UNIFIED THEORY OF ZERO-SUM PROBLEMS, SUBSET SUMS AND COVERS OF Z  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero-sum problems on abelian groups, subset sums in a field and covers of the integers by residue classes, are three different active topics initiated by P. Erdýos more than 40 years ago and investigated by many researchers separately since then. In an earlier announcement (Electron. Res. Announc. Amer. Math. Soc. 9(2003), 51-60), the author claimed some connections among these seemingly

Zhi-Wei Sun

131

APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING TO MINIMIZE THE SUM OF DIAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of partitioning the nodes of a complete edge weighted graph into {kappa} clusters so as to minimize the sum of the diameters of the clusters. Since the problem is NP-complete, our focus is on the development of good approximation algorithms. When edge weights satisfy the triangle inequality, we present the first approximation algorithm for the problem. The approximation algorithm yields a solution that has no more than 10k clusters such the total diameter of these clusters is within a factor O(log (n/{kappa})) of the optimal value fork clusters, where n is the number of nodes in the complete graph. For any fixed {kappa}, we present an approximation algorithm that produces {kappa} clusters whose total diameter is at most twice the optimal value. When the distances are not required to satisfy the triangle inequality, we show that, unless P = NP, for any {rho} {ge} 1, there is no polynomial time approximation algorithm that can provide a performance guarantee of {rho} even when the number of clusters is fixed at 3. Other results obtained include a polynomial time algorithm for the problem when the underlying graph is a tree with edge weights.

Kopp, S.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, S.M.

2000-02-01

132

Optical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn Sum Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is a fundamental consequence of the position-momentum commutation relation for an atomic electron and it provides an important constraint on the transition matrix elements for an atom. Analogously, the commutation relations for the electromagnetic field operators in a magnetodielectric medium constrain the properties of the dispersion relations for the medium through four sum rules for the allowed phase and group velocities for polaritons propagating through the medium. These rules apply to all bulk media including the metamaterials designed to provide negative refractive indices. An immediate consequence of this is that it is not possible to construct a medium in which all the polariton modes for a given wavelength lie in the negative-index region.

Barnett, Stephen M.; Loudon, Rodney

2012-01-01

133

Simultaneous nulling in the sum and difference patterns of a monopulse antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most adaptive array research neglects the problem of nulling in a monopulse antenna. Placing a null in the sum pattern does not automatically place a null in the difference pattern and vice versa. Nulls may be placed in the two patterns by having separate adaptive weights and controls for each channel, however, this method uses two sets of adaptive hardware for one antenna. This paper develops a technique for simultaneous nulling in the sum and difference patterns of a monopulse phased array using one set of adaptive weights shared by both channels. First, the technique is used for amplitude and phase nulling then for phase-only nulling. In each case, the ability to simultaneously null in both channels with one set of weights, chosen to place a null at a particular location, is theoretically demonstrated.

Haupt, R. L.

1982-10-01

134

Sum formulas for reductive algebraic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let V be a Weyl module either for a reductive algebraic group G or for the corresponding quantum group Uq. If G is defined over a field of positive characteristic p, respectively if q is a primitive lth root of unity (in an arbitrary field) then V has a Jantzen filtration V=V0?V1???Vr=0. The sum of the positive terms in this

Henning Haahr Andersen; Upendra Kulkarni

2008-01-01

135

Monitoring in torque-summed electromechanical actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this paper is to address cross-monitoring techniques (lumped and hardware) in a single-type torque-summed architecture. In the lumped cross-monitoring technique, all lanes will be represented by their lumped models, while in hardware cross-monitoring, three-phase equivalents will model each motor. The analysis is based on a 4-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with

Fawaz Annaz

2008-01-01

136

Weight set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-11

137

Digital printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

Sobotka, Werner K.

1997-02-01

138

Dispersion Relations and Sum Rules for Natural Optical Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained...

M. T. Thomaz H. M. Nussenzveig

1981-01-01

139

A study on the run sum X-bar control chart with unknown parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the run sum control chart is a simple and powerful statistical process control tool in the monitoring of the process mean. The implementation of the run sum chart is generally based on the assumption that the process parameters are known. However, since the process parameters are usually unknown in practice, they are estimated from an in-control Phase I data set. In this paper, by means of the Markov chain approach, we investigate the effects of parameter estimation on the performance of the run sum X chart with the scores 0, 1, 2 and 4. The results reveal that when the size of the shift and the number of samples from the Phase I process used for the estimation of parameters are both small, the performance of the run sum X chart is significantly deteriorated. Moreover, very large sample sizes are required for the chart with estimated parameters to have a favorable performance like the known parameters case. By virtue of this adverse performance, new charting parameters are proposed for practitioners in the design of the run sum X chart, based on the weights (0, 1, 2, 4) when parameters are estimated. The suggested parameters give a satisfactory performance even when process parameters are estimated from small number of samples.

Teoh, Wei Lin; Khoo, Michael B. C.

2012-09-01

140

Nucleon sigma term from QCD sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sigma term or the matrix element of the isoscalar-scalar current between one-nucleon states at zero momentum transfer is calculated, from the nucleon current correlation function in an external scalar field using the QCD sum rule method. For the response function of the chiral condensate <|q¯q|0>, we use chiral perturbation theory. The value obtained for nucleon ? term is in qualitative agreement with the determination of Gasser, Leutwyler and Sainio from dispersion analysis. Permanent address: Center for Theoretical Studies, Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

Jin, Xuemin; Nielsen, Marina; Pasupathy, J.

1993-09-01

141

Orlov, Tarasov, and the Robinson Sum Rule  

SciTech Connect

A paper proving a result now commonly known as 'Robinson sum rule' was published by Orlov and Tarasov [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 34 651 (1958) Sov. Phys. JETP 34 339 (1958)] at about the same time that Robinson himself published the result [Phys. Rev. 111 373 (1958)]. We assigned ourselves the task of reviewing this work, as narrowly as possible, in hopes of understanding how it should be considered in view of the existing attribution. The chronology of the work is reviewed and the degree to which the two works were independent and have qualitatively different content is considered.

Talman, Richard; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

2011-12-01

142

Analytical Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analytical weights did not come up from empty space. In fact, our idea was taken from Hugo Riemann’s definition of metrical\\u000a weights: Meter relates to weights. So it was decided to generate an output in the form of numerical weights for any analytical\\u000a engine.

Guerino Mazzola

143

Digital Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and…

Azzam, Amy M.

2006-01-01

144

Digitizing Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

Conway, Paul

1994-01-01

145

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

Salathe, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

146

Approximating a Sum of Random Variables with a Lognormal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, novel, and general method is presented in this paper for approximating the sum of in- dependent or arbitrarily correlated lognormal random variables (RV) by a single lognormal RV. The method is also shown to be applicable for approximating the sum of lognormal-Rice and Suzuki RVs by a single lognormal RV. A sum consisting of a mixture of the

Neelesh B. Mehta; Jingxian Wu; Andreas F. Molisch; Jin Zhang

2007-01-01

147

Nuclear symmetry energy from QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the nucleon self-energies in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rules. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express the potential part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. We find that the scalar (vector) self-energy part gives a negative (positive) contribution to the nuclear symmetry energy which is consistent with the results from relativistic mean-field theories. Moreover, we find that an important contribution to the negative contribution of the scalar self-energy comes from the twist-4 matrix elements, whose leading density dependence can be extracted from deep inelastic scattering experiments. This suggests that the twist-4 contribution partly mimics the exchange of the ? meson and that it constitutes an essential part in the origin of the nuclear symmetry energy from QCD. Our result also extends an early success of QCD sum-rule method in understanding the symmetric nuclear matter in terms of QCD variables to the asymmetric nuclear matter case.

Jeong, Kie Sang; Lee, Su Houng

2013-01-01

148

To Sum or Not to Sum: Taxometric Analysis with Ordered Categorical Assessment Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Meehl's taxometric method has been shown to differentiate between categorical and dimensional data, but there are many ways to implement taxometric procedures. When analyzing the ordered categorical data typically provided by assessment instruments, summing items to form input indicators has been a popular practice for more than 20 years. A Monte…

Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

2009-01-01

149

TWO-PERSON ZERO-SUM LINEAR QUADRATIC STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL GAMES BY A HILBERT SPACE METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-loop two-person zero-sum linear quadratic (LQ for short) stochastic difierential game is considered. The controls for both players are al- lowed to appear in both the drift and difiusion of the state equation, the weight- ing matrices in the payofi\\/cost functional are not assumed to be deflnite\\/non- singular, and the cross-terms between two controls are allowed to appear. A

Libin Mou; Jiongmin Yong

2006-01-01

150

Weight Management  

MedlinePLUS

... weight... Read full story >> Healthy Weight Loss share Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your ... your own skin share The ABC's of Positive Body Image Feeling comfortable in your own skin can be ...

151

On the arithmetic sums of Cantor sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let C? and C? be two affine Cantor sets in \\mathbb{R} with similarity dimensions d? and d?, respectively. We define an analogue of the Bandt-Graf condition for self-similar systems and use it to give necessary and sufficient conditions for having \\xyHa^{d_\\xyla+d_\\xyga}(C_\\xyla + C_\\xyga)>0 where C? + C? denotes the arithmetic sum of the sets. We use this result to analyse the orthogonal projection properties of sets of the form C? × C?. We prove that for Lebesgue almost all directions ? for which the projection is not one-to-one, the projection has zero (d? + d?)-dimensional Hausdorff measure. We demonstrate the results in the case when C? and C? are the middle-(1-2?) and middle-(1-2?) sets.

Ilgar Eroglu, Kemal

2007-05-01

152

Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration  

SciTech Connect

How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-06

153

[Digital radiography].  

PubMed

Advantages of digital radiography: Improved low contrast imaging; Image processing capability (on line or post-processing); Lower radiation dose for certain applications ("Dose variation"); Digital storage and data transfer; Only one exposure for different imaging characteristics; Optimised real-time image, "digital fluoroscopy" (DBR); Shorter examination times (DBR); Advantages for technically complicated exposures (intensive care, superpositions in the chest region, pediatry) (DLR); High dynamic range, which eliminates over or under exposure; Real time image processing and display (DBR). Disadvantages of digital radiography; Lower spatial resolution is limiting fine structure (max. theoretical resolution is 31p/mm for 1000 and app. 5 lp/mm for 2000 pixels image matrix); Spatial resolution depends from image intensifier diameter or screen format; Lower SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) for reduced dose, increased noise impression for edge enhancement; Information losses for monitor camera (DBR) -hardcopies; Diagnostic capabilities are reduced by noise and low spatial resolution caused by certain applications (mammography). PMID:2236539

Schnakenberg, B

1990-01-01

154

Digital clubbing.  

PubMed

Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350

Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D M; Madabhavi, Irappa

2012-10-01

155

Digital Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Morphology library is a dynamic archive of information on digital morphology and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography of biological specimens. Plants and animals, both recent and fossil, are included. Skulls and skeletons of vertebrates, exoskeletons of invertebrates and hard parts of plants are all represented. Browse through the site and see spectacular imagery, animations and details on the morphology of over 200 representatives of the Earth's biota.

Rowe, Timothy; Maisano, Jessie; Humphries, Julian

156

Digital radiography.  

PubMed

Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994

Mattoon, J S

2006-01-01

157

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital History website is a project of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, designed to educate scholars and the public about the new and fast-growing academic discipline that is digital history. The home page features a semi-globe with links to the different sections atop the globe. The goal of the site is to provide access to presentations of scholars, interviews with scholars, relevant current events and news items, as well as a bibliography of digital history resources. In the "Tool Reviews" link, a visitor can read a thorough review of two tools, a timeline, and an exhibit tool from MIT's SIMILE project on open source tools. In the "Public Lectures" link, accessible from the homepage, the visitor can view portions of ten different presentations by digital history scholars, with subject matter ranging from Malcolm X to the Civil War to the Humanities and the Digital Age. Clicking on the presenter's name will lead the visitor to the portions of the presentation available for viewing, as well as a biography of the presenter, and a "live-blogged entry" about the presentation. The "Project Reviews" link, accessible on the homepage, contains reviews written by graduate students about digital history projects. Academics with projects they'd like to see reviewed, are given a contact e-mail at University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

158

Identity of the avian wing digits: problems resolved and unsolved.  

PubMed

Controversy over bird wing digit identity has been a touchstone for various ideas in the phylogeny of birds, homology, and developmental evolution. This review summarizes the past 10 years of progress toward understanding avian digit identity. We conclude that the sum of evidence supports the Frame Shift Hypothesis, indicating that the avian wing digits have changed anatomical location. Briefly, the derivation of birds from theropod dinosaurs and the positional identities of the avian wing digits as 2, 3, and 4¹ are no longer in question. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that the developmental programs for identity of the wing digits are of digits I, II, and III. Therefore, the attention moves from whether the digit identity frame shift occurred, to what the mechanisms of the frame shift were, and when in evolution it happened. There is considerable uncertainty about these issues and we identify exciting new research directions to resolve them. PMID:21412936

Young, Rebecca L; Bever, Gabe S; Wang, Zhe; Wagner, Günter P

2011-03-15

159

Validating digital evidence for legal argument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital evidence is now common in legal cases, but the understanding of the legal fraternity as to how far conventional ideas of evidence can be extended into the digital domain lags behind. Evidence determines the truth of an issue but its weight is subject to examination and verification through existing forms of legal argument. There is a need for a

Richard Boddington; Valerie Hobbs; Graham Mann

2008-01-01

160

Minimum Sum and Difference Covers of Abelian Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subset S of a finite Abelian group G is said to be a sum cover of G if every element of G can be expressed as the sum of two not necessarily distinct elements in S, a strict sum cover of G if every element of G can be expressed as the sum of two distinct elements in S, and a difference cover of G if every element of G can be expressed as the difference of two elements in S. For each type of cover, we determine for small k the largest Abelian group for which a k -element cover exists. For this purpose we compute a minimum sum cover, a minimum strict sum cover, and a minimum difference cover for Abelian groups of order up to 85, 90, and 127, respectively, by a backtrack search with isomorph rejection.

Haanpaa, Harri

2004-06-01

161

Octet baryon magnetic moments from QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive study is made for the magnetic moments of octet baryons in the method of QCD sum rules. A complete set of QCD sum rules is derived using the external-field method and generalized interpolating fields. For each member, three sum rules are constructed from three independent tensor structures. They are analyzed in conjunction with the corresponding mass sum rules. The performance of each of the sum rules is examined using the criteria of operator product expansion convergence and ground-state dominance, along with the role of the transitions in intermediate states. Individual contributions from the u, d, and s quarks are isolated and their implications in the underlying dynamics are explored. Valid sum rules are identified and their predictions are obtained. The results are compared with experiment and previous calculations.

Wang Lai; Lee, Frank X. [Physics Department, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

2008-07-01

162

Instrumented drop weight impact tester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test equipment for determining the contact force and dynamic response of a composite laminate under impact is described. The equipment is based on the falling weight setup. The measurement system consists of a dynamic force transducer placed in the front part of an impactor, a charge amplifier, strain gauges, DC measuring amplifiers, and a digital storage oscilloscope which is connected

Z. Tao; J. Laitila; O. Saarela

1991-01-01

163

Approximation of Functions Using Digital Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In analogy to a recent paper by Kuo, Sloan, and Wo?niakowski, which studied lattice rule algorithms for approximation in weighted\\u000a Korobov spaces, we consider the approximation problem in a weighted Hilbert space of Walsh series. Our approximation uses\\u000a a truncated Walsh series with Walsh coefficients approximated by numerical integration using digital nets. We show that digital\\u000a nets (or more precisely,

Josef Dick; Peter Kritzer; Prances Y. Kuo

164

Weighted LCS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Longest Common Subsequence (LCS) of two strings A and B is a well studied problem having a wide range of applications. When each symbol of the input strings is assigned a positive weight the problem becomes the Heaviest Common Subsequence (HCS) problem. In this paper we consider a different version of weighted LCS on Position Weight Matrices (PWM). The Position Weight Matrix was introduced as a tool to handle a set of sequences that are not identical, yet, have many local similarities. Such a weighted sequence is a 'statistical image' of this set where we are given the probability of every symbol's occurrence at every text location. We consider two possible definitions of LCS on PWM. For the first, we solve the weighted LCS problem of z sequences in time O(zn z + 1). For the second, we prove \\cal{NP}-hardness and provide an approximation algorithm.

Amir, Amihood; Gotthilf, Zvi; Shalom, B. Riva

165

Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the ?=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the ?=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

2011-12-01

166

Digital Bridges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Digital Bridges Web site consists of a collection of thirty representative 19th century American bridge engineering monographs, manuals, and documents from the Lehigh University Libraries' Special Collections." The archive provides an interesting retrospective into the beginnings of major bridge projects; the material is complete with high-resolution photographs and text scanned from original books. In addition to historical literature, Digital Bridges also features brief accounts of notable people and companies that influenced bridge construction across the country. A glossary of terms commonly used in the documents is also provided.

2002-01-01

167

Digital Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For electrical or computer engineering students or anyone with a passing interest, this site presents a very good overview of digital logic. The basics of both combinational and sequential logic are discussed, and the design of specific components such as counters and shift registers are also illustrated. A particularly interesting section is devoted to the inner workings of logic gates, which is important to fully understand digital design. This looks beyond the gate level into the transistors and other basic elements. Even though the material is very informative overall, one possible downside to this site is that some of the circuit diagrams are a little too closely spaced.

Bigelow, Ken.

1996-01-01

168

Digital Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This section discusses the applications of digital sequences in acoustical system identification and characterization and describes Golay codes and binary maximum-length sequences (MLSs) in some detail. Legendre sequences and other coded signals are briefly described. Golay codes and MLS have been used for acoustic applications for years. Applications of Legendre sequences have also been reported. Digital sequences of other classes such as, e.g., binary Gold sequences and Kasami sequences have only recently found applications in acoustical system identification and characterization.

Xiang, Ning

169

Digital manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applications for Rapid Prototyping have broadened to the point where the name no longer fits the industry. The name Digital Manufacturing is proposed for the creation of solid articles from computer data without part-specific tooling and minimal geometric restrictions. The current state of the industry is reviewed and applications are classified by material strength and process accuracy. Today designers can have a 3D Printer in their office to build models and prototypes as casually as they would use an office copier. Improved materials and processes are permitting digitally manufactured articles to be used for tooling and end-use applications.

Bredt, James F.

2000-11-01

170

WEIGHT GAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the last 40 years there have been dramatic changes in the recommendations for optimal maternal weight gain during pregnancy. In the past it was thought that it was necessary to restrict the diet of many pregnant women in order to reduce the perceived risks associated with higher weight gains....

171

Digital books.  

PubMed

In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books. PMID:22024672

Wink, Diane M

172

Digital Globe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to the Digital Globe have a front seat view of Lisbon, Portugal and the Phillipine Trench. The site offers two MPEG videos which animate topographic seafloor images. The video clips were created by David Sandwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Also available are nine images of seafloor topography from around the globe. Note that the videos are very large files.

173

Digital micropropulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrays of “Digital Propulsion” microthrusters have been fabricated and tested. A three-layer sandwich is fabricated containing microresistors, thrust chambers, and rupture diaphragms. A propellant is loaded into each individually sealed chamber. When the resistor is energized, the propellant ignites, raising the pressure in the chamber and rupturing the diaphragm. An impulse is imparted as the high-pressure fluid is expelled from

David H. Lewis; Siegfried W. Janson; Ronald B. Cohen; Erik K. Antonsson

2000-01-01

174

Digital Storytelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today, schools are actively looking for new ways to enable their students to develop storytelling skills. These skills should empower children and young adults to practice collaborative learning on many levels, from reading and writing to painting and project management. In this framework, digital painting provides educators with innovative…

Iacchia, Flora

2005-01-01

175

Digital Tidbits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe

2011-01-01

176

Digital manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications for Rapid Prototyping have broadened to the point where the name no longer fits the industry. The name Digital Manufacturing is proposed for the creation of solid articles from computer data without part-specific tooling and minimal geometric restrictions. The current state of the industry is reviewed and applications are classified by material strength and process accuracy. Today designers

James F. Bredt

2000-01-01

177

Digital Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's a digital story? The folks at the Digital Storytelling initiative at The Ohio State University define it thusly: "a short (3-5 minute) movie which uses images, voice, and music to tell a story." The initiative is a great idea and this website offers visitors the chance to get acquainted with the digital stories that are being created at the school. Visitors should start their journey here by navigating over to the Stories area. Here they will find examples of these narratives, including "Howling at the Moon," "Clover Angst," "Our Sacred Circles," and "What's This Say?" Moving on, the Resources area includes information for those who would like to create their own digital stories. The links here lead to copyright-free audio and video sources, along with low-cost or free images. Also, this section includes helpful handouts that are used in the storytelling workshops at the OSU campus. No doubt this website will be a source of motivation and inspiration for those people who might like to create their own narratives.

2012-08-31

178

Probability Inequalities for the Sum of Independent Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proves a number of inequalities which improve on existing upper limits to the probability distribution of the sum of independent random variables. The inequalities presented require knowledge only of the variance of the sum and the means and bounds of the component random variables. They are applicable when the number of component random variables is small and\\/or have

George Bennett

1962-01-01

179

Charmonium sum rules applied to a holographic model  

SciTech Connect

The heavy-quark QCD sum rules are applied to a model of charmonium based upon the gauge/gravity duality. We find that there is strong agreement between the moments of the polarization function calculated from the holographic model and the experimental data suggesting that the model is consistent with the heavy-quark QCD sum rules at zero temperature.

Hohler, Paul M. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60607-7059 (United States)

2011-01-15

180

Zeros of Partial Sums of the Riemann Zeta-Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the distribution of the zeros of partial sums of the Riemann\\u000azeta-function, sum_{n\\\\leq X}n^{-s}, estimating the number of zeros up to height\\u000aT, the number of zeros to the right of a given vertical line, and other aspects\\u000aof their horizontal distribution.

S. M. Gonek; A. H. Ledoan

2009-01-01

181

Degenerate Bernoulli polynomials, generalized factorial sums, and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a general symmetric identity involving the degenerate Bernoulli polynomials and sums of generalized falling factorials, which unifies several known identities for Bernoulli and degenerate Bernoulli numbers and polynomials. We use this identity to describe some combinatorial relations between these polynomials and generalized factorial sums. As further applications we derive several identities, recurrences, and congruences involving the Bernoulli numbers,

Paul Thomas Young

2008-01-01

182

An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth…

van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

2013-01-01

183

Gaussian interference networks: Sum capacity in the low interference regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genie based arguments are used to derive new outer bounds on the sum capacity of the two user, symmetric three user, one-to-many and many-to-one Gaussian interference channels. Using these bounds, it is shown that treating interference as noise achieves the sum capacity in a low interference regime, where the interference parameters are below certain thresholds.

V. Sreekanth Annapureddy; Venugopal V. Veeravalli

2008-01-01

184

Congruences and Exponential Sums with the Euler Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give upper bounds for the number of solutions to con- gruences with the Euler function '(n) and with the Carmichael function ?(n). We also give nontrivial bounds for certain exponential sums in- volving '(n). Analogous results can also be obtained for the sum of divisors function and similar arithmetic functions.

William D. Banks; Igor E. Shparlinski

185

Electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the method of finite-energy QCD sum rules we calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron at intermediate momentum transfer 1approx. sum-rule method.

Larin, S.A.; Matveev, V.A.

1987-07-01

186

Second sum rule for the hot plasma permittivity  

SciTech Connect

Based on linear response theory, Kramers-Kronig relations, and diagram techniques of perturbation theory, it is shown that the second sum rule is satisfied for hot plasma permittivity. An explicit analytical expression for the second sum rule in the limit of weak nonideality is derived.

Bobrov, V. B.; Mendeleyev, V. Ya.; Skovorod'ko, S. N.; Trigger, S. A. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19, Izhorskaia Street, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

2011-02-15

187

Light-by-light scattering sum rules constraining meson transition form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relating the forward light-by-light scattering to energy weighted integrals of the ?*? fusion cross sections, with one real photon (?) and one virtual photon (?*), we find two new exact superconvergence relations. They complement the known superconvergence relation based on the extension of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule to the light-light system. We also find a set of sum rules for the low-energy photon-photon interaction. All of the new relations are verified here exactly at leading order in scalar and spinor QED. The superconvergence relations, applied to the ?*? production of mesons, lead to intricate relations between the ?? decay widths or the ?*? transition form factors for (pseudo)scalar, axial-vector, and tensor mesons. We discuss the phenomenological implications of these results for mesons in both the light-quark sector and the charm-quark sector.

Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Pauk, Vladyslav; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

2012-06-01

188

Learning capacitive weights in analog CMOS neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementations of artificial neural networks as analog VLSI circuits differ in their method of synaptic weight storage (digital weights, analog EEPROMs, or capacitive weights) and in whether learning is performed locally at the synapses or off-chip. In this paper, we explain the principles of analog networks with in situ or local synaptic learning of capacitive weights, with test results of

Howard C. Card; Christian R. Schneider; Roland S. Schneider

1994-01-01

189

N to {delta} transition amplitudes from QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We present a calculation of the N to {delta} electromagnetic transition amplitudes using the method of QCD sum rules. A complete set of QCD sum rules is derived for the entire family of transitions from the baryon octet to decuplet. They are analyzed in conjunction with the corresponding mass sum rules using a Monte Carlo-based analysis procedure. The performance of each of the sum rules is examined using the criteria of operator product expansion convergence and ground-state dominance, along with the role of the transitions in intermediate states. Individual contributions from the u, d, and s quarks are isolated and their implications in the underlying dynamics are explored. Valid sum rules are identified and their predictions are obtained. The results are compared with experiment and other calculations.

Wang Lai; Lee, Frank X. [Physics Department, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

2009-08-01

190

Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents' Obesogenic Environment  

PubMed Central

Obesogenic built environments may contribute to excessive eating and obesity. Twenty-three 12- to 17-year-old low-income African American adolescents created digital diaries by photographing their lunchtime food environment in a summer academic program. Digitally depicted foods were classified as appearing on the platescape (student’s or others’ plate) or the tablescape (food buffet). Height, weight, BMI percentile, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated at baseline and week 4. Adolescents digitally depicted high caloric, high fat foods on the platescape and tablescape, particularly adolescents with a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Weight gain during the 4-week program was significantly predicted by the number of calories and the amount of fat content depicted on the student’s plates. Digital diaries, then, can document adolescents’ perspectives of their food environments that promote their overconsumption of high caloric and high fat foods that contribute to weight gain and put them at risk for obesity.

Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

191

Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kozak; M. Wiesel

1984-01-01

192

Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kazak

1988-01-01

193

Weight Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Please visit www.diabetes.org Food & Fitness Fitness Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices Physical Activity FREE Diabetes Support On Your Cell Phone Receive info, recipes, tips and reminders from Care4life ...

194

A Programmable Neural-Fuzzy Processor for Handwritten Digit Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel current-mode processor based on single layer perceptron and fuzzy logic for handwritten digit classification is put forward in this paper. This processor can be reconfigured as perceptron based classifier or fuzzy logic based classifier, it benefits from the fact that there is a similar architecture between single perceptron and SUM-MAX based fuzzy logic when they are used as

Guoxing Li; Bingxue Shi

2000-01-01

195

On the Digital Development of the Chinese Shadow Play Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

By reviewing the development of the Chinese Shadow Play, summing up the characteristics, to explore the limitations and find out the reason. Meanwhile, it proposes a method combined with digital technology to inherit and innovate the Chinese Shadow Play, which leads it to glow a new brilliance. \\

Shang-zhen Gao

2011-01-01

196

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

2010-05-14

197

Digital Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

198

Digital Storytelling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wiki page provides a link to the recording of a webinar by Jessica Fries-Gaither. Jessica discusses digital storytelling and how can it be adapted for the middle school science classroom? Join her for an overview of this exciting multimedia art form and leave with basic how-to knowledge, ideas for science-specific projects, and resources to guide your implementation. Other links to the resources discussed in this webinar are also provided.

2009-08-12

199

Going Digital  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Not since the age of Gutenberg has an information upheaval so thoroughly disrupted the processes of scholarly knowledge creation,\\u000a management and preservation as the digital revolution currently under way. Academic libraries have traditionally been structured\\u000a to facilitate the access, use and storage of mostly static, print-based research collections. In the midst of sweeping change\\u000a university libraries are attempting to re-imagine

Isaac Hunter Dunlap

200

Digital psychiatry.  

PubMed

The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

Tang, S; Helmeste, D

2000-02-01

201

Digital Darkroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It doesn't take a Photoshop expert to create attractive graphics for the Web. To prove this, the folks at MicroFrontier have released three graphic creation/editing packages for the Macintosh, each aimed at a different user level. All three applications support Photoshop 3.0 compatible plug-ins and basic features such as scanner support, image and resolution scaling, and basic image enhancement. Digital Darkroom (also available for Windows), aimed at graphic novices, has a number of features specifically geared for Web graphics. These include one-step extrusions, soft-edge drop shadows, and automatic image adjustment/enhancement. While file support is limited to JPEG, TIFF, BMP, and PICT, Digital Darkroom supports a built-in browser technology that allows users to view entire directories of graphics as a series of thumbnails. A save-disabled demo version of each application is available at the MicroFrontier Website. The price for Digital Darkroom is $39.95.

1998-01-01

202

Digital Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Land of Lincoln is certainly not lacking in organizations who seek to document the rich history of the area, whether it be the many innovations in farm technology that have arisen out of the creative minds of local inventors or the gritty urban landscapes of the Second CityÂs nooks and crannies. Fortunately for those with a penchant for these subjects, there is the Digital Past website, which began in 1998 with a partnership with the North Suburban Library System in Wheeling, Illinois. Currently, the digital archive contains over 35,000 items (such as postcards, architectural plans, and personal letters) culled from close to 30 institutions in the area. Visitors may want to take a look at some of their thematic collections of digitized objects and related materials, such as those devoted to the architecture of the North Shore community of Glencoe or a history of the city of Park Ridge. Of course, visitors should feel most welcome to search the complete archive of materials here, which they may do by looking through a list of cities, organizations, and proper names.

2005-01-01

203

Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources  

PubMed Central

Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.

Meegan, Daniel V.

2010-01-01

204

Incompatibility of multipole predictions for the nucleon spin-polarizability and Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Energy-weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photoreaction cross sections ([sigma][sub 1/2]-[sigma][sub 3/2]) provide information on the nucleon's spin-dependent polarizability ([gamma]), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. Estimates from current [pi]-photoproduction multipole analyses, particularly for the [ital proton]-[ital neutron] [ital difference], are in good agreement with relativistic-one-loop chiral calculations for [gamma] but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) [ital both] the two-loop corrections to the spin-polarizability are large [ital and] the existing multipoles are wrong, [ital or] (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon.

Sandorfi, A.M. (Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Whisnant, C.S. (Department of Physics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)); Khandaker, M. (Physics Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute SU, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States) Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

1994-12-01

205

Simplified methods for coincidence summing corrections in HPGe efficiency calibration.  

PubMed

Simple and practical coincidence summing corrections for n-type HPGe detectors are presented for the common calibration nuclides (57)Co and (60)Co using a defined "virtual peak" and accounting for the summing of gamma photons with x-rays having energies up to 40 keV ((88)Y and (139)Ce). These corrections make it possible to easily and effectively establish peak and total efficiency curves suitable for subsequent summing corrections in routine gamma spectrometry analyses. Experimental verification of the methods shows excellent agreement for measurements of different reference solutions. PMID:22429555

Mauring, Alexander; Drefvelin, Jon

2012-02-28

206

The Olsson sum rule and the rho Regge pole  

SciTech Connect

We consider the Olsson sum rule, i.e., the forward dispersion relation for pion-pion scattering with exchange of isospin unity at threshold. We show that, if using the S0, S2 and P wave expressions of Colangelo, Gasser and Leutwyler, then either the sum rule is not satisfied or, if adjusting the residue of the rho exchange Regge amplitude to have the sum rule satisfied (as recently proposed by Caprini, Colangelo and Leutwyler) then the subsequent high energy amplitude is in disagreement with experimental pi-pi cross sections.

Yndurain, F. J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

2007-02-27

207

The Olsson sum rule and the rho Regge pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Olsson sum rule, i.e., the forward dispersion relation for pion-pion scattering with exchange of isospin unity at threshold. We show that, if using the S0, S2 and P wave expressions of Colangelo, Gasser and Leutwyler, then either the sum rule is not satisfied or, if adjusting the residue of the rho exchange Regge amplitude to have the sum rule satisfied (as recently proposed by Caprini, Colangelo and Leutwyler) then the subsequent high energy amplitude is in disagreement with experimental pi-pi cross sections.

Yndurain, F. J.

2007-02-01

208

Nucleon axial coupling constants and QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

QCD sum rules are used to obtain the isovector and isoscalar'' axial vector coupling constants, g{sub A} and g{sub A}{sup S}. We find g{sub A} = 1.26 {plus minus} 0.08, g{sub A}{sup S} = 0.13 {plus minus} 0.08 with sum results for g{sub A}{minus}1 and g{sub A} + g{sub A}{sup S}. These sum rules also show that in the limit of chiral symmetry restoration, g{sub A} {yields} 1 and g{sub A}{sup S} {yields} {minus}1.

Henley, E.M. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Hwang, W.Y.P. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Physics); Kisslinger, L.S. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1991-01-01

209

Nucleon axial coupling constants and QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

QCD sum rules are used to obtain the isovector and ``isoscalar`` axial vector coupling constants, g{sub A} and g{sub A}{sup S}. We find g{sub A} = 1.26 {plus_minus} 0.08, g{sub A}{sup S} = 0.13 {plus_minus} 0.08 with sum results for g{sub A}{minus}1 and g{sub A} + g{sub A}{sup S}. These sum rules also show that in the limit of chiral symmetry restoration, g{sub A} {yields} 1 and g{sub A}{sup S} {yields} {minus}1.

Henley, E.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Hwang, W.Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Physics; Kisslinger, L.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1991-12-31

210

Bodies in the Brain : More than the weighted sum of their parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main question of this thesis was: Can we dissociate multiple body representations in the healthy brain? Patient studies have already shown a dichotomy between the perceptual representation used for localizing a body part (body image) versus the motor representation used for moving a body part (body schema). Here it is shown for the first time that there is also

M. P. M. Kammers

2008-01-01

211

An intelligent MOS transistor featuring gate-level weighted sum and threshold operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel functional MOS transistor which behaves much more intelligently than a mere switching device has been developed. The device has a floating gate whose potential is controlled by a plural number of input gates via capacitive coupling. The transistor is called a `neuron MOSFET' due to its similarity to biological neurons in that the transistor turns on when the

T. Shibata; T. Ohmi

1991-01-01

212

Color image contrast enhancement using a local equalization and weighted sum approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image contrast enhancement is a fundamental step taken to ensure the effectiveness of subsequent image-related processes. In additional to subjective quality evaluation, objective user viewing is also a common performance requirement. However, canonical global histogram equalization methods which though produce a higher information content may give rise to viewing un-comfort due to over-fitting the two ends of the intensity range.

N. M. Kwok; Q. P. Ha; G. Fang; A. B. Rad; D. Wang

2010-01-01

213

Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar wei...

T. G. Carne R. L. Mayes V. I. Bateman

1993-01-01

214

26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b) Applied to group, classified, or composite accounts â(1) General rule...may be applied to group, classified, or composite accounts in accordance with...also be applied to group, classified, or composite accounts. Under this plan the...

2013-04-01

215

27 CFR 19.166 - Required penal sums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sums. 19.166 Section 19.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety...

2013-04-01

216

The coupling constants g V?? in QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and update previous calculations of the coupling constants g V?? and also determine new variables including the magnetic susceptibility of the quark condensate in QCD sum rules. Our estimates are consistent with the values obtained in the literature.

Kucukarslan, A.; Ozdem, U.

2013-01-01

217

The distribution of the sum of independent gamma random variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The distribution of the sum ofn independent gamma variates with different parameters is expressed as a single gamma-series whose coefficients are computed\\u000a by simple recursive relations.

P. G. Moschopoulos

1985-01-01

218

A short proof for the sum formula and its generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  For positive integers $$\\\\alpha_{1}, \\\\alpha_{2}, \\\\ldots ,\\\\alpha_{r}$$ with a\\u000a r\\u000a  = 2, the multiple zeta value or r-fold Euler sum is defined as [2]\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a $$ \\\\varsigma (\\\\alpha _{1} ,\\\\alpha _{2}, \\\\ldots ,\\\\alpha _{r} ) = \\\\sum\\\\limits_{1 \\\\leq k_1 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a . There is a celebrated sum formula [6, 10] among multiple zeta values as \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a $$ \\\\sum\\\\limits_{\\\\mathop {\\\\alpha_i \\\\geq 1,\\\\forall i}\\\\limits_{\\\\left| {\\\\bf \\\\alpha} \\\\right|

Minking Eie; Chuan-Sheng Wei

2008-01-01

219

Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle  

SciTech Connect

In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.

Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg Institut) Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-02-01

220

Standardization of 65Zn by sum-peak method.  

PubMed

A commercial solution of (65)Zn was standardized by the sum peak-method using a planar HPGe detector. The activity results were compared with measurements made with a well type 4?? ionization chamber, which is traceable to BIPM.RI (II)-K2.Zn-65 key-comparison performed in 2002. The sum-peak value was 42.79 kBq/g and the ionization chamber value was 42.74 kBq/g both at the reference date. The uncertainty obtained in the sum peak standardization was 0.25% (k=1), and in the ionization chamber was 0.85% (k=1). The results showed that sum-peak method can be used in (65)Zn standardization and this method is easier, simpler and more practical than others methods. PMID:22425414

Oliveira, E M; Iwahara, A; Poledna, R; Delgado, J U; da Silva, C J; da Silva, R L; Lopes, R T

2012-02-25

221

Compton Scattering and Photo-absorption Sum Rules on Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new ``constituent quark model'' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition we extract the J=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high energy proton data we find that the J=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman. We discuss phenomenological implications of this new result.

Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

2012-03-01

222

Spectral-function sum rules in supersymmetry breaking models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of Weinberg’s spectral-function sum rule is a powerful tool for a study of models in which global symmetry is dynamically broken. It enables us to convert information on the short-distance behavior of a theory to relations among physical quantities which appear in the low-energy picture of the theory. We apply such technique to general supersymmetry breaking models to derive new sum rules.

Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kurachi, Masafumi; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Yokoi, Naoto

2012-03-01

223

The probability distribution function of a sum of squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The probability distribution function of a sum of squares ofk random variables is derived as the product of the probability distribution function of “chi-square ofk degrees of freedom» and an infinite series of Laguerre polynomials whose coefficients are linear sums of symmetric functions\\u000a of the cumulants (and cross-cumulants) of thek random variables.\\u000a \\u000a In particular, when these cumulants are multiples of

D. E. Barton

1953-01-01

224

Light-cone Sum Rules: A SCET-based Formulation  

SciTech Connect

We describe the construction of light-cone sum rules (LCSRs) for exclusive B-meson decays into light energetic hadrons from correlation functions within soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). As an example, we consider the SCET sum rule for the B {yields} {pi} transition form factor at large recoil, including radiative corrections from hard-collinear loop diagrams at first order in the strong coupling constant.

De Fazio, F.; /INFN, Bari; Feldmann, Th.; /Siegen U.; Hurth, T.; /CERN /SLAC

2005-12-14

225

Superconvergent Dispersion Relations and Pion-Nucleon Sum Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the Adler-Weisberger sum rule and the spin-flip sum rule for pion-nucleon scattering have been derived from superconvergent dispersion relations for weak amplitudes. Our basic assumption is that the weak axial-vector-nucleon scattering amplitude TmunuA approaches the weak vector-nucleon scattering amplitude TmunuV at high energies. This allows us to write down superconvergent dispersion relations for certain invariant amplitudes in the decomposition

Fayyazuddin; Faheem Hussain

1967-01-01

226

Cascade summing effects in close geometry gamma-ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, particularly in underground laboratories, is used to measure radioactivity in diverse close geometries, often placing samples directly on the detector which favours strong cascade summing effects. Monte-Carlo modelling of the efficiency is extended to cascade summing effects from complete decay sequences including positron emitting radionuclides. The effect of geometrical uncertainties on the overall uncertainty is presented. The

Peter N. Johnston; Mikael Hult; Joël Gasparro

2006-01-01

227

On the Complexity of Succinct Zero-Sum Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We study the complexity of solving succinct zero-sum games, i.e., the games whose payoff matrix M is given implicitly by a Boolean circuit C such that M(i,j) = C(i,j). We complement the known EXP-hardness of computing the exact value of a succinct zero-sum game by several results on approximating the value. (1) We prove that approximating the value of a

Lance Fortnow; Russell Impagliazzo; Valentine Kabanets; Christopher Umans

2008-01-01

228

Estimates of Multiple Trigonometric Sums with Prime Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author obtains estimates for multiple trigonometric sums with a general polynomial in the exponent whose variables of summation take the values of the successive prime numbers. The precision of the estimates is similar to that of the estimates in the paper "Multiple trigonometric sums and their applications" by Arkhipov, Karatsuba and Chubarikov (Math. USSR Izv. \\mathbf{17} (1980), 1-54). Bibliography: 12 titles.

Chubarikov, V. N.

1986-04-01

229

MULTIPLE INPUT BINARY ADDER EMPLOYING MAGNETIC DRUM DIGITAL COMPUTING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A digital computing apparatus is described for adding a plurality of multi-digit binary numbers. The apparatus comprises a rotating magnetic drum, a recording head, first and second reading heads disposed adjacent to the first and second recording tracks, and a series of timing signals recorded on the first track. A series of N groups of digit-representing signals is delivered to the recording head at time intervals corresponding to the timing signals, each group consisting of digits of the same significance in the numbers, and the signal series is recorded on the second track of the drum in synchronism with the timing signals on the first track. The multistage registers are stepped cyclically through all positions, and each of the multistage registers is coupled to the control lead of a separate gate circuit to open the corresponding gate at only one selected position in each cycle. One of the gates has its input coupled to the bistable element to receive the sum digit, and the output lead of this gate is coupled to the recording device. The inputs of the other gates receive the digits to be added from the second reading head, and the outputs of these gates are coupled to the adding register. A phase-setting pulse source is connected to each of the multistage registers individually to step the multistage registers to different initial positions in the cycle, and the phase-setting pulse source is actuated each N time interval to shift a sum digit to the bistable element, where the multistage register coupled to bistable element is operated by the phase- setting pulse source to that position in its cycle N steps before opening the first gate, so that this gate opens in synchronism with each of the shifts to pass the sum digits to the recording head.

Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

1960-12-01

230

Digital watermarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a process able to mark digital pictures with an invisible and undetectable secret information, called the watermark. This process can be the basis of a complete copyright protection system. The process first step consists in producing a secret image. The first part of the secret resides in basic information that forms a binary image. That picture is then frequency modulated. The second part of the secret is precisely the frequencies of the carriers. Both secrets depend on the identity of the copyright owner and on the original picture contents. The obtained picture is called the stamp. The second step consists in modulating the amplitude of the stamp according to a masking criterion stemming from a model of human perception. That too theoretical criterion is corrected by means of morphological tools helping to locate in the picture the places where the criterion is supposed not to match. This is followed by the adaptation of the level of the stamp at that place. The so formed watermark is then added to the original to ensure its protection. That watermarking method allows the detection of watermarked pictures in a stream of digital images, only with the knowledge of the picture owner's secrets.

Delaigle, Jean-Francois; de Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Macq, Benoit M.

1996-03-01

231

Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for X-ray peaks and for sum peaks with X-ray contributions.  

PubMed

In this paper, features of the gamma-ray spectra in the presence of important contributions of X-rays to coincidence summing effects are studied. The experimental results concerning the sum peaks with various X-ray combinations as well as the Ge X-ray escape peaks present in the spectrum of a 133Ba point source measured with an n-type detector are in good agreement with the values computed using the GESPECOR software. PMID:16678431

Arnold, Dirk; Sima, Octavian

2006-05-05

232

Digital Logic Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital Logic Simulator (DLS) is a CDC 6600 computer program which simulates synchronous and asynchronous networks of digital logic elements. It is used at Air Force Institute of Technology to verify digital logic designs. DLS uses a state variable model ...

J. R. Niederhauser

1971-01-01

233

Digital Horizons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital Horizons was established in 2007 by a consortium that includes Prairie Public Broadcasting, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and several other organizations. The goal of their work is to provide and maintain access to "a wide range of historical and significant content related to North Dakota and Minnesota." Visitors can use the search engine here to look for items by general subject heading or collection. All told, there are over fifteen collections included in this archive, including "Korean War Propaganda Leaflets", "Dakota Lithographs and Engravings", and "North Dakota Blue Books". For those looking for a place to start, they can take advantage of the "Popular Searches" list, which includes topical headings such as "floods", "bonanza farms", and "homesteading". This last heading is a great place to check out, as visitors will find evocative (and sometimes quite lonely) photographs of 19th century homesteads.

234

Uraltsev sum rule in Bakamjian-Thomas quark models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the sum rule recently proved by Uraltsev in the heavy quark limit of QCD holds in relativistic quark models à la Bakamjian and Thomas, that were already shown to satisfy Isgur-Wise scaling and Bjorken sum rule. This new sum rule provides a rationale for the lower bound of the slope of the elastic IW function ?2>=3/4 obtained within the BT formalism some years ago. Uraltsev sum rule suggests an inequality ?3/2(1)>?1/2(1). This difference is interpreted in the BT formalism as due to the Wigner rotation of the light quark spin, independently of a possible LS force. In BT models, the sum rule convergence is very fast, the /n=0 state giving the essential contribution in most of the phenomenological potential models. We underline that there is a serious problem, in the heavy quark limit of QCD, between theory and experiment for the decays B-->D*0,1(broad)l?, independently of any model calculation.

Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pène, O.; Raynal, J.-C.; Morénas, V.

2001-11-01

235

Quantitative sum rule analysis of low-temperature spectral functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze QCD and Weinberg-type sum rules in a low-temperature pion gas using vector and axial-vector spectral functions following from the model-independent chiral-mixing scheme. Toward this end we employ recently constructed vacuum spectral functions with ground and first-excited states in both channels and a universal perturbative continuum; they quantitatively describe hadronic ?-decay data and satisfy vacuum sum rules. These features facilitate the implementation of chiral mixing without further assumptions, and lead to in-medium spectral functions which exhibit a mutual tendency of compensating resonance and dip structures, suggestive for an approach toward structureless distributions. In the sum rule analysis, we account for pion mass corrections, which turn out to be significant. While the Weinberg sum rules remain satisfied even at high temperatures, the numerical evaluation of the QCD sum rules for vector and axial-vector channels reveals significant deviations setting in for temperatures beyond ˜140MeV, suggestive of additional physics beyond low-energy chiral pion dynamics.

Holt, Nathan P. M.; Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf

2013-04-01

236

Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

Ng, Wan

2012-01-01

237

Improving weighted information criterion by using optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although artificial neural networks (ANN) have been widely used in forecasting time series, the determination of the best model is still a problem that has been studied a lot. Various approaches available in the literature have been proposed in order to select the best model for forecasting in ANN in recent years. One of these approaches is to use a model selection strategy based on the weighted information criterion (WIC). WIC is calculated by summing weighted different selection criteria which measure the forecasting accuracy of an ANN model in different ways. In the calculation of WIC, the weights of different selection criteria are determined heuristically. In this study, these weights are calculated by using optimization in order to obtain a more consistent criterion. Four real time series are analyzed in order to show the efficiency of the improved WIC. When the weights are determined based on the optimization, it is obviously seen that the improved WIC produces better results.

Aladag, Cagdas Hakan; Egrioglu, Erol; Gunay, Suleyman; Basaran, Murat A.

2010-03-01

238

Additional corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate some QCD corrections that contribute to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule but have not been included in previous analyses of it. We first review the techniques by which the xF3 structure function is extracted from combinations of neutrino and antineutrino cross sections. Next we investigate corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule, with particular attention to contributions arising from strange quark distributions and from charge symmetry violating parton distributions. We find that additional corrections from strange quarks and parton charge symmetry violation are likely to have a small but potentially significant role in decreasing the current discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical estimates of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule.

Londergan, J. T.; Thomas, A. W.

2010-12-01

239

Factorization of numbers with truncated Gauss sums at rational arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factorization of numbers with the help of Gauss sums relies on an intimate relationship between the maxima of these functions and the factors. Indeed, when we restrict ourselves to integer arguments of the Gauss sum we profit from a one-to-one relationship. As a result the identification of factors by the maxima is unique. However, for non-integer arguments such as rational numbers this powerful instrument to find factors breaks down. We develop new strategies for factoring numbers using Gauss sums at rational arguments. This approach may find application in a recent suggestion to factor numbers using an light interferometer [V. Tamma et al., J. Mod. Opt. in this volume] discussed in this issue.

Wolk, S.; Feiler, C.; Schleich, W. P.

2009-10-01

240

Sum Rules for Light-by-Light Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a set of sum rules for the light-by-light scattering and fusion: ???all, and verify them in lowest order QED calculations. A prominent implication of these sum rules is the superconvergence of the helicity-difference total cross section for photon fusion, which in the hadron sector reveals an intricate cancellation between the pseudoscalar and tensor mesons. An experimental verification of superconvergence of the polarized photon fusion into hadrons is called for, but will only be possible at e+e- and ?? colliders with both beams polarized. We also show how the sum rules can be used to measure various contributions to the low-energy light-by-light scattering.

Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

2010-11-01

241

On sums of partial quotients in continued fraction expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assume x ? [0, 1) taking on its continued fraction expansion as [a1(x), a2(x), ...]. For any n >= 1, write S_n(x)=\\sum_{k=1}^n a_k(x) . Khintchine (1935 Compos. Math. 1 361-82) proved that Sn(x)/(n log n) converges in measure to 1/log 2 with respect to \\mathcal {L}^1 , where \\mathcal {L}^1 denotes the one-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Philipp (1988 Monatsh. Math. 105 195-206) showed that {an(x), n >= 1} cannot satisfy a strong law of large numbers for any reasonably growing norming sequence. In (Wu and Xu 2008 Preprint), we discussed the sets of continued fractions whose sums of partial quotients tend to infinity with the polynomial growth rate. In this paper, we consider the sets of continued fractions whose sums of partial quotients tend to infinity exponentially and doubly exponentially. The Hausdorff dimensions of such sets are determined.

Xu, Jian

2008-09-01

242

Heavy cycles and spanning trees with few leaves in weighted graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a 2-connected weighted graph and k?2 an integer. In this note we prove that if the sum of the weighted degrees of every k+1 pairwise nonadjacent vertices is at least m, then G contains either a cycle of weight at least 2m\\/(k+1) or a spanning tree with no more than k leaves.

Binlong Li; Shenggui Zhang

2011-01-01

243

{pi}-{eta} mixing from QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

The q{sub 2} dependence of the {pi}-{eta} mixing amplitude is examined with the use of QCD sum rules. The linear slope of the mixing function {theta}(q{sup 2}) is found to be much smaller than that for {rho}-{omega} mixing. Thus the mixing amplitude is approximately the same in the space-like region as in the time-like one, and one may neglect the q{sup 2} dependence of the mixing. A comparison between a hadron-meson, an effective chiral model, and the QCD sum rules approaches is made.

Chan, C.T.; Henley, E.M.; Meissner, T.

1994-03-01

244

Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give rise to certain convergence problems widely ignored by physicists. We give a complete answer in the case of smooth potentials and formulate a number of open problems related to less regular perturbations.

Cornean, Horia D.; Nenciu, Gheorghe

2010-11-01

245

Vector mesons at finite temperature and QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

Finite energy sum rules for vector and axial-vector currents are derived in a thermal medium to provide constraints for the spectral behavior of rho and a{sub 1} mesons at nonvanishing temperature and hence to study the tendency toward chiral symmetry restoration. The parity-mixing ansatz for the rho and a{sub 1} spectra, including finite widths, is investigated as a function of temperature. Characteristic differences between vector and axial-vector channels are discussed with regard to the implementation of the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale, 4pi times the pion decay constant, in the sum-rule approach.

Kwon, Youngshin; Weise, Wolfram [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Chihiro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2010-06-15

246

Spin Sum Rules at Low Q{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

Recent precision spin-structure data from Jefferson Lab have significantly advanced our knowledge of nucleon structure at low Q{sup 2}. Results on the neutron spin sum rules and polarizabilities in the low to intermediate Q{sup 2} region are presented. The Burkhardt-Cuttingham Sum Rule was verified within experimental uncertainties. When comparing with theoretical calculations, results on spin polarizability show surprising disagreements with Chiral Perturbation Theory predictions. Preliminary results on first moments at very low Q{sup 2} are also presented.

Chen Jianping [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2009-12-17

247

Z-Sum approach to loop integrals using Taylor expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the applicability of the Z-Sum approach to multi-loop calculations with massive particles in perturbative quantum field theory. We systematically analyze the case of one-loop scalar integrals, which represent the building blocks of any higher-loop calculation. We focus in particular on triangle one-loop integrals and identify strengths and limitations of the Z-Sum approach, extending our results to the case of one-loop box integrals when appropriate. We conclude with the calculation of a specific physical example: the calculation of heavy-flavor corrections to deep-inelastic-scattering structure functions.

Rottmann, Paulo A.; Reina, Laura

2011-09-01

248

My Digital Dickinson  

Microsoft Academic Search

“My Digital Dickinson” is partly a productive misreading of Dickinson in relation to digital technologies and the idea of interface, but it also delves into work by the contemporary digital poets Mary Flanagan and Judd Morrissey\\/Lori Talley. In addition to reading Dickinson into the present moment and examining her relation to digital poetry today, it foregrounds the ways in which

Lori Emerson

2008-01-01

249

H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser,…

Prensky, Marc

2009-01-01

250

Analog to Digital Converter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analog-to-digital converters, finding particular application in a multichannel pulse height analyzer, with a means for digitizing the analog input in two conversion steps is presented. To digitize the input to 13 bits, a 7-bit digital to analog convert...

C. H. Lucas

1974-01-01

251

The origins of quark-hadron duality: How does the square of the sum become the sum of the squares?  

SciTech Connect

Bloom-Gilman duality demonstrates empirically that the electroproduction of N*'s at low momentum transfers averages smoothly around the scaling curve measured at large momentum transfers. The latter is proportional to the sum of the squares of the constituent charges whereas the former involves the coherent excitation of resonances and is driven by the square of summed constituent charges. We determine the minimal necessary conditions for this equality to be realized so that duality can occur and consider the implications for a range of processes that may be studied soon at CEBAF.

Frank E. Close; Nathan Isgur

2001-01-30

252

20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11 Section 234.11 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount of...

2013-04-01

253

20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 ...RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937 Act LSDP is...

2013-04-01

254

Behavior of the eigenphase sum near a resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that for an isolated resonance in a multichannel problem the sum of the eigenphases delta\\/sub n\\/ satisfies the usual formula appropriate for the elastic phase shift: ..sigma..\\/sub n\\/delta\\/sub n\\/ = ..delta..° + tan⁻¹ (GAMMA\\/2(Eâ - E)). The parameter GAMMA is the total width of the resonance.

A. U. Hazi

1979-01-01

255

Embeddings of Topological Graphs: Lossy Invariants, Linearization, and 2Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We study the properties of embeddings, multicom- modity flows, and sparse cuts in minor-closed families of graphs which are also closed under 2-sums; this in- cludes planar graphs, graphs of bounded treewidth, and constructions based on recursive edge replacement. In particular, we show the following. † Every graph which excludes K4 as a minor (in par-

Amit Chakrabarti; Alexander Jaffe; James R. Lee; Justin Vincent

2008-01-01

256

Coincidence summing corrections for positron emitters in germanium gamma spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For positron emitters, 511 keV annihilation quanta are in coincidence with other gamma rays in the decay scheme. If the positrons are not localized at the point of decay, annihilation quanta will be produced at a site some distance from the point of emission. The magnitude of the summing coincidence effect will depend upon the position of annihilation. A method for determining the magnitude of the summing effect for a single gamma of energy E in coincidence with the annihilation gammas from non-localized positrons has been developed which makes use of the counting data for the full energy peaks for both the gamma ray (E) and the 511 keV annihilation gammas. With this data and efficiency calibration data one can determine the average total efficiency for the annihilation positions from which 511 keV gammas originate, and thereby obtain the summing correction factor, SCF, for gamma ray (E). Application of the method to a 22Na NIST standard gave excellent agreement of observed emission rates for the 1275 keV gamma with the NIST value for wide ranging degrees of positron localization having summing correction factors ranging from 1.021 to 1.505. The method was also applied successfully to 58Co in neutron-irradiated nickel foils. The method shows promise as a check on the accuracy of the efficiency calibration for a particular detector geometry at the 511 keV energy and energies for other gammas associated with positron emission.

Richardson, A. E.; Sallee, W. W.

1990-12-01

257

Large Deviations of Sums of Independent Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with numerous variants of bounds for probabilities of large deviations of sums of independent random variables in terms of ordinary and generalized moments of individual summands. A great deal of attention is devoted to the study of the precision of these bounds. In this connection comparisons are made with precise asymptotic results. At the end of the

S. V. Nagaev

1979-01-01

258

A new rotation sum rule for the atomic force constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sum rule has been derived for the atomic force constants from the invariance of the potential energy under the rigid body rotation of a crystal. For instance, it is found that there are actually two force constants in the nearest-neighbour approximation of a face-centred cubic (FCC) lattice, rather than three force constants, as usually supposed.

Wang, Shao-Feng; Zhang, Hui-Li; Wu, Xiao-Zhi

2007-09-01

259

Sum Rule for High-Energy Electron-Proton Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the nonrelativistic quark model leads to an exceptionally simple sum rule involving a form factor determined by high-energy inelastic electron-proton scattering. The simplicity of this result appears to be a unique consequence of the peculiar quark charges.

Kurt Gottfried

1967-01-01

260

Connected sum constructions for constant scalar curvature metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a general procedure for gluing together possibly noncompact manifolds of constant scalar curvature which satisfy an extra nondegeneracy hypothesis. Our aim is to provide a simple paradigm for making `analytic' connected sums. In particular, we can easily construct complete metrics of constant positive scalar curvature on the complement of certain configurations of an even number of points on

Rafe Mazzeo; Daniel Pollack; Karen Uhlenbeck

1995-01-01

261

A nonzero-sum stochastic differential game in the orthant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a nonzero-sum stochastic differential game where the state is a controlled reflecting diffusion in the nonnegative orthant. Under certain conditions, we establish the existence of Nash equilibria in stationary strategies for both discounted and average payoff criteria.

Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Kumar, K. Suresh

2005-05-01

262

Designing PTASs for MIN-SUM scheduling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review approximability and inapproximability results for MIN-SUM scheduling problems and we focus on techniques for designing polynomial time approximation schemes for this class of problems. We present examples which illustrate the efficient use of the ratio partitioning and time partitioning techniques.

Foto N. Afrati; Ioannis Milis

2006-01-01

263

Tensor products and Minkowski sums of Mirkovic-Vilonen polytopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to prove that the Mirkovic-Vilonen (MV for short) polytope corresponding to the tensor product of two arbitrary MV polytopes is contained in the Minkowski sum of these two MV polytopes. This generalizes the result in our previous paper [KNS], which was obtained under the assumption that the first tensor factor is an extremal MV

Syu Kato; Satoshi Naito; Daisuke Sagaki

2010-01-01

264

Probability Inequalities for Sums of Bounded Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper bounds are derived for the probability that the sum S of n independent random variables exceeds its mean ES by a positive number nt. It is assumed that the range of each summand of S is bounded or bounded above. The bounds for Pr {S – ES ? nt} depend only on the endpoints of the ranges of the

Wassily Hoeffding

1963-01-01

265

Sum capacity of equal-power users in overloaded channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the sum capacity of CDMA signature sequence sets in overloaded channels that contain an orthogonal subset of dimension N. We introduce a family of signature sequence sets, that consists of a Hierarchy of Orthogonal Subsets (HOS), and show that various signature sequence sets designed for channel overloading belong to this family. Assuming an equal average energy (EAE) constraint

Frederik Vanhaverbeke; Marc Moeneclaey

2005-01-01

266

Some Remarks on Forward rho-pi Scattering Sum Rules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion is given of the problem, tackled lately by several authors with different approaches, of the saturation of rho-pi meson scattering sum rules. The results attained until now exhibit a strong dependence on the approaches attempted. At the prese...

R. D'Auria E. Napolitano G. Soliani

1968-01-01

267

On the Cohen strongly p-summing multilinear operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce and study a new concept of summability in the category of multilinear operators, which is the Cohen strongly p-summing multilinear operators. We prove a natural analog of the Pietsch domination theorem and we compare the notion of p-dominated multilinear operators with this class by generalizing a theorem of Bu-Cohen.

Achour, D.; Mezrag, L.

2007-03-01

268

NSF Sums Up First Year of Instrumentation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Foundation's College Science Instrumentation Program (CSIP) provides four-year colleges with money to buy modern instruments. Accomplishments of the program during its first year (including 234 awards totaling $5.5 million) and future directions are summed up by Robert F. Watson, head of the CSIP program. (JN)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1985

1985-01-01

269

QCD sum rules and neutron-proton mass difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the method of QCD sum rules to investigate the neutron-proton mass difference. We include diagrams consistently up to dimension 9, assuming different up and down current-quark masses (mu?md), and distinguish between <0||:u¯u:||0> and <0||:d¯d:||0>, the condensates of the up and down quarks. Using the typical current-quark masses mu=5.1 MeV and md=8.9 MeV and the standard condensate values for average current-quark masses, we perform numerical analyses of the resultant QCD p/ and unity sum rules. In particular, numerical analyses of the difference equation from the p/ sum rules yield Mn-Mp=(1.35+/-0.24) MeV or (1.42+/-0.19) MeV, depending on the method of the analysis. Analogously, the difference equation from the unity sum rules yields Mn-Mp=(1.35+/-0.35) MeV or (0.95+/-0.25) MeV. These predictions are consistent among themselves and all are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 1.29 MeV.

Yang, Kwei-Chou; Hwang, W.-Y. P.; Henley, E. M.; Kisslinger, L. S.

1993-04-01

270

Max-Sum diversification, monotone submodular functions and dynamic updates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Result diversification has many important applications in databases, operations research, information retrieval, and finance. In this paper, we study and extend a particular version of result diversification, known as max-sum diversification. More specifically, we consider the setting where we are given a set of elements in a metric space and a set valuation function f defined on every subset. For

Allan Borodin; Hyun Chul Lee; Yuli Ye

2012-01-01

271

Counting Numbers Representable as Sums of Two Squares.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let W(x) count the number of positive integers not exceeding x that are sums of two squares. The values for W(x) are calculated for x = 10 to the k power, k = 1,2,...,12. The method is based on that given by E. D. F. Meissel and D. H. Lehmer for the compu...

P. Shiu

1984-01-01

272

Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.  

PubMed

For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches. PMID:24045984

Samaj, Ladislav

2013-09-19

273

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

274

Intervals between Numbers That Are Sums of Two Squares.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to prove that if s(1), s(s),...,s(n),... denote in ascending order the numbers (not counted according to multiplicity of representations) that can be expressed as a sum of two squares, then the summation over (s sub (n + 1)) < ...

C. Hooley

1971-01-01

275

Four new sums of graphs and their Wiener indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wiener index is the sum of distances between all vertex pairs in a connected graph. This notion was motivated by various mathematical properties and chemical applications. In this paper we introduce four new operations on graphs and study the Wiener indices of the resulting graphs.

Mehdi Eliasi; Bijan Taeri

2009-01-01

276

Monitoring vaccine safety using case series cumulative sum charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapt the self-controlled case series method for routine surveillance of vaccine safety using cumulative sum (CUSUM) charts. The CUSUM surveillance method we propose is applicable for detecting associations that arise in a short pre-determined risk period following vaccination. The performance of the case series CUSUM is investigated through simulations. We illustrate the method using retrospective analyses of influenza vaccine

Patrick Musonda; Mounia N. Hocine; Nick J. Andrews; Pascale Tubert-Bitter; C. Paddy Farrington

2008-01-01

277

A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A simulation study demonstrates the advantage of the proposed

Ronald D. Armstrong; Min Shi

2009-01-01

278

The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.|

Albright, Brian

2012-01-01

279

SimSum: An Empirically Founded Simulation of Summarizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

SimSum (Simulation of Summarizing) simulates 20 real-world working steps of expert summarizers. It presents an empirically founded cognitive model of summarizing and demonstrates that human summarization strategies can be simulated. The cognitive model operationalizes the discourse processing model developed by Kintsch and van Dijk (1983). Knowledge engineering followed the KADS approach, empirical modeling used methods of grounded theory development. The

Brigitte Endres

280

Decomposition of quantics in sums of powers of linear forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetric tensors of order larger than two arise more and more often in signal and image processing and automatic control, because of the recent complementary use of high-order statistics (HOS). However, very few special purpose tools are at our disposal for manipulating such objects in engineering problems. In this paper, the decomposition of a symmetric tensor into a sum of

P. Comon; B. Mourrain

1996-01-01

281

Isospin sum rule for nuclear photoabsorption: Effect of retardation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the close similarity between a sum rule originally derived by Cabibbo and Radicati and a simplified version based on nonrelativistic nuclear physics in the long-wavelength limit, we have investigated the effect of retardation corrections. An account of the contributions due to higher multipolarities is presented, together with a physical interpretation of the results.

Maize, M. A.; Fallieros, S.

1987-11-01

282

QCD Sum Rules for Pion Wave Function Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We analyze new QCD sum rules for the pion wave function (WF) (phi)(sub (pi)) (x), obtained recently in the non-local vacuum condensates method for nondiagonal correlators, and suggest a new approach for extracting WF of (pi)-meson and the mass and WF of t...

A. P. Bakulev S. V. Mikhajlov

1994-01-01

283

On the Ising Problem and Mayer's Cluster Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Mayer's imperfect-gas formalism is applied to the Ising problem emphasis is focused on certain irreducible cluster sums, beta k. It is shown that there is no contribution to beta k unless the k + 1 systems concerned occupy a set of lattice sites which are themselves either (a) a single point, (b) a pair of neighbouring points or (c)

G. S. Rushbrooke; H. I. Scoins

1955-01-01

284

rho-meson form factors and QCD sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present predictions for rho-meson form factors obtained from the analysis of QCD sum rules in next-to-leading order of perturbation theory. The radiative corrections turn out to be sizeable and should be taken into account in rigorous theoretical analysis.

V. V. Braguta; A. I. Onishchenko

2004-01-01

285

Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…

Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.

2005-01-01

286

Progress and New Challenges in Electronics and Digital Engine Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engine control systems, benefiting from continual progress in electronics, have become increasingly powerful and reliable while their cost and weight have decreased. Analog technology has gradually been replaced by digital technology, leading to gains in ...

J. M. Collin

1994-01-01

287

Weighted conditional least-squares estimation  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.

Booth, J.G.

1987-01-01

288

Scaling of average receiving time and average weighted shortest path on weighted Koch networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present weighted Koch networks based on classic Koch networks. A new method is used to determine the average receiving time (ART), whose key step is to write the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes to absorption at the trap located at a hub node as a recursive relation. We show that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information. Moreover, average weighted shortest path (AWSP) is calculated. In the infinite network order limit, the AWSP depends on the scaling factor. The weighted Koch network grows unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded.

Dai, Meifeng; Chen, Dandan; Dong, Yujuan; Liu, Jie

2012-12-01

289

A digital filter chip for ECG signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A VLSI implementation of a linear-phase digital filter for ECG signal processing has been designed. With a sampling rate of 100 Hz, the passband is from 0.5 Hz to 49.5 Hz with 0.5-dB ripple. The filter architecture is based on the use of recursive running-sum blocks, resulting in a very low computational complexity. Module generators have been used in the

Tommi Raita-aho; T. Saramaki; O. Vainio

1994-01-01

290

Performance of photon-counting and energy-integrating semiconductor detectors for digital breast tomosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct conversion detectors are increasingly used in digital mammography. Investigation of new breast imaging techniques such as digital breast tomosynthesis that provide information in three dimensions has thus been made possible. Amorphous Selenium is currently the most common direct converting digital detector material The prospect of optimum energy weighting and photon counting to improve detector performance probed the investigation of

Marios E. Myronakis; Dimitra G. Darambara

2010-01-01

291

A Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart is presented, and guidelines given for designing this easy-to-implement multivariate procedure. A comparison shows that the average run length (ARL) performance of this chart is similar to that of multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts in detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution.

Cynthia A. Lowry; William H. Woodall; Charles W. Champ; Steven E. Rigdon

1992-01-01

292

Stringy sums and corrections to the quantum string Bethe ansatz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the effects of zeta-function regularization on the evaluation of quantum corrections to spinning strings. Previously, this method was applied in the fraktur sfraktur l(2) subsector and yielded agreement to third order in perturbation theory with the quantum string Bethe ansatz. In this note we discuss related sums and compare zeta-function regularization against exact evaluation of the sums, thereby showing that the zeta-function regularized expression misses out perturbative as well as non-perturbative terms. In particular, this may imply corrections to the proposed quantum string Bethe equations. This also explains the previously observed discrepancy between the semi-classical string and the quantum string Bethe ansatz in the regime of large winding number.

Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Zamaklar, Marija

2005-10-01

293

Coincidence summing in gamma and X-ray spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique to calculate coincidence-summing corrections in ?-ray spectroscopy developed by Semkow et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A290 (1990) 437] was extended to incorporate coincidence-summing effects due to X-rays. The technique was experimentally validated in the case of 139Ce measurement. It is shown how the technique can be applied for the calculation of the full-energy peak and of total detection efficiencies. In addition, an absolute method for measuring the activity of a point source is proposed and demonstrated in the case of 139Ce. Finally it is shown how this improved technique can be applied to assess the ratios of the probabilities for emission of X-rays and for parameter optimization in peak-evaluating procedures.

Korun, M.; Martin?i?, R.

1993-02-01

294

Coincidence-Summing Corrections for Close Geometry Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a given stellar temperature, nuclear reactions take place in the energy range of the Gamow window with the relatively low energies of the astrophysical interest for charged particle induced reactions. In order to measure the nuclear reaction cross sections with the activation method at projectile energies as low as possible, a gamma counting system that consists of Ge detectors and the irradiated target in close geometry is required. The presence of cascade transitions requires coincidence summing corrections that can not be ignored because of the very large solid angle. In this study, the determination of the summing correction factor and photopeak efficiency for a gamma spectrometer, as an example, composed of two Ge clover detectors in close geometry is briefly described.

Güray, R. Taygun

2008-11-01

295

A critical assessment of the angular momentum sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are now five angular momentum relations or sum rules in the literature: the Jaffe, Manohar relation for a longitudinally polarized nucleon, and the Bakker, Leader, Trueman result for the case of transverse polarization; the Ji relation for longitudinal polarization, and the Leader result for transverse polarization, both involving generalized parton distributions; and a new sum rule due to Ji, Xiong and Yuan dealing with the transverse component of the Pauli-Lubanski vector. I discuss these various relations and examine their precise interpretation in the light of the so-called "angular momentum controversy". In particular, I show that the claim of Ji, Xiong, Yuan that their Pauli-Lubanski relation is frame or energy independent is incorrect and that they have missed an energy dependent term in their expression.

Leader, Elliot

2013-03-01

296

Ramanujan sums for signal processing of low-frequency noise.  

PubMed

An aperiodic (low-frequency) spectrum may originate from the error term in the mean value of an arithmetical function such as Möbius function or Mangoldt function, which are coding sequences for prime numbers. In the discrete Fourier transform the analyzing wave is periodic and not well suited to represent the low-frequency regime. In place we introduce a different signal processing tool based on the Ramanujan sums c(q)(n), well adapted to the analysis of arithmetical sequences with many resonances p/q. The sums are quasiperiodic versus the time n and aperiodic versus the order q of the resonance. Different results arise from the use of this Ramanujan-Fourier transform in the context of arithmetical and experimental signals. PMID:12513577

Planat, Michel; Rosu, Haret; Perrine, Serge

2002-11-26

297

Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part one of this paper highlights how students today think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors, as a result of being surrounded by new technology. The author compares these “digital natives” with the older generation who are learning and adopting new technology naming them “digital immigrants”.

Marc Prensky

2001-01-01

298

Digital chaotic encoding of digital information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of time-discontinuous coupling of two identical chaotic systems called sporadic coupling is explained. The sufficient conditions for the occurrence of synchronization between sporadically coupled chaotic systems are given. Amplitude quantization of the driving signal in addition to the sporadic coupling allows digital exchange of digital information signals between the sporadically coupled chaotic systems

Toni Stojanovski; Ljupco Kocarev; Ulrich Parlitz; Richard Harris

1997-01-01

299

Digital Divide: Navigating the Digital Edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers how the digital media lives of Latino and African American youth are evolving. Latino and African American youth are just as likely as their white and Asian America counterparts to go online, manage a social networking site, and use a mobile phone. The shifting digital media practices of black and Latino youth raise crucial questions and suggest

S. Craig Watkins

2011-01-01

300

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years

C C McLaughlin; M S Baptiste; M J Schymura; P C Nasca; M S Zdeb

2006-01-01

301

Bounding heavy meson form factors using inclusive sum rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We utilize inclusive sum rules to construct both upper and lower bounds on the form factors for B -> D,D* , rho, pi, omega,K and K* semi-leptonic and radiative decays. We include the leading nonperturbative 1\\/E corrections and point out cases when alphas corrections are equally important. We compute the alphas correction to the lower bound on theB -> D*

C. Glenn Boyd; I. Z. Rothstein

1997-01-01

302

Tractable fitting with convex polynomials via sum-of-squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of fitting given data (u1,y1),...,(um,ym) where ui? Rnand yi? R with a convex polynomial f. A technique to solve this problem using sum of squares polynomials is presented. This technique is extended to enforce convexity of f only on a specified region. Also, an algorithm to fit the convex hull of a set of points with

Alessandro Magnani; Sanjay Lall; Stephen Boyd

2005-01-01

303

Heavy-meson decay constants from QCD sum rules  

SciTech Connect

We sketch a recent sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the heavy pseudoscalar mesons D, D{sub s}, B, and B{sub s} from the two-point correlator of heavy-light pseudoscalar currents. Our main emphasis lies on the control over all the uncertainties in the decay constants, related both to the input QCD parameters and to the limited accuracy of the method of sum rules. Gaining this control has become possible by application of our new procedure of extracting hadron observables based on a dual threshold depending on the Borel parameter. For the charmed-meson decay constants, we find fD = (206.2{+-}7.3{sub (OPE)}{+-}5.1{sub (syst)}) MeV, fD{sub s} = (245.3{+-}15.7{sub (OPE)}{+-}4.5{sub (syst)}) MeV. For the beauty mesons, the decay constants turn out to be extremely sensitive to the precise value of the {ovr MS} mass of the b-quark, {bar m}{sub b}({bar m}{sub b}). By requiring our sum-rule estimate to match the average of the lattice determinations of f{sub B}, we extract the rather accurate value {bar m}{sub b}({bar m}{sub b}) = (4.245{+-}0.025) GeV. Feeding this parameter value into our sum-rule formalism leads to the beauty-meson decay constants fB = (193.4{+-}12.3{sub (OPE)}{+-}4.3{sub (syst)}) MeV, fB{sub s} = (232.5{+-}18.6{sub (OPE)}{+-}2.4{sub (syst)}) MeV.

Lucha, Wolfgang [HEPHY, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Melikhov, Dmitri [HEPHY, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Simula, Silvano [INFN, Sezione di Roma 3, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy)

2010-12-22

304

Tensor products and Minkowski sums of Mirkovi?–Vilonen polytopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to prove that the Mirkovi?–Vilonen (MV) polytope corresponding to the tensor product of two arbitrary\\u000a MV polytopes is contained, as a set, in the Minkowski sum of these two MV polytopes. This result generalizes the one in our\\u000a previous paper, which was obtained under the assumption that the first tensor factor is an extremal

Syu Kato; Satoshi Naito; Daisuke Sagaki

305

Sum-Over-Histories Quantization of Relativistic Particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sum-over-histories quantization of particle-like theory in curved space is discussed. It is reviewed that the propagator satisfies the Schrodinger equation respective wave equation with a Laplace-like operator. The exact dependence of the operator on the choice of measure is shown. Next, modifications needed for a manifold with a boundary are introduced, and the exact form of the equation for the

Pavel Krtouÿs

306

Polynomial 6j-Symbols and States Sums  

Microsoft Academic Search

For q a root of unity of order 2r, we give explicit formulas of a family of 3-variable Laurent polynomials J_{i,j,k} with coefficients in Z[q] that encode the 6j-symbols associated with nilpotent representations of U_qsl_2. For a given abelian group G, we use them to produce a state sum invariant tau^r(M,L,h_1,h_2) of a quadruplet (compact 3-manifold M, link L inside

Nathan Geer; Bertrand Patureau-Mirand

2009-01-01

307

On the Distribution of Sums of Vectors in General Position  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analogue of the Littlewood-Oord problem posed by the rst author is to nd the maximum number of subset sums equal to the same vector over all ways of selecting n vectors inRd in general position. This note reviews past progress and motivation for this problem, and presents a construction that gives a respectable new lower bound, (2nn1 3d=2), which

Jerrold R. Griggs; Gunter Rote

1997-01-01

308

Monitoring vaccine safety using case series cumulative sum charts.  

PubMed

We adapt the self-controlled case series method for routine surveillance of vaccine safety using cumulative sum (CUSUM) charts. The CUSUM surveillance method we propose is applicable for detecting associations that arise in a short pre-determined risk period following vaccination. The performance of the case series CUSUM is investigated through simulations. We illustrate the method using retrospective analyses of influenza vaccine and Bell's palsy, and MMR vaccine and febrile convulsions. PMID:18723063

Musonda, Patrick; Hocine, Mounia N; Andrews, Nick J; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Farrington, C Paddy

2008-08-22

309

A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

Aliev, T. M. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Permanent institute: Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ozpineci, A. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-12-28

310

Zc+(3900) decay width in QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify the recently observed charmoniumlike structure Zc±(3900) as the charged partner of the X(3872) state. Using standard techniques of QCD sum rules, we evaluate the three-point function and extract the coupling constants of the Zc+J/??+, Zc+?c?+ and Zc+D+D¯*0 vertices and the corresponding decay widths in these channels. The good agreement with the experimental data gives support to the tetraquark picture of this state.

Dias, J. M.; Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.; Zanetti, C. M.

2013-07-01

311

QCD Sum Rules Applications to the J/psi Dissociation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the QCD sum rules to evaluate the D* Dpi and DDrho form factors as well as the J/psi pi [right arrow] D D*, D D*, D* D* and D D cross sections. The form factors are evaluated as a function of the momentum Q2 of the D meson and the light meson and the cross sections as a function of RADICAL:[[RADICAND:[S

Nielsen, M.; Navarra, F. S.; de Carvalho, R. S. Marques; Krein, G.; Bracco, M. E.

2002-10-01

312

Intergroup Emotions: More than the Sum of the Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we make the case that recent research on intergroup emotions enriches both the intergroup relations and emotions\\u000a domains in a way that is more than the sum of its parts. Focusing on research from our own lab’ we illustrate our argument\\u000a with evidence for the heuristic value of a group emotions approach to prejudice and discrimination, and

Russell Spears; Colin Leach; Martijn van Zomeren; Alexa Ispas; Joseph Sweetman; Nicole Tausch

313

Full cmos min-sum analog iterative decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel current-mode approach is pro- posed for implementing basic building blocks of an analog iterative decoder. The decoder is based on the so-called min-sum algorithm and can be used to decode powerful coding schemes such as low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and turbo codes. The proposed circuits can be implemented by standard CMOS technology, which means lower fabrication cost and\\/or

Saied Hemati; Amir H. Banihashemi

2003-01-01

314

A high-speed analog min-sum iterative decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current-mode circuits are presented for implementing analog min-sum (MS) iterative decoders. Proposed circuits are devised based on current mirrors. Therefore, in any fabrication technology that accurate current mirrors can be designed, analog MS decoders can be implemented. The functionality of the proposed modules was verified by implementing an analog MS decoder for a (32,8,10) regular LDPC code in 0.18-mum CMOS

Saied Hemati; Amir H. Banihashemi; Calvin Plett

2005-01-01

315

Digitala Enkaeter (Digital Surveys).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital surveys have nowadays become an alternative to traditional paperbased surveys. This report describes the advantages and disadvantages with digital surveys compared to paperbased surveys. Included in the report is also a suggestion about how to con...

C. Froeberg M. Hanberger

2001-01-01

316

Cryptographic Digital Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fundamentals of cryptographic digital systems are reviewed. The basic types of ciphers are defined and discussed. The remainder of the report examines the word and bit error rates in digital communication systems with block or stream ciphers. Upper bo...

D. J. Torrieri

1975-01-01

317

Charm mass determination from QCD charmonium sum rules at order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the charm quark mass from a charmonium QCD sum rules analysis. On the theoretical side we use input from perturbation theory at . Improvements with respect to previous analyses include (1) an account of all available e + e - hadronic cross section data and (2) a thorough analysis of perturbative uncertainties. Using a data clustering method to combine hadronic cross section data sets from different measurements we demonstrate that using all available experimental data up to c.m. energies of 10 .538 GeV allows for determinations of experimental moments and their correlations with small errors and that there is no need to rely on theoretical input above the charmonium resonances. We also show that good convergence properties of the perturbative series for the theoretical sum rule moments need to be considered with some care when extracting the charm mass and demonstrate how to set up a suitable set of scale variations to obtain a proper estimate of the perturbative uncertainty. As the final outcome of our analysis we obtain . The perturbative error is an order of magnitude larger than the one obtained in previous sum rule analyses.

Dehnadi, Bahman; Hoang, Andre H.; Mateu, Vicent; Zebarjad, S. Mohammad

2013-09-01

318

Evaluating chiral symmetry restoration through the use of sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We pursue the idea of assessing chiral restoration via in-medium modifications of hadronic spectral functions of chiral partners. The usefulness of sum rules in this endeavor is illustrated, focusing on the vector/axial-vector channel. We first present an update on obtaining quantitative results for pertinent vacuum spectral functions. These serve as a basis upon which the in-medium spectral functions can be constructed. A novel feature of our analysis of the vacuum spectral functions is the need to include excited resonances, dictated by satisfying the Weinberg-type sum rules. This includes excited states in both the vector and axial-vector channels.We also analyze the QCD sum rule for the finite temperature vector spectral function, based on a ? spectral function tested in dilepton data which develops a shoulder at low energies.We find that the ?' peak flattens off which may be a sign of chiral restoration, though a study of the finite temperature axial-vector spectral function remains to be carried out.

Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf

2012-11-01

319

Digital Homecare – An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital homecare is a phrase that is easily understood and can be described as a container expression. Assistive technology,\\u000a telemedicine, mhealth, rehabilitation, are all contained within digital homecare. But it is impossible to find a proper definition\\u000a of digital homecare. Looking for “digital homecare” in PubMed or Google Scholar delivers less than a dozen results. An important\\u000a modern reference site

Kanagasingam Yogesan; Lodewijk Bos; Peter Brett; Michael Christopher Gibbons

320

Digital Library Curriculum collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Library Curriculum collection contains modules that form the basis for one or a several courses on digital libraries - thus constituting a unified curriculum for the field. They also can be used in computer science, library science, information science, and other programs for other types of courses or as supplements to an existing course. Core topics include digital objects, collection development, knowledge organization, architecture, user behavior and interactions, servics, preservation, management and evaluation and digital library education and research.

2011-01-04

321

A digital frequency synthesizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital frequency synthesizer has been designed and constructed based on generating digital samples ofexp [j(2^{pi}nk\\/N)]at timenT. The real and imaginary parts of this exponential form samples of quadrature sinusoids where the frequency indexkis allowed to vary(-N\\/4) leq K < (N\\/4). The digital samples drive digital to analog converters followed by low-pass interpolating filters to produce analog sinusoids. The method

JOSEPH TIERNEY; CHARLES M. RADER; B. Gold

1971-01-01

322

Analog to digital converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog-to-digital converter, finding particular application in a multichannel pulse height analyzer, includes means for digitizing the analog input in two conversion steps. To digitize the input to 13 bits, a 7-bit digital to analog converter with a 7-bit up-down counter is used. During the first conversion step which is a coarse conversion, the input V sub i is compared

C. H. Lucas

1976-01-01

323

Journal of Digital Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Digital Information is an electronic-only, peer-reviewed journal covering topics related to digital libraries, hypertext and hypermedia systems, and the issues of digital information. The journal's main page features links to articles in the current issue; previous issues are browseable by issue number, author, title, or theme. They may also be searched by keywords in title or text.

324

Digital ecosystem ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Ecosystems is a neoteric terminology and there are two major definitions about it respectively from Soluta.Net and from Digital Ecosystem and Business Intelligence Institute. In this paper, to solve the ambiguous problem in Digital Ecosystem's definitions and to help researchers better understand what it is, by means of ontology, we propose a conceptual model to completely illustrate the concepts

Hai Dong; Farookh Khadeer Hussain

2007-01-01

325

Teaching Digital Typography  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Digital typography is a very specialized field that offers two widely different yet complementary aspects: art and computer science. This paper presents Project Didot, which is all about teaching digital typography. While taking into account recent experience, the authors explore some subjects that should be included in a digital typography course and describe the various trades it would be

Jacques André; Roger D. Hersch

1992-01-01

326

Bridging the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner…

Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny

2008-01-01

327

Fast digital identity revocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The availability of fast and reliable Digital Identities is an essential ingredient for the successful implementation of the public-key infrastructure of the Internet. All digital identity schemes must include a method for revoking someone's digital identity in the case that this identity is stolen (or canceled) before its expiration date (similar to the cancelation of a credit-cards in the

W. Aiello; S. Lodha; R. Ostrovsky

1998-01-01

328

DCDS digital simulating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the problems of digital simulation and describes methods used in the Digital Control Design System (DCDS) for the simulation of digital structures. The paper is divided into five parts: • A short introduction to DCDS, its structure and purposes. • A discussion of simulation techniques, entities and attributes. • The DCDS pseudo machine simulator. •

H. Potash; A. Tyrrill; D. Allen; S. Joseph; G. Estrin

1969-01-01

329

Digital Literacy. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools…

Williamson, Ronald

2011-01-01

330

Copyright and digital libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of Communications highlights some of the many projects underway for the creation or enhancement of digital libraries. At the moment, no one seems to think there will be only one gargantuan digital library to sate the public's appetite for information. Rather, the expectation is that there will be many digital libraries, most of which will have specialized collections

Pamela Samuelson

1995-01-01

331

Interacting with Digital Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems that every week there is a new Digital Music product and service and every week another major deal is announced. That is the intensively competitive Digital Music market today. For those of us lucky enough to work in Digital Music research, these are exciting times with almost boundless possibilities. These are made possible by recent advances in musical

Mark Sandler

2007-01-01

332

Computer controlled digital planimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic digital planimeter is described. The system consists of a desktop computer, digital plotter, and high-resolution reflectance sensor. It operates on simply connected curves by first scanning and digitizing the figure, and then carrying out a numerical integration on the stored data. A test case confirms that the area evaluations are quite accurate.

James A. Blackburn

1982-01-01

333

Digital Hysteresis Circuit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noise induced hunting is eliminated in successive ranged digital/analog converter bias correction circuits by means of a digital hysteresis circuit. The digital hysteresis circuit comprehends a first up/down counter that counts to its extremums from a pre...

S. Morrison

1978-01-01

334

Digital particle image velocimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) is the digital counterpart of conventional laser speckle velocitmetry (LSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In this novel, two-dimensional technique, digitally recorded video images are analyzed computationally, removing both the photographic and opto-mechanical processing steps inherent to PIV and LSV. The directional ambiguity generally associated with PIV and LSV is resolved by implementing local

C. E. Willert; M. Gharib

1991-01-01

335

Changing State Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

Pappas, Marjorie L.

2006-01-01

336

Mass Digitization of Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mass digitization of the bound volumes that we generally call "books" has begun, and, thanks to the interest in Google and all that it does, it is getting widespread media attention. The Open Content Alliance (OCA), a library initiative formed after Google announced its library book digitization project, has brought library digitization projects…

Coyle, Karen

2006-01-01

337

Digital Language Death  

PubMed Central

Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

Kornai, Andras

2013-01-01

338

New Approaches to Digital Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital evidence, such as digital signatures, is of crucial importance in the emerging digitally operating economy because it is easy to transmit, archive, search, and verify. Nevertheless, the initial promise of the usefulness of digital signatures was too optimistic. This calls for a systematic treatment of digital evidence. The paper provides a foundation for reasoning about digital evidence systems and

Ueli M. Maurer

2004-01-01

339

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia  

PubMed Central

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years between 1985 and 2001 and born in New York State excluding New York City between 1978 and 2001. Controls (n=9686) were selected from the birth cohorts for the same years. Moderate increased risk of both ALL and AML was associated with birth weight 3500?g or more. For ALL, however, there was evidence of effect modification with birth weight and maternal prepregnancy weight. High birth weight was associated with ALL only when the mother was not overweight while heavier maternal weight was associated with ALL only when the infant was not high birth weight. Increased pregnancy-related weight gain was associated with ALL. For AML, birth weight under 3000?g and higher prepregnancy weight were both associated with increased risk. These findings suggest childhood leukaemia may be related to factors influencing abnormal fetal growth patterns.

McLaughlin, C C; Baptiste, M S; Schymura, M J; Nasca, P C; Zdeb, M S

2006-01-01

340

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years between 1985 and 2001 and born in New York State excluding New York City between 1978 and 2001. Controls (n=9686) were selected from the birth cohorts for the same years. Moderate increased risk of both ALL and AML was associated with birth weight 3500 g or more. For ALL, however, there was evidence of effect modification with birth weight and maternal prepregnancy weight. High birth weight was associated with ALL only when the mother was not overweight while heavier maternal weight was associated with ALL only when the infant was not high birth weight. Increased pregnancy-related weight gain was associated with ALL. For AML, birth weight under 3000 g and higher prepregnancy weight were both associated with increased risk. These findings suggest childhood leukaemia may be related to factors influencing abnormal fetal growth patterns. PMID:16736025

McLaughlin, C C; Baptiste, M S; Schymura, M J; Nasca, P C; Zdeb, M S

2006-06-01

341

Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

Lynch, Clifford

2002-01-01

342

78 FR 18424 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment Request AGENCY...for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim...Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c....

2013-03-26

343

75 FR 56664 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment Request AGENCY...for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim...Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c....

2010-09-16

344

75 FR 73166 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities under OMB Review...for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim...Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c....

2010-11-29

345

29 CFR 778.309 - Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime. Where an employee works a regular fixed number of hours...fixed sum in any such week for his overtime work, determined by multiplying his overtime rate by the number of overtime...

2013-07-01

346

Different weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: postpartum weight and birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the effect of different gestational weight gains among women of normal weight before pregnancy on babies’ birth weights, and women’s weights 18–24 months postpartum.Methods: Two groups of women of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index [BMI] 19.6–25.4 kg\\/m2) took part in the study (n = 200). They gained either moderate weight (9–15 kg) or high weight

Inga Thorsdottir; Bryndis E Birgisdottir

1998-01-01

347

Decay constants of heavy pseudoscalar mesons from QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the D, Ds, B and Bs mesons from the two-point correlator of heavy-light pseudoscalar currents. We use the operator product expansion of this correlator expressed in terms of the \\overlineMS heavy-quark mass for which the perturbative expansion exhibits a reasonable convergence. Our main emphasis is laid on the control over the uncertainties in the decay constants, related both to the input quantum chromodynamics (QCD) parameters and to the limited intrinsic accuracy of the method of QCD sum rules. This becomes possible due to the application of our procedure of extracting hadron observables that involves as novel feature dual thresholds depending on the Borel parameter. For charmed mesons, we find the decay constants f_D=(206.2+/- 7.3_{(OPE)}+/- 5.1_{(syst)})\\;MeV and f_{D_s}=(245.3+/- 15.7_{(OPE)}+/- 4.5_{(syst)})\\;MeV. For beauty mesons, the decay constants turn out to be extremely sensitive to the precise value of \\overline{m}_b(\\overline{m}_b). By requiring our sum-rule estimate to match the average of the lattice results for fB, a very accurate value \\overline{m}_b(\\overline{m}_b) = (4.245+/- 0.025)\\;GeV is extracted, leading to fB = (193.4 ± 12.3(OPE) ± 4.3(syst)) MeV and f_{B_s}=(232.5+/- 18.6_(OPE)+/- 2.4_(syst))\\;MeV.

Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

2011-10-01

348

On sums of squares of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion involving the evaluation of the sum $\\\\sum_{0<\\\\gamma\\\\le T} |\\\\zeta(1\\/2+i\\\\gamma)|^2$ is presented, where $\\\\gamma$ denotes imaginary parts of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta-function $\\\\zeta(s)$. Three theorems involving certain integrals related to this sum are proved, and the sum is unconditionally shown to be $\\\\ll T\\\\log^2T\\\\log\\\\log T$.

Aleksandar Ivic

2003-01-01

349

Doped spin liquid: Luttinger sum rule and low temperature order.  

PubMed

We analyze a model of two-leg Hubbard ladders weakly coupled by interladder tunneling. At half filling a semimetallic state with small Fermi pockets is induced beyond a threshold tunneling strength. The sign changes in the single electron Green's function relevant for the Luttinger sum rule now take place at surfaces with both zeros and infinities with important consequences for the interpretation of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Residual interactions between electron and holelike quasiparticles cause a transition to long range order at low temperatures. The theory can be extended to small doping leading to superconducting order. PMID:16606208

Konik, R M; Rice, T M; Tsvelik, A M

2006-03-03

350

3He spin-dependent cross sections and sum rules.  

PubMed

We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the 3He over -->(e over -->,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1< or =Q2< or =0.9 GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region. PMID:18764175

Slifer, K; Amarian, M; Auerbach, L; Averett, T; Berthot, J; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, B; Black, T; Brash, E; Brown, D; Burtin, E; Calarco, J; Cates, G; Chai, Z; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi Degli Atti, C; Cisbani, E; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; DiSalvo, R; Dieterich, S; Djawotho, P; Finn, M; Fissum, K; Fonvieille, H; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Goldberg, E; Gomez, J; Gorbenko, V; Hansen, J-O; Hersman, B; Holmes, R; Huber, G M; Hughes, E; Humensky, B; Incerti, S; Iodice, M; Jensen, S; Jiang, X; Jones, C; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jutier, C; Kamada, H; Ketikyan, A; Kominis, I; Korsch, W; Kramer, K; Kumar, K; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Lakuriqi, E; Laveissiere, G; Lerose, J J; Liang, M; Liyanage, N; Lolos, G; Malov, S; Marroncle, J; McCormick, K; McKeown, R D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Mitchell, J; Nogga, A; Pace, E; Papandreou, Z; Pavlin, T; Petratos, G G; Pripstein, D; Prout, D; Ransome, R; Roblin, Y; Rowntree, D; Rvachev, M; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Salmè, G; Scopetta, S; Skibi?ski, R; Souder, P; Saito, T; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Takahashi, K; Teijiro, S; Todor, L; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Urciuoli, G; Van der Meer, R; Vernin, P; Voskanian, H; Wita?a, H; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiong, F; Xu, W; Yang, J-C; Zhang, B; Zolnierczuk, P

2008-07-11

351

A-CED Sum of angles in a polygon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Below is a quadrilateral $ABCD$: Show, by dividing $ABCD$ into triangles, that the sum of the interior angles is $360^\\circ$: m(\\angle A) + m(\\angle B)...

352

Global optimization for sum of generalized fractional functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the solution of generalized fractional programming (GFP) problem which contains various variants such as a sum or product of a finite number of ratios of linear functions, polynomial fractional programming, generalized geometric programming, etc. over a polytope. For such problems, we present an efficient unified method. In this method, by utilizing a transformation and a two-part linearization method, a sequence of linear programming relaxations of the initial nonconvex programming problem are derived which are embedded in a branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical results are given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Shen, Pei-Ping; Wang, Chun-Feng

2008-04-01

353

Pseudounitary freedom in the operator-sum representation  

SciTech Connect

A dynamical map is a map that takes one density operator to another. Such a map can be written in an operator-sum representation (OSR) by using a spectral decomposition. The method of construction applies to general maps, which need not be completely positive. The OSR is not unique; there is freedom to choose a different set of operators in the OSR, yet still obtain the same map. Here, we show that, whereas the freedom for completely positive maps is unitary, the freedom for maps that are not necessarily completely positive is pseudounitary.

Ou, Yong-Cheng [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Byrd, Mark S. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Department of Computer Science, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States)

2010-08-15

354

A new method for taming tensor sum-integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the computation of a class of massless bosonic three-loop vacuum sum-integrals which are key building blocks for an evaluation of the Debye screening mass in hot QCD. Generalizing known techniques and introducing the concept of tensor reduction by dimensionality shifts (known to the zero-temperature community since the work of Tarasov in 1996) to finite temperature, we are able to treat hitherto unaccessible cases, which will allow us to finalize the long-term project of NNLO Debye mass evaluation.

Ghisoiu, Ioan; Schröder, York

2012-11-01

355

Fast Digitization and Digital Receiver Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentially lucrative wireless market has led to technological advances in mixed signal devices such as high speed, high resolution A\\/D and D\\/A converters. This same market has also driven the development of high performance multi-channel digital receiver and digital transmitter ICs. Similarly, advances in semiconductor processes, coupled with the need for reduced time-to-market, has led to the development of

Ralph C. Kimball

2002-01-01

356

Investigating a space-variant weighted salience account of visual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighted salience models are a popular framework for image-driven visual attentional processes. These models operate by: sampling the visual environment; calculating feature maps; combining them in a weighted sum and using this to determine where the eye will fixate next. We examine these stages in turn. We find that a biologically plausible non-uniform retinal sampling causes feature coding unreliability. The

Benjamin T. Vincent; Tom Troscianko; Iain D. Gilchrist

2007-01-01

357

Effect of clothing weight on body weight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

358

Unitary Structure of the QCD Sum Rules and KYN and KY{xi} Couplings  

SciTech Connect

New relations between QCD Borel sum rules for strong coupling constants of K-mesons to baryons are derived. It is shown that starting from the sum rule for the coupling constants g{pi}{sigma}{sigma} and g{pi}{sigma}{lambda} it is straightforward to obtain corresponding sum rules for the gKYN, gKY{xi} couplings, Y = {sigma}, {lambda}.

Aliev, T. [Physics Dept., Middle East Technical Univ., 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Ozpineci, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Yakovlev, S. B.; Zamiralov, V. S. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-01-12

359

An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching…

Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.

2008-01-01

360

The Chain & Sum Primitive and Its Applications to MACs and Stream Ciphers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new scheme called universal block chaining with sum (or chain sum primitive (C S) for short), and show its application to the problem of combined encryption and authentication of data. The primitive is a weak CBC-type encryption along with a summing step and can be used as a front end to stream ciphers to encrypt pages or

Mariusz H. Jakubowski; Ramarathnam Venkatesan

1998-01-01

361

A Markov-Weibull rain-sum model for designing rain water catchment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rain-sum, defined as the sum of the total rain over a wet spell during a rainy season, forms a sequence which has the potential to provide the statistics for designing a rainwater catchment system. The probability density function (pdf) of the rain-sum coupled with the Poisson law of occurrence of wet spells are used as building blocks to generate the

T. C. Sharma

1996-01-01

362

Row-Sum of a Class of M-Bonomial Coefficients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Formulae for row-sum of M-bonomial coefficients [image omitted] where G is an mth g-gonal number is developed from a study of the ratio between consecutive terms of the sequence of row-sum. The result generalizes the formula for row-sum of binomial coefficients: [image omitted].|

Asiru, Muniru A.

2011-01-01

363

A novel highly accurate log skew normal approximation method to lognormal sum distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sums of lognormal random variables occur in many important problems in wireless communications. However, the lognormal sum distribution is known to have no close-form and is difficult to compute numerically. Several approximation methods have already been proposed to approximate the lognormal sum distribution. However, these approximation methods all have their drawbacks: some widely used approximation methods are not very accurate

Zhijin Wu; Xue Li; Robert Husnay; Vasu Chakravarthy; Bin Wang; Zhiqiang Wu

2009-01-01

364

Baldwin Library of Children's Literature, Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Baldwin Library Digital Collection at the University of Florida includes over 2500 fully digitized children's books, published in the United States and Great Britain between 1850 and 1900 (selected from more than more than 100,000 in the Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature, dating from the mid-1600s through 2007). Although baby-boomers may be disappointed in not finding their childhood favorites, it is nonetheless amazing to page through an illustrated edition of Little Red Riding Hood, published in 1895 by Raphael Tuck & Sons. Browsing through the list of recently added items also reveals the digital version of "Bill an' me": sum ov our adventers in de "Midway Plaisance", a souvenir book documenting two boys' adventures at the World's Columbian Exposition, the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893. Books in the collection reflect the mores of the times in which they were published; for example, although the protagonists seem on the youthful side to 21st century eyes, Bill an me's adventures include the drinking of alcoholic beverages.

365

Spin Sum Rules and Polarizabilities: Results from Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon spin structure has been an active, exciting and intriguing subject of interest for the last three decades. Recent experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers provide new information in the confinement regime and the transition region from the confinement regime to the asymptotic freedom regime. New insight is gained by exploring moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Burkhardt-Cottingham and Bjorken). The Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule is verified to good accuracy. The spin structure moments data are compared with Chiral Perturbation Theory calculations at low momentum transfers. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g{sub 1} at momentum transfer of 0.05 to 0.1 GeV{sup 2} but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability {delta}{sub LT} (the {delta}{sub LT} puzzle). New data have been taken on the neutron ({sup 3}He), the proton and the deuteron at very low Q{sup 2} down to 0.02 GeV{sup 2}. They will provide benchmark tests of Chiral dynamics in the kinematic region where the Chiral Perturbation theory is expected to work.

Jian-Ping Chen

2006-11-15

366

?? interactions in finite-density QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of ? hyperons in pure ? matter are studied with the finite-density quantum chromodynamics (QCD) sum rule approach. The first-order quark and gluon condensates in ? nuclear matter are deduced from the chiral perturbation theory. The sum-rule predictions are sensitive to the four-quark condensates, ?2 and ??, and the ?N sigma term. When ?2 is nearly independent of density and ?? depends strongly on density, we can obtain weakly attractive ?? potentials (about several MeV) in the low ? density region, which agrees with the information from the latest double ? hypernucleus experiments. The nearly no-density dependence of ?2 and strong density dependence of ?? can be explained naturally if the properties of ?2 and ?? are assumed to be similar to those of ?? and K¯K in nuclear medium, respectively.

Zhong, X. H.; Ning, P. Z.

2007-05-01

367

Interpretation of the water surface vibrational sum-frequency spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel interpretation of the water liquid-vapor interface vibrational sum-frequency (VSF) spectrum in terms of hydrogen-bonding classes. Unlike an absorption spectrum, the VSF signal can be considered as a sum of signed contributions from different hydrogen-bonded species in the sample. We show that the recently observed positive feature at low frequency, in the imaginary part of the signal, is a result of cancellation between the positive contributions from four-hydrogen-bonded molecules and negative contributions from those molecules with one or two broken hydrogen bonds. Spectral densities for each of these subgroups span the entire relevant spectral range. Three-body interactions within our newly developed E3B water simulation model prove to be critical in describing the proper balance between different hydrogen-bonded species, as (two-body) SPC/E, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005 models fail to reproduce the positive feature. The results clarify the molecular origin of the VSF signal, and highlight the importance of many-body interactions for water in heterogeneous situations.

Pieniazek, P. A.; Tainter, C. J.; Skinner, J. L.

2011-07-01

368

Extraction of bound-state parameters from dispersive sum rules  

SciTech Connect

The procedure of extracting the ground-state parameters from vacuum-to-vacuum and vacuum-to-hadron correlators within the method of sum rules is considered. The emphasis is laid on the crucial ingredient of this method-the effective continuum threshold. A new algorithm to fix this quantity is proposed and tested. First, a quantum-mechanical potential model which provides the only possibility to probe the reliability and the actual accuracy of this method is used as a study case. In this model, our algorithm is shown to lead to a remarkable improvement of the accuracy of the extracted ground-state parameters compared to the standard procedures adopted in the method and used in all previous applications of dispersive sum rules in QCD. As a next step, it is demonstrated that the procedures of extracting the ground-state decay constant in the potential model and in QCD are quantitatively very close to each other. Therefore, the application of the proposed algorithm in QCD promises a considerable increase of the accuracy of the extracted hadron parameters.

Lucha, W.; Melikhov, D. I., E-mail: dmitri_melikhov@gmx.d [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Energy Physics (Austria); Simula, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma III (Italy)

2010-10-15

369

``Sum over surfaces'' form of loop quantum gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a spacetime formulation of quantum general relativity from (Hamiltonian) loop quantum gravity. In particular, we study the quantum propagator that evolves the three-geometry in proper time. We show that the perturbation expansion of this operator is finite and computable order by order. By giving a graphical representation in the manner of Feynman of this expansion, we find that the theory can be expressed as a sum over topologically inequivalent (branched, colored) two-dimensional (2D) surfaces in 4D. The contribution of one surface to the sum is given by the product of one factor per branching point of the surface. Therefore branching points play the role of elementary vertices of the theory. Their value is determined by the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian constraint, which are known. The formulation we obtain can be viewed as a continuum version of Reisenberger's simplicial quantum gravity. Also, it has the same structure as the Ooguri-Crane-Yetter 4D topological field theory, with a few key differences that illuminate the relation between quantum gravity and topological quantum field theory. Finally, we suggest that certain new terms should be added to the Hamiltonian constraint in order to implement a ``crossing'' symmetry related to 4D diffeomorphism invariance.

Reisenberger, Michael P.; Rovelli, Carlo

1997-09-01

370

Charm couplings and form factors in QCD sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to heavy ion collisions and to B decays. We then present an introduction to the method of QCD sum rules and describe how to work with the three-point function. We give special attention to the procedure employed to extrapolate results obtained in the deep euclidean region to the poles of the particles, located in the time-like region. We present a table of ready-to-use parametrizations of all the form factors, which are relevant for the processes mentioned in the introduction. We discuss the uncertainties in our results. We also give the coupling constants and compare them with estimates obtained with other methods. Finally we apply our results to the calculation of the cross section of the reaction J/?+??D+D?¯.

Bracco, M. E.; Chiapparini, M.; Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.

2012-10-01

371

Real-Data Digital-Real-Weight Canceler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a canceller for decorrelating one set of signal samples called the main set from another set called the auxiliary set taken from the same domain. It frequency-translates the signals on their intermediate frequency (i.f.) carrier down...

B. L. Lewis F. F. Kretschmer

1982-01-01

372

Evaluating weight perception using digital facial-image feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the MophMed study, a joint effort between technologists and doctors to explore the effects of facial image modification on children's body image and on parental support for children's healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors.

Ana C. Andrés Del Valle; Jeannie Huang; Karen Becerra; Susan Fernandez

2009-01-01

373

The digital darkroom, part 3: Digital presentations in plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital technology is becoming an increasing popular format for societal and other presentations. Part 3 of The Digital Darkroom reviews the kinds of equipment available, the advantages and disadvantages of digital projection, and the most common pitfalls encountered in preparing and presenting material in digital presentations. It closes with a series of recommendations for optimizing your digital presentation and avoiding

Gregory M. Galdino; Michael Chiaramonte; Stanley A. Klatsky

2001-01-01

374

The digital darkroom, part 1: Digital technology in plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here, in complete form, The Digital Darkroom, a 3-part series that covers (1) equipment for the digital darkroom, (2) the basics of digital photography, and (3) digital presentations in plastic surgery.Part 1 examines the uses and advantages of this new technology, the basic principles and components necessary to set up and operate a digital darkroom, and some basic

Gregory M. Galdino; Stanley A. Klatsky; Paul N. Manson; Craig A. Vander Kolk

2000-01-01

375

Saving Amputated Digits  

PubMed Central

Since the advent of microsurgery in the 1960's it has become possible to sucessfully repair vessels as small as 0.5 mm in diameter, which makes the replantation of totally severed digits possible. Some centers have reported 50 to 60 percent survival of completely severed digits and up to 100 percent survival of amputated hands and of partially amputed but otherwise non-viable digits that were reattached. In view of this success, severed members should be considered as potentially replantable. The recommended indications for replantation are: (1) multiple digital amputations at or proximal to the proximal interphalangeal joint; (2) amputation of the thumb; (3) amputation of the wrist or hand; (4) partially attached digits that are non-viable without reattachment. The surviving replanted digits give functional improvement to the hand and prove cosmetically acceptable. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Frykman, Gary K.; Wood, Virchel E.

1974-01-01

376

The relative inefficiency of sequence weights approaches in determining a nucleotide position weight matrix.  

PubMed

Approaches based upon sequence weights, to construct a position weight matrix of nucleotides from aligned inputs, are popular but little effort has been expended to measure their quality. We derive optimal sequence weights that minimize the sum of the variances of the estimators of base frequency parameters for sequences related by a phylogenetic tree. Using these we find that approaches based upon sequence weights can perform very poorly in comparison to approaches based upon a theoretically optimal maximum-likelihood method in the inference of the parameters of a position-weight matrix. Specifically, we find that among a collection of primate sequences, even an optimal sequences-weights approach is only 51% as efficient as the maximum-likelihood approach in inferences of base frequency parameters. We also show how to employ the variance estimators to obtain a greedy ordering of species for sequencing. Application of this ordering for the weighted estimators to a primate collection yields a curve with a long plateau that is not observed with maximum-likelihood estimators. This plateau indicates that the use of weighted estimators on these data seriously limits the utility of obtaining the sequences of more than two or three additional species. PMID:16646830

Newberg, Lee A; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles E

2005-06-01

377

Digital confocal microscope.  

PubMed

We demonstrate experimentally a scanning confocal microscopy technique based on digital holography. The method relies on digital holographic recording of the scanned spot. The data collected in this way contains all the necessary information to digitally produce three-dimensional images. Several methods to treat the data are presented. Examples of reflection and transmission images of epithelial cells and mouse brain tissue are shown. PMID:23037422

Goy, Alexandre S; Psaltis, Demetri

2012-09-24

378

Against digital ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that digital ontology (the ultimate nature of reality is digital, and the universe is a computational system equivalent to a Turing Machine) should\\u000a be carefully distinguished from informational ontology (the ultimate nature of reality is structural), in order to abandon the former and retain only the latter as a promising\\u000a line of research. Digital vs. analogue is

Luciano Floridi

2009-01-01

379

Informedia Digital Video Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Informedia Digital Video Library Project is developing new technologies for creating full-content search and retrieval digital video libraries. Working in collaboration with WQED Pittsburgh, the project is creating a testbed that will enable K-12 students to access, explore, and retrieve science and mathematics materials from the digital video library. The library will initially contain 1,000 hours of video from

Michael G. Christel; Takeo Kanade; M. Mauldin; Raj Reddy; Marvin A. Sirbu; Scott M. Stevens; Howard D. Wactlar

1995-01-01

380

Digital subtraction ductography  

SciTech Connect

Digital subtraction techniques used in the examination of eight patients with salivary and nasolacrimal disease are described. Pleomorphic adenoma, ductal stricture, extrinsic masses, parotid-otic fistula, and a radiolucent calculus were demonstrated. The procedures are more easily performed than film techniques and pathology is better demonstrated by digital ductography than on a film examination. Image subtraction, reregistration, and window manipulation allowed clear demonstration of ducts about the head and neck, overcoming limitations imposed by inherently high object contrast. Digital subtraction ductography is an important nonvascular application of digital imaging technology.

Lightfoote, J.B.; Friedenberg, R.M.; Smolin, M.F.

1985-03-01

381

Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography  

SciTech Connect

Digital subtraction pulmonary angiography was performed in 14 patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. In 13 of 14, useful clinical information was obtained. Four patients were found to have pulmonary emboli. In nine patients, digital subtraction angiography was performed through pulmonary artery catheters already in place for monitoring critically ill patients. Conventional angiography in nine patients confirmed the findings by digital angiography. This initial experience suggests that digital subtraction pulmonary angiography provides adequate image quality in certain circumstances with several advantages over conventional angiography.

Goodman, P.C.; Brant-Zawadski, M.

1982-08-01

382

Digital Imaging Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how digital technology can be used as a tool for teaching students the skills of observation, questioning, information gathering, classifying, predicting, and hypothesis testing. (Author/SOE)

Keith, Ronald L.; Saunders, David K.; Yanik, Elizabeth G.

2003-01-01

383

Digitization Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

Xue, Fei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, Irma S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knudson, Frances L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

384

Studies of Surfaces Using Optical Sum Frequency Generation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis contains the first series of experiments in which sum-frequency generation (infrared-visible) was used as probe of molecular species at interfaces. The process is a second order non-linear optical process which causes the technique to be surface specific when used at an interface between two centrosymmetric media. The resonant enhancement of chi^{(2)} that occurs when the infrared input is tuned through a vibrational resonance allows one to determine the vibrational spectrum of the species adsorbed to the surface. The polarization dependence of the spectrum can be used to deduce the molecular orientations of the species at the interface. Since the second-order susceptibilities are quite small, the laser system used must simultaneously produce an intense fixed-frequency visible pulse and an intense tunable IR pulse. This laser system uses an amplified single pulse selected from the output train of a active/passive mode-locked Nd:YAG oscillator. The pulse contains sufficient energy to generate both an intense visible pulse via second -harmonic generation and an intense infrared pulse via optical parametric amplification. The first experiments were performed on series of alcohols at an air-glass interface. They demonstrated that the basic technique produced spectra several orders of magnitude above the bare glass background. The spectra of a Langmuir film of pentadecanoic acid was examined at several surface densities. In the high density phase, the molecular hydro-carbon tails were fully extended and aligned nearly normal to the surface. At lower densities, the tail was free to bend and evidence of trans-gauche conformations was observed. The experiment makes use of the ability of sum-frequency generation to conduct in-situ spectral measurements not possible with other techniques. Difference-frequency generation was discussed as an alternative to sum-frequency generation. The subsequent detection of the difference-frequency generation's infrared output via up-conversion was discussed. A detection apparatus using LiIO_3 was demonstrated which had sufficiently low noise signal and sufficiently high conversion efficiency to enable detection of the signal levels produced in a difference-frequency generation measurement. AgGaS _2 was discussed. The use of KTP as an up-conversion crystal was demonstrated for the first time.

Hunt, Jeffrey H.

385

Size, weight, and power in electronic payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Tactical SIGINT System Hardware program developed by ESL, a subsidiary of TRW Avionics and Surveillance Group, is discussed. The program studied the parts of typical systems that have the greatest size, weight, and power leverage, namely, the chassis, circuit-card assemblies, thermal management techniques, and interconnections. Mechanical weight savings were achieved in both chassis and modules due to replacement of aluminum with metal matrix composites. Circuit miniaturization based on multichip modules made it possible to reduce a key digital circuit by 8:1.

Haislet, Donald A.; Wilson, Larry

386

QCD sum rules for the light quark vacuum condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reevaluate the quark-condensate renormalization group invariant term (mu+mi)<0?u?u + ?i?i0>, i ? d, s, using QCD sum rules of the Laplace transform type to two loops. It is shown that the PCAC result is respected for the u, d quarks but is violated by a factor 30-44% for the u, s quarks. Using the recent estimates of the invariant quark masses mu+md and mu + ms, we extract bounds on the spontaneous masses ?i defined to one loop as: <0?i?io>(Q2=(-??i3(logQ/?12/(33-2n) for SU(3)C × SU(n)F. Address after 1 October 1981: LAPP, Annecy-le-Vieux, France.

Narison, Stephan

1981-09-01

387

Sum rules and interlayer conductivity of high-Tc cuprates  

PubMed

Analysis of the interlayer infrared conductivity of cuprate high-transition temperature superconductors reveals an anomalously large energy scale extending up to midinfrared frequencies that can be attributed to formation of the superconducting condensate. This unusual effect is observed in a va- riety of materials, including Tl2Ba2CuO6+x, La2-xSrxCuO4, and YBa2Cu3O6.6, which show an incoherent interlayer response in the normal state. Midinfrared range condensation was examined in the context of sum rules that can be formulated for the complex conductivity. One possible interpretation of these experiments is in terms of a kinetic energy change associated with the superconducting transition. PMID:9872736

Basov; Woods; Katz; Singley; Dynes; Xu; Hinks; Homes; Strongin

1999-01-01

388

Binocular processing of brightness information: a vector-sum model.  

PubMed

The relation between monocular and binocular brightness was examined. Clear evidence was found that the interaction between visual channels in binocular processing of brightness information implicates both an apparent averaging of monocular brightness when they are grossly different and a partial summation when they approach equality. A vector-sum model is shown to predict these properties. A nonmetric method was used to fit such a model to data from three experiments in each of which 15 subjects estimated brightness of binocularly fused targets. Magnitude estimation was used in two experiments, and cateogry ratings were obtained in the third experiment. When it was assumed only that subjects' responses were monotone with perceived brightness, estimates of the model's parameters from the data of the three experiments were almost identical, indicating that results from magnitude estimati;n and category rating can converge once nonlinear response functions are eliminated. PMID:627842

Curtis, D W; Rule, S J

1978-02-01

389

Spectral sum rules and search for periodicities in DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic patterns play the important regulatory and structural roles in genomic DNA sequences. Commonly, the underlying periodicities should be understood in a broad statistical sense, since the corresponding periodic patterns have been strongly distorted by the random point mutations and insertions/deletions during molecular evolution. The latent periodicities in DNA sequences can be efficiently displayed by Fourier transform. The criteria of significance for observed periodicities are obtained via the comparison versus the counterpart characteristics of the reference random sequences. We show that the restrictions imposed on the significance criteria by the rigorous spectral sum rules can be rationally described with De Finetti distribution. This distribution provides the convenient intermediate asymptotic form between Rayleigh distribution and exact combinatoric theory.

Chechetkin, V. R.

2011-04-01

390

Structure of supersymmetric sums in multiloop unitarity cuts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe algebraic and diagrammatic methods related to the maximally helicity-violating generating function method for evaluating and exposing the structure of supersymmetric sums over the states crossing generalized unitarity cuts of multiloop amplitudes in four dimensions. We focus mainly on cuts of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills amplitudes. We provide various concrete examples, some of which are directly relevant for the calculation of four-loop amplitudes. Additionally, we discuss some cases with less-than-maximal supersymmetry. The results of these constructions carry over to generalized cuts of multiloop supergravity amplitudes through use of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations between gravity and gauge-theory tree amplitudes.

Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Ita, H.; Johansson, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Roiban, R. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2009-09-15

391

Formal sums and power series over a group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal series over a group are studied as an algebraic system with componentwise composition and a partial operation of convolution " *". For right-ordered groups a module of formal power series is introduced and studied; these are formal sums with well-ordered supports. Special attention is paid to systems of formal power series (whose supports are well-ordered with respect to the ascending order) that form an L-basis, that is, such that every formal power series can be expanded uniquely in this system. L-bases are related to automorphisms of the module of formal series that have natural properties of monotonicity and \\sigma-linearity. The relations \\gamma*\\beta=0 and \\gamma*\\beta=1 are also studied. Note that in the case of a totally ordered group the system of formal power series forms a skew field with valuation (Mal'tsev-Neumann, 1948-1949.).

Dubrovin, N. I.

2000-08-01

392

SUMS: synchronous undulator-monochromator scans at Synchrotron Soleil.  

PubMed

A strategy for performing synchronous undulator-monochromator scans (SUMS) compatible with the control system of Synchrotron Soleil has been developed. The implementation of the acquisition scheme has required the development of an electronic interface between the undulator and the beamline. The characterization of delays and jitters in the synchronous movement of various motor axes has motivated the development of a new electronic synchronization scheme among various axes, including the case when one of the axes is electronically accessible in `read-only' mode. A software prototype has been developed to allow the existing hard continuous software to work in user units. The complete strategy has been implemented and successfully tested at the TEMPO beamline. PMID:22713899

Izquierdo, Manuel; Hardion, Vincent; Renaud, Guillaume; Chapuis, Lilian; Millet, Raphael; Langlois, Florent; Marteau, Fabrice; Chauvet, Christian

2012-06-13

393

Studies of Polymer Surfaces by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been developed into a powerful technique to study surfaces of polymer materials. This review summarizes the significant achievements in understanding surface molecular chemical structures of polymer materials obtained by SFG. It reviews in situ detection at the molecular level of surface structures of some common polymers in air, surface segregation of small end groups, polymer surface restructuring in water, and step-wise changed polymer blend surfaces. Studies of surface glass transition and surface structures modified by rubbing, plasma deposition, UV light irradiation, oxygen ion and radical irradiation, and wet etching are also discussed. SFG probing of polymer surfaces provides valuable insights into the relations between polymer surface structures and surface properties, which will assist in the design of polymer materials with desired surface properties.

Chen, Zhan; Shen, Y. R.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2002-10-01

394

Lévy sections vs. partial sums of heteroscedastic time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weakly nonstationary processes appear in many challenging problems related to the physics of complex systems. An interesting question is how to quantify the rate of convergence to Gaussian behavior of rescaled heteroscedastic time series with stationary first moments but nonstationary multifractal long-range correlated second moments. Here we use the approach which uses a recently proposed extension of the Lévy sections theorem. We analyze statistical and multifractal properties of heteroscedastic time series and find that the Lévy sections approach provides a faster convergence to Gaussian behavior relative to the convergence of traditional partial sums of variables. We also observe that the rescaled signals retain multifractal properties even after reaching what appears to be the stable Gaussian regime.

Nascimento, C. M.; Helena, E. L. S.; Passos, F. S.; Gleria, I.; Figueiredo, A.; Viswanathan, G. M.

2011-12-01

395

Studies of surfaces using optical sum-frequency generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sum-frequency generation (infrared-visible) was used as probe of molecular species at interfaces. The process being a second order non-linear optical process causes the technique to be surface-specific when used at an interface between two centrosymmetric media. The resonant enhancement of chi that occurs when the infrared input is tuned through a vibrational resonance allows one to determine the vibrational spectrum of the species adsorbed to the surface. The polarization dependence of the spectrum can be used to deduce the molecular orientations of the species at the interface. The laser system uses an amplified single pulse selected from the output train of a active/passive mode-locked Nd:YAG oscillator. The pulse contains sufficient energy to generate both an intense visible pulse via second-harmonic generation and an intense infrared pulse via optical parametric amplification. The first experiments were performed on a series of alcohols at an air-glass interface. These experiments demonstrated that the basic technique produced spectra several orders of magnitude above the bare glass background. Although the spectra did not extend far enough into the infrared to identify the adsorbed species, the spectra were correlated with spectra taken in bulk samples. The technique was used to examine the spectra of a Langmuir film (air-water interface) of pentadecanoic acid at several surface densities. It was found that in the high density phase, the molecular hydrocarbon tails were fully extended and aligned nearly normal to the surface. At lower densities, the tail was free to bend and evidence of trans-gauche conformations was observed. The experiment makes use of the ability of sum-frequency generation to do in-situ spectral measurements not possible with other techniques. The use of difference-frequency generation was discussed.

Hunt, J. H.

1988-01-01

396

Residue theorem and summing over Kaluza-Klein excitations  

SciTech Connect

Applying the equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions of bulk profiles at infrared and ultraviolet branes, we verify some lemmas on the eigenvalues of Kaluza-Klein modes in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry SU(3){sub c}xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X}xP{sub LR}. Using the lemmas and performing properly analytic extensions of bulk profiles, we present the sufficient condition for a convergent series of Kaluza-Klein excitations and sum over the series through the residue theorem. The method can also be applied to sum over the infinite series of Kaluza-Klein excitations in a universal extra dimension. Furthermore, we analyze the possible connection between the propagators in five-dimensional full theory and the product of bulk profiles with corresponding propagators of exciting Kaluza-Klein modes in four-dimensional effective theory, and recover some relations presented in the literature for warped and universal extra dimensions, respectively. As an example, we present the correction from new physics to the branching ratio of B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} to the order O({mu}{sub EW}{sup 2}/{Lambda}{sub KK}{sup 2}) in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry, where {Lambda}{sub KK} denotes the energy scale of low-lying Kaluza-Klein excitations and {mu}{sub EW} denotes the electroweak energy scale.

Feng Taifu [Department of Physics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen Jianbin; Gao Tiejun; Sun Kesheng [Department of Physics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

2011-11-01

397

The DHG sum rule measured with medium energy photons  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the nucleon has many important features that are yet to be uncovered. Of current interest is the nucleon spin-structure which can be measured by doing double-polarization experiments with photon beams of medium energies (0.1 to 2 GeV). One such experiment uses dispersion relations, applied to the Compton scattering amplitude, to relate measurement of the total reaction cross section integrated over the incident photon energy to the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment. At present, no single facility spans the entire range of photon energies necessary to test this sum rule. The Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) facility will measure the double-polarization observables at photon energies between 0.15--0.47 MeV. Either the SPring8 facility, the GRAAL facility (France), or Jefferson Laboratory could make similar measurements at higher photon energies. A high-precision measurement of the spin-polarizability and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is now possible with the advent of high-polarization solid HD targets at medium energy polarized photon facilities such as LEGS, GRAAL and SPring8. Other facilities with lower polarization in either the photon beam or target (or both) are also pursuing these measurements because of the high priority associated with this physics. The Spin-asymmetry (SASY) detector that will be used at LEGS has been briefly outlined in this paper. The detector efficiencies have been explored with simulations studies using the GEANT software, with the result that both charged and uncharged pions can be detected with a reasonable efficiency (> 30%) over a large solid angle. Tracking with a TPC, which will be built at LEGS over the next few years, will improve the capabilities of these measurements.

Hicks, K.; Ardashev, K. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Babusci, D. [INFN-Lab. Nazionali di Frascati (Italy)] [and others

1997-12-31

398

Design of Optimal Digital Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four methods for designing digital filters optimal in the Chebyshev sense are developed. The properties of these filters are investigated and compared. An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters as well as lowpass and highpass filters can be designed by this method. The design procedure, related formulae and examples are presented. An improved method of designing optimal minimum phase FIR filters by directly finding zeros is proposed. The zeros off the unit circle are found by an efficient special purpose root-finding algorithm without deflation. The proposed algorithm utilizes the passband minimum ripple frequencies to establish the initial points, and employs a modified Newton's iteration to find the accurate initial points for a standard Newton's iteration. The proposed algorithm can be used to design very long filters (L = 325) with very high stopband attenuations. The design of FIR digital filters in the complex domain is investigated. The complex approximation problem is converted into a near equivalent real approximation problem. A standard linear programming algorithm is used to solve the real approximation problem. Additional constraints are introduced which allow weighting of the phase and/or group delay of the approximation. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The desired constant group delay which gives the minimum Chebyshev error is found to be smaller than that of a linear phase filter of the same length. These filters, in addition to having a smaller, approximately constant group delay, have better magnitude characteristics than exactly linear phase filters with the same length. The filters have nearly equiripple magnitude and group delay. The problem of IIR digital filter design in the complex domain is formulated such that the existence of best approximation is guaranteed. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the design is proposed. The methods to establish a good initial point are investigated. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The magnitudes of the filter poles near the passband edge are larger than of those far from the passband edge. A delay overshooting may occur in the transition band (don't care region), and it can be reduced by decreasing the maximum allowed pole magnitude of the design problem at the expense of increasing the approximation error.

Chen, Xiangkun

399

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DIGITAL HIGH RESOLUTION GEODATABASES FOR WEBGIS: FROM DIGITAL CAMPUS TO DIGITAL NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999 right after Al Gore brought the idea of the Digital Earth, aiming to promote the Digital Earth concept Chinese Culture University (CCU) in Taiwan established the Digital Earth Research Center (DERC) and start building Digital Campus, Digital Hua- Gang project. In the mean time nations and organizations around the world have promoted and involved activities in the fields

Y. C. Ding; C. C. Huang

400

Digital Position Control for Analog Servos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RC-servos are widely used to build robots with many degrees of freedom, because they are small, inexpensive, and easy to interface. Their main advantage, though, is their good weight-to-torque ratio. Many robots in the RoboCup Humanoid League, for example, almost entirely consist of servos. RC-servos come in two flavors: analog and digital. In analog servos, the internal controller is synchronized

Sven Behnke; Michael Schreiber

2006-01-01

401

ISDN: The Digital Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is a dial-up digital transmission service supporting transmission of audio, video, and text data over standard copper telephone wires or fiber optic cables. Advantages of ISDN over analog transmission include the ability of one phone line to support up to three simultaneous, separate conversations…

Piedmo, Greg

1995-01-01

402

Music Instruction Goes Digital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Faced with meager enrollment in band, orchestra, and choir programs, schools are using digital technology to excite students about creating music on today's terms. This article discusses how music educators reinvent their profession by acknowledging and incorporating the way students interact with music today--digitally. Bill Evans, a music…

Demski, Jennifer

2011-01-01

403

Occupying the Digital Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

Rice, Jeff

2013-01-01

404

Writing and Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a…

van Waes, Luuk, Ed.; Leijten, Marielle, Ed.; Neuwirth, Chris, Ed.

2006-01-01

405

Digital Video Editing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.|

McConnell, Terry

2004-01-01

406

Everglades Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Everglades Digital Library (EDL) is a comprehensive portal to high-quality digital resources relating to the south Florida environment. These resources include online texts, articles, reports, photographs, maps, datasets, educational materials, and historical records, as well as links to organizational web sites and agency home pages. These materials come from libraries, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and other sources.

407

Digital Signature Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

1999-01-01

408

Transistorized Digital Potentiometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic transistorized digital potentiometer used for input to a digital computer is described. The potentiometer is used in a copper smelting plant to control slow time-varying processes and consists of three basic circuit blocks: a null, a divider,...

K. A. Netrebenko V. B. Reutov

1968-01-01

409

Fundamentals of Digital Logic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

Noell, Monica L.

410

Digital Fresnel hologram watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method of digital hologram watermarking using a Fresnel hologram of a real-world 3D object and the fractional Fourier transform. A watermark is encrypted using double random phase fractional Fourier domain encoding technique and then encoded into the digital hologram. The hologram is watermarked in a plane at some known distance from the object so that even if

Naveen K. Nishchal; Tomi Pitkäaho; Thomas J. Naughton

2010-01-01

411

Towards a Digital Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A month ago, a French court ruled that internet access is a basic human right. Gordon Brown has said it is as crucial for people as electricity and water. Yet, 17 million Britons are still excluded from digital technology and an estimated 13 per cent of the population--some six million people--are both socially and digitally excluded. There are…

Thomson, Rachel

2009-01-01

412

Cryptographic digital communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals of cryptographic digital systems are reviewed. The basic types of ciphers are defined and discussed. The remainder of the report examines the word and bit error rates in digital communication systems with block or stream ciphers. Upper bounds and ensemble averages of the error rates are obtained for both ciphers. The effect of modulation type on the degradation

D. J. Torrieri

1975-01-01

413

Cryptographic Digital Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the fundamentals of cryptographic digital systems and defines and discusses the two basic types of ciphers. The remainder of this article examines the word and bit error rates in digital al communication systems with block or stream ciphers. Upper bounds and ensemble averages of the error rates are obtained for both ciphers. The effect of modulation type

Don Torrieri

1976-01-01

414

Digitizing Scientific Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center and the Oklahoma Academy of Science (“OAS”) entered into a partnership to bring the Proceedingsof the OAS to the Web. The Proceedingsinclude articles from a variety of scientific disciplines, including chemistry, physics, biology, botany, zoology, geography, geology, and sociology. As most major digitization projects and most documentation of digitization practices have concentrated

Cokie G. Anderson

2001-01-01

415

Digital Visual Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other literacies (textual literacy, numeracy), digital visual literacy (DVL) is the ability both to create and to understand certain types of information, in this case visual materials created with a computer. DVL is now essential in many daily life and workplace tasks, from looking critically at newspaper images or TV evening news to using a digital camera, making a

Anne Morgan Spalter; Andries van Dam

2008-01-01

416

Sloan digital sky survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will produce a detailed digital photometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field 2.5 meter telescope. From this map we will select (approximately) 10(sup 6) galaxies and 10(sup ...

S. M. Kent C. Stoughton H. Newberg J. Loveday D. Petravick

1994-01-01

417

Constructing Digital Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital story consists of a series of still images combined with a narrated soundtrack to tell a story. This document contains a sequence of seven steps for digital storytelling based on a two-year project in Curry School's Center for Technology and Teacher Education at the University of Virginia. The strategies outlined offer a starting point…

Kajder, Sara; Bull, Glen; Albaugh, Susan

2005-01-01

418

Digital Image Access & Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent technological advances in computing and digital imaging technology have had immediate and permanent consequences for visual resource collections. Libraries are involved in organizing and managing large visual resource collections. The central challenges in working with digital image collections mirror those that libraries have sought to…

Heidorn, P. Bryan, Ed.; Sandore, Beth, Ed.

419

Those Nifty Digital Cameras!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes digital photography--an electronic imaging technology that merges computer capabilities with traditional photography--and its uses in education. Discusses how a filmless camera works, types of filmless cameras, advantages and disadvantages, and educational applications of the consumer digital cameras. (AEF)

Ekhaml, Leticia

1996-01-01

420

Cresting the Digital Divide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Catawba Valley Community College has introduced digital storytelling (DS), an innovative instructional method that has produced extraordinary results. Digital storytelling uses affordable software to craft powerful multimedia presentations of student writing. Students create 3-to-4-minute movies with images, voiceovers, and music. This project…

Gregory, Kay; Steelman, Joyce

2008-01-01

421

Digital Knowledge Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. Networking and computing technologies have now become sufficiently advanced to support the design and deployment of large digital libraries which are capable of supporting the conventional end-user functions. Digital libraries are a natural extension of the evolution in which libraries have…

Pandian, M. Paul

2008-01-01

422

Computerized digital dermoscopy.  

PubMed

Within the past 15 years, dermoscopy has become a widely used non-invasive technique for physicians to better visualize pigmented lesions. Dermoscopy has helped trained physicians to better diagnose pigmented lesions. Now, the digital revolution is beginning to enhance standard dermoscopic procedures. Using digital dermoscopy, physicians are better able to document pigmented lesions for patient follow-up and to get second opinions, either through teledermoscopy with an expert colleague or by using computer-assisted diagnosis. As the market for digital dermoscopy products begins to grow, so do the number of decisions physicians need to make when choosing a system to fit their needs. The current market for digital dermoscopy includes two varieties of relatively simple and cheap attachments which can convert a consumer digital camera into a digital dermoscope. A coupling adapter acts as a fastener between the camera and an ordinary dermoscope, whereas a dermoscopy attachment includes the dermoscope optics and light source and can be attached directly to the camera. Other options for digital dermoscopy include complete dermoscopy systems that use a hand-held video camera linked directly to a computer. These systems differ from each other in whether or not they are calibrated as well as the quality of the camera and software interface. Another option in digital skin imaging involves spectral analysis rather than dermoscopy. This article serves as a guide to the current systems available and their capabilities. PMID:17156044

Gewirtzman, A J; Braun, R P

2003-01-01

423

Improved digital signature algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this brief paper, a digital signature algorithm is developed which is an improved version of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) proposed by the NIST. The security of the improved version is the same as the original one while it benefits the signature signer and performs more efficiently.

Yen, Sung-Ming; Laih, Chi-Sung

1995-05-01

424

The Digital Silk Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and proposed mechanisms for digital money all require large overhead to transfer money between parties. This overhead makes them unsuitable for extremely low cost activities, such as delivering and routing packets. The digital silk road is a proposed money system with extremely low transaction cost built into the communication protocols. The money introduced by this system is much more

Norman Hardy; Eric Dean Tribble

1993-01-01

425

Digital Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The digital storage system has a short access time and a high read-out rate. It is used in burst communication systems. The system is a binary-coded digital system and it employs a plurality of dynamic storage lines, one of which is used to store index bi...

H. L. Heibeck C. G. Wilhelm W. M. Oleson

1966-01-01

426

Heterotextuality and Digital Foreplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The now ubiquitous cell phone as digital media and communication technology invites a proliferation of uses and meanings. The ways in which young people have taken up cell phones in general and text messaging in particular seems to create cyborgian subjectivities in a refashioned mobile social network. This resulting digital-social network constructs a space in which young people perform identities

Julie Cupples; Lee Thompson

2010-01-01

427

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

428

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

2012-12-26

429

Fast approximate 4D:3D discrete Radon transform, from light field to focal stack with O(N4) sums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we develop a new algorithm, that extends the bidimensional Fast Digital Radon transform from Götz and Druckmüller (1996), to digitally simulate the refocusing of a 4D light field into a 3D volume of photographic planes, as previously done by Ren Ng et al. (2005), but with the minimum number of operations. This new algorithm does not require multiplications, just sums, and its computational complexity is O(N4) to achieve a volume consisting of 2N photographic planes focused at different depths, from a N4 plenoptic image. This reduced complexity allows for the acquisition and processing of a plenoptic sequence with the purpose of estimating 3D shape at video rate. Examples are given of implementations on GPU and CPU platforms. Finally, a modified version of the algorithm to deal with domains of sizes different than power of two, is proposed.

Marichal-Hernández, José G.; Lüke, Jonas P.; Rosa, Fernando L.; Rodríguez-Ramos, José M.

2011-02-01

430

PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

431

Optimal Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal birth weight and outcome are influenced by maternal weight gain. Low gestational weight gain is associated with poor\\u000a fetal growth and risk of preterm delivery. Excessive weight gain affects infant growth, body fatness in childhood, and the\\u000a potential for postpartum weight retention and future obesity. Guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommend that a woman\\u000a with a normal body

Grace A. Falciglia; Kristin H. Coppage

432

Digital Booktalk: Digital Media for Reluctant Readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New learning and communications paradigms of today's learners are extending the definition of literacy and directly affecting how reading and writing skills are acquired (Leu, 2000). Mirroring an ever-expanding definition of literacy, new college and K-12 curricular programs that redefine digital media are popping up all over the country. Story is at the core of both traditional literacy and these

Glenda Gunter; Robert Kenny

2008-01-01

433

A 25 dBm Digitally Modulated CMOS Power Amplifier for WCDMA\\/EDGE\\/OFDM With Adaptive Digital Predistortion and Efficient Power Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digitally modulated power amplifier (DPA) in 1.2 V 0.13 mum SOI CMOS is presented, to be used as a building block in multi-standard, multi-band polar transmitters. It performs direct amplitude modulation of an input RF carrier by digitally controlling an array of 127 unary-weighted and three binary-weighted elementary gain cells. The DPA is based on a novel two-stage topology,

Calogero D. Presti; Francesco Carrara; Antonino Scuderi; Peter M. Asbeck; Giuseppe Palmisano

2009-01-01

434

Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule and forward spin polarizabilities in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study spin-dependent sum rules for forward virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) at order O(p4). We show how these sum rules can be evaluated from low energy expansions (in the virtual photon energy) of the forward VVCS amplitude. We study in particular the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule in HBChPT and the higher

Chung Wen Kao; Thomas Spitzenberg; Marc Vanderhaeghen

2003-01-01

435

Solving the sum-of-ratios problems by a harmony search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sum-of-ratios problems have numerous applications in economy and engineering. The sum-of-ratios problems are considered to be difficult, as these functions are highly nonconvex and multimodal. In this study, we propose a harmony search algorithm for solving a sum-of-ratios problem. Numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. In all cases, the solutions

Majid Jaberipour; Esmaile Khorram

2010-01-01

436

Ewald sums for Yukawa potentials in quasi-two-dimensional systems  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the author derive Ewald sums for Yukawa potential for three-dimensional systems with two-dimensional periodicity. This sums are derived from the Ewald sums for Yukawa potentials with three-dimensional periodicity [G. Salin and J.-M. Caillol, J. Chem. Phys.113, 10459 (2000)] by using the method proposed by Parry for the Coulomb interactions [D. E. Parry, Surf. Sci.49, 433 (1975); 54, 195 (1976)].

Mazars, Martial [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2007-02-07

437

A New Result for the Distribution of the Sum of Nakagami-m Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the classical problem of finding the probability density function of the sum of Nakagami-m random variables. An exact infinite series formula is derived for the sum of three identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) Nakagami-m random variables and subsquently it is extended to the sum of four and in general M number of random variables. A

K. D. P. Dharmawansa; R. M. A. P. Rajatheva; K. M. Ahmed

2006-01-01

438

On the Distribution of the Sum of Nakagami-m Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the classical problem of finding the probability density function (pdf) of the sum of Nakagami-m random variables. Exact infinite series representations are derived for the sum of three and four identically and independently distributed (i.i.d.) Nakagami-m random variables, and subsequently, it is extended to the sum of general number of random variables. A useful pattern

Prathapasinghe Dharmawansa; P. Rajatheva; P. Ahmed

2007-01-01

439

Digital Imaging in Rhinoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Imaging in facial plastic surgery is becoming common. With the advances of digital imaging software, modifications of preoperative\\u000a images for rhinoplasty patients can help to predict outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether\\u000a preoperative digital image modification in rhinoplasty patients is useful in predicting postoperative outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients undergoing rhinoplasty were prospectively collected and underwent preoperative digital

Xerxes Punthakee; Richard Rival; Philip Solomon

2009-01-01

440

Digital sonar system  

DOEpatents

A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

Young, Kenneth K. (Seattle, WA); Wilkes, R. Jeffrey (Seattle, WA)

1995-01-01

441

Fast transient digitizer  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display.

Villa, Francesco (Palo Alto, CA)

1982-01-01

442

The digital darkroom, part 3: Digital presentation in plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize here the third and final part of our series on the Digital Darkroom. In this part, we review the use of digital technology for medical and other presentations, including the kinds of equipment available, the advantages and disadvantages of digital projection, and the most common pitfalls encountered in preparing and presenting material in digital presentations. The full text

Gregory M. Galdino; Michael Chiaramonte; Stanley A. Klatsky

2001-01-01

443

Digital Object Prototypes: An Effective Realization of Digital Object Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Object Prototypes (DOPs) provide the DL designer with the ability to model diverse types of digital objects in a uniform manner while offering digital object type conformance; objects conform to the designer's type definitions automatically. In this paper, we outline how DOPs effectively capture and express digital object typing infor- mation and finally assist in the development of unified

Kostas Saidis; George Pyrounakis; Mara Nikolaidou; Alex Delis

2006-01-01

444

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age…

Ohler, Jason

2011-01-01

445

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

Ohler, Jason

2012-01-01

446

Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Preservation of traditional materials became,more,successful and systematic after libraries and archives integrated preservation into overall planning and resource allocation. Digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods. Digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints

Margaret Hedstrom

1998-01-01

447

Digital Library and Digital Reference Service: Integration and Mutual Complementarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both the digital library and the digital reference service were invented and have been developed under the networked environment. Among their intersections, the fundamental thing is their symbiotic interest--serving the user in a more efficient way. The article starts by discussing the digital library and its service and the digital reference…

Liu, Jia

2008-01-01

448

On the calibration of design weights using a displacement function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, we propose a new method to calibrate the estimator of the general parameter of interest in survey\\u000a sampling. We demonstrate that the linear regression estimator due to Hansen et al. (Sample Survey Method and Theory. Wiley,\\u000a NY, 1953) is a special case of this. We reconfirm that the sum of calibrated weights has to be set equal

Sarjinder Singh

2012-01-01

449

New sum rules from low energy Compton scattering on arbitrary spin target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive two sum rules by studying the low energy Compton scattering on a target of arbitrary (nonzero) spin j. In the first sum rule, we consider the possibility that the intermediate state in the scattering can have spin | j±1| and the same mass as the target. The second sum rule applies if the theory at hand possesses intermediate narrow resonances with masses different from the mass of the scatterer. These sum rules are generalizations of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn-Weinberg sum rule. Along with the requirement of tree level unitarity, they relate different low energy couplings in the theory. Using these sum rules, we show that in certain cases the gyromagnetic ratio can differ from the "natural" value g = 2, even at tree level, without spoiling perturbative unitarity. These sum rules can be used as constraints applicable to all supergravity and higher-spin theories that contain particles charged under some U(1) gauge field. In particular, applied to four dimensional N = 8 supergravity in a spontaneously broken phase, these sum rules suggest that for the theory to have a good ultraviolet behavior, additional massive states need to be present, such as those coming from the embedding of the N = 8 supergravity in type II superstring theory. We also discuss the possible implications of the sum rules for QCD in the large- N c limit.

Grigoryan, Hovhannes R.; Porrati, Massimo

2012-07-01

450

Characterization of Seismic Source and Path in Central Eurasia Using Digital Seismograms from Borovoye Observatory, Northern Kazakhstan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is in three sections: (1) Decribes RMS Lg measurement for five Chinese nuclear explosions at Lop Nor recorded digitally at Borovoye, Kazakhstan (station BRVK). The regression shos scatter only a 0.045 magnitude units against ISC mb(P). (2) Sum...

W. Y. Kim P. G. Richards

1996-01-01

451

Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.

Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.

1998-11-01

452

QCD sum rule determination of the charm-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

QCD sum rules involving mixed inverse moment integration kernels are used in order to determine the running charm-quark mass in the MS scheme. Both the high and the low energy expansion of the vector current correlator are involved in this determination. The optimal integration kernel turns out to be of the form p(s)=1-(s{sub 0}/s){sup 2}, where s{sub 0} is the onset of perturbative QCD. This kernel enhances the contribution of the well known narrow resonances, and reduces the impact of the data in the range s{approx_equal}20-25 GeV{sup 2}. This feature leads to a substantial reduction in the sensitivity of the results to changes in s{sub 0}, as well as to a much reduced impact of the experimental uncertainties in the higher resonance region. The value obtained for the charm-quark mass in the MS scheme at a scale of 3 GeV is m{sub c}(3 GeV)=987{+-}9 MeV, where the error includes all sources of uncertainties added in quadrature.

Bodenstein, S. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Bordes, J.; Penarrocha, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universitat de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Dominguez, C. A. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); Schilcher, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2011-04-01

453

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences  

SciTech Connect

During the week 8-12 April 1996, an international conference summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster after one decade took place in Vienna. Organizers were the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (EC/IAEA/WHO 1996). One of the authors, A. Kaul, presented the outcome of the conference as given below to the IPRA 9 congress which was held in Vienna the following week. Two caveats have to be mentioned here: firstly, only facts actually reported and reviewed at the conference can be accounted for, and, secondly, according to the groundrules of the conference, the deadline for the background papers of the conference was the 9 February 1996, meaning that facts materializing after that time are not covered in this paper. The same applied to information given at the conference that was not properly reviewed and published. Reports, for example, given at the conference on an observed increase of thyroid cancers and leukemia among liquidators and of diabetes mellitus among children are not yet substantiated and are, therefore, not yet recognized as consequences. If corroborated, and it is obvious that all higher exposed groups should be closely monitored in the future, an update on the consequences will have to take this into account. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Kaul, A.; Landfermann, H.; Thieme, M.

1996-11-01

454

Four-loop QCD analysis of the Bjorken sum rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the polarized Bjorken sum rule (BSR) at low momentum transfers in the range 0.22

Khandramai, V. L.; Pasechnik, R. S.; Shirkov, D. V.; Solovtsova, O. P.; Teryaev, O. V.

2012-01-01

455

Population health. More than the sum of the parts?  

PubMed Central

The past decade has seen an upsurge of interest in the development of summary measures of population health. Almost invariably the measures have relied on "rolling up" individual level health data such as mortality data or life expectancy data. The approach, however, of treating population health as a synthesis of aggregated individual level data is a historical and statistical convenience. Although there has been some debate in the literature about whether one should also examine the equity of the distribution of health, the general practice has been to treat the level of a population's health and the distribution of health within a population as separate issues. Without recourse to contentious notions of equity, this paper examines the possibility of treating populations as more than simply the sum of their parts by combining individual level health data with population level data about the distribution of health. This approach may provide policy makers with additional ways of thinking about what it means to improve a population's health.

Reidpath, D.

2005-01-01

456

Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009–2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant 'heavy tails' were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

Greenblatt, R. E.

2013-10-01

457

Consideration of the ICRP 2006 revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the sum of organ equivalent doses weighted by corresponding tissue weighting factors, wT. ICRP is in the process of revising its 1990 recommendations on the effective dose where new values of organs and tissue weighting factors have been proposed and published in draft form for consultation by

Choonsik Lee; Choonik Lee; Eun Young Han; Wesley E. Bolch

2007-01-01

458

Preventing Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic diseases and it can help keep your body healthy and strong. To learn more about how physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight, visit Physical Activity for Healthy Weight Physical Activity ...

459

Thyroid and Weight  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid, BMR & Weight What is the relationship between thyroid and weight? It has been appreciated for a ... be regained after treatment is discontinued. Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Hormone What is the relationship between hypothyroidism and ...

460

Basics of Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS

... true whether these calories came from fats, carbohydrates, proteins, or alcohol. Use more calories by increasing physical activity. Manage your weight by ... do you lose weight? • Set your daily calorie goal using this chart. • Find ...

461

Minimum Weight Structural Sandwich.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Includes a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

E. W. Kuenzi

1965-01-01

462

Your Child's Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... right weight for everyone. Among kids the same height and age, some are more muscular or more ... and testicular enlargement in boys and spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. ...

463

Unexplained Weight Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... possible causes of unexplained weight loss, including undiagnosed celiac disease and thyroid disorders. Potential causes of unexplained weight loss include: Addison's disease Cancer Celiac disease COPD Crohn's disease Dementia Depression (major depression) Diabetes ...

464

Weight Management and Calories  

MedlinePLUS

USDA Choose MyPlate.gov United States Department of Agriculture MyPlate Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils Weight Management & Calories Weight Management Calories Physical Activity What Is Physical Activity? ...

465

Handling Weight Plateaus  

MedlinePLUS

Handling Weight Plateaus When losing weight, it is common to have plateaus or times when you can’t seem to lose ... Here are tips that can help with managing plateaus and resetting your set-point: • Plateaus are often ...

466

Data Weighting Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the investigation was to determine what effect the weighting of observed data has on the accuracy of MUSAT aerotriangulation results. In the MUSAT program it is possible to weight three different sets of observations; image coordinates, c...

G. Gracie R. B. McEwen J. Kenefick J. Wang

1968-01-01

467

Greenstone Digital Library Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Greenstone is a suite of software designed to build and distribute digital library collections. Produced by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, this innovative tool was created to "empower users, particularly in universities, libraries, and other public service institutions, to build their own digital libraries." The software consists of the Collector, which helps create new collections, modify or add to existing ones, or delete collections; and the Administration, which allows the addition of new users, summarizes the collections in the system, and gives technical information on the installation. Also included is a section comprising the Greenstone manuals, and a section that tells about the Greenstone software and where the New Zealand Digital Library Project originated. The software runs on Windows and Unix, and both source codes and binaries are available for downloading on the site.

1969-12-31

468

Digital Troposcatter Performance Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a computer prediction model for digital troposcatter communication system design is described. Propagation and modem performance are modeled. These include Path Loss and RSL distributions for troposcatter propagation and mixed troposcat...

A. Malaga J. Fetteroll P. Monsen S. Parl S. Tolman

1983-01-01

469

Digital Nautical Chart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the Navy's lead laboratory in Mapping, Charting and Geodesy, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was tasked by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) to develop a draft product specification for a Digital Nautical Chart (DNC) database. This paper describes t...

J. A. Hammack

1992-01-01

470

Assessing Digital Circuit Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognitive diagnosis of expertise relies on characterizing expertise in the domain of interest. The focus of this project was on characterizing and assessing design problem solving in the area of digital circuit design. A combination of think-aloud protoco...

S. R. Goldman G. Biswas

1995-01-01

471

Interferometric Digital Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Illinois Interferometric Imaging Initiative (4Is) demonstrated that aspects of conventional focal imaging, coherence sensing, holography, spectroscopy and tomography could be integrated to obtain revolutionary new functionalities in digital imaging sy...

D. C. Munsoon D. J. Brady E. Michielssen

2001-01-01

472

Preservation of Digital Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)|

Galloway, Patricia

2004-01-01

473

Digital Television: A Personal View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's personal view of interactive digital television and describes how he used digital television to learn. The author describes how he was simulating digital TV while watching analogue TV. The author stresses that interactive digital television has great potential for education and training in the twenty first…

James, Frank

2003-01-01

474

Digital ischemia in baseball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight baseball players developed digital ischemia as a result of repetitive ball impact. Symptoms and signs were coolness, numbness, cyanosis, paleness, and a positive reaction to the digital Allen's test. Seven of the eight players developed digital ischemia between the ages of 16 and 17. Angiograms of four patients with an occluded index digital artery are presented. Thermo- grams of

Makoto Sugawara; Toshihiko Ogino; Akio Minami; Sechi Ish

1986-01-01

475

Archival storage for digital libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an architecture for Digital Library Repositories that assures long-term archival storage of digital objects. The architecture is formed by a federation of independent but col- laborating sites, each managing a collection of digital objects. The architecture is based on the following key components: use of signatures as object handles, no deletions of digital objects, functional layering of services,

Arturo Crespo; Hector Garcia-Molina

1998-01-01

476

Digital Research Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more and more scholars grow interested in the world of digital research, this tremendously useful wiki will be one that they will tell their colleagues about. Created by Lisa Spiro, the director of the Digital Media Center at Rice University, this collaborative wiki collects information about tools and resources that can help scholars conduct research more efficiently or creatively. Visitors can browse the tools by task under the "I want to..." heading.

477

Alexandria Digital Library (ADL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ADL collection provides searching capabilities over geographically-referenced materials. Geographically-referenced means information objects are associated with one or more regions, often called footprints, on the Earth's surface. The ADL collection contains information that supports basic science, including the Earth and social sciences. The ADL collection offers geospatial search as the primary search mechanism. This collection contains photographs, digital elevation models, digital raster graphics, Landsat and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite imagery and world maps.

478

Accessible Digital Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The television industry is undergoing the most significant revolution since the origin of the NTSC standard in 1941. Television\\u000a is without exception the last partner in the communications industry to embrace digital delivery of its transmission signal.\\u000a The United States (US) and Canada have only recently begun the process of converting to digital transmission while European\\u000a Union (EU) countries have

Deborah I. Fels

2002-01-01

479

Digital Algebra and Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital numbers D are the world's most popular data rep- resentation: nearly all texts, sounds and images are coded somewhere in time and space by binary sequences. The mathematical construction of the fixed-point D ' Z2 and floating-point D0 ' Q2 digital numbers is a dual to the classical constructions of the real numbers R. The domain D0 contains the

Jean Vuillemin

2003-01-01

480

Digital Fundamentals: Course Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provided by eSyst describes digital fundamentals. An introduction explains the traditional view and systems view of this topic. The course includes numerous instructor presentations and student guides. Topics for these include serial digital interfaces, circuit boards, and microprocessors. A detailed course outline, student learning outcomes, and links to additional online resources are also provided. Users must create a free, quick login in order to download the materials.

2012-07-03

481

Digit ratio in birds.  

PubMed

The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds. PMID:18833568

Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

2008-12-01

482

Informedia digital video library  

Microsoft Academic Search

is developing new technologies for creating full-content search and retrieval digital video libraries. Working in collaboration with WQED Pittsburgh, the project is creating a test-bed that will enable K-12 students to access, explore, and retrieve science and mathemat-ics materials from the digital video library. The library will initially contain 1,000 hours of video from the archives of project partners: WQED,

Michael Christel; Scott Stevens; Howard Wactlar

1994-01-01

483

Play and Digital Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how play is affected by computers and digital toys. Research indicates that when computer software targeted at children is problem-solving oriented and open-ended, children tend to engage in creative play and interact with peers in a positive manner. On the other hand, drill-and-practice programs can be quite boring and limit children's initiative and decision-making. Digital toys with

James E. Johnson; James F. Christie

2009-01-01

484

Current state of digital mammography.  

PubMed

Digital imaging is rapidly becoming modern radiology practice, resulting in the gradual replacement of conventional radiographs. At present high-quality digital mammography has been available for several years and is increasingly used for diagnostic and screening mammography. Some different digital mammography systems exist, which all have their advantages and disadvantages. Diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography has been shown to be at least equivalent to screen-film mammography (SFM). Digital mammography offers some potential advantages over SFM. This article describes the current state of digital mammography and presents data from clinical trials that support the use of digital mammography technology. PMID:18365303

Shiraishi, Akihiko

2008-01-01

485

Calculating Molecular Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and online calculator show how to calculate the molecular weight of a substance from the atomic weights given on the periodic table. Use the molecular weight to convert between the macroscopic scale (grams of a substance) and the microscopic scale (number of molecules of that substance).

2013-06-17

486

What is Weight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The common use of the term 'weight' to denote either a mass or a force is discussed. It is shown that there is no acceptable precise definition of weight for moving objects. The conclusion is that a restriction on the use of 'weight' to mean only a force ...

C. H. Page

1974-01-01

487

Stabilised weighted linear prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighted linear prediction (WLP) is a method to compute all-pole models of speech by applying temporal weighting of the square of the residual signal. By using short-time energy (STE) as a weighting function, this algorithm was originally proposed as an improved linear predictive (LP) method based on emphasising those samples that fit the underlying speech production model well. The original

Carlo Magi; Jouni Pohjalainen; Tomas Bäckström; Paavo Alku

2009-01-01

488

Terahertz digital holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz wave (THz, also name T-Ray) belongs to far-infrared electromagnetic radiation. Since its unique properties, THz techniques have been paid more and more attentions during the past decades. In this field, THz digital holography is an important research branch, which can accurately extract three-dimensional optical information of objects. Based on features of this technique, it greatly reduces the experimental time and clearly presents the diffraction phenomena of the transmitted THz waves. We elucidated our works about the THz digital holography in recent years. Some key techniques in the THz digital holography are selected as research objects, which are the reflection measurement, quasi-near-field measurement, balanced electro-optic (EO) imaging, and polarization detection. From these four aspects, including the measurement mode, improvement of the spatial resolution, optimization of the signal to noise ratio (SNR), and acquirement of the polarization information, the THz digital holography imaging system has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. These works enhance the performances of the system and promote the practicability of the THz digital holography. Although there are a lot of theoretical and technical difficulties to be overcome in the practical applications, it is firmly believed that the THz digital holography will present strong abilities in factory and research fields in the future.

Wang, Xinke; Cui, Ye; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yan

2011-11-01

489

Digital Channelizing Radio Frequency Receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

HYPRES is developing a class of digital receivers featuring direct digitization at radio frequency (RF). Such a receiver consists of a wideband analog-to-digital converter (ADC) modulator and multiple digital channelizer units to extract different frequency bands-of-interest within the broad digitized spectrum. The single-bit oversampled data, from either a lowpass delta or bandpass delta-sigma modulator, are applied to one or more

Deepnarayan Gupta; Timur V. Filippov; Alexander F. Kirichenko; Dmitri E. Kirichenko; Igor V. Vernik; Anubhav Sahu; Saad Sarwana; Pavel Shevchenko; Andrei Talalaevskii; Oleg A. Mukhanov

2007-01-01

490

Geologic Datasets for Weights-of-Evidence Analysis in Northeast Washington. 2. Mineral Databases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital mineral databases are necessary to carry out weights-of-evidence modeling of mineral resources for epithermal gold and carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits in northeast Washington. This report describes spreadsheet tables consisting of: 1) training...

D. E. Boleneus

1999-01-01

491

Digitized two-parameter spectrometer for neutron-gamma mixed field  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows the results of digital processing of output pulses from combined photon-neutron detector using a commercially available digitizer ACQUIRIS DP 210. The advantage of digital processing is reduction of the apparatus in weight and size, acceleration of measurement, and increased resistance to pile-up of pulses. The neutron and photon spectrum of radionuclide source {sup 252}Cf is presented. (authors)

Matej, Z. [Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk Univ., Botanicka 68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Cvachovec, J.; Prenosil, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Cvachovec, F. [Univ. of Defence, Brno (Czech Republic); Zaritski, S. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-07-01

492

A 9-b charge-to-digital converter for integrated image sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charge-to-digital conversion offers advantages over conventional charge readout techniques because it performs digitization directly in the charge domain. The approach consolidates hardware, reduces power and weight, and eliminates many sources of noise and nonlinearity. This paper introduces an architecture for a charge-to-digital converter (CDC) that is tailored toward a charge-coupled device (CCD) implementation. New methods of generating charge, sensing charge,

Susanne A. Paul; Hae-Seung Lee

1996-01-01

493

The effects of task and content on digit placement on a bottle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to hand shaping, previous studies have shown that subjects adapt placement of individual digits to object properties\\u000a such as its weight and center of mass. However, the extent to which digit placement varies based on task context is unknown.\\u000a In the present study, we investigated where subjects place their digits on a bottle when the upcoming task (lift

Céline Crajé; Jamie R. Lukos; Caterina Ansuini; Andrew M. Gordon; Marco Santello

2011-01-01

494

Using Triangularly Weighted Interpolation to Get 13Bit PCM from a Sigma-Delta Modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyze a method of interpolation that improves the amplitude resolution of an analog-to-digital converter. The technique requires feedback around a quantizer that operates at high speed and digital accumulation of its quantized values to provide a PCM output. We show that use of appropriate weights in the accumulation has important advantages for providing finer resoution, less spectral

JAMES C. CANDY; Y. Ching; D. Alexander

1976-01-01

495

Polynomial fuzzy observer designs: a sum-of-squares approach.  

PubMed

This paper presents a sum-of-squares (SOS) approach to polynomial fuzzy observer designs for three classes of polynomial fuzzy systems. The proposed SOS-based framework provides a number of innovations and improvements over the existing linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based approaches to Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy controller and observer designs. First, we briefly summarize previous results with respect to a polynomial fuzzy system that is a more general representation of the well-known T-S fuzzy system. Next, we propose polynomial fuzzy observers to estimate states in three classes of polynomial fuzzy systems and derive SOS conditions to design polynomial fuzzy controllers and observers. A remarkable feature of the SOS design conditions for the first two classes (Classes I and II) is that they realize the so-called separation principle, i.e., the polynomial fuzzy controller and observer for each class can be separately designed without lack of guaranteeing the stability of the overall control system in addition to converging state-estimation error (via the observer) to zero. Although, for the last class (Class III), the separation principle does not hold, we propose an algorithm to design polynomial fuzzy controller and observer satisfying the stability of the overall control system in addition to converging state-estimation error (via the observer) to zero. All the design conditions in the proposed approach can be represented in terms of SOS and are symbolically and numerically solved via the recently developed SOSTOOLS and a semidefinite-program solver, respectively. To illustrate the validity and applicability of the proposed approach, three design examples are provided. The examples demonstrate the advantages of the SOS-based approaches for the existing LMI approaches to T-S fuzzy observer designs. PMID:22510951

Tanaka, Kazuo; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Seo, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Motoyasu; Wang, Hua O

2012-04-11

496

Sum frequency generation spectroscopy of the aqueous interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid interface of aqueous solutions is of central importance to numerous phenomena from cloud processing of combustion generated oxides to corrosion degradation of structural materials to transport across cell membranes. Despite the importance of this interface, little molecular-level information was known about it prior to the last decade-and-a-half. Molecular-level information is important not only for a fundamental understanding of processes at interfaces, but also for predicting methods for diminishing deleterious effects. Recently, the non-linear spectroscopic method, sum frequency generation (SFG), has been applied to the investigation of the structure of the liquid interface. This review focuses on the liquid-air interface of aqueous solutions containing soluble, ionic species - H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, alkali sulphates and bisulphates, NaCl and NaNO3 - as well as soluble molecular species-glycerol, sulphuric acid and ammonia. Ionic materials influence the structure of water at the interface through an electric double layer which arises from the differential distribution of anions and cations near the interface. Due to the extreme size of the proton, the strongest field is generated by acidic materials. As the concentration of these ionic materials increases, ion pairs form diminishing the strength of the double layer. This enables the ion-pair complex to penetrate to the interface and either displace water or bind it into hydrated complexes. Soluble materials of lower surface tension partition to the interface and either displace water from the interface or bind water into hydrated complexes. In particular, the conjectured ammonia-water complex on aqueous solutions is observed and it is determined to tilt 34-38 from the normal.

Shultz, Mary Jane; Schnitzer, Cheryl; Simonelli, Danielle; Baldelli, Steve

497

ON HOOLEY'S THEOREM WITH WEIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapt Hooley's proof that the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis implies the Artin Conjecture for primitive roots to various other problems. We consider the sum P p x f (ip) whereip is the index of 2 modulop andf is a given function. In various cases we establish asymptotic formulas for such a sum and analyse the constants. While we claim no

F. Pappalardi

498

Digital bunch-by-bunch transverse feedback system at SSRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to suppress multi-bunch couple instabilities caused by transverse impedance, a bunch-by-bunch transverse feedback system based on a FPGA digital processor is commissioned at SSRF storage ring. The RF front end has two COD pre-rejected attenuators for increasing the system arrangement and signal noise ratio, and the 3*RF Local signal comes from the BPM's sum signal using a FIR filter for avoiding the effect of longitudinal oscillation. The digital processor receives the coupled horizontal and vertical oscillation signals in the base band and transforms the coupled signals to the horizontal and vertical feedback signals with two series double-zeroes FIR filters. A matlab GUI is applied for producing the FIR coefficients when the tune is shifted. The horizontal and vertical Kickers have a special design for increasing the shunt impedance. Then the multi-bunch instabilities are suppressed respectively and the minimum damping time is about 0.4 ms.

Yuan, RenXian; Leng, YongBin; Yu, LuYang; Han, LiFeng; Ye, KaiRong

2011-12-01

499

Size constrained unequal probability sampling with a non-integer sum of inclusion probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50 methods have been developed to draw unequal probability samples with fixed sample size. All these methods require the sum of the inclusion probabilities to be an integer number. There are cases, however, where the sum of desired inclusion probabilities is not an integer. Then, classical algorithms for drawing samples cannot be directly applied. We present two methods

Anton Grafström; Lionel Qualité; Yves Tillé; Alina Matei

2012-01-01

500

Bounds on the Distribution of a Sum of Independent Lognormal Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution function of a sum of lognormal random variables appears in several communication problems. Approximations are usually used for such distri- bution as no closed form nor bounds exist. Bounds can be very useful in assessing the performance of any given system. In this paper, we derive upper and lower bounds on the distribution function of a sum of

Slimane Ben Slimane

2000-01-01